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How old is too old for an MBA? Depends what you want.

Heather White is pursuing the idea of getting her MBA later in life, Schaumburg, Ill. Tuesday, Augus

James C. Svehla / Chicago Tribune
Heather White, 49, started getting her MBA at Northern Illinois University when a former employer helped pay for tuition. She’s since changed jobs and expects to pay a higher portion of the cost.
Heather White, 49, started getting her MBA at Northern Illinois University when a former employer helped pay for tuition. She’s since changed jobs and expects to pay a higher portion of the cost. (James C. Svehla / Chicago Tribune)

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Richard Grad was 55 years old and a senior partner at law firm Sidley Austin in Los Angeles when he enrolled in the executive MBA program at Northwestern University’s Kellogg School of Management. Every other week, he flew his Cessna Citation to Midway Airport to attend classes Friday through Sunday, then flew home to be back at work Monday morning.

“It was grueling,” said the appropriately named Grad, now 60. He was among a handful of 50-somethings in a largely under-40 cohort. “Many classmates said, ‘Why are you here?’” he said.

Indeed, he had reached a high level in his career and was sitting on a number of boards when he began classes in 2012. “My reasons for going were so idiosyncratic and specific to me,” he said. “I really wanted to add greater value as a fiduciary on my boards.”

Since graduating, he’s gotten more than he expected in return for his $170,000 investment. “Those two years propelled me and catalyzed me to be open to change,” he said. Degree in hand, he left Sidley after 29 years for an opportunity to be global chief litigation counsel at GE Aviation in Cincinnati. “I completely decamped from LA and changed my life,” he said. “For me, the ROI is huge.”

A personal choice

While candidates in their fifth decade and beyond shouldn’t expect the degree to boost their upward mobility and pay in the way it can for younger peers, the MBA tugs on them as a far more personal endeavor.

If you’re not already on the executive track by your mid- to late-career, an MBA alone will not make it happen, say recruiters who specialize in executive and board placements.

“A late-career MBA decision is more often a personal choice than for other reasons,” said Tierney Remick, the Chicago-based vice chairman of board and CEO services for executive search firm Korn Ferry International. “An MBA can always be a good decision to round out complex problem-solving skills, strategic leadership acumen or bring some different skills around economics or operations that weren’t part of their undergraduate degree. But experience, performance and strategic capabilities will be the differentiators for most senior executives,” she added. “A late-career MBA alone is not going to be the pivot point.”

Research by the Graduate Management Admission Council buttresses that point. For its 2017 Alumni Perspectives Survey, it asked 14,651 alumni — including 1,003 who enrolled in an MBA at age 40 and up — to rate the value of their degree across criteria including personal, professional and financial.

“The vast majority of MBA alumni find the education personally rewarding,” said Gregg Schoenfeld, GMAC’s director of research. That figure is 93 percent overall and 95 percent for over 40s. Financial reward for the 40-plus alumni was lower than overall, but still, “two out of three say the programs were financially rewarding.”

“If I’m 40 years old and I go back to business school, I have 27 years before I can retire with full benefits,” Schoenfeld noted. “With people working longer, there are more opportunities later in life for job changes, career changes and opportunities to move up by getting education later in life.”

Getting in

In 2016, more than 83,000 U.S. citizens took the GMAT exam to get into a graduate business or management program, according to GMAC, which administers the exam. Of those test-takers, just 3.5 percent were ages 40 and above. Candidates in their 50s are an even smaller group, and neither GMAC nor most universities slice data at that level, said Schoenfeld. (Not all prospective students take the GMAT; some schools will also accept GRE exams and some, especially executive MBA programs, don’t require standardized test scores to apply.)

At the University of Chicago, the 2017 incoming class of executive MBA candidates is 37 years old on average, with 13 years of experience. For the past five years, an average 31 percent of the incoming class of executive MBA students have been age 40 or older. By contrast, its 2018 full-time MBA students are an average age of 28. In the part-time and evening MBA programs, students age 40 and over have held steady at between 1 and 2 percent of the total incoming class of students for the past three years, according to a spokeswoman.

Students who enroll in the classic full-time, two-year MBA programs tend to be about 28 years old at top universities. Yet one-fifth of students ages 40 and older sent their GMAT test scores to full-time, two-year programs, according to GMAC’s 2017 exam data. These older students considering full-time programs said they wanted to bone up on skill gaps, get off of a plateau or insure against job instability, according to the GMAC MBA.com Prospective Students Survey for 2017.

“For many people who go back to school later in life, it really is about learning and filing in holes,” said Robert Rubin, professor of management at DePaul University in Chicago. He has studied how MBA programs are ranked and rated and has argued for more consistent comparison standards. “For a lot of older MBAs, I know it’s a bucket list item for them.”

DePaul’s MBA runs about $73,000, he said, and it doesn’t offer an executive version. Instead, the university created a corporate education program providing custom MBAs for companies including Walgreens, MB Financial Bank and Bosch. About 11 percent of DePaul’s MBA students across its programs are 40 years or older.

Does it pay off?

How programs factor return on investment varies. One is a ratio of salary after graduation to debt or dollars in salary earned per annual tuition dollar spent. GMAC calculates ROI by the salary bump after your degree and how long it theoretically takes to pay off the degree with the additional income. With younger candidates counting on a good four decades of earning power ahead of them, it’s easier to see the payoff.

Still, some MBA programs draw plenty of older students.

For example, at Massachusetts Institute of Technology’s Sloan School of Management, its 2018 executive MBA average class age is 40 with an average of 17 years of work experience; 46 percent of the cohort is age 40 or older. Admission criteria include a minimum of 10 years of post-undergraduate work experience and a range of other factors, and its website includes photos that reflect those older executives.

Universities by law can’t target students by age, but they do vet students for years of experience, said Johanna Hising DiFabio, director of executive degree programs at Sloan. “We’ve had 40 years old and 17 years of experience as our average for the last eight years, including the incoming class of 2019.” She added that the executive MBA program measures how many of its leads are coming in at above 12 years of experience, and it aims for 70 percent or more of those leads to fit that.

She said older students indeed can enhance their careers from their MBA, noting that 55 percent of executive MBA students get promoted while they’re in the program. She didn’t have information about pay bumps. As for enrolling for more personal reasons, “I think the recruiters are right. It’s not about the promotion or the money,” she said. “They’ve been doing the general management executive jobs based on gut instinct and past experience. Now they want the formal knowledge and scientific management expertise to verify that what they’ve done is correct and to learn new tools.”

Another program that draws many older students is the global executive MBA at Duke University ’s Fuqua School of Business. Over the past few years, 42 percent of students were ages 40 and up when they applied.

Among the admission requirements for the global MBA program at Fuqua are a minimum of 10 years experience after undergraduate work with a strong leadership or management component and current or pending global work responsibilities.

“In terms of ROI, I have no doubt I’ll get my money back,” said Janet Burpee, 53, who is one term away from graduating from Fuqua’s Global executive MBA program. She said her class ranges in age from 30 to 58. She and her husband run a small medical device company called Burpee MedSystems in Eatontown, N.J., and she’s paying for her estimated $156,000 tuition herself.

“Learning how to be a more savvy investor, whether investing in my own company, the stock market or real estate, and going from, say, a 7 percent to a 10 percent return, you don’t have to have that many percentage points higher to make it worth it over the long haul,” she said.

Similarly, at New York University’s Stern School of Business, the average age of a candidate for the executive MBA Program is 38. While the minimum work experience is six years, students have an average 14 years’ experience. In current classes, 26 percent of students were 40 and above, according to a spokeswoman.

On Stern’s website for the executive MBA program , mature executives are featured in photography. “While we are not targeting a specific age group, we’re looking for students that can engage in dialogue across the classroom that is at a high level,” said Paula Steisel Goldfarb, associate dean of MBA admissions, financial aid and academic affairs at Stern. “What you’re seeing is reflective of that average age.”

Dr. Robert Spillane, 57, just completed Stern’s 22-month EMBA program, receiving his diploma Aug. 5. A radiologist, he decided to enroll when he landed his current post as medical director of quality at Hartford Hospital in Hartford, Conn., with oversight of 7,000 physicians and staff. His prior job was chief quality officer of a private practice with 400 physicians and staff.

“What I liked about Stern was the senior level of executives with 14 to 15 years of experience from large organizations,” he said. “Many were close enough with my age and life group to ask about work and how they manage the C-suite and balance children and family and career. I thought I would learn from them in a different way than I would from a younger cohort.”

Besides becoming a more effective leader, Spillane said he had one unexpected benefit from the $180,000 that he invested. “Having my children watch me go to school, to put the goal out there, to struggle with study materials and be anxious about test results but to persevere and graduate — that’s been priceless.”

Going online

Another place where older students are headed for MBAs is online. The average age MBA student at the University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign is 28. However, students in its four online iMBA cohorts are age 37 on average. Students over age 40 make up an average 35 percent across those cohorts.

The oldest candidate is Al Harms, a 68-year-old retired vice admiral of the U.S. Navy. He joined Illinois’ initial January 2016 online MBA program from his home in Sanford, Fla. “U. of I. is my alma mater,” said the Monticello, Ill.-native. He was chief learning officer in the Navy, responsible for education and training for the military branch. He later spent eight years at the University of Central Florida in a variety of posts including vice president for strategy, marketing, communications and admissions. He now sits on a variety of charitable and corporate boards and does some consulting.

“You’re talking to a guy who is not looking for another career,” he said. “I’ll take this where it takes me; it may be teaching. It opens up a whole bunch of doors. It rounds you out professionally and gives you some tools that would be attractive to either fiduciary or advisory boards.”

While he estimates the whole package cost about $22,000, he said he used his G.I. Bill for the first time to pay for it. “This program is stunningly inexpensive compared to most online MBAs,” he added. “The ROI is almost priceless.”

One issue for older students is when surprises disrupt your career or studies. Heather White, 49, has completed about a third of the evening MBA program at Northern Illinois University . In 2016, that program drew candidates spanning ages 21 to 61, according to a university spokesman. Among them, 17 percent were 40 and older, including 5 percent who were in their 50s or older. In its 2016 executive MBA class, 40 percent were between 40 to 49.

White’s employer at the time had a $10,000-per-year tuition reimbursement program that over two years would have nearly covered the cost of the degree. But last year her position was eliminated in a restructuring, so she suspended her studies to avoid creating additional debt. She since has joined Hitachi High Technologies America in Schaumburg as a senior credit and collections analyst, but now is facing health issues. When she resumes the program, she’ll bear more of the cost. She initially expected to pay $4,000 of her estimated $25,000 tuition. Now she expects to pay $6,000 to $8,000 herself.

“That’s another thing with age: You never know what’s going to derail you,” she said. “As you get older, health can surprise you, or you have a job elimination because you may be at a higher salary.”

Another common concern for senior students is how their age or time since their last academic experience might affect their performance. “Before I applied I thought, ‘Man, I’m going to be an outlier,’” said Grad, the Kellogg MBA alum. The average age for Kellogg’s executive MBA class was 37.5 compared to the regular MBA average at 28. But he audited a couple of classes, and that eased his mind.

“Everybody without exception in the first quarter was slow off the mark,” said Grad. “After the first four to six weeks … my muscle memory kicked in again, and I was going for the high honors grade in every class I took. I wasn’t going to be satisfied just getting a pass.”

His class elected him to give a commencement address at their graduation.

Kate MacArthur is a freelancer writer.
Twitter @KateMacArthur

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five-paragraph essay format 


I. The Introductory Paragraph begins with a general statement about the world, life, people, etc. as a way to introduce the topic.   The scope of the paragraph gradually narrows until the last sentence in the paragraph is the specific thesis (the statement of the author’s position on the topic) to be proven in the essay.  The paragraph starts broadly and comes to a definite point. Basic information about the book, name of author, and central characters should be included in the course of the introductory paragraph. Remember, the most important sentence of the whole essay appears at the very end of the introduction–the thesis statement.  

II.  Body Paragraph One–starts with a clear topic sentence that states the writer’s first reason in support of the thesis statement.  For example, if my thesis stated that “Canadian Bacon and pineapple pizza is the best food for humanity,” then my first (topic) sentence in my first paragraph might say: “Canadian Bacon and pineapple pizza includes elements of all five essential food groups.”  The rest of this paragraph will provide examples and support of this topic sentence. 

Clincher/Transition sentence: The last sentence of each body paragraph should be a “clincher” for the paragraph.  To form a clincher, include one or two key words from the topic sentence and restate the essential idea of the topic sentence.  In addition, the best clincher sentence will also echo the thesis.  As one becomes more confident in writing essays, one may also use the clincher sentence to lead into the next paragraph.  

III.  Body Paragraph Two–states the second point in support of the thesis and develops that point throughout the paragraph.   Of course, this body paragraph ends with a clincher sentence.

IV. Body Paragraph Three–states the third point in support of the thesis statement and develops that point throughout the paragraph.   Usually this is the strongest argument, saved for last.  The paragraph ends with a clincher sentence.

V. The final Concluding Paragraph begins with a restatement of the thesis.  By restating the thesis one need not use such phrases as “in conclusion” since the reader will recognize the end of the essay from the restatement of the thesis.  This paragraph is in some ways an inversion of the introductory paragraph.  Next, the concluding paragraph includes one or two sentences that review the major points (from the body paragraphs) in support of the thesis.   Finally, the conclusion must answer the “So what?” question.  Why is the thesis important?  How is it relevant to the life and world of the reader?  Try to conclude with force and power and some idea of why the thesis is important or compelling. The very last sentence should be memorable. 

Remember: Never say “I.”  

Many thanks to Ole Anderson,  my eximious Shakespeare instructor at Washington State University. 

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  • Essay Writing for Standardized Tests: Tips for Writing a Five Paragraph Essay

Essay Writing for Standardized Tests: Tips for Writing a Five Paragraph Essay

Most, if not all, high school and college standardized tests include a writing portion. Students are provided a writing prompt and must then write an essay on the topic. Writing for standardized tests can strike fear in the hearts and minds of students of all ages, but it doesn’t have to. If you know what to expect and understand how to write a five paragraph essay, you will be prepared to tackle any essay writing prompt.

Types of Essays on Standardized Tests

When you begin to write your essay for a standardized test, you must first decide what type of essay you are being asked to write. There are many different types of essays, including narrative, expository, argumentative, persuasive, comparative, literary, and so on. The type of essay will determine your topic and thesis. Essays for standardized tests are typically either persuasive, in which you will answer a question, or literary, in which you will write about something you read.

For standardized tests, students usually have to write a five paragraph essay, which should be 500 to 800 words long and include an introductory paragraph, three supporting paragraphs and a concluding paragraph.

The First Paragraph: The Introduction

The first paragraph will introduce your topic. The introduction is the most important paragraph because it provides direction for the entire essay. It also sets the tone, and you want to grab the reader’s attention with interest and clarity. The best way to tackle the introduction is to:

  • Describe your main idea, or what the essay is about, in one sentence. You can usually use the essay writing prompt or question to form this sentence.
  • Develop a thesis statement, or what you want to say about the main idea. When the writing prompt is a question, your thesis is typically the answer to the question.
  • List three points or arguments that support your thesis in order of importance (one sentence for each).

Voila! You’ve just written your introductory paragraph.

The Second, Third and Fourth Paragraphs: Supporting Details

These three paragraphs form the body of the essay. They provide details, such as facts, quotes, examples and concrete statistics, for the three points in your introductory paragraph that support your thesis. Take the points you listed in your introduction and discuss each in one body paragraph. Here’s how:

  • First, write a topic sentence that summarizes your point. This is the first sentence of your paragraph.
  • Next, write your argument, or why you feel the topic sentence is true.
  • Finally, present your evidence (facts, quotes, examples, and statistics) to support your argument.

Now you have a body paragraph. Repeat for points two and three. The best part about introducing your main points in the first paragraph is that it provides an outline for your body paragraphs and eliminates the need to write in transitions between paragraphs.

The Fifth Paragraph: The Conclusion

The concluding paragraph must summarize the essay. This is often the most difficult paragraph to write. In your conclusion, you should restate the thesis and connect it with the body of the essay in a sentence that explains how each point supports the thesis. Your final sentence should uphold your main idea in a clear and compelling manner. Be sure you do not present any new information in the conclusion.

Parting Thoughts

When writing an essay for a standardized test, outline your essay and get through each paragraph as quickly as possible. Think of it as a rough draft. When your time is up, a complete essay will score more points than an incomplete essay because the evaluator is expecting a beginning, middle and an end.

If you have time to review your essay before your time is up, by all means do so! Make any revisions that you think will enhance your “rough draft” and be sure to check for any grammatical errors or misspellings.

Online instruction like  the Time4Writing essay writing courses  for elementary, middle and high school students can help children prepare for state and college-entrance standardized writing tests. These interactive writing classes build basic writing skills, explain essay types and structure, and teach students how to organize their ideas.

