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Good And Bad Manners

Good And Bad Manners Essay

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Good Manners have a deep Affect on our minds. As bad manners produce bad results in society, good manners produce good results. Good manners are unconsciously acquired in our childhood, but they can also be cultivated later on. Every human being should be treated with due respect and dignity. The animal instinct in us makes us rough and vulgar, but a cultured and civilized man is gentle and polite. By good manners we understand the way in which a person should behave in society. One is expected to show respect one’s elders. Good manners are necessary for everyone, in every walk of life. It is good manners to thank anybooy who does anything for you. When a waiter brings you a glass of water, you may thank him.

“Friends and good manners will carry you where money won’t go.” Good manners are vital for success in life. Nobody likes a rude person, but good manners endear a man to other. A shopkeeper who behaves rudely with his customers can never flourish in his trade, but one who behaves politely and pleasantly with others attracts a large number of customers. Patients always rush to a doctor who is sympathetic towards them. A leader cannot have a large follower unless he is polite to others. In fact good manners have a magnetic influence over the people. Good manner are not, however, born with us. They have to be cultivated with great care. Childhood is the best period to cultivate good manners and so both parents and teachers have a great role to play.

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Bad Manners:
The Height of Bad Manners is Way too Much
To begin with, Bad Manners is defined by lack of polite or well-bred social behavior resulting by ignorance, this may be true, but I don´t think so, this is because nowadays people are adopting this reprehensive conducts no just by ignorance, but for doing whatever they want, in this bad manner conducts we can see: not respecting adults, farting in front of anybody, not saluting, people that don´t respect the third age privileges in public places/transport.

In the world we can see many of this awful behavior but each day we can see it more in our community its becoming part of our daily life to be disrespectful with others and don´t minding about if the other person would feel bad about it. As your parents probably told you not so many years ago this “Bad Manners Acts” where severally punished with very strict sanction but now we can see a teenager threatening and old man so they give him the spot in the bus.

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barsha3
  • Primary School
  • Math

  • 5 points

Essay on good manners within 150 words

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barsha3
HARSHI1111
nikita5672
HARSHI1111
  • HARSHI1111
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Hello buddy
Harshi this side…

A well-mannered man is respected and esteemed wherever he goes and esteemed in whatever condition of life he may be. A rich man or a high-pedigreed person, bumped with all titles without good manners, is hated in an ideal society. On the contrary, a poor man, with tattered clothes, but having delightfully good manners is sure to attract everyone’s attention and win everybody’s liking.
Among students in particular, preservation of good manners is a boon. It is a pity that on account of lack of manners in the modern students, an ugly and unpleasant atmosphere of indiscipline has been created. Good manners cost nothing. One the other hand they pay us a lot.

Examples of good manners

Say, “Thank you” when you receive anything from someone,Say, “Please” while requesting for something,Say, “Excuse me” to get attention for something,Compliment other for their good qualities,Always knock the doors before entering other’s bed-room,Be respectful towards your elders, and teachers,Be compassionate towards someone who is in pain,Listen attentively when someone is talking to you,

We, the dwellers of this land of great and noble personalities, must exhibit above all other things, an ideal force of character through our everyday manners, imbibed with nobility and spiritual sublimity.
Hope it helps you buddy…

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nikita5672
  • nikita5672
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Hi Friends

Good manners are very important in life. They make our day to day life smooth and easy. A rich man has a crowd of flatterers around him and a powerful man may be obeyed by people just out of fear. But a man with pleasing manners is genuinely loved and appreciated by all. Good matures help a man to win friends easily.

A man with pleasing manners respects the feelings, and sentiments of people around him. He shows proper regard to his elders, loves his equals and is kind to those who are younger than him. Modesty and courtesy are essential traits of his personality. He is never proud or haughty and he takes great care not to hurt the feelings of other people. Good manners bring sunshine to life. A man with pleasing manners is jolly and gay. He has always a smile on his lips and he is mentally happy. Thus good manners enrich the personality of a man.

Good manners are vital for success in life. Nobody likes a rude person, but good manners endear a man to other. A shopkeeper who behaves rudely with his customers can never flourish in his trade, but one who behaves politely and pleasantly with others attracts a large number of customers. Patients always rush to a doctor who is sympathetic towards them. A leader cannot have a large follower unless he is polite to others. In fact good manners have a magnetic influence over the people.

The primitive people were savage and brutal. They rarely showed any concern for others. They found it difficult to keep their emotions under control. But civilization taught people to be considerate to others. Thus good manners are true signs of civilization.

Good manners cost nothing, but they bring about handsome rewards. When someone says “please” or “thank you” he actually finds himself in the midst of cheerful crowd. When someone is polite and soft spoken, he gets over many difficult situations in life.

Good manner are not, however, born with us. They have to be cultivated with great care. Childhood is the best period to cultivate good manners and so both parents and teachers have a great role to play.
hope it helps you

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How to Write and Structure a Persuasive Speech

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100 Good Persuasive Speech Topics

Written by PSTI

It’s amazing how even when the same books are read again and again, we never find them boring. Each time is like the first time – the same excitement and interest. But speeches are different and people look for innovation and creativity.

Persuasive speech argues or puts across a point to the audience. It is the art of expressing an opinion clearly and logically.

While presentation is very important when persuading, the magic of a persuasive speech is best experienced only when the topic elicits an interest and appeals to the heart of every member in the audience. And, that is what finally matters.

This is where the topic for the persuasive speech becomes important. We have heard too many speeches that talk about smoking and drinking. Here is a list of some out-of-the-box persuasive speech topics that will help you keep your audience alert and attentive.

List of 100 Persuasive Speech Topics

  1. Mandatory reporting in healthcare. Adverse events to be accurately reported.
  1. Food additives and unhealthiness.
  1. Overreaction to cholesterol.
  1. The dangers of asbestos removal.
  1. The glut of paper products.
  1. Meat consumption and health.
  1. The hazards of Ill-fitting shoes.
  1. Legalization of m*******a.
  1. Underground gasoline tanks leaks.
  1. Pension plans going broke.
  1. The dangers of disposable diapers.
  1. TV violence.
  1. Plastic surgery for cosmetic reasons (cosmetic surgery). Is it rising to a level that exceeds good sense?
  1. Is the Fast-Food Industry Accountable Legally for Obesity? (The McLawsuit)
  1. Intelligence depends more on the environment than genetic factors.
  1. Should there be stronger limits on immigration?
  1. Importance of safety harnesses.
  1. Juvenile sentence is right.
  1. Mandatory drug tests for students.
  1. Traditional books or eBooks?