For general tips on test preparation and details about each state’s standardized tests, please visit our standardized test overview page .

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English 3201

Handout: How to Write an Opinion Essay


The basic five-paragraph essay structure, which you have
probably used many times by this point, works extremely well for an opinion
essay. It�s a starting point, and when you get to university your profs will expect a more complex approach to essay writing.
If you feel confident about your essay-writing skills, you can certainly branch
out into longer and more complex essays. But this basic five-paragraph outline
is a good starting point, especially if you feel uncertain of your ability.


An opinion essay exists to prove your main point � your thesis. This should be clearly stated
in your opening paragraph. Don�t
leave the reader to guess what your position is on the issue � make a clear


Next, develop
your argument in the body of your essay. Each paragraph should contain a single, clear idea that support your point of view. You
can use examples and illustration, cause-and-effect reasoning,
comparison/contrast or other methods of development to support your argument.


Research: Any
statements you make that would cause a reader to say, �Wait, how do you know
that�s true?� need to be backed up with documentation from outside sources (�I
saw something on TV about it one time� would not be considered adequate
documentation). Refer to the handout �What is Research?� for further details.


Remember that a
paragraph is three to five sentences that develop a single, clear idea.A good paragraph often begins with a topic sentence that sums up your main


Paragraph One — The introduction.Here you state the main idea of your entire
essay — the point you are trying to make or prove.This paragraph should include your thesis statement plus three reasons why you believe this
statement to be true.


Paragraphs Two, Three and Four.These are the body of your essay.Remember back in Paragraph One, you gave
three reasons for your opinion? Three reasons, three body paragraphs.Each of the body paragraphs should take one of your reasons and explain it in
more detail, citing sources where necessary.


Paragraph Five — The conclusion.Former Newfoundland premier Joey Smallwood
once said about giving speeches: "First I tell them what I’m going to tell
them, then I tell them, then I tell them what I told them."That’s how you write an essay.In the conclusion, tell them what you told
them.Sum up your argument by restating
your thesis statement and reminding the reader what your three reasons
were.In an argumentative essay, you can
finish with a "call to action" — tell the reader what you would like
them to do as a result.

Sample Five-Paragraph Essay

Subject: Should
parents have their children vaccinated?







: Introduction


Three reasons for my opinion


Thesis statement




: Develops the first reason by giving examples


Topic Sentence




Topic Sentence


Develops the second reason, giving facts and
statistics to support the statement.



Topic sentence


Develops third reason, giving an example





Restatement of thesis

Summary of reasons






Why You Should Vaccinate Your Kids

sample essay for student
use by Trudy Morgan-Cole


Edward Jenner introduced the first successful smallpox vaccine by injecting
an eight-year-old boy with cowpox pus in 1796, vaccines have been an
important part of public health care around the world (�Edward Jenner�). Yet
today, many parents choose not to vaccinate their children. Because vaccines
are widely supported by research, have few side effects, and have proven
successful in halting the spread of disease, I believe it is important
that all parents continue to vaccinate their children.


major health organizations, including the Centres
for Disease Control and the World Health Organization, recommend vaccination.
The value of vaccination is supported by research from around the world,
and researchers are constantly working to improve the safety and
effectiveness of vaccines
. Epidemiologists, the scientists whose job is
to study the outbreak of disease, all recommend vaccination.


parents worry about the safety of vaccines. While side effects do occur,
they are usually minor
, like redness or swelling around the site of an
injection. In Canada, only about one in a million doses of vaccine leads to serious side effects (�Fact and Fiction�). The
most famous study linking vaccines to autism, one which got many parents
worried about vaccination, has been proven false and the doctor who conducted
the study has had his medical license taken away (Triggle).


the world, increased vaccination leads to better public health.
Diseases like smallpox and polio which once killed
and disabled millions of people are virtually unknown today thanks to
immunization programs. Yet in countries like Afghanistan and Pakistan where
the Taliban discourage immunization, rates of polio are on the rise again (Nordland).


and when you have children, please get them vaccinated. The risks are minimal
and you�ll not only be following the best advice of medical science and
protecting your own child from disease; you�ll be helping in the fight to
eradicate infectious diseases in your community and around the world.


Sources Cited


�Edward Jenner
(1749-1823),� BBC History: Historic Figures.


�Immunization Fact and
Fiction,� Public Health Agency of Canada.


Nordland, Rod, �After Year of Decline, PolioCases in Afghanistan Triple in a
Year.� The New York Times, Jan. 17,


Triggle, Nick, �MMR Doctor Struck from Register,� BBC News.





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Essay on Good Manners.

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Good And Bad Manners

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Good Manners have a deep Affect on our minds. As bad manners produce bad results in society, good manners produce good results. Good manners are unconsciously acquired in our childhood, but they can also be cultivated later on. Every human being should be treated with due respect and dignity. The animal instinct in us makes us rough and vulgar, but a cultured and civilized man is gentle and polite. By good manners we understand the way in which a person should behave in society. One is expected to show respect one’s elders. Good manners are necessary for everyone, in every walk of life. It is good manners to thank anybooy who does anything for you. When a waiter brings you a glass of water, you may thank him.

“Friends and good manners will carry you where money won’t go.” Good manners are vital for success in life. Nobody likes a rude person, but good manners endear a man to other. A shopkeeper who behaves rudely with his customers can never flourish in his trade, but one who behaves politely and pleasantly with others attracts a large number of customers. Patients always rush to a doctor who is sympathetic towards them. A leader cannot have a large follower unless he is polite to others. In fact good manners have a magnetic influence over the people. Good manner are not, however, born with us. They have to be cultivated with great care. Childhood is the best period to cultivate good manners and so both parents and teachers have a great role to play.

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Bad Manners:
The Height of Bad Manners is Way too Much
To begin with, Bad Manners is defined by lack of polite or well-bred social behavior resulting by ignorance, this may be true, but I don´t think so, this is because nowadays people are adopting this reprehensive conducts no just by ignorance, but for doing whatever they want, in this bad manner conducts we can see: not respecting adults, farting in front of anybody, not saluting, people that don´t respect the third age privileges in public places/transport.

In the world we can see many of this awful behavior but each day we can see it more in our community its becoming part of our daily life to be disrespectful with others and don´t minding about if the other person would feel bad about it. As your parents probably told you not so many years ago this “Bad Manners Acts” where severally punished with very strict sanction but now we can see a teenager threatening and old man so they give him the spot in the bus.

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Essay on good manners within 150 words

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  • HARSHI1111
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Hello buddy
Harshi this side…

A well-mannered man is respected and esteemed wherever he goes and esteemed in whatever condition of life he may be. A rich man or a high-pedigreed person, bumped with all titles without good manners, is hated in an ideal society. On the contrary, a poor man, with tattered clothes, but having delightfully good manners is sure to attract everyone’s attention and win everybody’s liking.
Among students in particular, preservation of good manners is a boon. It is a pity that on account of lack of manners in the modern students, an ugly and unpleasant atmosphere of indiscipline has been created. Good manners cost nothing. One the other hand they pay us a lot.

Examples of good manners

Say, “Thank you” when you receive anything from someone,Say, “Please” while requesting for something,Say, “Excuse me” to get attention for something,Compliment other for their good qualities,Always knock the doors before entering other’s bed-room,Be respectful towards your elders, and teachers,Be compassionate towards someone who is in pain,Listen attentively when someone is talking to you,

We, the dwellers of this land of great and noble personalities, must exhibit above all other things, an ideal force of character through our everyday manners, imbibed with nobility and spiritual sublimity.
Hope it helps you buddy…

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  • nikita5672
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Hi Friends

Good manners are very important in life. They make our day to day life smooth and easy. A rich man has a crowd of flatterers around him and a powerful man may be obeyed by people just out of fear. But a man with pleasing manners is genuinely loved and appreciated by all. Good matures help a man to win friends easily.

A man with pleasing manners respects the feelings, and sentiments of people around him. He shows proper regard to his elders, loves his equals and is kind to those who are younger than him. Modesty and courtesy are essential traits of his personality. He is never proud or haughty and he takes great care not to hurt the feelings of other people. Good manners bring sunshine to life. A man with pleasing manners is jolly and gay. He has always a smile on his lips and he is mentally happy. Thus good manners enrich the personality of a man.

Good manners are vital for success in life. Nobody likes a rude person, but good manners endear a man to other. A shopkeeper who behaves rudely with his customers can never flourish in his trade, but one who behaves politely and pleasantly with others attracts a large number of customers. Patients always rush to a doctor who is sympathetic towards them. A leader cannot have a large follower unless he is polite to others. In fact good manners have a magnetic influence over the people.

The primitive people were savage and brutal. They rarely showed any concern for others. They found it difficult to keep their emotions under control. But civilization taught people to be considerate to others. Thus good manners are true signs of civilization.

Good manners cost nothing, but they bring about handsome rewards. When someone says “please” or “thank you” he actually finds himself in the midst of cheerful crowd. When someone is polite and soft spoken, he gets over many difficult situations in life.

Good manner are not, however, born with us. They have to be cultivated with great care. Childhood is the best period to cultivate good manners and so both parents and teachers have a great role to play.
hope it helps you

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Does homework help? Only if its the right homework, expert says

By Jonathan Hepburn and Paige Cockburn


August 24, 2016 19:47:50

Two men study


Too much homework can turn students off learning, Brendan Bentley says. (www.sxc.hu: Gonzalo Silva)

Related Story:
Study finds homework has limited value


Homework is not useless but its quality is far more important than quantity and schools should think very carefully about why they are setting it, an education expert at the University of South Australia says.

Key points:

  • Academics agree that too much homework can harm learning
  • Good homework is ‘purposeful, specific, and reinforces learning’
  • Time spent with family after school can be more important than more study

Over the past week an anti-homework note sent to parents by a teacher in Forth Worth, Texas, has spread around the world after being posted to Facebook by a parent.

“After much research this summer, I am trying something new,” the note from Mrs Brandy Young, which has been shared more than 70,000 times, says.

“Homework will only consist of work that your student did not finish during the school day. There will be no formally assigned homework this year.”

The note goes on to say that research has been unable to prove that homework improves student performance.

Instead, Mrs Young urges parents to spend their evenings doing things like reading together, playing outside, and getting their children to bed early, which “are proven to correlate with student success.”

Not surprisingly, the note was posted to Facebook with the comment “Brooke is loving her new teacher already!”

External Link:

Facebook no-homework note

Good homework is ‘purposeful, specific, and reinforces learning’

However, “she’s not quite right,” says Brendan Bentley, a PhD candidate and lecturer in the Education Department of the University of South Australia.

In 2006, a review of American research conducted between 1987 and 2003 found that “there was generally consistent evidence for a positive influence of homework on achievement.”

The review, led by Dr Harris Cooper of Duke University, found that evidence was stronger for students in grades seven to 12 than for kindergarten to grade six, and for when students, rather than parents, reported how much time they spent doing homework.

Reforming Homework: Australian academics argue for a rethink


On the other hand, in 2013, Australian academics Richard Walker and Mike Horsley published Reforming Homework, in which they reviewed international research and found that for young primary school children, homework is of little or no value and students are regularly given too much .

The issue is that although if you do something more often you get better at it, you have to be doing the right thing in the first place.

“Homework has to be purposeful, specific, and reinforce learning. If it’s just to finish work, that may not help the student at all,” Mr Bentley said.

In fact, too much homework can be worse than useless: It can be detrimental.

“For students in grades three or four, more than 20 minutes of homework can exhaust them. They go into cognitive load, and their ability to learn goes into a decline,” Mr Bentley said.

“They can develop a negative attitude towards learning. It’s about getting the balance right.”

Cognitive load refers to the total amount of mental effort being used: a heavy cognitive load creates errors or interference.

That 20 minutes is not a guideline for each day: “There needs to be a good argument for having homework every single night,” Mr Bentley said.

“Schools have to understand why they are giving homework. Without a good purpose and a rationale: Reconsider it.”

He says that homework can be ramped up as students get older, but even in grade 10, research shows that, “if it’s more than an hour, it’s a waste of time.”

Designing effective homework also depends upon how much the student is able to learn.

“Adults can learn about seven things at a time. For young children, that’s maybe two or three,” Mr Bentley said. “You only need 20 minutes to reinforce that.”

However, he says the benefits of homework are not just about reinforcing learning, and that if it does not turn students off, it can teach important study habits.

He agrees that family time and relaxation can be more important than homework.

“Developing good habits and attitudes through interaction with parents can be good — every time you interact with your children, you are teaching assumptions,” he said.

On the other hand, too much homework can lead to conflicts with parents.

“Parents are keen for their children to be the best, so they may ask about homework, and may do it for their children, which defeats the purpose,” Mr Bentley said.


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Free Warren Buffet Essays and Papers

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Highlights from The Essays of Warren Buffett

The book ‘The Essays of Warren Buffett: Lessons for Corporate America’ is a must read for anyone who wants to learn how one of the most celebrated money managers of last century operates. I read the 3rd edition and am sharing my favourite parts from the book here.

Golden rules of Investing

  • The most revolutionary investing ideas of the past thirty-five years were those called modern finance theory. This is an elaborate set of ideas that boil down to one simple and misleading practical implication: it is a waste of time to study individual investment opportunities. One of modern finance theory’s main tenets is modern portfolio theory. It says that you can eliminate the peculiar risk of any security by holding a diversified portfolio — that is, it formalizes the folk slogan “don’t put all your eggs in one basket.” The risk that is leftover is the only risk for which the investors would be compensated. This leftover risk can be measured by a simple mathematical term — called beta — that shows how volatile the security is compared to the market. Beta measures this volatility risk well for securities that trade on efficient markets, where information about publicly traded securities is swiftly and accurately incorporated into prices. In the modern finance story, efficient markets rule. Buffett thinks most markets are not purely efficient and that equating volatility with risk is a gross distortion.
  • As to concentration of the portfolio, Buffett reminds us that Keynes, who was not only a brilliant economist but also an astute investor, believed that an investor should put fairly large sums into two or three businesses he knows something about and whose management is trustworthy.
    Buffett jokes that calling someone who trades actively in the market an investor “is like calling someone who repeatedly engages in one-night stands a romantic.” Buffett instead thinks we should follow Mark Twain’s advice from Pudd’nhead Wilson “Put all your eggs in one basket — and watch that basket.”
  • Buffet learned the art of investing from Ben Graham who in a number of classic works, including The Intelligent Investor, introduced a character who lives on Wall Street, Mr. Market. He is your hypothetical business partner who is daily willing to buy your interest in a business or sell you his at at prevailing market prices. He is moody and the more manic-depressive he is, the greater the spread between price and value, and therefore the greater the investment opportunities he offers. Buffett reintroduces Mr. Market, emphasizing how valuable Graham’s allegory of the overall market is for disciplined investment knitting. Another leading prudential legacy from Graham is his margin-of-safety principle. This principle holds that one should not make an investment in a security unless there is a sufficient basis for believing that the price being paid is substantially lower than the value being delivered.
  • All true investing must be based on an assessment of the relationship between price and value. Strategies that do not employ this comparison of price and value do not amount to investing at all, but to speculation — the hope that price will rise, rather than the conviction that the price being paid is lower than the value being obtained.
  • The circle of competence principle is the third leg of the Graham/Buffett stool of intelligent investing, along with Mr. Market and the margin of safety. This common sense rule instructs investors to consider investments only concerning businesses they are capable of understanding with a modicum of effort.
  • Three suggestions for investors from Buffett: First, beware of companies displaying weak accounting. If a company still does not expense options, or if its pension assumptions are fanciful, watch out. Second, unintelligible footnotes usually indicate untrustworthy management. If you can’t understand a footnote or other managerial explanation, it’s usually because the CEO doesn’t want you to. Finally, be suspicious of companies that trumpet earnings projections and growth expectations.
  • What needs to be reported is data — whether GAAP, non-GAAP, or extra-GAAP — that helps financially-literate readers answer three key questions: (1) Approximately how much is this company worth? (2) What is the likelihood that it can meet its future obligations? and (3) How good a job are its managers doing, given the hand they have been dealt?
  • On bonds: “The large numbers of corporations that failed in the early 1990s recession under crushing debt burdens to dispute academic research showing that higher interest rates on junk bonds more than compensated for their higher default rates.”
  • On “fallen angels” — bonds that were initially of investment grade but that were downgraded when the issuers fell on bad times:
    “A kind of bastardized fallen angel burst onto the investment scene in the 1980s — “junk bonds” that were far below investment-grade when issued. As the decade progressed, new offerings of manufactured junk became ever junkier and ultimately the predictable outcome occurred: Junk bonds lived up to their name. Thus, said the friendly salesmen, a diversified portfolio of junk bonds would produce greater net returns than would a portfolio of high-grade bonds. (Beware of past-performance “proofs” in finance: If history books were the key to riches, the Forbes 400 would consist of librarians). The manager of a fallen angel almost invariably yearned to regain investment-grade status and worked toward that goal. The junk-bond operator was usually an entirely different breed. Behaving much as a heroin user might, he devoted his energies not to finding a cure for his debt-ridden condition, but rather to finding another fix. Additionally, the fiduciary sensitivities of the executives managing the typical fallen angel were often, though not always, more finely developed than were those of the junk-bond-issuing financiopath.”
  • Most investors, both institutional and individual, will find that the best way to own common stocks is through an index fund that charges minimal fees. Those following this path are sure to beat the net results (after fees and expenses) delivered by the great majority of investment professionals. Should you choose, however, to construct your own portfolio, there are a few thoughts worth remembering: Intelligent investing is not complex, though that is far from saying that it is easy. What an investor needs is the ability to correctly evaluate selected businesses. Note that word “selected”: You don’t have to be an expert on every company, or even many. You only have to be able to evaluate companies within your circle of competence. The size of that circle is not very important; knowing its boundaries, however, is vital. To invest successfully, you need not understand beta, efficient markets, modern portfolio theory, option pricing, or emerging markets. You may, in fact, be better off knowing nothing of these. Your goal as an investor should simply be to purchase, at a rational price, a part interest in an easily-understandable business whose earnings are virtually certain to be materially higher five, ten and twenty years from now.
    If you aren’t willing to own a stock for ten years, don’t even think about owning it for ten minutes.
  • Bertrand Russell’s observation about life in general applies with unusual force in the financial world: “Most men would rather die than think. Many do.”
  • “Value is destroyed, not created, by any business that loses money over its lifetime, no matter how high its interim valuation may get. Intrinsic value can be defined simply: It is the discounted value of the cash that can be taken out of a business during its remaining life. Intrinsic value is an estimate rather than a precise figure.”
  • “You can gain some insight into the differences between book value and intrinsic value by looking at one form of investment, a college education. Think of the education’s cost as its “book value.” If this cost is to be accurate, it should include the earnings that were foregone by the student because he chose college rather than a job. For this exercise, we will ignore the important non-economic benefits of an education and focus strictly on its economic value. First, we must estimate the earnings that the graduate will receive over his lifetime and subtract from that figure an estimate of what he would have earned had he lacked his education. That gives us an excess earnings figure, which must then be discounted, at an appropriate interest rate, back to graduation day. The dollar result equals the intrinsic economic value of the education.
    Some graduates will find that the book value of their education exceeds its intrinsic value, which means that whoever paid for the education didn’t get his money’s worth. In other cases, the intrinsic value of an education will far exceed its book value, a result that proves capital was wisely deployed. In all cases, what is clear is that book value is meaningless as an indicator of intrinsic value.”
  • “We will continue to ignore political and economic forecasts, which are an expensive distraction for many investors and businessmen. Thirty years ago, no one could have foreseen the huge expansion of the Vietnam War, wage and price controls, two oil shocks, the resignation of a president, the dissolution of the Soviet Union, a one-day drop in the Dow of 508 points, or treasury bill yields fluctuating between 2.8% and 17.4%. But, surprise — none of these blockbuster events made the slightest dent in Ben Graham’s investment principles. Nor did they render unsound the negotiated purchases of fine businesses at sensible prices. A different set of major shocks is sure to occur in the next 30 years. We will neither try to predict these nor to profit from them. If we can identify businesses similar to those we have purchased in the past, external surprises will have little effect on our long-term results.”
  • “People who expect to earn 10% annually from equities during this century — envisioning that 2% of that will come from dividends and 8% from price appreciation — are implicitly forecasting a level of about 24,000,000 on the Dow by 2100. Think about it”

How Buffett and Charlie Munger run Berkshire

  • Buffett and Berkshire avoid making predictions and tell their managers to do the same. They think it is a bad managerial habit that too often leads managers to make up their financial reports.
  • Buffett just gives a simple set of commands to his CEOs: to run their business as if (1) they are its sole owner, (2) it is the only asset they hold, and (3) they can never sell or merge it for a hundred years. This enables Berkshire CEOs to manage with a long-term horizon ahead of them, something alien to the CEOs of public companies whose short-term oriented shareholders obsess with meeting the latest quarterly earnings estimate. Short-term results matter, of course, but the Berkshire approach avoids any pressure to achieve them at the expense of strengthening long-term competitive advantages.
  • “When a problem exists, whether in personnel or in business operations, the time to act is now.”
  • Unlike many CEOs, who desire their company’s stock to trade at the highest possible prices in the market, Buffett prefers Berkshire stock to trade at or around its intrinsic value — neither materially higher nor lower. Such linkage means that business results during one period will benefit the people who owned the company during that period.
  • Stock splits are another common action in corporate America that Buffett points out disserve owner interests. Stock splits have three consequences: they increase transaction costs by promoting high share turnover; they attract shareholders with short-term, market-oriented views who unduly focus on stock market prices; and, as a result of both of those effects, they lead to prices that depart materially from intrinsic business value.
  • Intrinsic value: The discounted value of the cash that can be taken out of a business during its remaining life. Charlie and Berkshire are interested only in acquisitions that they believe will raise the per-share intrinsic value of Berkshire’s stock.
  • According to Buffett: Useful financial statements must enable a user to answer three basic questions about a business: approximately how much a company is worth, its likely ability to meet its future obligations, and how good a job its managers are doing in operating the business. Charlie and Buffett think that it is both deceptive and dangerous for CEOs to predict growth rates for their companies.
  • “At Berkshire, we try to be as logical about compensation as about capital allocation. For example, we compensate Ralph Schey based upon the results of Scott Fetzer rather than those of Berkshire. What could make more sense, since he’s responsible for one operation but not the other? A cash bonus or a stock option tied to the fortunes of Berkshire would provide totally capricious rewards to Ralph. He could, for example, be hitting home runs at Scott Fetzer while Charlie and I rang up
    mistakes at Berkshire, thereby negating his efforts many times over. Conversely, why should option profits or bonuses be heaped upon Ralph if good things are occurring in other parts of Berkshire but Scott Fetzer is lagging?”
  • “Charlie and I believe that a CEO must not delegate risk control. It’s simply too important. If Berkshire ever gets in trouble, it will be my fault. It will not be because of misjudgments made by a Risk Committee or Chief Risk Officer.”
  • “It has not been shareholders who have botched the operations of some of our country’s largest financial institutions. Yet they have borne the burden, with 90% or more of the value of their holdings wiped out in most cases of failure. The CEOs and directors of the failed companies, however, have largely gone unscathed. Their fortunes may have been diminished by the disasters they oversaw, but they still live in grand style. It is the behavior of these CEOs and directors that needs to be changed: If their institutions and the country are harmed by their recklessness, they should pay a heavy price-one not reimbursable by the companies”
  • “Audit committees should unequivocally put auditors on the spot, making them understand they will become liable for major monetary penalties if they don’t come forth with what they know or suspect.”
  • On why Berkshire bought Washing Post Company: “We bought all of our [Washington Post Company (“WPC”)] holdings in mid-1973 at a price of not more than one-fourth of the then per-share business value of the enterprise. Calculating the price/value ratio required no unusual insights. Most security analysts, media brokers, and media executives would have estimated WPC’s intrinsic business value at $400 to $500 million just as we did. And its $100 million stock market valuation was published daily for all to see. Our advantage was our attitude, that we had learned from Ben Graham, that the key to successful investing was the purchase of shares in good businesses when market prices were at a large discount from underlying business values.”
  • “Whenever Charlie and I buy common stocks for Berkshire’s insurance companies (leaving aside arbitrage purchases, discussed) we approach the transaction as if we were buying into a private business. We look at the economic prospects of the business, the people in charge of running it, and the price we must pay. We do not have in mind any time or price for sale. Indeed, we are willing to hold a stock indefinitely so long as we expect the business to increase in intrinsic value at a satisfactory rate. When investing, we view ourselves as business analysts — not as market analysts, not as macroeconomic analysts, and not even as security analysts.”
  • “Ben Graham, my friend and teacher, long ago described the mental attitude toward market fluctuations that I believe to be most conducive to investment success. He said that you should imagine market quotations as coming from a remarkably accommodating fellow named Mr. Market who is your partner in a private business. Market appears daily and names a price at which he will either buy your interest or sell you his. Even though the business that the two of you own may have economic characteristics that are stable, Mr. Market’s quotations will be anything but. For, sad to say, the poor fellow has incurable emotional problems. At times he feels euphoric and can see only the favorable factors affecting the business. When in that mood, he names a very high buy-sell price because he fears that you will snap up his interest and rob him of imminent gains.
    is depressed and can see nothing but trouble ahead for both the business and the world. On these occasions he will name a very low price, since he is terrified that you will unload your interest on him. Rather an investor will succeed by coupling good business judgment with an ability to insulate his thoughts and behavior from the super-contagious emotions that swirl about the marketplace. In my own efforts to stay insulated, I have found it highly useful to keep Ben’s Mr. Market concept firmly in mind. As Ben said: “In the short run, the market is a voting machine but in the long run it is a weighing machine.”
  • The speed at which a business’s success is recognized, furthermore, is not that important as long as the company’s intrinsic value is increasing at a satisfactory rate.
  • Buffett then explains why he is happy when the stock market is stagnant or goes down: “ A short quiz: If you plan to eat hamburgers throughout your life and are not a cattle producer, should you wish for higher or lower prices for beef? This question answers itself. Similarly If you expect to be a net saver during the next five years, should you hope for a higher or lower stock market during that period? Many investors get this one wrong. Even though they are going to be net buyers of stocks for many years to come, they are elated when stock prices rise and depressed when they fall. In effect, they rejoice because prices have risen for the “hamburgers” they will soon be buying. This reaction makes no sense. Only those who will be sellers of equities in the near future should be happy at seeing stocks rise. Prospective purchasers should much prefer sinking prices.”
  • On arbitrage: “To evaluate arbitrage situations you must answer four questions: (1) How likely is it that the promised event will indeed occur? (2) How long will your money be tied up? (3) What chance is there that something still better will transpire — a competing takeover bid, for example? and (4) What will happen if the event does not take place because of anti-trust action, financing glitches, etc.?
  • The preceding discussion about arbitrage makes a small discussion of “efficient market theory” (EMT) also seem relevant. This doctrine became highly fashionable — indeed, almost holy scripture — in academic circles during the 1970s. Essentially, it said that analyzing stocks was useless because all public information about them was appropriately reflected in their prices. In other words, the market always knew everything. As a corollary, the professors who taught EMT said that someone throwing darts at the stock tables could select a stock portfolio having prospects just as good as one selected by the brightest, most hard-working security analyst. We continue to think that it is usually foolish to part with an interest in a business that is both understandable and durably wonderful. Business interests of that kind are simply too hard to replace. The strategy we’ve adopted precludes our following standard diversification dogma. Many pundits would therefore say the strategy must be riskier than that employed by more conventional investors. We disagree. We believe that a policy of portfolio concentration may well decrease risk if it raises, as it should, both the intensity with which an investor thinks about a business and the comfort-level he must feel with its economic characteristics before buying into it. In stating this opinion, we define risk, using dictionary terms, as “the possibility of loss or injury.” Academics, however, like to define investment “risk” differently, averring that it is the relative volatility of a stock or portfolio of stocks — that is, their volatility as compared to that of a large universe of stocks. Employing data bases and statistical skills, these academics compute with precision the “beta” of a stock — that shows how volatile the security is compared to the market. Beta measures this volatility risk well for securities that trade on efficient markets, where information about publicly traded securities is swiftly and accurately incorporated into prices. In our opinion, the real risk an investor must assess is whether his aggregate after-tax receipts from an investment (including those he receives on sale) will, over his prospective holding period, give him at least as much purchasing power as he had to begin with, plus a modest rate of interest on that initial stake. Though this risk cannot be calculated with engineering precision, it can in some cases be judged with a degree of accuracy that is useful. The primary factors bearing upon this evaluation are: (1) The certainty with which the long-term economic characteristics of the business can be evaluated; (2) The certainty with which management can be evaluated, both as to its ability to realise the full potential of the business and to wisely employ its cash flows; (3) The certainty with which management can be counted on to channel the reward from the business to the shareholders rather than to itself; (4) The purchase price of the business; (5) The levels of taxation and inflation that will be experienced and that will determine the degree by which an investor’s purchasing-power return is reduced from his gross return.
  • It is better to be approximately right than precisely wrong.
  • “If you are a know-something investor, able to understand business economics and to find five to ten sensibly-priced companies that possess important long-term competitive advantages, conventional diversification makes no sense for you. It is apt simply to hurt your results and increase your risk. I cannot understand why an investor of that sort elects to put money into a business that is his 20th favorite rather than simply adding that money to his top choices — the businesses he understands best and that present the least risk, along with the greatest profit potential. In the words of the prophet Mae West: “Too much of a good thing can be wonderful.”
  • “We continually search for large businesses with understandable, enduring and mouth-watering economics that are run by able and shareholder-oriented managements.”
  • “Our equity-investing strategy remains little changed from what it was when we said in the 1977 annual report: We select our marketable equity securities in much the way we would evaluate a business for acquisition in its entirety. We want the business to be one (a) that we can understand; (b) with favourable long-term prospects; operated by honest and competent people; and (d) available at a very attractive price.” We have seen cause to make only one change in this creed: Because of both market conditions and our size, we now substitute “an attractive price” for “a very attractive price.”
  • “Consciously paying more for a stock than its calculated value — in the hope that it can soon be sold for a still-higher price — should be labeled speculation (which is neither illegal, immoral nor — in our view — financially fattening). Growth benefits investors only when the business in point can invest at incremental returns that are enticing — in other words, only when each dollar used to finance the growth creates over a dollar of long-term market value. In the case of a low-return business requiring incremental funds, growth hurts the investor.”
  • Value investing typically connotes the purchase of stocks having attributes such as a low ratio of price to book value, a low price-earnings ratio, or a high dividend yield.
  • “Leaving the question of price aside, the best business to own is one that over an extended period can employ large amounts of incremental capital at very high rates of return. The worst business to own is one that must, or will, do the opposite — that is, consistently employ ever-greater amounts of capital at very low rates of return.”
  • “In studying the investments we have made in both subsidiary companies and common stocks, you will see that we favour businesses and industries unlikely to experience major change.”
  • If we have a strength, it is in recognising when we are operating well within our circle of competence and when we are approaching the perimeter. Predicting the long-term economics of companies that operate in fast-changing industries is simply far beyond our perimeter. A further related lesson: Easy does it. After 25 years of buying and supervising a great variety of businesses, Charlie and I have not learned how to solve difficult business problems. What we have learned is to avoid them.
  • On Cigar butt investing philosophy which Buffett followed earlier in his career “If you buy a stock at a sufficiently low price, there will usually be some hiccup in the fortunes of the business that gives you a chance to unload at a decent profit, even though the long-term performance of the business may be terrible. I call this the “cigar butt” approach to investing. A cigar butt found on the street that has only one puff left in it may not offer much of a smoke, but the “bargain purchase” will make that puff all profit.”
  • Time is the friend of the wonderful business, the enemy of the mediocre. For example, if you buy a business for $8 million that can be sold or liquidated for $10 million and promptly take either course, you can realise a high return. But the investment will disappoint if the business is sold for $10 million in ten years and in the interim has annually earned and distributed only a few percent on cost.
  • On institutional imperative: “I learned over time that rationality wilts when institutional imperative comes into play. Example: (1) As if governed by Newton’s First Law of Motion, an institution will resist any change in its current direction; (2) Just as work expands to fill available time, corporate projects or acquisitions will materialise to soak up available funds; (3) Any business craving of the leader, however foolish, will be quickly supported by detailed rate-of-return and strategic studies prepared by his troops; and (4) The behaviour of peer companies, whether they are expanding, acquiring, setting executive compensation or whatever, will be mindlessly imitated. Institutional dynamics, not venality or stupidity, set businesses on these courses, which are too often misguided.”
  • “After some other mistakes, I learned to go into business only with people whom I like, trust, and admire.”
  • “It’s no sin to miss a great opportunity outside one’s area of competence. But I have passed on a couple of really big purchases that were served up to me on a platter and that I was fully capable of understanding.”
  • “Over the years, a number of very smart people have learned the hard way that a long string of impressive numbers multiplied by a single zero always equals zero.”
  • On paying dividends: “Not a dime of cash has left Berkshire for dividends share repurchases during the past 40 years. Instead, we have retained all of our earnings to strengthen our business, a reinforcement now running about $1 billion per month.”
  • “ Our net worth has increased from $48 million to $157 billion during the last four decades. No other corporation has come to building its financial strength in this unrelenting way. By being so cautious in respect to leverage, we penalise our returns by a minor amount. Having loads of liquidity, though, lets us sleep well. Moreover, during the episodes of financial chaos that occasionally erupt in our economy, we will be equipped both financially and emotionally to play offense while others scramble for survival. That’s what allowed us to invest $15.6 billion in 25 days of panic following the Lehman bankruptcy in 2008.”