  1. Organ donation after death should be encouraged.
  1. Freedom of press gone too far.
  1. Private space travel should not be encouraged.
  1. Teenage pregnancy affects the future of both the child and the mother.
  1. Special privileges for working women.
  1. Health insurance, a must for all citizens.
  1. Dangers of s*****d use.
  1. Financial education is important in today’s world.
  1. The use of surveillance cameras in public places, such as parking lots. Good idea or violation of privacy?
  1. The right to search students’ personal property, like lockers and backpacks as part of the war on drugs.
  1. Grocery store shelves filled with foods made with genetically modified ingredients without GMO labels. GMO labels are essential to help you make a decision.
  1. Designer children.
  1. Tell people to vote! Individual votes matter.
  1. Does Internet mean the death of newspapers?
  1. Reasons for increase in kidnapping by parents.
  1. How effective is Alcoholics Anonymous?
  1. Should death penalty be abolished?
  1. The importance of home schooling for mentally and physically enabled children.
  1. Does home-schooling result in children missing the social interaction and growth necessary at that age?
  1. Should surrogate motherhood be allowed?
  1. Make recycling mandatory to help the environment.
  1. Is nuclear power the answer to the energy crisis?
  1. Social networks and our young generation.
  1. Subliminal messages in movies and TV ads.
  1. Juvenile delinquents should be sentenced to bootcamp.
  1. Why breakfast is the most important meal of the day?
  1. The importance of newspapers in our daily life.
  1. Parents should not spank their children.
  1. Single parents should not be allowed to adopt children.
  1. Men and women speak a different language of love.
  1. The dangers of using a cell phone while driving.
  1. The importance of blood donation.
  1. How CMC (Computer Mediated Communication) affects the workplace.
  1. Why we will rely on robots.
  1. Weaving digital information into physical space. The ability to reach out into the computer and manipulate digital objects.
  1. Reducing poverty by fixing the living environment and housing.
  1. The possibility of cars sharing data with other cars to avoid accidents. Does that encroach on privacy?
  1. Texting undermines vocabulary and the mental effort that intelligent writing necessitates.
  1. Nonprofits rewarded for how little they spend – not for what they get done. We should start rewarding charities for their big goals and accomplishments even if it means bigger expenses.
  1. Will the Internet crash at some point and do we need a plan B?
  1. Female genital mutiliation should be stopped.
  1. A school in the cloud for children to learn from one another.
  1. Mono-tasking more important than multi-tasking?
  1. Stem cells to aid in the development of personalized treatments by creating models of human biology/physiology in the lab.
  1. Mind wandering into the past and future makes us unhappy. Bringing the mind back to the present moment produces positive feelings.
  1. Crowd sourcing the world’s goals. (United Nations goals of reducing poverty and disease)
  1. Should women represent women in media because they can tell women’s stories better?
  1. There are 20,000 street gangs in the US. What should be done to stop/control them?
  1. Should elders over the age of 65 be allowed to drive?
  1. Are the current food preservation technologies safe?
  1. New research touts the benefits of video games, but are they safe?
  1. How air purifiers can be harmful and aggravate health conditions.
  1. The importance of patents on ideas.
  1. The theory of intelligent design as opposed to evolution and creationism.
  1. How a cult is different from a religion and why it is dangerous.
  1. Driving over the speed limit.
  1. Living together before marriage.
  1. Tougher enforcement of laws to protect victims of domestic abuse.
  1. The federal government should impose a complete ban on all cigarettes and tobacco products.
  1. Tackle the problem of heart attacks by getting trained in CPR.
  1. Alternatives of fossil fuel, to avoid the energy crisis.
  1. Nuclear power is better than solar power.
  1. Don’t abolish casino gambling as nobody is hurt by it and it helps with tourism.
  1. Online teaching should be given equal importance as the regular form of teaching.
  1. Does luck play an important part in success?
  1. Does the paparazzi help or hinder the purpose of free press.
  1. Should people have a green burial?
  1. Automobile drivers should be required to take a test every three years.
  1. Americans should be given a three-day weekend.
  1. Drug addicts should be sent for treatment in hospitals instead of prisons.
  1. Waiting period should be made compulsory for buying firearms.
  1. IQ tests are valid measurements of human intelligence.
  1. There should be a cap on sports salaries.
  1. Juveniles should be sentenced as adults.
  1. Protect endangered species by outlawing hunting.
  1. Teachers can befriend students on Facebook.
  1. School cafeterias contribute to obesity in children and they should only offer healthy food options
  1. Outsourcing is good for us.
  1. Bloggers should be treated as journalists and punished for indiscretions.
  1. Intelligent design or creationism. About 55% of people in the US believe that God created man and not evolution. Should this be taught in schools?

While we feel that the topics included here can be transformed into persuasive speeches of interest to different audiences, they are only meant to give you an idea and you should use your best judgment as to what you would be presenting to your target audience.

73 Responses to “100 Good Persuasive Speech Topics ”

Read below or add a comment…

  1. diamond says:
    April 28, 2014 at 6:10 pm

    it works for me ppl

    Reply

    • Autumn says:
      March 1, 2016 at 4:47 pm

      It did not work too well for me,haha.

      Reply

    • thrbrt says:
      April 4, 2016 at 12:41 pm

      this sucked i dont know how you can say this was good????

      Reply

  2. Spark says:
    June 4, 2014 at 9:23 pm

    These speech are very interesting thank uu. I thinkl im goin to prepare my presentation based on one of the above speeches

    Reply

    • mahboobeh says:
      October 1, 2014 at 8:46 pm

      I want to thank you because of these useful speeches, i’m so excited in a way i don’t know to chose which of them.
      anyway TNK

      Reply

    • jehu resican says:
      June 2, 2016 at 7:50 am

      U r right bro….these are amazing…..even i prepared my presentation on based these speeches

      Reply

  3. SINITA says:
    June 15, 2014 at 1:22 am

    Are there any speeches opine were u know I can get of line

    Reply

  4. Boby Fulyer says:
    June 17, 2014 at 2:08 pm

    Amazing! I got a speech i would love to do here! Thanks!

    Reply

    • alexander the gr8 says:
      July 29, 2014 at 6:37 am

      yeah i agree totally, they were gr8….
      i love em 2!!!!!!!!

      Reply

  5. Nahshel Backer says:
    June 23, 2014 at 3:20 pm

    social networks and our young generation

    Reply

  6. ABHINAND.SHINE says:
    June 26, 2014 at 11:58 am

    Amazing! very good

    Reply

  7. Bhagyashree patil says:
    July 17, 2014 at 1:09 pm

    Thank you, for giving me good topics they really work!!

    Reply

  8. punani says:
    July 17, 2014 at 3:31 pm

    any example powerpoint for those speech above?

    Reply

  9. bohoo says:
    July 24, 2014 at 2:18 am

    Hi,I’m doing this through school right now and I just wanna say I love you B-)

    Reply

  10. Abriana says:
    July 25, 2014 at 4:39 am

    Thank you, would love to do legalisation of m*******a 🙂 THANKS SO MUCH I LOVE YOU!!!! UR THE BEST!!! UR AWESOME

    Reply

  11. Angie says:
    July 28, 2014 at 10:37 pm

    thnx for the ideas got me thinking

    Reply

  12. unknown says:
    July 29, 2014 at 12:50 am

    this is the worst speech topic site i have seen coz it is all to do with AMERICA

    Reply

  13. tom thumb says:
    July 29, 2014 at 6:33 am

    yeah..there really good…..
    i did a speech and got top marks….
    thanks,
    🙂

    Reply

  14. alexander the gr8 says:
    July 29, 2014 at 6:36 am

    alexander rekons the speeches were gr8…
    thx HEAPZ!!!!!!!
    cheerio 🙂 🙂 🙂 🙂 🙂 🙂 🙂 🙂 🙂 🙂 🙂 🙂 🙂 🙂 🙂 🙂 🙂 🙂 🙂

    Reply

  15. Bob says:
    July 30, 2014 at 9:49 pm

    These are a lot of help thanks

    Reply

  16. Ozy says:
    August 4, 2014 at 5:14 pm

    Thanx 4 the awesome topics:D

    Reply

  17. Osmani,Ghulam Rabbani says:
    August 11, 2014 at 2:05 pm

    These are sounds like best help to me, Can I have these topics? If it possible should you please send me these topics to my Email Add.I respect your policy.
    I am an English Student.
    thanks to help

    Reply

  18. care says:
    September 1, 2014 at 2:27 am

    very awsome care

    Reply

  19. unknown says:
    September 1, 2014 at 6:33 am

    Great. This website is helpful

    Reply

  20. Mentle_Gen says:
    September 19, 2014 at 6:41 am

    i am totally LEGIT doing the legalisation of m*******a XD

    Reply

  21. hiba zahid says:
    September 29, 2014 at 11:24 am

    There is no topic on NOTHING IS POSSIBLE WITHOUT EFFORT

    Reply

  22. hiba zahid says:
    September 29, 2014 at 11:25 am

    BUT these are also good topics and helpful for presentations!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!B-)

    Reply

  23. meemo says:
    October 26, 2014 at 12:27 am

    nice topics. i like the plastic surgery one. the topics were very varied

    Reply

  24. ummmm says:
    October 27, 2014 at 1:41 pm

    Do any of you actually go to school? Your spelling and grammar is absolutely horrendous. Quit complaining about speech topics when you can’t even spell.

    Reply

    • sarcasm at its level says:
      January 14, 2017 at 2:05 pm

      have u ever heard of something called “text messaging”? u don’t have to spell all the words correctly while typing. additionally, speech topics have nothing to do with spellings mistakes.

      dedicated to ummmm…… whatever your name is

      Reply

  25. Billy joe says:
    October 30, 2014 at 2:29 pm

    This was just outstandingly ridiculous. Some of these people that left comments ARE RETARDS. (and probably fake) I mean although these topics were alright they wasn’t that gr8 so calm Mr. Alexander.

    P.s.
    Billy joe rules

    Reply

    • Bill Joey says:
      January 23, 2017 at 12:04 pm

      Billy joe can’t talk when he can’t even use the correct grammar. Wasn’t should be weren’t. Awkward on you Billy Joe. Re-think your life choices please.

      P.S

      Bill Joey rules

      Reply

  26. ??? says:
    November 17, 2014 at 5:05 pm

    Some of the topics are questionable. Outsourcing, for example. It may benefit us, but is it good that rich consumers benefit from this and secondary employment sector workers in Less Developed Countries struggle to put bread on the table?

    Not only that, but the teaching of religious education in schools is wrong. Pupils should believe what they want to believe, rather than be force – fed religious crap from a young age.

    Reply

    • Jacob says:
      February 11, 2016 at 7:57 pm

      your argument is why it is a persuasive topic

      Reply

      • Jasi says:
        June 6, 2016 at 2:40 am

        Exactly what I was thinking! The user “????” is showing how each topic is a valid persuasive point, yet he is saying that they aren’t good. Guess someone hasn’t been paying much attention in class to know what a persuasive speech is.

        Reply

    • ryan says:
      April 6, 2016 at 1:35 pm

      not true, and Jocob has a good point. There’s a reason why almost every single economist supports outsourcing to almost a %100, because it benefits the entire country as a whole way more then it would if it was not allowed to happen. They are sending away many manufacturing jobs that people would not want to do in the first place. Many people who loose jobs due to outsourcing end up finding a new job that is even better.

      Reply

    • Joe says:
      May 3, 2016 at 1:30 pm

      I hope you know that evolution is a belief too. Kids are being told that evolution is the way- when they are at a young age- which is making them be forced to believe that.

      Reply

  27. BobTheGirl says:
    December 7, 2014 at 7:28 pm

    I enjoyed these topics, very much. And to all the “comment trolls” :
    I’m pretty sure that most of these people that you are referring to, do go to school. Just because they choose no to spell does not mean they cannot. Oh, and those saying these were not good topics, choose your words carefully. The person (or people) who wrote this have feelings. They are human beings, too. Respect that.

    Reply

  28. phil mcrakin’ says:
    March 9, 2015 at 1:48 am

    Doctor-assisted suicide should (or should not) be legal.
    Spammers—people who bombard Internet users with unsolicited e-mail—should (or should not) be allowed to send their junk mail.
    Every automobile driver should (or should not) be required to take a new driver’s test every three years.
    Electroshock treatment is (or is not) a humane form of therapy.
    Every student should (or should not) be required to learn a foreign language.
    Solar power is (or is not) a viable alternate energy source.
    Drug addicts should (or should not) be put in hospitals for medical treatment instead of in prisons for punishment.
    American workers should (or should not) be guaranteed a three-day weekend by law.
    All health professionals should (or should not) be tested annually for HIV infection and AIDS.
    Self-proclaimed “militias” should (or should not) be closely monitored by the Federal Bureau of Investigation.
    Assault weapons should (or should not) be outlawed.
    All owners of firearms should (or should not) be required to register their weapons with the police.
    A two-week waiting period should (or should not) be required for anyone attempting to purchase a firearm.
    The death penalty for murderers should (or should not) be abolished.
    The death penalty should (or should not) be imposed on juveniles.
    Drug dealers convicted of distributing large quantities of drugs should (or should not) receive the death penalty.
    The U.S. military should (or should not) be used to curb drug smuggling into the U.S.
    The U.S. should (or should not) cut off all foreign aid to

    Reply

    • conner hames says:
      January 8, 2016 at 6:31 pm

      Doctor-assisted suicide should (or should not) be legal.
      Spammers—people who bombard Internet users with unsolicited e-mail—should (or should not) be allowed to send their junk mail.
      Every automobile driver should (or should not) be required to take a new driver’s test every three years.
      Electroshock treatment is (or is not) a humane form of therapy.
      Every student should (or should not) be required to learn a foreign language.
      Solar power is (or is not) a viable alternate energy source.
      Drug addicts should (or should not) be put in hospitals for medical treatment instead of in prisons for punishment.
      American workers should (or should not) be guaranteed a three-day weekend by law.
      All health professionals should (or should not) be tested annually for HIV infection and AIDS.
      Self-proclaimed “militias” should (or should not) be closely monitored by the Federal Bureau of Investigation.
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Same Sex Marriage Should be Legalized Essay example

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A Right to Marry? Same-sex Marriage and Constitutional Law

A Right to Marry? Same-sex Marriage and Constitutional Law

Martha Nussbaum ▪ Summer 2009

(Ted Eytan / Flickr)

Marriage is both ubiquitous and central. All across our country, in every region, every social class, every race and ethnicity, every religion or non-religion, people get married. For many if not most people, moreover, marriage is not a trivial matter. It is a key to the pursuit of happiness, something people aspire to—and keep aspiring to, again and again, even when their experience has been far from happy. To be told “You cannot get married” is thus to be excluded from one of the defining rituals of the American life cycle.

The keys to the kingdom of the married might have been held only by private citizens—religious bodies and their leaders, families, other parts of civil society. So it has been in many societies throughout history. In the United States, however, as in most modern nations, government holds those keys. Even if people have been married by their church or religious group, they are not married in the sense that really counts for social and political purposes unless they have been granted a marriage license by the state. Unlike private actors, however, the state doesn’t have complete freedom to decide who may and may not marry. The state’s involvement raises fundamental issues about equality of political and civic standing.