On alternative investments

  • “Investments that are denominated in a given currency include money-market funds, bonds, mortgages, bank deposits, and other instruments. Most of these currency-based investments are thought of as “safe.” In truth they are among the most dangerous of assets. Their beta may be zero, but their risk is huge. Over the past century these instruments have destroyed the purchasing power of investors in many countries, even as the holders continued to receive timely payments of interest and principal. This ugly result, moreover, will forever recur.”
  • “Governments determine the ultimate value of money, and systemic forces will sometimes cause them to gravitate to policies that produce inflation. From time to time such policies spin out of control. Even in the U.S., where the wish for a stable currency is strong, the dollar has fallen a staggering 86% in value since 1965, when I took over management of Berkshire. It takes no less than $7 today to buy what $1 did at that time. Consequently, a tax-free institution would have needed 4.3% interest annually from bond investments over that period to simply maintain its purchasing power. For tax-paying investors, the picture has been far worse. During the same 47-year period, continuous rolling of U.S. Treasury bills produced 5.7% annually. That sounds satisfactory. But if an individual investor paid personal income taxes at a rate averaging 25%, this 5.7% return would have yielded nothing in the way of real income. This investor’s visible income tax would have stripped him of 1.4 points of the stated yield, and the invisible inflation tax would have devoured the remaining 4.3 points. Under today’s conditions, therefore, I do not like currency-based investments. Even so, Berkshire holds significant amounts of them, primarily of the short-term variety. We primarily hold U.S. Treasury bills, the only investment that can be counted on for liquidity under the most chaotic of economic conditions. Our working level for liquidity is $20 billion; $10 billion is our absolute minimum.”
  • “Gold, however, has two significant shortcomings, being neither of much use nor procreative. True, gold has some industrial and decorative utility, but the demand for these purposes is both limited and incapable of soaking up new production. Meanwhile, if you own one ounce of gold for an eternity, you will still own one ounce at its end. Today the world’s gold stock is about 170,000 metric tons. If all of this gold were melded together, it would form a cube of about 68 feet per side. (Picture it fitting comfortably within a baseball infield.) At $1,750 per ounce — gold’s price as I write this — its value would be $9.6 trillion. Let’s now create a pile B costing an equal amount. For that, we could buy all U.S. cropland (400 million acres with output of about $200 billion annually), plus 16 Exxon Mobils (the world’s most profitable company, one earning more than $40 billion annually). After these purchases, we would have about $1 trillion left over for walking-around money (no sense feeling strapped after this buying binge). Can you imagine an investor with $9.6 trillion selecting pile A over pile B? My own preference is investment in productive assets, whether businesses, farms, or real estate.
  • “Charlie and I are of one mind in how we feel about derivatives and the trading activities that go with them: We view them as time bombs, both for the parties that deal in them and the economic system. Essentially, these instruments call for money to change hands at some future date, with the amount to be determined by one or more reference items, such as interest rates, stock prices or currency values.”
  • “Indeed, recent events demonstrate that certain big-name CEOs (or former CEOs) at major financial institutions were simply incapable of managing a business with a huge, complex book of derivatives. Include Charlie and me in this hapless group: When Berkshire purchased General Re in 1998, we knew we could not get our minds around its book of 23,218 derivatives contracts, made with 884 counterparties (many of which we had never heard of). So we decided to close up shop. Though we were under no pressure and were operating in benign markets as we exited, it took us five years and more than $400 million in losses to largely complete minds around its book of 23,218 derivatives contracts, made with 884 counterparties (many of which we had never heard of). So we decided to close up shop. Though we were under no pressure and were operating in benign markets as we exited, it took us five years and more than $400 million in losses to largely complete”

On owning a Bank

  • “Month by month the foolish loan decisions of once well-regarded banks were put on public display. As one huge loss after another was unveiled — often on the heels of managerial assurances that all was well — investors understandably concluded that no bank’s numbers were to be trusted. Aided by their flight from bank stocks, we purchased our 10% interest in Wells Fargo for $290 million, less than five times after-tax earnings, and less than three times pre-tax earnings.
    Our purchase of one-tenth of the bank may be thought of as roughly equivalent to our buying 100% of a $5 billion bank with identical financial characteristics. Wells Fargo is big — it has $56 billion in assets — and has been earning more than 20% on equity and 1.25% on assets. Of course, ownership of a bank — or about any other business — is far from riskless. California banks face the specific risk of a major earthquake, which might wreak enough havoc on borrowers to in turn destroy the banks lending to them. A second risk is systemic — the possibility of a business contraction or financial panic so severe that it would endanger almost every highly-leveraged institution, no matter how intelligently run. Finally, the market’s major fear of the moment is that West Coast real estate values will tumble because of overbuilding and deliver huge losses to banks that have financed the expansion. Because it is a leading real estate lender, Wells Fargo is thought to be particularly vulnerable. Consider some mathematics: Wells Fargo currently earns well over $1 billion pre-tax annually after expensing more than $300 million for loan losses. If 10% of all $48 billion of the bank’s loans — not just its real estate loans — were hit by problems in 1991, and these produced losses (including foregone interest) averaging 30% of principal, the company would roughly break even. A year like that — which we consider only a low-level possibility, not a likelihood — would not distress us.”

On owning an Airline

  • “The day of reckoning for these airlines could be delayed by infusions of capital (such as ours into USAir), but eventually a fundamental rule of economics prevailed: In an unregulated commodity business, a company must lower its costs to competitive levels or face extinction. When Richard Branson, the wealthy owner of Virgin Atlantic Airways, was asked how to become a millionaire, he had a quick answer: “There’s really nothing to it. Start as a billionaire and then buy an airline.” Unwilling to accept Branson’s proposition on faith, your Chairman decided in 1989 to test it by investing $358 million in a 9¼% preferred stock of USAir. I liked and admired Ed Colodny, the company’s then-CEO, and I still do. But my analysis of USAir’s business was both superficial and wrong. I was so beguiled by the company’s long history of profitable operations, and by the protection that ownership of a senior security seemingly offered me, that I overlooked the crucial point: USAir’s revenues would increasingly feel the effects of an unregulated, fiercely competitive market whereas its cost structure was a holdover from the days when regulation protected profits. These costs, if left unchecked, portended disaster, however reassuring the airline’s past record might be. Since our purchase, the economics of the airline industry have deteriorated at an alarming pace, accelerated by the kamikaze pricing tactics of certain carriers. The trouble this pricing has produced for all carriers illustrates an important truth: In a business selling a commodity-type product, it’s impossible to be a lot smarter than your dumbest competitor.”

On stock repurchases

  • “We will never make purchases with the intention of stemming a decline in Berkshire’s price. Charlie and I favour repurchases when two conditions are met: first, a company has ample funds to take care of the operational and liquidity needs of its business; second, its stock is selling at a material discount to the company’s intrinsic business value, conservatively calculated. We have witnessed at a material discount to the company’s intrinsic business value, conservatively calculated. Today, IBM has 1.16 billion shares outstanding, of which we own about 63.9 million or 5.5%. Naturally, what happens to the company’s earnings over the next five years is of enormous importance to us. Beyond that, the company will likely spend $50 billion or so in those years to repurchase shares. Our quiz for the day: What should a long-term billion shares outstanding, of which we own about 63.9 million or 5.5%. Naturally, what happens to the company’s earnings over the next five years is of enormous importance to us. Beyond that, the company will likely spend $50 billion or so in those years to repurchase shares. Our quiz for the day: What should a long-term shareholder, such as Berkshire, cheer for during that period? I won’t keep you in suspense. We should wish for IBM’s stock price to languish throughout the five years. Let’s do the math. If IBM’s stock price averages, say, $200 during the period, the company will acquire 250 million shares for its $50 billion. There would consequently be 910 million shares outstanding, and we would own about 7% of the company. If the stock conversely sells for an average of $300 during the five-year period, IBM will acquire only 167 million shares. That would leave about 990 million shares outstanding after five years, of which we would own 6.5%.

    The logic is simple: If you are going to be a net buyer of stocks in the future, either directly with your own money or indirectly (through your ownership of a company that is repurchasing shares), you are hurt when stocks rise. You benefit when stocks swoon.”

On splitting Berkshire stock

  • “Were we to split the stock or take other actions focusing on stock price rather than business value, we would attract an entering class of buyers inferior to the exiting class of sellers.”
  • “A hyperactive stock market is the pickpocket of enterprise.
    For example, consider a typical company earning, say, 12% on equity. Assume a very high turnover rate in its shares of 100% per year. If a purchase and sale of the stock trades at book value, the owners of our hypothetical company will pay, in aggregate, 2% of the company’s net worth annually for the privilege of transferring ownership. This activity does nothing for the earnings of the business, and means that 1/6 of them are lost to the owners through the “frictional” cost of transfer. Consequently, our stock consistently trades in a price range that is sensibly related to intrinsic value.”
  • On issuing Class B common stock later: “We made two good-sized offerings through Salomon [during 1996], both with interesting aspects. The first was our sale in May of 517,500 shares of Class B Common, which generated net proceeds of $565 million. As I have told you before, we made this sale in response to the threatened
    creation of unit trusts that would have marketed themselves as Berkshire look-alikes. In the process, they would have used our past, and definitely non repeatable, record to entice naive small investors and would have charged these innocents high fees and commissions. The trusts would have meanwhile indiscriminately poured the proceeds of their offerings into a supply of Berkshire shares that is fixed and limited. The likely result: a speculative bubble in our stock.”

Why Buffet hates to part with Berkshire stock

  • “Our problem has been that we own a truly marvelous collection of businesses, which means that trading away a portion of them for something new almost never makes sense. If we issue shares in a merger, we reduce your ownership in all of our businesses — partly-owned companies such as Coca-Cola, Gillette and American Express, and all of our terrific operating companies as well.”
  • “The oracle Aesop and his enduring, though somewhat incomplete, investment insight was “a bird in the hand is worth
    two in the bush.”
    To flesh out this principle, you must answer only three questions. How certain are you that there are indeed birds in the bush? When will they emerge and how many will there be? What is the risk-free interest rate (which we consider to be the yield on long-term U.S. bonds)? If you can answer these three questions, you will know the maximum value of the bush — and the maximum number of the birds you now possess that should be offered for it.”

On acquisitions

  • “Over time, the skill with which a company’s managers allocate capital has an enormous impact on the enterprise’s value.
  • “Almost by definition, a really good business generates far more money (at least after its early years) than it can use internally. The company could, of course, distribute the money to shareholders by way of dividends or share repurchases. But often the CEO asks a strategic planning staff,
    consultants or investment bankers whether an acquisition or two might make sense. That’s like asking your interior decorator whether you need a $50,000 rug. We believe most deals do damage to the shareholders of the acquiring company. In any case, why potential buyers even look at projections prepared by sellers baffles me. Charlie and I never give them a glance, We would love to see an intermediary earn its fee by thinking of us — and therefore repeat here what we’re looking for: (1) Large purchases, (2) Demonstrated consistent earning power (future projections are of no interest to us, nor are “turnaround” situations), (3) Businesses earning good returns on equity while employing little or no debt, (4) Management in place (we can’t supply it), (5) Simple businesses (if there’s lots of technology, we won’t understand it), (6) An offering price (we don’t want to waste our time or that of the seller by talking, even preliminarily, about a transaction when price is unknown).”
  • “Berkshire is another kind of buyer — a rather unusual one. We buy to keep, but we don’t have, and don’t expect to have, operating people in our parent organisation. All of the businesses we own are run autonomously to an extraordinary degree. The areas I get involved in are capital allocation and selection and compensation of the top man. Other personnel decisions, operating strategies, etc. are his bailiwick.”

Note: I ignored highlights from a few chapters related to Accounting. Not being an accounting nerd, I had a hard time grasping all the concepts. I also mostly focussed on stocks and bonds and ignored other money instruments.

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The Life Of Warren Buffett History Essay


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Warren Edward Buffett (born August 30, 1930) is a U.S. investor, and philanthropist. He is one of the most eminent investors in chronicle, the basic shareholder and chief executive officer of Berkshire Hathaway and in 2008 was ordered by Forbes as the 2nd most robust person in the world on an approximated net worth of around $62 billion.

Buffett is often called the "Oracle of Omaha" or the "Sage of Omaha’ and is noted for his adhesiveness to the value investing philosophy and for his own frugalness in spite of his huge riches.

Buffett is also a famed altruist, having engaged to impart 85 percentage of his fate to the Gates cornerstone. He as well assists as a appendage of the board of trustees at Grinnell College.

In 1999, Buffett personified described as the greatest money manager of the twentieth century in a surveil by the Carson Group, leading Peter Lynch and John Templeton. In 2007, he was enrolled amongst Time’s 100 virtually influencial people on the Earth.


Warren Buffett was born in Omaha, Nebraska. His father name is Howard Buffett and having 2 siblings. He worked at his grandpa’s grocery store. In 1943, Buffett registered his 1st income tax return, deducing his pedal and watch as an exercise disbursement for $35 for his employment as paper deliveryman. Later on his father was elected to United States Congress, Buffett was schooled at Woodrow Wilson High School , Washington. In 1945, in his fledgeling year of high school, Buffett and a acquaintance expended $25 to buy a secondhand pinball game machine, which they placed in a barber workshop. Within weeks, they possessed 3 game machines in different emplacements.

Buffett first entered at The Wharton School, University of Pennsylvania, (1947-49) where he united the Alpha Sigma Phi brotherhood. His father and uncles were Alpha Sigma Phi brothers from the chapter in Nebraska. In 1951, he changed to the University of Nebraska where he underwent a B.S. in Economics.

Buffett then enrolled at Columbia Business School subsequently memorising that Benjamin Graham, (the generator of The Intelligent Investor), and David Dodd, 2 long-familiar financial analyst*, tutored there. In 1951, he then underwent a M.S. in Economics from Columbia University.

In Buffett’s personal articulates:

I’m 15 percent Fisher and 85 percent Benjamin Graham.

The primary theme of investing is to consider stocks as business, utilise the market’s variations to your welfare, and look for a safety margin. That is what Benjamin Graham educated us. A century from today they’ll even be the fundaments of investing.


During the period of 1920’s, Ben Graham had become renowned. He looked for for stocks that comprised so low-priced they were almost entirely pregnant of risk, at a time when the rest of the world was approaching the investment field as a tremendous game of roulette. The Northern Pipe Line, an oil transportation company carried off by the Rockefellers was among his best known calls. The value investors tried to convince management to trade the portfolio, but they denied because Graham accomplished that the company had bond holdings worth $95 per share which was traded at $65 per share. Shortly thereafter, he engaged a adoptive warfare and procured a spot on the Board of Directors (BOD). The company gave a dividend in the amount of $70 per share and sold-out its bonds.

At the age of 40, Security Analysis, among the greatest works ever composed on the stock market was pubished by Ben Graham. At that time, it was dangerous; endowing in equities had become a prank (The Dow Jones had struck from 381.17 to 41.22 over the course of three to four short years following the crash of 1929). It was about this time that Graham arrived up with the rule of "intrinsic" business value – a touchstone of a business’s genuine worth that was wholly and entirely independent of the stock price. Utilising intrinsic value, investors could be in the position to determine what a company was worth and could be capable to take investment decisions consequently. His succeeding book, The Intelligent Investor, which Warren observes as "the greatest book on investing ever written", enclosed the world to Mr. Market – the best investment doctrine of analogy in history. Through his simple yet profound investment principles, Ben Graham turned an idyllic anatomy to the 21 year old, Warren Buffett.


From 1951-54, Buffett was hired at Buffett-Falk & Co., Omaha as an Investiture Salesman. From 1954-1956, he was hired at Graham-Newman Corp., New York as a financial analyst. From 1956-1969, he worked with Buffett Partnership, Ltd., Omaha as a superior general Partner and from 1970 onwards till Present at Berkshire Hathaway Inc, Omaha as its Chairman, Chief Executive Officer.

In 1951, Buffett Warren observed his mentor was the Chairman of a small, nameless insurance company named GEICO insurance. Taking a power train to Washington. on a Saturday, he tapped on the door of GEICO’s central office until a janitor permitted him in. At that place, he encountered Lorimer Davidson, Geico’s Vice President, and the both talked about the insurance business concern for hours. Davidson would eventually become Buffett’s womb-to-tomb friend and an everlasting charm and later on recollect that he discovered Buffett to be a "Prodigious man" after only fifteen minutes. Buffett calibrated from Columbia and desired to work at Wall Street, however both, his father and Ben Graham pressed him not to. He volunteered to work out for Graham free of charge, but Graham declined.

Buffett turned back to Omaha and worked as a stockbroker while acquiring a Dale Carnegie public speaking course. Utilising what he acquired, he sensed surefooted adequate to teach an "Investment Principles & Rules" night class at the University of Nebraska. The moderate age of his pupils was more than twice his personal. During this time he purchased a Sinclair Texaco gas station too as a side investment. Nevertheless, this didn’t boot out to be an eminent business jeopardize.

In 1952, Buffett wedded Susan Thompson and the following year they gave birth their 1st baby, Susan Alice Buffett. In 1954, Buffett received a job at Benjamin Graham’s partnership, which he always dreamed. His initiating remuneration was $12,000 a year (more or less $97,000 conformed to 2008 dollars). There he worked intimately with Walter Schloss. Graham was a bully man to work for. He was inexorable that stocks allow a ample safety margin after weighting the trade-off between their monetary value and their intrinsic value. The debate added up to Buffett simply he queried whether the standards were too demanding and induced the company to drop down on big successes that had more qualitative values. That same year the Buffetts birthed their 2nd baby, Howard Graham Buffett.

In 1956, Benjamin Graham adjourned and shut down his partnership. At this time Buffett’s own savings comprised over $174,000 and he commenced Buffett Partnership Ltd., an investment partnership in Omaha.

In 1957, Buffett had three partnerships manoeuvering the whole year. He bought a five-bedroom stucco mansion in Omaha, where he even dwells, for $31,500. In 1958, the Buffett’s 3rd baby, Peter Andrew Buffett , was born. Buffett controlled five partnerships the whole year. In 1959, the company raised to six partnerships running the full year and Buffett was acquainted to Charlie Munger. By 1960, Buffett had seven partnerships manoeuvering: Buffett Associates, Buffett Fund, Dacee, Emdee, Glenoff, Mo-Buff and Underwood. He asked one of his partners, a physician, to ascertain ten other physicians willing and able to invest $10,000 each in his partnership. Eventually eleven agreed. In 1961, Buffett unconcealed that Sanborn Map Company reported for 35% of the partnership’s pluses. He explicated that in 1958 Sanborn stock traded at only $45 per share when the value of the Sanborn investment portfolio was $65 per share. This implied that vendees valued Sanborn stock at "minus $20" per share and were involuntary to bear more than 70 cents on the dollar for an investment portfolio with a map business injected for nothing. This gained him a spot on the board of Sanborn.


In 1962, Buffett turned a millionaire, because of his partnerships, which in January 1962 had a surplus of $7,178,500, of which over $1,025,000 belonged to Buffett. Buffett integrated all partnerships into one partnership. Buffett divulged a textile fabricating business firm named Berkshire Hathaway. Buffett’s partnerships started buying shares at $7.60 per share. In 1965, when Buffett’s partnerships aggressively started buying Berkshire, they paid $14.86 per share while the company had working capital of $19 per share. This didn’t include the evaluation of fixed assets (factory, machinery and equipment etc.). Buffett took charge of Berkshire Hathaway at the board meeting and appointed a new president, Ken Chace, to feed the company. In 1966, Buffett closed the partnership to fresh income. Buffett published in his letter: unless it seems that conditions have changed (under some considerations added capital would better final result) or unless new partners can contribute some asset to the partnership other than simply working capital, I think not to admit more additional partners to BPL.

In his second letter, Buffett declared his foremost investment in a private business concern – Hochschild, Kohn and Co, a privately owned Baltimore emporium. In 1967, Berkshire disbursed its initiatory and exclusive dividend of 10 cents. In 1969, observing his most eminent year, Buffett neutralised the partnership and shifted their assets to his partners. Among the assets, disbursed were shares of Berkshire Hathaway. In 1970, as chairman of Berkshire Hathaway, Buffett commenced publishing his now-famous yearly letters to stockholders.

However, he survived solely on his salary of $50,000 per year, and his external investment revenue. In 1979, Berkshire commenced the year dealing at $775 per share, and finished at $1,310. Buffett’s income reached $620 million, ranking him on the Forbes 400 for the first time.

In 2006, Buffett declared in June that he step by step would impart 85% of his Berkshire retentions to five foundations in annual gifts of stock, starting in July 2006. The largest share would go to the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation.

In 2007, in a letter to shareholders, Buffett declared that he was seeking a younger successor, or possibly successors, to execute his investment business. Buffett had antecedently picked out Lou Simpson, who runs investments at Geico, to meet that role. However, Simpson is only six years younger than Buffett.

In 2008, Buffett became the wealthiest man in the world dethroning Bill Gates, worth $62 billion reported by Forbes, and $58 billion reported by Yahoo. Bill Gates had been first on the Forbes list for 13 successive years. On March 11 2009, Bill Gates regained number one of the list according to Forbes magazine, with Buffett second. Their values have dropped to $40 billion and $37 billion respectively, which is probably an outcome of the 2008/2009 economical downswing.


In 1973, Berkshire commenced to gain stock in the Washington Post Company. Buffett became close acquaintances with Katharine Graham, who disciplined the company and its flagship newsprint, and became a member of its directorate.

In 1974, the SEC opened up a schematic investigation into Warren Buffett and Berkshire’s attainment of WESCO, referable possible engagement of interest. No accusations were brought.

In 1977, Berkshire indirectly bought the Buffalo Evening News for $32.5 million. Fair charges began, inspired by its competitor, the Buffalo Courier-Express. Both compositions lost income, till the Courier-Express folded in 1982.

In 1979, Berkshire started to acquire stock in ABC. On March 18, Capital Cities’ declared $3.5 billion. Leverage of ABC stormed the media industry, as ABC was approximately four times larger than Capital Cities was at that time. Warren Buffett, Chairman Berkshire Hathaway, served finance the deal in return for a 25 percent stake in the merged company. The newly merged company, titled Capital Cities/ABC (or CapCities/ABC), was pressured to trade away a few stations due to FCC ownership conventions. Also, the two companies possessed several radio stations in the equivalent markets.

In 1987, Berkshire Hathaway bought 12% stake in Salomon Inc., making it the greatest shareholder and Buffett the director. In 1990, a outrage involving John Gutfreund (former CEO of Salomon Brothers) rose up. A knave trader, Paul Mozer, was passing on bids in excess of what was permitted by the Treasury rules. When this was ascertained and brought to the aid of Gutfreund, he didn’t immediately debar the knave trader. In August 1991, Gutfreund leftover the company. Buffett turned CEO of Salomon until the crisis surpassed. On September 4 1991, he evidenced before Congress.

In 1988, Buffett commenced purchasing stock in Coca-Cola Company, finally buying up to 7 percent of the company for $1.02 billion. It would come out to be one of Berkshire’s most profitable investments, and one which it still controls. In 2002, Buffett entered in $11 billion worth of forward contracts to deliver U.S. dollars against other currencies. By April 2006, his overall gain on these contracts was over $2 billion.

In 1998, he took on General Re, (in an infrequent move, for stock). In 2002, Buffett got interested with Maurice R. Greenberg at AIG, with General Re providing reinsurance. On March 15, 2005, AIG’s board forced Greenberg to leave office from his post as Chairman and CEO under the shadow of unfavorable judgment from Eliot Spitzer, attorney general of the state of New York. On February 9, 2006, AIG and the New York State Attorney General’s office agreed to a settlement in which AIG would pay a fine of $1.6 billion.

In 2009, Warren Buffett endowed $2.6 billion as a part of Swiss Re’s raising equity capital. Berkshire Hathaway already possesses a 3% stake, with rights to possess more than 20%.


Buffett encounter criticism during the -subprime crisis of 2007-2008, component of the late 2000s recession, that he had apportioned capital too early leading in suboptimal deals. "Buy American. I am." To quote Warren Buffett’s popular opinion piece published in the New York Times.

Buffett has called the 2007’s downswing in the financial sector "poetic justice".

Buffett’s Berkshire Hathaway met a 77% drop in earnings during Q3 2008 and many of his new deals look to be running into heavy mark-to-market losses.

Berkshire Hathaway gained 10% perpetual preference shares of Goldman Sachs .Some of Buffett’s exponent puts that he wrote (sold) are presently running around $6.73 billion mark-to-market losses. The scale of the expected loss inspired the SEC to demand that Berkshire produce, "a more robust revealing" of components accustomed assess the contracts.

Buffett also helped Dow Chemical pay for its $18.8 billion takeover of Rohm & Haas. He, thus, turned the only largest shareholder in the enlarged group with his Berkshire Hathaway, which offered $3 billion, emphasising his helpful role during the prevailing crisis in debt and equity markets.

In October 2008, the media rumoured that Warren Buffett had harmonised to buy General Electric(GE) preferred stock. The process admitted extraordinary incentives: he accepted an option to buy 3 billion General Electric at $22.25 in the incoming five years, and also accepted a 10% dividend (due within three years). In February 2009, Warren Buffett sold piece of Procter & Gamble Co, and Johnson & Johnson shares from his portfolio.

In addition to traces of anachronism, queries have been elevated as to the wisdom in keeping some of Berkshire’s major retentions, including The Coca-Cola Company (NYSE:KO) which peaked at $86 in 1998. Buffett talked over the troubles of acknowledging when to sell in the company’s 2004 annual report: "That may appear comfortable to do when one looks through an always-clean, rear-view mirror. Unluckily, however, it’s the windscreen through which investors must peer, and that glass is invariably fogged.". In March 2009, Buffett expressed in a cable television interview that the economy had "fallen off a cliff… Not only has the economy slowed down a lot, but people have really changed their habits like I haven’t seen." Additionally, Buffett awes we may revisit a 1970s level of ostentation, which led to a painful stagflation that lasted many years.


Buffett married Susan Thompson in 1952. They had 3 kids, Susie, Howard, and Peter. In 1977, the couple started inhabiting separately, though they stayed married until her death in July 2004. Their daughter Susie lives in Omaha and does philanthropic work through the Susan A Buffett Foundation and is a national board member of Girls, Inc. In 2006, on his seventy-sixth birthday, he wedded his never-married longtime-companion, Astrid Menks, who was then sixty years old. From 1977, since his wife’s departure, She had lived with him to San Francisco. It was Susan Buffett who set for the two to meet before she left Omaha to engage her singing career. All three were close and vacation cards to friends were signed "Warren, Susie and Astrid". Susan Buffett briefly talked over this relationship in an interview on the Charlie Rose Show shortly earlier her death, in a rare glimpse into Buffett’s personal life. In 2006, His annual earnings was about $100,000, which is little as compared to senior executive remuneration in comparable companions.In 2007, and 2008, he earned a total compensation of $175,000, which enclosed a basic wage of just $100,000. He dwells in the same house in the central Dundee vicinity of Omaha that he purchased in 1958 for $31,500, today assessed at around $700,000 (though he too does have a $4 million home in Laguna Beach, California). In 1989, after having spent almost 10 million dollars of Berkshire’s funds on a private jet, Buffett sheepishly named it "The Indefensible." This act constituted a break from his past conviction of wasteful purchases by early CEOs and his account of practising more public conveyance.

He stays a desirous player of the card game bridge, which he acquired from Sharon Osberg, and plays with her and Bill Gates. He passes twelve hours a week playing the game. In 2006, he sponsored a bridge match for the Buffett Cup. Shapely on the Ryder Cup in golf, declared straightaway ahead it, and in the same city, a squad of 12 bridge players from the United States took on 12 Europeans in the event.

Warren Buffett acted with Christopher Webber on an animated series with head Andy Heyward, of DiC Entertainment,and then A Squared Entertainment. The series characteristics Buffett and Munger, and instructs children healthy financial habits for life.

Buffett was elevated Presbyterian but has since represented himself as agnostic as it strikes religious beliefs. In December 2006, it was accounted that Buffett doesn’t carry a cellphone, does not have a computer at his desk, and driveways his personal automobile, a Cadillac DTS.

Mr Warren Buffet wears off tailor-made suits from the Chinese label Trands, before he used to wear Ermenegildo Zegna.


Buffett’s DNA report disclosed that his paternal roots hail from northern Scandinavia, while his maternal roots most likely have roots in Iberia or Estonia. Despite general propositions to the contrary, and the casual friendly relationship which has formed between their families, Warren Buffett has no clear reference to the well-known vocalist Jimmy Buffett.


In addition to, other political contributions across the years, Buffett has officially certified and made campaign contributions to Barack Obama’s presidential campaign. On July 2, 2008, Buffett attended a $28,500 per plate fundraiser for Obama’s campaign in Chicago hosted by Obama’s National Finance Chair, Penny Pritzker and her husband, as well as Obama advisor Valerie Jarrett. Buffett supported Obama for president, and suggested that John McCain’s aspects on social justice comprised so far from his own that McCain would need a "lobotomy" for Buffett to alter his indorsement.During the second 2008 U.S. presidential debate, nominees John McCain and Barack Obama, later on being asked first by presidential debate intermediator Tom Brokaw, both referred Buffett as a potential future Secretary of the Treasury. Later, in the third and concluding presidential debate, Obama mentioned Buffett as a potential economic consultant. Buffett was also finance consultant to California Republican Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger on his 2003 election crusade.


Warren Buffett’s compositions include his annual reports and various articles.

He admonished about the harmful effects of inflation:

"The arithmetic makes it plain that pomposity is a far more annihilating tax than anything that has been acted out by our general assembly. The inflation tax has a tremendous ability to merely wipe out capital. It creates no divergence to a widow with her savings in a 5 percent passbook account whether she pays 100 percent income tax on her interest money during a period of zero inflation, or pays no income taxes during years of 5 percent inflation."

In his article "The Superinvestors of Graham-and-Doddsville", Buffett controverted the scholarly Efficient-market hypothesis, that baffling the S&P 500 was "pure chance", by spotlighting a number of pupils of the Graham and Dodd value adorning school of thought. In addition to himself, Buffett named Walter J. Schloss, Tom Knapp, Ed Anderson (Tweedy, Brown Inc.), Bill Ruane (Sequoia Fund, Inc.), Charles Munger (Buffett’s own business partner at Berkshire), Rick Guerin (Pacific Partners, Ltd.), and Stan Perlmeter (Perlmeter Investments).

In his November, 1999 Fortune article, he admonished of investors’ delusive anticipations:

" Let me summarise what I’ve been saying about the stock market: I think it’s very hard to come up with a compelling case that equities will over the next 17 years perform anything like–anything like–they’ve performed in the past 17. If I had to pick the likeliest return, from appreciation and dividends combined, that investors in aggregate–repeat, aggregate–would earn in a world of constant interest rates, 2% inflation, and those ever injurious frictional costs, it would be 6%."


The following quotation from 1988, respectively, highlights Warren Buffett’s thoughts on his wealth and why he long planned to reapportion it:

" I don’t have a trouble with guiltiness about money. The way I see it is that my money represents an tremendous number of claim checks on society. It’s like I have these little pieces of paper that I can turn into consumption. If I desired to, I could hire 10,000 people to do nothing but paint my impression everyday for the rest of my lifespan. And the GNP would go up. But the utility of the product would be zero, and I would be keeping those 10,000 people from doing AIDS research, or teaching, or nursing. I don’t do that though. I don’t use very many of those claim checks. There’s nothing material I want very much. And I’m going to give literally all of those lay claim checks to brotherly love when my wife and I die."

From a NY Times article:

"I don’t believe in dynastic wealthiness," Warren Buffett said, calling those who raise up in affluent circumstances "members of the lucky sperm club."

Buffett has written numerous times of his opinion that, in a free enterprise, the plentiful gain oversized advantages for their talents:

" A market economy creates some lopsided yields to participants. The right talent of vocal chords, anatomical structure, physical strength, or mental powers can produce tremendous piles of claim checks on upcoming national output. Right choice of roots likewise can outcome in lifetime issues of such tickets upon birth. If zero actual investment returns disported a little greater part of the national output from specified stockholders to equally desirable and diligent citizens missing jackpot-producing talents, it would appear improbable to baffle such an abuse to an equitable world as to risk Divine intercession."

His children won’t come into an important proportion of his wealth. These activities are uniform with affirmations he has made in the past suggesting his opposition to the transfer of outstanding fortunes from one genesis to the next. Buffett once remarked, "I would like to give my kids just sufficient so that they’d experience that they could do anything, but not such that they’d experience like doing nothing".

In 2006, he auctioned his 2001 Lincoln Town Caron eBay to hike money for Girls, Inc.

In 2007, he auctioned off a luncheon with himself that brought up a final bid of $650,100 for a charity.

In 2006, he declared a program to bring out his luck to charity, with 83% of it going to the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation. In June 2006, Buffett devoted approximately 10 million Berkshire Hathaway Class B shares to the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, valuable approximately US$30.7 billion as of 23 June 2006, building it the greatest charitable contribution in history and Buffett among the leaders in the philanthrocapitalism revolution. The foundation will have 5% of the total contribution on an annualised basis each July, commencing in 2006. Buffett also joined the directorate of the Gates Foundation, although he doesn’t program to be actively engaged in the foundation’s investment.