Same-sex marriage is currently one of the most divisive political issues in our nation. In November 2008, Californians passed Proposition 8, a referendum that removed the right to marry from same-sex couples who had been granted that right by the courts. This result has been seen by the same-sex community as deeply degrading. More recently, Iowa and Vermont have legalized same-sex marriage, the former through judicial interpretation of the state constitution, the latter through legislation. Analyzing this issue will help us understand what is happening in our country, and where we might go from here.

Before we approach the issue of same-sex marriage, we must define marriage. But marriage, it soon becomes evident, is no single thing. It is plural in both content and meaning. The institution of marriage houses and supports several distinct aspects of human life: sexual relations, friendship and companionship, love, conversation, procreation and child-rearing, mutual responsibility. Marriages can exist without each of these. (We have always granted marriage licenses to sterile people, people too old to have children, irresponsible people, and people incapable of love and friendship. Impotence, lack of interest in sex, and refusal to allow intercourse may count as grounds for divorce, but they don’t preclude marriage.) Marriages can exist even in cases where none of these is present, though such marriages are probably unhappy. Each of these important aspects of human life, in turn, can exist outside of marriage, and they can even exist all together outside of marriage, as is evident from the fact that many unmarried couples live lives of intimacy, friendship, and mutual responsibility, and have and raise children. Nonetheless, when people ask themselves what the content of marriage is, they typically think of this cluster of things.

Nor is the meaning of marriage single. Marriage has, first, a civil rights aspect. Married people get a lot of government benefits that the unmarried usually do not get: favorable treatment in tax, inheritance, and insurance status; immigration rights; rights in adoption and custody; decisional and visitation rights in health care and burial; the spousal privilege exemption when giving testimony in court; and yet others.

Marriage has, second, an expressive aspect. When people get married, they typically make a statement of love and commitment in front of witnesses. Most people who get married view that statement as a very important part of their lives. Being able to make it, and to make it freely (not under duress) is taken to be definitive of adult human freedom. The statement made by the marrying couple is usually seen as involving an answering statement on the part of society: we declare our love and commitment, and society, in response, recognizes and dignifies that commitment.

Marriage has, finally, a religious aspect. For many people, a marriage is not complete unless it has been solemnized by the relevant authorities in their religion, according to the rules of the religion.

Government plays a key role in all three aspects of marriage. It confers and administers benefits. It seems, at least, to operate as an agent of recognition or the granting of dignity. And it forms alliances with religious bodies. Clergy are always among those entitled to perform legally binding marriages. Religions may refuse to marry people who are eligible for state marriage and they may also agree to marry people who are ineligible for state marriage. But much of the officially sanctioned marrying currently done in the United States is done on religious premises by religious personnel. What they are solemnizing (when there is a license granted by the state) is, however, not only a religious ritual, but also a public rite of passage, the entry into a privileged civic status.

To get this privileged treatment under law people do not have to show that they are good people. Convicted felons, divorced parents who fail to pay child support, people with a record of domestic violence or emotional abuse, delinquent taxpayers, drug abusers, rapists, murderers, racists, anti-Semites, other bigots, all can marry if they choose, and indeed are held to have a fundamental constitutional right to do so—so long as they want to marry someone of the opposite sex. Although some religions urge premarital counseling and refuse to marry people who seem ill-prepared for marriage, the state does not turn such people away. The most casual whim may become a marriage with no impediment but for the time it takes to get a license. Nor do people even have to lead a sexual lifestyle of the type the majority prefers in order to get married. Pedophiles, sadists, masochists, sodomites, transsexuals—all can get married by the state, so long as they marry someone of the opposite sex.

Given all this, it seems odd to suggest that in marrying people the state affirmatively expresses its approval or confers dignity. There is indeed something odd about the mixture of casualness and solemnity with which the state behaves as a marrying agent. Nonetheless, it seems to most people that the state, by giving a marriage license, expresses approval, and, by withholding it, disapproval.
WHAT IS the same-sex marriage debate about? It is not about whether same-sex relationships can involve the content of marriage: few would deny that gays and lesbians are capable of friendship, intimacy, “meet and happy conversation,” and mutual responsibility, nor that they can have and raise children (whether their own from a previous marriage, children created within their relationship by surrogacy or artificial insemination, or adopted children). Certainly none would deny that gays and lesbians are capable of sexual intimacy.

Nor is the debate, at least currently, about the civil aspects of marriage: we are moving toward a consensus that same-sex couples and opposite-sex couples ought to enjoy equal civil rights. The leaders of both major political parties appeared to endorse this position during the 2008 presidential campaign, although only a handful of states have legalized civil unions with material privileges equivalent to those of marriage.

Finally, the debate is not about the religious aspects of marriage. Most of the major religions have their own internal debates, frequently heated, over the status of same-sex unions. Some denominations—Unitarian Universalism, the United Church of Christ, and Reform and Conservative Judaism—have endorsed marriage for same-sex couples. Others have taken a friendly position toward these unions. Mainline Protestant denominations are divided on the issue, although some have taken negative positions. American Roman Catholics, both lay and clergy, are divided, although the church hierarchy is strongly opposed. Still other denominations and religions (Southern Baptists, the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints) seem to be strongly opposed collectively. There is no single “religious” position on these unions in America today, but the heat of those debates is, typically, denominational; heat does not spill over into the public realm. Under any state of the law, religions would be free to marry or not marry same-sex couples.

The public debate, instead, is primarily about the expressive aspects of marriage. It is here that the difference between civil unions and marriage resides, and it is this aspect that is at issue when same-sex couples see the compromise offer of civil unions as stigmatizing and degrading.

The expressive dimension of marriage raises several distinct questions. First, assuming that granting a marriage license expresses a type of public approval, should the state be in the business of expressing favor for, or dignifying, some unions rather than others? Are there any good public reasons for the state to be in the marriage business at all, rather than the civil union business? Second, if there are good reasons, what are the arguments for and against admitting same-sex couples to that status, and how should we think about them?


Myth of the Golden Age

WHEN PEOPLE talk about the institution of marriage, they often wax nostalgic. They think, and often say, that until very recently marriage was a lifelong commitment by one man and one woman, sanctified by God and the state, for the purposes of companionship and the rearing of children. People lived by those rules and were happy. Typical, if somewhat rhetorical, is this statement by Senator Robert Byrd of West Virginia during the debates over the “Defense of Marriage” Act:

Mr. President, throughout the annals of human experience, in dozens of civilizations and cultures of varying value systems, humanity has discovered that the permanent relationship between men and women is a keystone to the stability, strength, and health of human society—a relationship worthy of legal recognition and judicial protection.

We used to live in that golden age of marital purity. Now, the story goes, things are falling apart. Divorce is ubiquitous. Children are growing up without sufficient guidance, support, and love, as adults live for selfish pleasure alone. We need to come to our senses and return to the rules that used to make us all happy.

Like most Golden Age myths, this one contains a core of truth: commitment and responsibility are under strain in our culture, and too many children are indeed growing up without enough economic or emotional support. We can’t think well about how to solve this problem, however, unless we first recognize the flaws in the mythic depiction of our own past. Like all fantasies of purity, this one masks a reality that is far more varied and complex.