This is a substantial shift from previous affirmations Buffett has made, having expressed that most of his fortune would surpass to his Buffett Foundation. In 2004, the majority of the estate of his wife, prized at $2.6 billion, went to that foundation when she died.

He also committed $50-million to the Nuclear Threat Initiative, in Washington, where he has assisted as an consultant since 2002.

On 27 June 2008, Zhao Danyang, a general manager at Pure Heart China Growth Investment Fund, succeeded the 2008 5-day online "Power Lunch with Warren Buffett" charity auction with a bid of $2,110,100. Auction continues benefit the San Francisco Glide Foundation.


Buffett’s deliveries are recognised for merging business discussions humorously. Every year, Buffett presides over Berkshire Hathaway’s yearly stockholder assembling in the Qwest Center in Omaha, Nebraska, an issue eviscerating over 20,000 visitors from both United States and abroad, giving it the nickname "Woodstock of Capitalism". Berkshire’s yearly articles and letters to stockholders, prepared by Buffett, frequently experience coverage by the financial media. Buffett’s compositions are recognised for carrying well-written quotations laying out from the Bible to Mae West. as well as Midwestern advice, and several jokes. Various websites proclaim Buffett’s merits while others objurgate Buffett’s business models or dismiss his investment advice and decisions.


What he does understand is business. At 5 Years old, he started earning income. At only 6 years old, Buffett bought 6-packs of Coke from his grandpa’s grocery store for 25 cents and resold all of the bottles for a nickel, pocketing a 5 cent income. While other children of his age were enjoying hopscotch and jacks, Warren was earning income. Five years later, Buffett underwent his step into the world of high finance. At 11 years old, he bought 3 shares of Cities Service Preferred at $38 per share for both himself and his older sister, Doris. Just after his buying of the stock, it fell down to just over $27 per share. A scared but spirited Warren held his shares until they rebounded to $40. He quickly sold them – an error he would shortly come to regret. Cities Service stroke up to $200. The experience taught him one of the basic lessons of investing: Patience is a Virtue. As he commenced on his investment career, he had invested among others in businesses in textiles and newspapers. He knew the newspaper business from experience: he was a paper boy as a adolescent. When he was investing in these businesses, the related industries were in great downslope or integration. The textile business is an industry unexhausted from the industrial revolution. As fabricating moved to inexpensive labor countries, American textile manufacturers contracted. In the 19 th century, Newspapers growth industry, competing with television and radio for news were consolidating from a rivalrous market of numerous newspapers to one major "monopoly" newspaper in major towns. Wall Street wasn’t fascinated in putting in these business concerns, so these were value bargains that pulled in Buffet. By investing in these businesses, Buffet got discounted assets and cash flows which he could utilise to invest in other businesses.

One biased and negative perspective of Buffet would be as a scavenger of American business: acquiring fat on the misfortunes of asset rich, but impassive, turning down, and tedious businesses. However, in realism, he stands by businesses in which he invests, he makes sure that the business is a benevolent business. He normally buys businesses and seldom deals them. For instance, GEICO Insurance is among his core properties, he has controlled GEICO most of his investment vocation. When he brought in Berkshire Hathaway, it was a textile business, asset rich and with a stabilise cash flow. But Wall Street considered the textile industry as a worsening business. Berkshire did finally get out of the business of textiles, but it owned among the last textile manufactory in America. If one purchased a share of Berkshire Hathaway just about the time Buffet did, approximately $8, and held it to today, its worth is about ten thousand times its value in 1965, over $80,000.

Buffet was progressive in the domain of efficaciously utilising capital. Before the crowd, Buffet realised the businesses of insurance and reinsurance as having great value of cash flow. Berkshire’s golden business is reinsurance. Reinsurance is the wholesale end of the insurance business, involving large sources of comparatively quick assets. Buffet knew what to do with that cash pool and how to invest it.

In the early 1980’s the insurance companies cut costs on premiums to keep market share. They wanted to reveal constant increase for the market idols. On the other hand, Buffet realised that writing policies for any kind of chance wasn’t judicious. He just wrote policies that added up to him. He acknowledged that finally, losses would force underwriters to recede and premiums would hike. in 1985, When the insurance market reversed, the industry was having terrible losses and several companies bring down the reporting they proposed. The insurance companies created a miserly market with their hesitation to issue policies, partly because their reserves were at an wane. Buffet came forward to the plate, boot with cash, he was set to publish big policies, at his own terms and conditions, offcourse.

Investments in securities are probably to interest this type, especially investments in blue chips securities. ISTJs [Inspector Guardians] are not probably to take chances either with their personal or other’s money.

Efficient and effective use of capital have been Buffet’s countersigns all his life.

"We simply attempt to be fearful when others are greedy and to be greedy only when others are fearful." is his policy.

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Warren Buffett Shares the Secrets to Wealth in America


Warren Buffett

January 4, 2018

Buffett is the CEO and chairman of Berkshire Hathaway

I have good news. First, most American children are going to live far better than their parents did. Second, large gains in the living standards of Americans will continue for many generations to come.

Some years back, people generally agreed with my optimism. Today, however, pollsters find that most Americans are pessimistic about their children’s future. Politicians, business leaders and the press constantly tell us that our economic machine is sputtering. Their evidence: GDP growth of only 2% or so in recent years.

Before we shed tears over that figure, let’s do a little math, recognizing that GDP per capita is what counts. If, for example, the U.S. population were to grow 3% annually while GDP grew 2%, prospects would indeed be bleak for our children.

But that’s not the case. We can be confident that births minus deaths will add no more than 0.5% yearly to America’s population. Immigration is more difficult to predict. I believe 1 million people annually is a reasonable estimate, an influx that will add 0.3% annually to population growth.

In total, therefore, you can expect America’s population to increase about 0.8% a year. Under that assumption, gains of 2% in real GDP–that is, without nominal gains produced by inflation–will annually deliver 1.2% growth in per capita GDP.

This pace no doubt sounds paltry. But over time, it works wonders. In 25 years–a single generation–1.2% annual growth boosts our current $59,000 of GDP per capita to $79,000. This $20,000 increase guarantees a far better life for our children.

In America, it should be noted, there’s nothing unusual about that sort of gain, magnificent though it will be. Just look at what has happened in my lifetime.

I was born in 1930, when the symbol of American wealth was John D. Rockefeller Sr. Today my upper-middle-class neighbors enjoy options in travel, entertainment, medicine and education that were simply not available to Rockefeller and his family. With all of his riches, John D. couldn’t buy the pleasures and conveniences we now take for granted.

Two words explain this miracle: innovation and productivity. Conversely, were today’s Americans doing the same things in the same ways as they did in 1776, we would be leading the same sort of lives as our forebears.

An American icon is depicted through composite photography.

An American icon is depicted through composite photography.
Stephen Wilkes

Replicating those early days would require that 80% or so of today’s workers be employed on farms simply to provide the food and cotton we need. So why does it take only 2% of today’s workers to do this job? Give the credit to those who brought us tractors, planters, cotton gins, combines, fertilizer, irrigation and a host of other productivity improvements.

To all this good news there is, of course, an important offset: in our 241 years, the progress that I’ve described has disrupted and displaced almost all of our country’s labor force. If that level of upheaval had been foreseen–which it clearly wasn’t–strong worker opposition would surely have formed and possibly doomed innovation. How, Americans would have asked, could all these unemployed farmers find work?

We know today that the staggering productivity gains in farming were a blessing. They freed nearly 80% of the nation’s workforce to redeploy their efforts into new industries that have changed our way of life.

You can describe these develop-ments as productivity gains or disruptions. Whatever the label, they explain why we now have our amazing $59,000 of GDP per capita.

This game of economic miracles is in its early innings. Americans will benefit from far more and better “stuff” in the future. The challenge will be to have this bounty deliver a better life to the disrupted as well as to the disrupters. And on this matter, many Americans are justifiably worried.

Let’s think again about 1930. Imagine someone then predicting that real per capita GDP would increase sixfold during my lifetime. My parents would have immediately dismissed such a gain as impossible. If somehow, though, they could have imagined it actually transpiring, they would concurrently have predicted something close to universal prosperity.

Instead, another invention of the ensuing decades, the Forbes 400, paints a far different picture. Between the first computation in 1982 and today, the wealth of the 400 increased 29-fold–from $93 billion to $2.7 trillion–while many millions of hardworking citizens remained stuck on an economic treadmill. During this period, the tsunami of wealth didn’t trickle down. It surged upward.

In 1776, America set off to unleash human potential by combining market economics, the rule of law and equality of opportunity. This foundation was an act of genius that in only 241 years converted our original villages and prairies into $96 trillion of wealth.

The market system, however, has also left many people hopelessly behind, particularly as it has become ever more specialized. These devastating side effects can be ameliorated: a rich family takes care of all its children, not just those with talents valued by the marketplace.

In the years of growth that certainly lie ahead, I have no doubt that America can both deliver riches to many and a decent life to all. We must not settle for less.

Buffett is the CEO and chairman of Berkshire Hathaway

TIME Ideas hosts the world’s leading voices, providing commentary on events in news, society, and culture. We welcome outside contributions. Opinions expressed do not necessarily reflect the views of TIME editors.

This appears in the January 15, 2018 issue of TIME.


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New UMaine MyCampus Portal Announcement and Community …


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Academ-e Getting Started Online Guide

bear paw icon imageHow do I attend and communicate with my class?

Mainestreet is an account that you will need for your class.
You will need to activate your Mainestreet account first before you can access to any UMaine related systems.

**  Click here to visit your Mainestreet account activation page  **

You will need to do the following:

  • Enter you identification number
  • Enter your activation key

Academ-e support service would have sent your 7-digit Mainestreet ID number and an activation key to your personal email account listed in our system.  If you have not received this information, please contact UMaineOnline Tech Support . *also check you person email spam folder in case it has gone in there*

After completing the activation of your Mainestreet account, please wait for 30-60 minutes before you can fully utilize your account.
*It is important that you activate your Mainestreet account at least 7 days before your Academ-e orientation.  You WILL NOT be able to access any wifi or account during your orientation if you have not done so.


bear paw icon imageUMaine portal and your @maine.edu gmail account

Your Mainestreet account has an associated gmail email address (@maine.edu) that the University will use to send you important information (such as billing and student records).

To access all the features of Mainestreet single-sign-on account, you can go to my.umaine.edu and log in with your Mainestreet account that you activated earlier.

Once you have signed in, you should see a “LaunchPad” section that allow you to access all the features and tools.

Launchpad Screenshot

bear paw icon imageIs there anything else I might need for do before my online class?

ABSOLUTELY! It is VERY important that you try and sign in to the account as soon as you can.  It is the best to get every potential problem worked out before your Academ-e orientation day.  Technical support can be very busy when school starts so the sooner you get your problems resolved the better you are.this info, please contact us right away using the information at the bottom of this.  There might be a few other things besides Mainestreet & Blackboard.  The programs are FREE for UMaine students and can be downloaded online and then installed onto your computer.

Adobe Reader get.adobe.com/reader/
Adobe Flash Player adobe.com/go/getflashplayer
UMaine Microsoft Office 365 umaine.edu/it/software/office/


bear paw icon imageHow do I use Blackboard?

Blackboard should work with any of your favorite browser. To go to Blackboard website directly, you can point your browser to  bb.courses.maine.edu . You need to enter your Mainestreet login to be able to access.  You can also access Blackboard by going to the UMaine portal .

To learn more about Blackboard ahead of your class, here are some the  detail videos  on how to use Blackboard.

*Very important to know that your class might not be showing up under your Blackboard account until 2-3 days prior to the class start date.


bear paw icon imageWho do I contact if I have problems?

For class specific problems, please contact your professor by the information on the syllabus.

For technical problems related to you online class, please contact:

UMaineOnline Technical Support Services
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Information Technology

Information Technology

FirstClass Retirement Update and Important Reminders

November 28, 2017

Issue 5 , IT Newsletter

The project to retire FirstClass in May 2018 continues to progress.

What’s Been Happening?

  • The Center for Innovation in Teaching and Learning (CITL) and members of the FirstClass project team are meeting with faculty, departments, and organizations to assist them with the transition to alternative solutions for FirstClass conferences. The options include Blackboard, Google Apps (Google Drive, Google Groups…), Box , Listservs, and the UMaine MyCampus Portal .
  • UMS IT staff have developed support materials and processes to help faculty, staff, and students to migrate email, contacts, and stored files from FirstClass to Google Apps or Box ( link to training materials ). Google Apps training sessions were conducted throughout the fall semester.

What Can I Do Now?

  • If you are using FirstClass as your primary email account, you will want to start the transition to Gmail. You can sign-up for an upcoming training session. Here’s information about the schedule and the registration link:
    • Session Topic – Google Q & A
      • If you have been using gmail or any of the various google applications and have questions; feel free to ask away.
      • Location:  228 Merrill Hall
      • Date/Time:  December 11  9-9:30 am & 12:30-1:00 pm
    • Session Topic – FirstClass Migration Starter
      • Please note that this workshop is not intended for complex email migrations, such as archived messages stored in multiple locations. To participate in this session, you will need to know your  UMS and FirstClass login credentials (usernames and passwords), and be familiar with Getting Started with Gmail and GMail Basics. 
      • Location:  228 Merrill Hall
      • Date and Times: December 11 – 10:30-11 am & 11-11:30 am
                To sign up for any of these sessions, please go to:  https://itatumaine.doodle.com/poll/eq5xsm3tt7f6hv9p
  • If you are a faculty member who needs assistance transitioning from FirstClass course conferences to an alternative course delivery solution, please contact CITL at [email protected] or 207.581.3333. 
  • If you subscribe to listservs and use your FirstClass address for those lists, you will want to change your email address with the listserv provider. You will also want to change your email address with online services.

What’s Next?

  • As of December 1, 2017:
    • The new UMaine Portal announcement and community bulletin boards that replace FirstClass Conference boards will be open for business. Go here for information.
    • No new FirstClass accounts will be activated.
    • The FirstClass course conference creation feature will be disabled.


Questions and comments can be sent to [email protected] .

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IT Newsletter – Issue 7

  • Gmail Changes

  • Kaltura – Video Content Platform

  • Zoom Web Conferencing

  • Summer 2018 Classroom Upgrades

  • Information Security Reminders

  • US:IT
  • Service Request
  • Training
  • Get Help

Need Help?
Come visit us in Shibles Hall, Room 17
Call the University Tech Support Center


Academic Year Support Hours

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Arrival Of Immigrants In The United Kingdom History Essay


Common Law In United Kingdom Essay

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      • Robert Walker Prize for Essays in Law

      Robert Walker Prize for Essays in Law






      Trinity College was pleased to launch the Robert Walker Prize for Essays in Law in 2013. The prize is named after an Honorary Fellow of the College, Lord Walker of Gestingthorpe, a retired Justice of the Supreme Court and former law student at Trinity. Lord Walker has for many years been a supporter of Law at Trinity, meeting students at College social events and, more formally, judging moots (legal debates) and helping to connect the practice of law with its academic study.
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      The Robert Walker Prize has three objectives:

      • to encourage students with an interest in Law to explore that interest by researching, considering and developing an argument about a legal topic of importance to modern society;
      • to encourage those interested in Law to apply for a university course in Law; and
      • to recognise the achievements of high-calibre students, from whatever background they may come.

      The 2018 competition is now closed.  The topic for next year’s competition will be announced in January 2019.

      The rules for the competition are as set out below:

      • Essays can be of any length up to 2,000 words (including any footnotes).
      • Entries must be submitted online.  The form will be available on this page in January 2019.
        • If there are special reasons why a potential candidate cannot submit an essay online, a request exceptionally to submit in hard copy may be made. Requests will be considered by the Law Fellows. Please contact the Admissions Office at Trinity College Cambridge, CB2 1TQ; tel: +44(0)1223 338422; fax: +44 (0)1223 338584; email: [email protected] .
      • The competition is open to students in their final or penultimate year of secondary school, except students who have entered the competition in the past. No individual student may submit more than one entry into the competition.
      • Candidates may discuss the subject matter of the essay with other students and teachers at their school; however, the formulation of the argument and the writing of the essay must be the work of the student alone.
      • Essays will be assessed by reference to a range of factors, including the development of argument, the quality of expression and the appropriate use of supporting facts and material.
      • Entries will be considered in two divisions: a United Kingdom Division and an International Division.
      • It is anticipated that first prizes of £300 and second prizes of £200 may be awarded in each Division; the prizes may be shared.
      • It is anticipated that the authors of the ten top-placed essays in each Division will be invited to a Prize Ceremony at Trinity to see the College and to meet the Law Fellows.
      • The decisions of the judges are final; no correspondence will be entered into. Essays will not be returned, so candidates should keep a copy for their own reference.

      How information about you will be used

      Your email address will only be used for the purposes of contacting you in regards to your submission . It will not be used for any other reason or given or sold to any other company or organisation.  You will receive a copy of the information you have provided to the email address you specify.

      Past ROBERT WALKER Prize-winners

      2018 (154 entries):

      First Prize  (United Kingdom Division): David Edwards-Ker (Westminster School)
      First Prize  (International Division): Gergely Berces (Milestone Institute, Hungary)
      Second Prize (United Kingdom Division): Dorothy Biyere (Sutton Grammar School)
      Second Prize (International Division): Xinyi Gao (Hwa Chong Institution, Singapore)

      2017 (135 entries):

      First Prize (United Kingdom Division): Eve Loveman (Peter Symonds’ College)
      First Prize (International Division): Lauren Park (Pymble Ladies’ College, Australia)
      Second Prize (United Kingdom Division): Mary Hassan (St. Michael’s Catholic Grammar School)
      Second Prize (International Division): Ruilin Fang (Dunman High School, Singapore)

      2016 (112 entries):

      First Prize (United Kingdom Division): Ellis Napier (Lawnswood School)
      First Prize (International Division): Allegra McCormack (Kambala, Australia)
      Second Prize (United Kingdom Division): Johnny McCausland (Wellington College)
      Second Prize (International Division): Gabriel Tan Jin Hsi (Hwa Chong Institution, Singapore)


      First Prize (shared): Charlotte Witney (Saffron Walden County High School)
      First Prize (shared): Ricky Ham (Pymble Ladies’ College, Australia)
      Second Prize (shared): Priya Radia (North London Collegiate School)
      Second Prize (shared): Katharine Cook (Wellington College)


      First Prize: Noelle Huang (Hwa Chong Institution, Singapore)
      Second Prize: John Cheung (Abingdon School)


      First Prize: Emily Harbach (Haberdashers’ Aske’s School for Girls)
      Second Prize: Alistair Ho (Merchant Taylors’ School)

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      101 College Essay Examples for 13 Schools + Expert Analysis

      Posted by Dr. Anna Wulick | Jun 1, 2018 12:00:00 PM

      College Admissions ,

      College Essays


      The personal statement might just be the hardest part of your college application. Mostly this is because it has the least guidance and is the most open-ended. One way to understand what colleges are looking for when they ask you to write an essay is to check out the essays of students who already got in—college essays that actually worked. After all, they must be among the most successful of this weird literary genre.

      In this article, I’ll go through general guidelines for what makes great college essays great. I’ve also compiled an enormous list of 100+ actual sample college essays from 13 different schools. Finally, I’ll break down two of these published college essay examples and explain why and how they work. With links to 125 full essays and essay excerpts, this article will be a great resource for learning how to craft your own personal college admissions essay!


      What Excellent College Essays Have in Common

      Even though in many ways these sample college essays are very different from one other, they do share some traits you should try to emulate as you write your own essay.


      Visible Signs of Planning

      Building out from a narrow, concrete focus. You’ll see a similar structure in many of the essays. The author starts with a very detailed story of an event or description of a person or place. After this sense-heavy imagery, the essay expands out to make a broader point about the author, and connects this very memorable experience to the author’s present situation, state of mind, newfound understanding, or maturity level.

      Knowing how to tell a story. Some of the experiences in these essays are one-of-a-kind. But most deal with the stuff of everyday life. What sets them apart is the way the author approaches the topic: analyzing it for drama and humor, for its moving qualities, for what it says about the author’s world, and for how it connects to the author’s emotional life.


      Stellar Execution

      A killer first sentence. You’ve heard it before, and you’ll hear it again: you have to suck the reader in, and the best place to do that is the first sentence. Great first sentences are punchy. They are like cliffhangers, setting up an exciting scene or an unusual situation with an unclear conclusion, in order to make the reader want to know more. Don’t take my word for it—check out these  22 first sentences from Stanford applicants  and tell me you don’t want to read the rest of those essays to find out what happens!

      A lively, individual voice. Writing is for readers. In this case, your reader is an admissions officer who has read thousands of essays before yours and will read thousands after. Your goal? Don’t bore your reader. Use interesting descriptions, stay away from clichés, include your own offbeat observations—anything that makes this essay sounds like you and not like anyone else.


      Enchanted Prince Stan decided to stay away from any frog-kissing princesses to retain his unique perspective on ruling as an amphibian.


      Technical correctness. No spelling mistakes, no grammar weirdness, no syntax issues, no punctuation snafus—each of these sample college essays has been formatted and proofread perfectly. If this kind of exactness is not your strong suit, you’re in luck! All colleges advise applicants to have their essays looked over several times by parents, teachers, mentors, and anyone else who can spot a comma splice. Your essay must be your own work, but there is absolutely nothing wrong with getting help polishing it.

      Want to write the perfect college application essay? Get professional help from PrepScholar.

      Your dedicated PrepScholar Admissions counselor will craft your perfect college essay, from the ground up. We’ll learn your background and interests, brainstorm essay topics, and walk you through the essay drafting process, step-by-step. At the end, you’ll have a unique essay that you’ll proudly submit to your top choice colleges.

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      Craft Your Perfect College Essay


      Links to Full College Essay Examples

      Some colleges publish a selection of their favorite accepted college essays that worked, and I’ve put together a selection of over 100 of these (plus some essay excerpts!).


      Common App Essay Samples

      Please note that some of these college essay examples may be responding to prompts that are no longer in use. The current Common App prompts are as follows:

      1. Some students have a background, identity, interest, or talent that is so meaningful they believe their application would be incomplete without it. If this sounds like you, then please share your story.

      2. The lessons we take from obstacles we encounter can be fundamental to later success. Recount a time when you faced a challenge, setback, or failure. How did it affect you, and what did you learn from the experience?

      3. Reflect on a time when you questioned or challenged a belief or idea. What prompted your thinking? What was the outcome?

      4. Describe a problem you’ve solved or a problem you’d like to solve. It can be an intellectual challenge, a research query, an ethical dilemma – anything that is of personal importance, no matter the scale. Explain its significance to you and what steps you took or could be taken to identify a solution.

      5. Discuss an accomplishment, event, or realization that sparked a period of personal growth and a new understanding of yourself or others.

      6. Describe a topic, idea, or concept you find so engaging that it makes you lose all track of time. Why does it captivate you? What or who do you turn to when you want to learn more?

      7. Share an essay on any topic of your choice. It can be one you’ve already written, one that responds to a different prompt, or one of your own design.


      Carleton College

      • 3 Common Application essays from past students


      Connecticut College

      • 16 Common Application essays from the classes of 2017-2020


      Hamilton College

      • 8 Common Application essays from the class of 2018
      • 8 Common Application essays from the class of 2012
      • 8 Common Application essays from the class of 2007


      Johns Hopkins

      These essays are answers to past prompts from either the Common Application or the Universal Application, both of which Johns Hopkins accepts.

      • 5 Common Application or Universal Application essays from the class of 2021
      • 7 Common Application or Universal Application essays from the class of 2020
      • 8 Common Application or Universal Application essays from the class of 2019
      • 6 Common Application or Universal Application essays from the class of 2018


      Tufts University

      • 3 Common Application essays


      Essay Examples Published by Other Websites

      • 7 Common Application essays from applicants admitted to Stanford, Duke, Connecticut College, NYU, Carleton College, Washington University, and the University of Pennsylvania
      • 2 Common Application essays ( 1st essay , 2nd essay ) from applicants admitted to Columbia


      Other Sample College Essays

      Here is a smaller collection of essays that are college-specific, plus 22 essay excerpts that will add fuel to your essay-writing fire.


      Smith College

      Each year, Smith asks its applicants to answer a different prompt with a 200-word essay. Here are six of these short essays answering the 2014 prompt: “Tell us about the best gift you’ve ever given or received.”

      • 6 “best gift” essays from the class of 2018


      Tufts University

      On top of the Common Application essays students submit, Tufts asks applicants to answer three short essay questions : two mandatory, and one chosen from six prompts.

      • 6 “Why Tufts?” short essays
      • 5 “Let Your Life Speak” essays
      • 4 chosen prompt essays  



      Analyzing Great Common App Essays That Worked

      I’ve picked two essays from the examples collected above to examine in more depth so that you can see exactly what makes a successful college essay work. Full credit for these essays goes to the original authors and the schools that published them.


      Example #1: “Breaking Into Cars,” by Stephen, Johns Hopkins Class of ’19  (Common App Essay, 636 words long)

      I had never broken into a car before.

      We were in Laredo, having just finished our first day at a Habitat for Humanity work site. The Hotchkiss volunteers had already left, off to enjoy some Texas BBQ, leaving me behind with the college kids to clean up. Not until we were stranded did we realize we were locked out of the van.

      Someone picked a coat hanger out of the dumpster, handed it to me, and took a few steps back.

      “Can you do that thing with a coat hanger to unlock it?”

      “Why me?” I thought.

      More out of amusement than optimism, I gave it a try. I slid the hanger into the window’s seal like I’d seen on crime shows, and spent a few minutes jiggling the apparatus around the inside of the frame. Suddenly, two things simultaneously clicked. One was the lock on the door. (I actually succeeded in springing it.) The other was the realization that I’d been in this type of situation before. In fact, I’d been born into this type of situation.

      My upbringing has numbed me to unpredictability and chaos. With a family of seven, my home was loud, messy, and spottily supervised. My siblings arguing, the dog barking, the phone ringing—all meant my house was functioning normally. My Dad, a retired Navy pilot, was away half the time. When he was home, he had a parenting style something like a drill sergeant. At the age of nine, I learned how to clear burning oil from the surface of water. My Dad considered this a critical life skill—you know, in case my aircraft carrier should ever get torpedoed. “The water’s on fire! Clear a hole!” he shouted, tossing me in the lake without warning. While I’m still unconvinced about that particular lesson’s practicality, my Dad’s overarching message is unequivocally true: much of life is unexpected, and you have to deal with the twists and turns.

      Living in my family, days rarely unfolded as planned. A bit overlooked, a little pushed around, I learned to roll with reality, negotiate a quick deal, and give the improbable a try. I don’t sweat the small stuff, and I definitely don’t expect perfect fairness. So what if our dining room table only has six chairs for seven people? Someone learns the importance of punctuality every night.

      But more than punctuality and a special affinity for musical chairs, my family life has taught me to thrive in situations over which I have no power. Growing up, I never controlled my older siblings, but I learned how to thwart their attempts to control me. I forged alliances, and realigned them as necessary. Sometimes, I was the poor, defenseless little brother; sometimes I was the omniscient elder. Different things to different people, as the situation demanded. I learned to adapt.

      Back then, these techniques were merely reactions undertaken to ensure my survival. But one day this fall, Dr. Hicks, our Head of School, asked me a question that he hoped all seniors would reflect on throughout the year: “How can I participate in a thing I do not govern, in the company of people I did not choose?”

      The question caught me off guard, much like the question posed to me in Laredo. Then, I realized I knew the answer. I knew why the coat hanger had been handed to me.

      Growing up as the middle child in my family, I was a vital participant in a thing I did not govern, in the company of people I did not choose. It’s family. It’s society. And often, it’s chaos. You participate by letting go of the small stuff, not expecting order and perfection, and facing the unexpected with confidence, optimism, and preparedness. My family experience taught me to face a serendipitous world with confidence.


      What Makes This Essay Tick?

      It’s very helpful to take writing apart in order to see just how it accomplishes its objectives. Stephen’s essay is very effective. Let’s find out why!


      An Opening Line That Draws You In

      I had never broken into a car before.

      In just eight words, we get: scene-setting (he is standing next to a car about to break in), the idea of crossing a boundary (he is maybe about to do an illegal thing for the first time), and a cliffhanger (we are thinking: is he going to get caught? Is he headed for a life of crime? Is he about to be scared straight?).


      Great, Detailed Opening Story

      We were in Laredo, having just finished our first day at a Habitat for Humanity work site. The Hotchkiss volunteers had already left, off to enjoy some Texas BBQ, leaving me behind with the college kids to clean up. Not until we were stranded did we realize we were locked out of the van.

      Someone picked a coat hanger out of the dumpster, handed it to me, and took a few steps back.

      “Can you do that thing with a coat hanger to unlock it?”

      “Why me?” I thought.

      More out of amusement than optimism, I gave it a try. I slid the hanger into the window’s seal like I’d seen on crime shows, and spent a few minutes jiggling the apparatus around the inside of the frame.

      It’s the details that really make this small experience come alive. Notice how whenever he can, Stephen uses a more specific, descriptive word in place of a more generic one. The volunteers aren’t going to get food or dinner; they’re going for “Texas BBQ.” The coat hanger comes from “a dumpster.” Stephen doesn’t just move the coat hanger—he “jiggles” it.

      Details also help us visualize the emotions of the people in the scene. The person who hands Stephen the coat hanger isn’t just uncomfortable or nervous; he “takes a few steps back”—a description of movement that conveys feelings. Finally, the detail of actual speech makes the scene pop. Instead of writing that the other guy asked him to unlock the van, Stephen has the guy actually say his own words in a way that sounds like a teenager talking.


      Coat hangers: not just for crows’ nests anymore! ( Götz /Wikimedia)


      Turning a Specific Incident Into a Deeper Insight

      Suddenly, two things simultaneously clicked. One was the lock on the door. (I actually succeeded in springing it.) The other was the realization that I’d been in this type of situation before. In fact, I’d been born into this type of situation.

      Stephen makes the locked car experience a meaningful illustration of how he has learned to be resourceful and ready for anything, and he also makes this turn from the specific to the broad through an elegant play on the two meanings of the word “click.”


      Using Concrete Examples When Making Abstract Claims

      My upbringing has numbed me to unpredictability and chaos. With a family of seven, my home was loud, messy, and spottily supervised. My siblings arguing, the dog barking, the phone ringing—all meant my house was functioning normally.

      “Unpredictability and chaos” are very abstract, not easily visualized concepts. They could also mean any number of things—violence, abandonment, poverty, mental instability. By instantly following up with highly finite and unambiguous illustrations like “family of seven” and “siblings arguing, the dog barking, the phone ringing,” Stephen grounds the abstraction in something that is easy to picture: a large, noisy family.


      Using Small Bits of Humor and Casual Word Choice

      My Dad, a retired Navy pilot, was away half the time. When he was home, he had a parenting style something like a drill sergeant. At the age of nine, I learned how to clear burning oil from the surface of water. My Dad considered this a critical life skill—you know, in case my aircraft carrier should ever get torpedoed.

      Obviously, knowing how to clean burning oil is not high on the list of things every 9-year-old needs to know. To emphasize this, Stephen uses sarcasm by bringing up a situation that is clearly over-the-top: “in case my aircraft carrier should ever get torpedoed.”

      The humor also feels relaxed. Part of this is because he introduces it with the colloquial phrase “you know,” so it sounds like he is talking to us in person. This approach also diffuses the potential discomfort of the reader with his father’s strictness—since he is making jokes about it, clearly he is OK. Notice, though, that this doesn’t occur very much in the essay. This helps keep the tone meaningful and serious rather than flippant.


      “Mr. President? There’s been an oil spill!” “Then I want our best elementary school students on it, STAT.”


      An Ending That Stretches the Insight Into the Future

      But one day this fall, Dr. Hicks, our Head of School, asked me a question that he hoped all seniors would reflect on throughout the year: “How can I participate in a thing I do not govern, in the company of people I did not choose?”

      The question caught me off guard, much like the question posed to me in Laredo. Then, I realized I knew the answer. I knew why the coat hanger had been handed to me.

      Growing up as the middle child in my family, I was a vital participant in a thing I did not govern, in the company of people I did not choose. It’s family. It’s society. And often, it’s chaos. You participate by letting go of the small stuff, not expecting order and perfection, and facing the unexpected with confidence, optimism, and preparedness. My family experience taught me to face a serendipitous world with confidence.

      The ending of the essay reveals that Stephen’s life has been one long preparation for the future. He has emerged from chaos and his dad’s approach to parenting as a person who can thrive in a world that he can’t control.

      This connection of past experience to current maturity and self-knowledge is a key element in all successful personal essays. Colleges are very much looking for mature, self-aware applicants. These are the qualities of successful college students, who will be able to navigate the independence college classes require and the responsibility and quasi-adulthood of college life.


      What Could This Essay Do Even Better?

      Even the best essays aren’t perfect, and even the world’s greatest writers will tell you that writing is never “finished”—just “due.” So what would we tweak in this essay if we could? 

      Replace some of the clichéd language. Stephen uses handy phrases like “twists and turns” and don’t sweat the small stuff” as a kind of shorthand for explaining his relationship to chaos and unpredictability. But using too many of these ready-made expressions runs the risk of clouding out your own voice and replacing it with something expected and boring. 

      Use another example from recent life. Stephen’s first example (breaking into the van in Laredo) is a great illustration of being resourceful in an unexpected situation. But his essay also emphasizes that he “learned to adapt” by being “different things to different people.” It would be great to see how this plays out outside his family, either in the situation in Laredo or another context.