To begin with, Byrd’s idea that lifelong monogamous marriage has been the norm throughout human history is just mistaken. Many societies have embraced various forms of polygamy, informal or common-law marriage, and sequential monogamy. People who base their ethical norms on the Bible too rarely take note of the fact that the society depicted in the Old Testament is polygamous.

In many other ancient societies, and some modern ones, sex outside marriage was, or is, a routine matter: in ancient Greece, for example, married men routinely had socially approved sexual relationships with prostitutes (male and female) and, with numerous restrictions, younger male citizens. One reason for this custom was that women were secluded and uneducated, thus not able to share a man’s political and intellectual aspirations. If we turn to republican Rome, a society more like our own in basing marriage on an ideal of love and companionship, we find that this very ideal gave rise to widespread divorce, as both women and men sought a partner with whom they could be happy and share a common life. We hardly find a major Roman figure, male or female, who did not marry at least twice. Moreover, Roman marriages were typically not monogamous, at least on the side of the male, who was expected to have sexual relations with both males and females of lower status (slaves, prostitutes). Even if wives at times protested, they understood the practice as typical and ubiquitous. These Romans are often admired (and rightly so, I think) as good citizens, people who believed in civic virtue and tried hard to run a government based on that commitment. Certainly for the founders of the United States the Roman Republic was a key source of both political norms and personal heroes. And yet these heroes did not live in a marital Eden.

In fact, there is no better antidote to the myth of marital purity than to read Cicero’s account of the unhappy marriage of his brother Quintus to Pomponia Attica, the sister of his best friend, Atticus. Through his narrative (however biased in his brother’s favor) we get a glimpse of something so familiar that it is difficult to believe it all happened around 50 B.C.E. Cicero is out in the country, on one of his estates, and his brother has (it seems) dragged his unwilling wife away from the city to spend a week on the farm—with a brother-in-law who doesn’t like her and who, despite his undoubted greatness, is more than a little self-obsessed:

When we arrived there Quintus said in the kindest way, “Pomponia, will you ask the women in…?” Both what he said and his intention and manner were perfectly pleasant, at least it seemed so to me. Pomponia however answered in our hearing, “I am a guest here myself.”… Quintus said to me, “There! This is the sort of thing I have to put up with every day.”…I myself was quite shocked. Her words and manner were so gratuitously rude. [They all go in to lunch, except for Pomponia, who goes straight to her room; Quintus has some food sent up to her, which she refuses.] In a word, I felt my brother could not have been more forbearing nor your sister ruder… [The following day, Quintus has a talk with his brother.] He told me that Pomponia had refused to sleep with him, and that her attitude when he left the house was just as I had seen it the day before. Well, you can tell her for me that her whole conduct was lacking in sympathy.

The marriage lasted six more unhappy years and then ended in divorce.

The shock of seeing our own face in the mirror of Cicero’s intimate narrative reminds us that human beings always have a hard time sustaining love and even friendship; that bad temper, incompatibility, and divergent desires are no invention of the sexual revolution. Certainly they are not caused by the recognition of same-sex marriage. We’ve always lived in a postlapsarian world.

The rise of divorce in the modern era, moreover, was spurred not by a hatred of marriage but, far more, by a high conception of what marriage ought to be. It’s not just that people began to think that women had a right to divorce on grounds of bodily cruelty, and that divorce of that sort was a good thing. It’s also that Christians began insisting—just like those ancient Romans—that marriage was about much more than procreation and sexual relations. John Milton’s famous defense of divorce on grounds of incompatibility emphasizes “meet and happy conversation” as the central goal of marriage and notes that marriage ought to fulfill not simply bodily drives but also the “intellectual and innocent desire” that leads people to want to talk a lot to each other. People are entitled to demand this from their marriages, he argues, and entitled to divorce if they do not find it. If we adopt Milton’s view, we should not see divorce as expressing (necessarily) a falling away from high moral ideals but rather an unwillingness to put up with a relationship that does not fulfill, or at least seriously pursue, high ideals.

In our own nation, as historians of marriage emphasize, a social norm of monogamous marriage was salient, from colonial times onward. The norm, however, like most norms in all times and places, was not the same as the reality. Studying the reality of marital discord and separation is very difficult, because many if not most broken marriages were not formally terminated by divorce. Given that divorce, until rather recently, was hard to obtain, and given that America offered so much space for relocation and the reinvention of self, many individuals, both male and female, simply moved away and started life somewhere else. A man who showed up with a “wife” in tow was not likely to encounter a background check to find out whether he had ever been legally divorced from a former spouse. A woman who arrived calling herself “the Widow Jones” would not be asked to show her husband’s death certificate before she could form a new relationship and marry. The cases of separation that did end up in court were the tip of a vast, uncharted iceberg. If, as historian Hendrik Hartog concludes about the nineteenth century, “Marital mobility marked American legal and constitutional life,” it marked, far more, the daily lives of Americans who did not litigate their separations.

Insofar as monogamy was reality, we should never forget that it rested on the disenfranchisement of women. Indeed, the rise of divorce in recent years is probably connected to women’s social and political empowerment more than to any other factor. When women had no rights, no marketable skills, and hence no exit options, they often had to put up with bad marriages, with adultery, neglect, even with domestic violence. When women are able to leave, they demand a better deal. This simple economic explanation for the rise of divorce—combined with Milton’s emphasis on people’s need for emotional attunement and conversation—is much more powerful than the idea of a fall from ethical purity in explaining how we’ve moved from where we were to where we are today. But if such factors are salient, denial of marriage to same-sex couples is hardly the way to address them

Throughout the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, a distinctive feature of American marriage was the strategic use of federalism. Marriage laws have always been state laws (despite recurrent attempts to legislate a national law of marriage and divorce). But states in the United States have typically used that power to compete with one another, and marriage quickly became a scene of competition. Long before Nevada became famous as a divorce haven, with its short residency requirement, other states assumed that role. For quite a stretch of time, Indiana (surprisingly) was the divorce haven for couples fleeing the strict requirements of states such as New York (one of the strictest until a few decades ago) and Wisconsin. The reasons why a state liberalized its laws were complex, but at least some of them were economic: while couples lived out the residency requirement, they would spend money in the state. In short, as Hartog points out, marriage laws “became public packages of goods and services that competed against the public goods of other jurisdictions for the loyalty and the tax dollars of a mobile citizenry.”

What we’re seeing today, as five states (Massachusetts, Connecticut, Iowa, Vermont, and, briefly, California) have legalized same-sex marriage, as others (California, and Vermont and Connecticut before their legalization of same-sex marriage) have offered civil unions with marriage-like benefits, and yet others (New York) have announced that, although they will not perform same-sex marriages themselves, they will recognize those legally contracted in other jurisdictions, is the same sort of competitive process—with, however, one important difference. The federal Defense of Marriage Act has made it clear that states need not give legal recognition to marriages legally contracted elsewhere. That was not the case with competing divorce regimes: once legally divorced in any other U. S. state, the parties were considered divorced in their own.

But the non-recognition faced by same-sex couples does have a major historical precedent. States that had laws against miscegenation refused to recognize marriages between blacks and whites legally contracted elsewhere, and even criminalized those marriages. The Supreme Court case that overturned the anti-miscegenation laws, Loving v. Virginia, focused on this issue. Mildred Jeter (African American) and Richard Loving (white) got married in Washington, D. C., in 1958. Their marriage was not recognized as legal in their home state of Virginia. When they returned, there they were arrested in the middle of the night in their own bedroom. Their marriage certificate was hanging on the wall over their bed. The state prosecuted them, because interracial marriage was a felony in Virginia, and they were convicted. The judge then told them either to leave the state for twenty-five years or to spend one year in jail. They left, but began the litigation that led to the landmark 1967 decision.

In 2007, on the fortieth anniversary of that decision, Jeter Loving issued a rare public statement, saying that she saw the struggle she and her late husband waged as similar to the struggle of same-sex couples today:

My generation was bitterly divided over something that should have been so clear and right. The majority believed…that it was God’s plan to keep people apart, and that government should discriminate against people in love. But…[t]he older generation’s fears and prejudices have given way, and today’s young people realize that if someone loves someone they have a right to marry. Surrounded as I am now by wonderful children and grandchildren, not a day goes by that I don’t think of Richard and our love, our right to marry, and how much it meant to me to have that freedom to marry the person precious to me, even if others thought he was the “wrong kind of person” for me to marry. I believe all Americans, no matter their race, no matter their sex, no matter their sexual orientation, should have that same freedom to marry.

The politics of humanity seems to require us to agree with her. Let’s consider, however, the arguments on the other side.


Panic Over Same-Sex Marriage

AS WE do that, we need to keep two questions firmly in mind. First, does each argument really justify legal restriction of same-sex marriage or only some peoples’ attitudes of moral and religious disapproval? We live in a country in which people have a wide range of different religious beliefs, and we agree in respecting the space within which people pursue those beliefs. We do not, however, agree that these beliefs, by themselves, are sufficient grounds for legal regulation. Typically, we understand that some beliefs (including some but not all moral commitments) can generate public arguments that bear on the lives of all citizens in a decent society, while others generate only intra-religious arguments. Thus, observant Jews abhor the eating of pork, but few if any would think that this religiously grounded abhorrence is a reason to make the eating of pork illegal. The prohibition rests on religious texts that not all citizens embrace, and it cannot be translated into a public argument that people of all religions can accept. Similarly in this case, we must ask whether the arguments against same-sex marriage are expressed in a neutral and sharable language or only in a sectarian doctrinal language. If the arguments are moral rather than doctrinal, they fare better, but we still have to ask whether they are compatible with core values of a society dedicated to giving all citizens the equal protection of the laws. Many legal aspects of our history of racial and gender-based discrimination were defended by secular moral arguments, but that did not insulate them from constitutional scrutiny.

Second, we must ask whether each argument justifies its conclusion or whether there is reason to see the argument as a rationalization of some deeper sort of anxiety or aversion.

The first and most widespread objection to same-sex marriage is that it is immoral and unnatural. Similar arguments were widespread in the anti-miscegenation debate, and, in both cases, these arguments are typically made in a sectarian and doctrinal way, referring to religious texts. (Anti-miscegenation judges, for example, referred to the will of God in arguing that racial mixing is unnatural.) It is difficult to cast such arguments in a form that could be accepted by citizens whose religion teaches something different. They look like Jewish arguments against the eating of pork: good reasons for members of some religions not to engage in same-sex marriage, but not sufficient reasons for making them illegal in a pluralistic society.

A second objection, and perhaps the one that is most often heard from thoughtful people, insists that the main purpose of state-sanctified marriage is procreation and the rearing of children. Protecting an institution that serves these purposes is a legitimate public interest, and so there is a legitimate public interest in supporting potentially procreative marriages. Does this mean there is also a public interest in restricting marriage to only those cases where there may be procreation? This is less clear. We should all agree that the procreation, protection, and safe rearing of children are important public purposes. It is not clear, however, that we have ever thought these important purposes best served by restricting marriage to the potentially procreative. If we ever did think like this, we certainly haven’t done anything about it. We have never limited marriage to the fertile or even to those of an age to be fertile. It is very difficult, in terms of the state’s interest in procreation, to explain why the marriage of two heterosexual seventy-year-olds should be permitted and the marriage of two men or two women should be forbidden—all the more because so many same-sex couples have and raise children.

As it stands, the procreation argument looks two-faced, approving in heterosexuals what it refuses to tolerate in same-sex couples. If the arguer should add that sterile heterosexual marriages somehow support the efforts of the procreative, we can reply that gay and lesbian couples who don’t have or raise children may support, similarly, the work of procreative couples.

Sometimes this argument is put a little differently: marriage is about the protection of children, and we know that children do best in a home with one father and one mother, so there is a legitimate public interest in supporting an institution that fulfills this purpose. Put this way, the argument, again, offers a legitimate public reason to favor and support heterosexual marriage, though it is less clear why it gives a reason to restrict same-sex marriage (and marriages of those too old to have children or not desiring children). Its main problem, however, is with the facts. Again and again, psychological studies have shown that children do best when they have love and support, and it appears that two-parent households do better at that job than single-parent households. There is no evidence, however, that opposite-sex couples do better than same-sex couples. There is a widespread feeling that these results can’t be right, that living in an “immoral” atmosphere must be bad for the child. But that feeling rests on the religious judgments of the first argument; when the well-being of children is assessed in a religiously neutral way, there is no difference.

A third argument is that if same-sex marriage receives state approval, people who believe it to be evil will be forced to “bless” or approve of it, thus violating their conscience. This argument was recently made in an influential way by Charles Fried in Modern Liberty and the Limits of Government. Fried, who supports an end to sodomy laws and expresses considerable sympathy with same-sex couples, still thinks that marriage goes too far because of this idea of enforced approval.

What, precisely, is the argument here? Fried does not suggest that the recognition of same-sex marriage would violate the Free Exercise clause of the First Amendment—and that would be an implausible position to take. Presumably, the position is that the state has a legitimate interest in banning same-sex marriage on the grounds that it offends many religious believers.

This argument contains many difficulties. First, it raises an Establishment Clause problem: for, as we’ve seen, religions vary greatly in their attitude to same-sex marriage, and the state, following this argument, would be siding with one group of believers against another. More generally, there are a lot of things that a modern state does that people deeply dislike, often on religious grounds. Public education teaches things that many religious parents abhor (such as evolution and the equality of women); parents often choose home schooling for that reason. Public health regulations license butchers who cut up pigs for human consumption; Jews don’t want to be associated with this practice. But nobody believes that Jews have a right to ask the state to impose their religiously grounded preference on all citizens. The Old Order Amish don’t want their children to attend public school past age fourteen, holding that such schooling is destructive of community. The state respects that choice—for Amish children; and the state even allows Amish children to be exempt from some generally applicable laws for reasons of religion. But nobody would think that the Amish have a right to expect the state to make public schooling past age fourteen off-limits for all children. Part of life within a pluralistic society that values the non-establishment of religion is an attitude of live and let live. Whenever we see a nation that does allow the imposition of religiously grounded preferences on all citizens—as with some Israeli laws limiting activity on the Sabbath, and as with laws in India banning cow slaughter—we see a nation with a religious establishment, de jure or de facto. We have chosen not to take that route, and for good reasons. To the extent that we choose workdays and holidays that coincide with the preferences of a religious majority, we bend over backward to be sensitive to the difficulties this may create for minorities.