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      Example #2: By Bridget Collins,  Tufts Class of ’19 (Common App Essay, 608 words long)

      I have always loved riding in cars. After a long day in first grade, I used to fall asleep to the engine purring in my mother’s Honda Odyssey, even though it was only a 5-minute drive home. As I grew, and graduated into the shotgun seat, it became natural and enjoyable to look out the window. Seeing my world passing by through that smudged glass, I would daydream what I could do with it.

      In elementary school, I already knew my career path: I was going to be Emperor of the World. While I sat in the car and watched the miles pass by, I developed the plan for my empire. I reasoned that, for the world to run smoothly, it would have to look presentable. I would assign people, aptly named Fixer-Uppers, to fix everything that needed fixing. That old man down the street with chipping paint on his house would have a fresh coat in no time. The boy who accidentally tossed his Frisbee onto the roof of the school would get it back. The big pothole on Elm Street that my mother managed to hit every single day on the way to school would be filled-in. It made perfect sense! All the people that didn’t have a job could be Fixer-Uppers. I was like a ten-year-old FDR.

      Seven years down the road, I still take a second glance at the sidewalk cracks and think of my Fixer-Uppers, but now I’m doing so from the driver’s seat. As much as I would enjoy it, I now accept that I won’t become Emperor of the World, and that the Fixer-Uppers will have to remain in my car ride imaginings. Or do they? I always pictured a Fixer-Upper as a smiling man in an orange T-Shirt. Maybe instead, a Fixer-Upper could be a tall girl with a deep love for Yankee Candles. Maybe it could be me.

      Bridget the Fixer-Upper will be slightly different than the imaginary one who paints houses and fetches Frisbees. I was lucky enough to discover what I am passionate about when I was a freshman in high school. A self-admitted Phys. Ed. addict, I volunteered to help out with the Adapted PE class. On my first day, I learned that it was for developmentally-disabled students. To be honest, I was really nervous. I hadn’t had too much interaction with special needs students before, and wasn’t sure how to handle myself around them. Long story short, I got hooked. Three years have passed helping out in APE and eventually becoming a teacher in the Applied Behavior Analysis summer program. I love working with the students and watching them progress.

      When senior year arrived, college meetings began, and my counselor asked me what I wanted to do for a career, I didn’t say Emperor of the World. Instead, I told him I wanted to become a board-certified behavior analyst. A BCBA helps develop learning plans for students with autism and other disabilities. Basically, I would get to do what I love for the rest of my life. He laughed and told me that it was a nice change that a seventeen-year-old knew so specifically what she wanted to do. I smiled, thanked him, and left. But it occurred to me that, while my desired occupation was decided, my true goal in life was still to become a Fixer-Upper. So, maybe I’ll be like Sue Storm and her alter-ego, the Invisible Woman. I’ll do one thing during the day, then spend my off-hours helping people where I can. Instead of flying like Sue, though, I’ll opt for a nice performance automobile. My childhood self would appreciate that.


      What Makes This Essay Tick?

      Bridget takes a somewhat different approach than Stephen, but her essay is just as detailed and engaging. Let’s go through some of the strengths of her essay.


      A Structure That’s Easy to Follow and Understand

      The essay is arranged chronologically. Bridget starts each paragraph with a clear signpost of where we are in time:

      • Paragraph 1: “after a long day in first grade”
      • Paragraph 2: “in elementary school”
      • Paragraph 3: “seven years down the road”
      • Paragraph 4: “when I was a freshman in high school”
      • Paragraph 5: “when senior year arrived”

      This keeps the reader oriented without being distracting or gimmicky.


      One Clear Governing Metaphor

      I would assign people, aptly named Fixer-Uppers, to fix everything that needed fixing. That old man down the street with chipping paint on his house would have a fresh coat in no time. The boy who accidentally tossed his Frisbee onto the roof of the school would get it back.

      Seven years down the road, I still take a second glance at the sidewalk cracks and think of my Fixer-Uppers, but now I’m doing so from the driver’s seat. As much as I would enjoy it, I now accept that I won’t become Emperor of the World, and that the Fixer-Uppers will have to remain in my car ride imaginings. Or do they? I always pictured a Fixer-Upper as a smiling man in an orange T-Shirt. Maybe instead, a Fixer-Upper could be a tall girl with a deep love for Yankee Candles. Maybe it could be me.

      I wanted to become a board-certified behavior analyst. A BCBA helps develop learning plans for students with autism and other disabilities. Basically, I would get to do what I love for the rest of my life. …But it occurred to me that, while my desired occupation was decided, my true goal in life was still to become a Fixer-Upper.

      What makes this essay fun to read is that Bridget takes a child’s idea of a world made better through quasi-magical helpers and turns it into a metaphor for the author’s future aspirations. It helps that the metaphor is a very clear one: people who work with students with disabilities are making the world better one abstract fix at a time, just like imaginary Fixer-Uppers would make the world better one concrete physical fix at a time.


      Every childhood Fixer-Upper ever. Ask your parents to explain the back row to you. ( JD Hancock /Flickr)


      An Engaging, Individual Voice

      This essay uses many techniques that make Bridget sound genuine and make the reader feel like we already know her. 

      Technique #1: humor. Notice Bridget’s gentle and relaxed humor that lightly mocks her younger self’s grand ambitions (this is different from the more sarcastic kind of humor used by Stephen in the first essay—you could never mistake one writer for the other).

      In elementary school, I already knew my career path: I was going to be Emperor of the World.

      I was like a ten-year-old FDR.

      Technique #2: invented terminology. The second technique is the way Bridget coins her own terms, carrying them through the whole essay. It would be easy enough to simply describe the people she imagined in childhood as helpers or assistants, and to simply say that as a child she wanted to rule the world. Instead, she invents the capitalized (and thus official-sounding) titles “Fixer-Upper” and “Emperor of the World,” making these childish conceits at once charming and iconic. What’s also key is that the titles feed into the central metaphor of the essay, which keeps them from sounding like strange quirks that don’t go anywhere.

      Technique #3: playing with syntax. The third technique is to use sentences of varying length, syntax, and structure. Most of the essay’s written in standard English and uses grammatically correct sentences. However, at key moments, Bridget emphasizes that the reader needs to sit up and pay attention by switching to short, colloquial, differently punctuated, and sometimes fragmented sentences.

      The big pothole on Elm Street that my mother managed to hit every single day on the way to school would be filled-in. It made perfect sense! All the people that didn’t have a job could be Fixer-Uppers.

      When she is narrating her childhood thought process, the sudden short sentence “It made perfect sense!” (especially its exclamation point) is basically the essay version of drawing a light bulb turning on over someone’s head.

      As much as I would enjoy it, I now accept that I won’t become Emperor of the World, and that the Fixer-Uppers will have to remain in my car ride imaginings. Or do they?

      Similarly, when the essay turns from her childhood imagination to her present-day aspirations, the turn is marked with “Or do they?”—a tiny and arresting half-sentence question.

      Maybe instead, a Fixer-Upper could be a tall girl with a deep love for Yankee Candles. Maybe it could be me.

      The first time when the comparison between magical fixer-upper’s and the future disability specialist is made is when Bridget turns her metaphor onto herself. The essay emphasizes the importance of the moment through repetition (two sentences structured similarly, both starting with the word “maybe”) and the use of a very short sentence: “Maybe it could be me.”

      To be honest, I was really nervous. I hadn’t had too much interaction with special needs students before, and wasn’t sure how to handle myself around them. Long story short, I got hooked.

      The last key moment that gets the small-sentence treatment is the emotional crux of the essay. As we watch Bridget go from nervously trying to help disabled students to falling in love with this specialty field, she undercuts the potential sappiness of the moment by relying on changed-up sentence length and slang: “Long story short, I got hooked.”


      The best essays convey emotions just as clearly as this image.


      What Could This Essay Do Even Better?

      Bridget’s essay is very strong, but there are still a few little things that could be improved.

      Explain the car connection better. The essay begins and ends with Bridget’s enjoying a car ride, but this doesn’t seem to be related either to the Fixer-Upper idea or to her passion for working with special-needs students. It would be great to either connect this into the essay more, or to take it out altogether and create more space for something else.

      Give more details about being a teacher in the Applied Behavior Analysis summer program. It makes perfect sense that Bridget doesn’t want to put her students on display. It would take the focus off of her and possibly read as offensive or condescending. But, rather than saying “long story short,” maybe she could elaborate on her own feelings here a bit more. What is it about this kind of teaching that she loves? What is she hoping to bring to the lives of her future clients?

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      3 Essential Tips for Writing Your Own Essay

      How can you use this discussion to better your own college essay? Here are some suggestions for ways to use this resource effectively.


      #1: Read Other Essays to Get Ideas for Your Own

      As you go through the essays we’ve compiled for you above, ask yourself the following questions:

      • Can you explain to yourself (or someone else!) why the opening sentence works well?
      • Look for the essay’s detailed personal anecdote. What senses is the author describing? Can you easily picture the scene in your mind’s eye?
      • Find the place where this anecdote bridges into a larger insight about the author. How does the essay connect the two? How does the anecdote work as an example of the author’s characteristic, trait, or skill?
      • Check out the essay’s tone. If it’s funny, can you find the places where the humor comes from? If it’s sad and moving, can you find the imagery and description of feelings that make you moved? If it’s serious, can you see how word choice adds to this tone?

      Make a note whenever you find an essay or part of an essay that you think was particularly well-written, and think about what you like about it. Is it funny? Does it help you really get to know the writer? Does it show what makes the writer unique? Once you have your list, keep it next to you while writing your essay to remind yourself to try and use those same techniques in your own essay.


      When you figure out how all the cogs fit together, you’ll be able to build your own … um … whatever this is.


      #2: Find Your “A-Ha!” Moment

      All of these essays rely on connecting with the reader through a heartfelt, highly descriptive scene from the author’s life. It can either be very dramatic (did you survive a plane crash?) or it can be completely mundane (did you finally beat your dad at Scrabble?). Either way, it should be personal and revealing about you, your personality, and the way you are now that you are entering the adult world.


      #3: Start Early, Revise Often

      Let me level with you: the best writing isn’t writing at all. It’s rewriting. And in order to have time to rewrite, you have to start way before the application deadline. My advice is to write your first draft at least two months before your applications are due.

      Let it sit for a few days untouched. Then come back to it with fresh eyes and think critically about what you’ve written. What’s extra? What’s missing? What is in the wrong place? What doesn’t make sense? Don’t be afraid to take it apart and rearrange sections. Do this several times over, and your essay will be much better for it!


      What’s Next?

      Interested in learning more about college essays? Check out our detailed breakdown of exactly how personal statements work in an application , some  suggestions on what to avoid when writing your essay , and our guide to  writing about your extracurricular activities .

      Working on the rest of your application? Read  what admissions officers wish applicants knew before applying .


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      Anna scored in the 99th percentile on her SATs in high school, and went on to major in English at Princeton and to get her doctorate in English Literature at Columbia. She is passionate about improving student access to higher education.

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        How to Write AP English Essay: Prompts, Tips, Examples

        Table of Contents

        How to Write AP English Essay: Prompts, Tips, Examples
        How to Write AP English Essay Prompts: Know the Challenge in Face!

        AP English Language Essay Prompts & Grading Rubric

        AP English Essay Examples of 1st Part Questions

        Practice AP English Exam Essay Example

        AP English Language and Composition Exam Essay Prompts


        How to Write AP English Essay: Prompts, Tips, Examples

        The Advanced Placement essay exam is one of the best ways to check the English proficiency of the particular student. If you master some of the experts AP English essay prompts, you will succeed with your task. Having some powerful AP English essay examples on hands may help to write a winning personal statement – these challenges have a lot in common.


        Is there a need to hire an essay expert to enter the college of your dream? To increase the chances of being accepted to the target institution, contact professional AP and admissions essay writers online who can compose the entire essay for cheap!

        How to Write AP English Essay Prompts: Know the Challenge in Face!

        One of the most important AP English language essay prompts is the definition of this special task: A challenging college course made of 2 separate courses to train reading, comprehension, writing, and creativity:

        1. Language and Composition
        2. English Literature and Composition

        Rhetoric and literature analysis are two components the student need to succeed in a further essay writing career. A synthesis essay is at the heart of the course’s exam. This essay is a written discussion that draws on a single/multiple sources (s) such as scholarly articles, essays, textbooks, magazines, newspapers, documentaries, websites, etc.

        AP English Language Essay Prompts & Grading Rubric

        The exam essay prompts are different for both courses. An essay prompt refers to the specific topical article a student has to analyze and synthesize in order to come up with analytical pieces as one whole. It is important to remember the essay structure and essay grading rubric to succeed.

        A student can either develop a high-scoring essay, a mid-range essay, or a complete failure essay (low-scoring piece). This article focuses on the winning exam scenario. The rubric will look this way in case you are interested in hitting the highest score (8-9 points):

        • Effectively stated point of view
        • Relevant exam essay content
        • Complete understanding of the offered AP English essay prompts
        • Well-developed position towards the topic discussed in the given prompt(s)
        • Instead of driving the sources, the essay focuses on the claim
        • The main essay idea sounds persuasive & meaningful
        • Only specific evidence for every mentioned idea is present
        • “So what?” question is the clue to an essay
        • A coherent and concise essay content
        • Does not have any grammar, spelling, punctuation, or formatting mistakes

        Keep in touch with the process with the help of special learning mobile phone apps . Download some helpful writing apps to get ready!

        AP English Essay Examples of 1st Part Questions

        The 1st group of examples includes those associated with the Language & Composition part. Be ready to work on 3 essays. A couple of pieces should evaluate the offered literary text. A student will need to read the attached poem, narration, mini story, or essay by a famous American author to succeed. One more assignment requires responding to a given prompt the writer had to observe before the exam. A student will face:

        • Up to 20 questions on the contemporary literature
        • Up to 20 questions on Victorian/Romantic literature
        • No more than 10 questions related to XVII-century Elizabethan epoch in art

        If the teachers make it possible, try to add a bit of fun to your responses . Discover some of the great ways to save a day thanks to humor.

        Expert Advice:

        “I work in the admissions team that grades the AP English exam essays several years, and I can say there is no need to focus on the contemporary literature. The college boards do not consider most of the XX century authors. A student may cover just the most popular and top-rated pieces from the Middle English period – those authors are not regular guests in AP exams.”

        Lola Brendon, an AP English course teacher and expert online writer at JustDoMyHomework

        Practice AP English Exam Essay Example

        It is time to move to the Literature part of the examination, and have a look at other AP English exam essay examples of prompts. To get ready, experts recommend taking the time-tested steps:

        1. Find numerous poems and proses to train the reading & comprehension skills. Try to read and analyze them in mind ASAP. Mind that it is important to select the literary pieces from many various epochs as required by the exam’s instructions.
        2. Train a lot by reading a prompt a few minutes before moving to the offered piece and before getting to write. Annotate it. Many students benefit from searching for the particular keywords & key phrases – they are helpful during the writing process.
        3. Annotate the passage by keeping in mind the chosen keys and major themes.

        AP English Language and Composition Exam Essay Prompts

        It is important to practice different AP English language exams, and composition essay prompts before joining the examination. One of the good examples might be a famous poem by Robert Frost:

        Nature’s first green is gold

        Her hardest hue to hold

        Her early leaf’s a flower

        But only so an hour

        Then leaf subsides to leaf,

        So Eden sank to grief

        So dawn goes down to day

        Nothing gold can stay.


        After reading & analyzing this piece, think about the answers to multiple-choice questions.

        1. A rhyme in the given literary piece is present to:
        • Allow easier reading
        • Taking part in a literary convention
        • Expanding a simile
        • Developing imagery
        1. Eden in the line number 6 stands for:
        • The mourning
        • Religious aspect of the author
        • Woman with the same name
        • Judeo-Christian approach
        1. Under ‘Nothing gold…,” what do you understand?
        • Wealth is transient
        • People are evil by their nature
        • Gold tarnishes without special efforts
        • Things that are good will remain this way
        1. Pick a sentence, which reflects the essence of the mood in the offered text?
        • The underlying mood is exciting & fun
        • The mood is outraged/emotional
        • The mood is romantic & calm
        • The mood is melancholic/depressive

        The prompt may be given as the one, which requires a broad response. Some students believe such instructions are more complicated.

        Think about how the structure of a particular literary piece adds up to the essence of the topic . Pretend the offered structure is villanelle and try to come up with the original explanation of its reflection of the work. Cover such aspects as repetitiveness. Do not forget to include the poem’s line numbers that prove your point.


        That is everything an average student needs to know about AP English exam essay prompts. To succeed, we recommend getting extra essay help. No parent or classmate will be able to prepare you better than a professional online essay writing service full of certified writers. Order a custom essay from the native-speaking English team now!

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