A fourth argument, again appealing to a legitimate public purpose, focuses on the difficulties that traditional marriage seems to be facing in our society. Pointing to rising divorce rates and evidence that children are being damaged by lack of parental support, people say that we need to defend traditional marriage, not undermine it by opening the institution to those who don’t have any concern for its traditional purposes. We could begin by contesting the characterization of same-sex couples. In large numbers, they do have and raise children. Marriage, for them as for others parents, provides a clear framework of entitlements and responsibilities, as well as security, legitimacy, and social standing for their children. In fact, the states that have legalized same-sex marriage, Massachusetts, Connecticut, Iowa, and Vermont, have among the lowest divorce rates in the nation, and the Massachusetts evidence shows that the rate has not risen as a result of the legalization. In the European countries that have legalized same-sex marriage, divorce rates appear to be roughly the same as among heterosexual couples.

We might also pause, for reasons I have already given, before granting that an increase in the divorce rate signals social degeneration. But let us concede, for the sake of argument, that there is a social problem. What, then, about the claim that legalizing same-sex marriage would undermine the effort to defend or protect traditional marriage? If society really wants to defend traditional marriage, as it surely is entitled to do and probably ought to do, many policies suggest themselves: family and medical leave; drug and alcohol counseling on demand; generous support for marital counseling and mental health treatment; strengthening laws against domestic violence and enforcing them better; employment counseling and financial support for those under stress during the present economic crisis; and, of course, tighter enforcement of child-support laws. Such measures have a clear relationship to the stresses and strains facing traditional marriage. The prohibition of same-sex marriage does not. If we were to study heterosexual divorce, we would be unlikely to find even a single case in which the parties felt that their divorce was caused by the availability of marriage to same-sex couples.

The objector at this point typically makes a further move. The very recognition of same-sex marriage on a par with traditional marriage demeans traditional marriage, makes it less valuable. What’s being said, it seems, is something like this: if the Metropolitan Opera auditions started giving prizes to pop singers of the sort who sing on American Idol, this would contaminate the opera world. Similarly, including in the Hall of Fame baseball players who got their records by cheating on the drug rules would contaminate the Hall of Fame, cheapening the real achievements of others. In general, the promiscuous recognition of low-level or non-serious contenders for an honor sullies the honor. This, I believe, is the sort of argument people are making when they assert that recognition of same-sex marriage defiles traditional marriage, when they talk about a “defense of marriage,” and so forth. How should we evaluate this argument?

First of all, we may challenge it on the facts. Same-sex couples are not like B-grade singers or cheating athletes—or at least no more so than heterosexual couples. They want to get married for reasons very similar to those of heterosexuals: to express love and commitment, to gain religious sanctification for their union, to obtain a package of civil benefits—and, often, to have or raise children. Traditional marriage has its share of creeps, and there are same-sex creeps as well. But the existence of creeps among the heterosexuals has never stopped the state from marrying heterosexuals. Nor do people talk or think that way. I’ve never heard anyone say that the state’s willingness to marry Britney Spears or O. J. Simpson demeans or sullies their own marriage. But somehow, without even knowing anything about the character or intentions of the same-sex couple next door, they think their own marriages would be sullied by public recognition of that union.

If the proposal were to restrict marriage to worthy people who have passed a character test, it would at least be consistent, though few would support such an intrusive regime. What is clear is that those who make this argument don’t fret about the way in which unworthy or immoral heterosexuals could sully the institution of marriage or lower its value. Given that they don’t worry about this, and given that they don’t want to allow marriage for gays and lesbians who have proven their good character, it is difficult to take this argument at face value. The idea that same-sex unions will sully traditional marriage cannot be understood without moving to the terrain of disgust and contamination. The only distinction between unworthy heterosexuals and the class of gays and lesbians that can possibly explain the difference in people’s reaction is that the sex acts of the former do not disgust the majority, whereas the sex acts of the latter do. The thought must be that to associate traditional marriage with the sex acts of same-sex couples is to defile or contaminate it, in much the way that eating food served by a dalit, (formerly called “untouchable,”) used to be taken by many people in India to contaminate the high-caste body. Nothing short of a primitive idea of stigma and taint can explain the widespread feeling that same-sex marriage defiles or contaminates straight marriage, while the marriages of “immoral” and “sinful” heterosexuals do not do so.

If the arguer should reply that marriage between two people of the same sex cannot result in the procreation of children, and so must be a kind of sham marriage, which insults or parodies, and thus demeans, the real sort of marriage, we are back to the second argument. Those who insist so strongly on procreation do not feel sullied or demeaned or tainted by the presence next door of two opposite-sex seventy-year-olds newly married, nor by the presence of opposite-sex couples who publicly announce their intention never to have children—or, indeed, by opposite-sex couples who have adopted children. They do not try to get lawmakers to make such marriages illegal, and they neither say nor feel that such marriages are immoral or undermine their own. So the feeling of undermining, or demeaning, cannot honestly be explained by the point about children and must be explained instead by other, more subterranean, ideas.

If we’re looking for a historical parallel to the anxieties associated with same-sex marriage, we can find it in the history of views about miscegenation. At the time of Loving v. Virginia, in 1967, sixteen states both prohibited and punished marriages across racial lines. In Virginia, a typical example, such a marriage was a felony punishable by from one to five years in prison. Like same-sex marriages, cross-racial unions were opposed with a variety of arguments, both political and theological. In hindsight, however, we can see that disgust was at work. Indeed, it did not hide its hand: the idea of racial purity was proudly proclaimed (for example, in the Racial Integrity Act of 1924 in Virginia), and ideas of taint and contamination were ubiquitous. If white people felt disgusted and contaminated by the thought that a black person had drunk from the same public drinking fountain or swum in the same public swimming pool or used the same toilet or the same plates and glasses—all views widely held by southern whites—we can see that the thought of sex and marriage between black and white would have carried a powerful freight of revulsion. The Supreme Court concluded that such ideas of racial stigma were the only ideas that really supported those laws, whatever else was said: “There is patently no legitimate overriding purpose independent of invidious racial discrimination which justifies this classification.”

We should draw the same conclusion about the prohibition of same-sex marriage: irrational ideas of stigma and contamination, the sort of “animus” the Court recognized in Romer v. Evans, is a powerful force in its support. So thought the Supreme Court of Connecticut in October 2008, saying,

Beyond moral disapprobation, gay persons also face virulent homophobia that rests on nothing more than feelings of revulsion toward gay persons and the intimate sexual conduct with which they are associated…. Such visceral prejudice is reflected in the large number of hate crimes that are perpetrated against gay persons….The irrational nature of the prejudice directed at gay persons, who ‘‘are ridiculed, ostracized, despised, demonized and condemned “merely for being who they are” …is entirely different in kind than the prejudice suffered by other groups that previously have been denied suspect or quasi-suspect class status. This fact provides further reason to doubt that such prejudice soon can be eliminated and underscores the reality that gay persons face unique challenges to their political and social integration.

We have now seen the arguments against same-sex marriage. They do not seem impressive. We have not seen any that would supply government with a “compelling” state interest, and it seems likely, given Romer, that these arguments, motivated by animus, fail even the rational basis test.

The argument in favor of same-sex marriage is straightforward: if two people want to make a commitment of the marital sort, they should be permitted to do so, and excluding one class of citizens from the benefits and dignity of that commitment demeans them and insults their dignity.


What Is the “Right to Marry”?

IN OUR constitutional tradition, there is frequent talk of a “right to marry.” In Loving, the Court calls marriage “one of the basic civil rights of man.” A later case, Zablocki v. Redhail, recognizes the right to marry as a fundamental right for Fourteenth Amendment purposes, apparently under the Equal Protection clause; the Court states that “the right to marry is of fundamental importance for all individuals” and continues with the observation that “the decision to marry has been placed on the same level of importance as decisions relating to procreation, childbirth, child rearing, and family relationships.” Before courts can sort out the issue of same-sex marriage, they have to figure out two things: (1) what is this “right to marry”? and (2) who has it?

What does the “right to marry” mean? On a minimal understanding, it just means that if the state chooses to offer a particular package of expressive and/or civil benefits under the name “marriage,” it must make that package available to all who seek it without discrimination (though here “all” will require further interpretation). Loving concerned the exclusion of interracial couples from the institution; Zablocki concerned the attempt of the state of Wisconsin to exclude from marriage parents who could not show that they had met their child support obligations. Another pertinent early case, Skinner v. Oklahoma, invalidated a law mandating the compulsory sterilization of the “habitual criminal,” saying that such a person, being cut off from “marriage and procreation,” would be “forever deprived of a basic liberty.” A more recent case, Turner v. Safley, invalidated a prohibition on marriages by prison inmates. All the major cases, then, turn on the denial to a particular group of people of an institutional package already available to others.

Is the right to marry, then, merely a non-discrimination right? If so, the state is not required to offer marriages at all. It’s only that once it does so, it must do so with an even hand. The talk of marriage as a “fundamental right,” together with the fact that most of these decisions mingle equal protection analysis with due process considerations, suggests, however, that something further is being said. What is it? Would it violate the Constitution if a state decided that it would offer only civil unions and drop the status of marriage, leaving that for religious and private bodies?

Put in terms of our three categories, then, does the “right to marry” obligate a state to offer a set of economic and civil benefits to married people? Does it obligate a state to confer dignity and status on certain unions by the use of the term “marriage”? And does it require the state to recognize or validate unions approved by religious bodies? Clearly, the answer to the third question is, and has always been, no. Many marriages that are approved by religious bodies are not approved by the state, as the case of same-sex marriage has long shown us, and nobody has thought it promising to contest these denials on constitutional grounds. The right to the free exercise of religion clearly does not require the state to approve all marriages a religious body approves. Nor does the “right to marry” obligate the state to offer any particular package of civil benefits to people who marry. This has been said repeatedly in cases dealing with the marriage right.

On the other side, however, it’s clear that the right in question is not simply a right to be treated like others, barring group-based discrimination. The right to marry is frequently classified with fundamental personal liberties protected by the Due Process clause of the Fourteenth Amendment. In Meyer v. Nebraska, for example, the Court says that the liberty protected by that Clause “without doubt…denotes not merely freedom from bodily restraint but also the right of the individual to contract, to engage in any of the common occupations of life, to acquire useful knowledge, to marry, establish a home and bring up children, to worship God according to the dictates of his own conscience, and generally to enjoy those privileges long recognized…as essential to the orderly pursuit of happiness by free men.” Loving, similarly, states that “the freedom to marry, or not marry, a person of another race resides with the individual and cannot be infringed by the state,” grounding this conclusion in the Due Process clause as well as the Equal Protection clause. Zablocki allows that “reasonable regulations that do not significantly interfere with decisions to enter into the marital relationship may legitimately be imposed,” but concludes that the Wisconsin law goes too far, violating rights guaranteed by the Due Process clause. Turner v. Safley, similarly, determines that the restriction of prisoner marriages violates the Due Process clause’s privacy right.

What does due process liberty mean in this case? Most of the cases concern attempts by the state to forbid a class of marriages. That sort of state interference with marriage is, apparently, unconstitutional on due process as well as equal protection grounds. So, if a state forbade everyone to marry, that would presumably be unconstitutional.

Nowhere, however, has the Court held that a state must offer the expressive benefits of marriage. There would appear to be no constitutional barrier to the decision of a state to get out of the expressive game altogether, going over to a regime of civil unions or, even more extremely, to a regime of private contract for marriages, in which the state plays the same role it plays in any other contractual process.

Again, the issue turns on equality. What the cases consistently hold is that when the state does offer a status that has both civil benefits and expressive dignity, it must offer it with an even hand. This position, which I’ve called “minimal,” is not so minimal when one looks into it. Laws against miscegenation were in force in sixteen states at the time of Loving.

In other words, marriage is a fundamental liberty right of individuals, and because it is that, it also involves an equality dimension: groups of people cannot be fenced out of that fundamental right without some overwhelming reason. It’s like voting: there isn’t a constitutional right to vote, as such: some jobs can be filled by appointment. But the minute voting is offered, it is unconstitutional to fence out a group of people from the exercise of the right. At this point, then, the questions become, Who has this liberty/equality right to marry? And what reasons are strong enough to override it?
Who has the right? At one extreme, it seems clear that, under existing law, the state that offers marriage is not required to allow it to polygamous unions. Whatever one thinks about the moral issues involved in polygamy, our constitutional tradition has upheld a law making polygamy criminal, so it is clear, at present, that polygamous unions do not have equal recognition. (The legal arguments against polygamy, however, are extremely weak. The primary state interest that is strong enough to justify legal restriction is an interest in the equality of the sexes, which would not tell against a regime of sex-equal polygamy.)

Regulations on incestuous unions have also typically been thought to be reasonable exercises of state power, although, here again, the state interests have been defined very vaguely. The interest in preventing child abuse would justify a ban on most cases of parent-child incest, but it’s unclear that there is any strong state interest that should block adult brothers and sisters from marrying. (The health risk involved is no greater than in many cases where marriage is permitted.) Nonetheless, it’s clear that if a brother-sister couple challenged such a restriction today on due process/equal protection grounds, they would lose, because the state’s alleged (health) interest in forbidding such unions would prevail.

How should we think of these cases? Should we think that these individuals have a right to marry as they choose, but that the state has a countervailing interest that prevails? Or should we think that they don’t have the right at all, given the nature of their choices? I incline to the former view. On this view, the state has to show that the law forbidding such unions really is supported by a strong public interest.

At the other extreme, it is also clear that the liberty and equality rights involved in the right to marry do not belong only to the potentially procreative. Turner v. Safley concerned marriages between inmates, most serving long terms, and non-incarcerated people, marriages that could not be consummated. The case rested on the emotional support provided by marriage and its religious and spiritual significance. At one point the Court mentions, as an additional factor, that the inmate may some day be released, so that the marriage might be consummated, but that is clearly not the basis of the holding. Nor does any other case suggest that the elderly or the sterile do not have the right.

The best way of summarizing the tradition seems to be this: all adults have a right to choose whom to marry. They have this right because of the emotional and personal significance of marriage, as well as its procreative potential. This right is fundamental for Due Process purposes, and it also has an equality dimension. No group of people may be fenced out of this right without an exceedingly strong state justification. It would seem that the best way to think about the cases of incest and polygamy is that in these cases the state can meet its burden, by showing that policy considerations outweigh the individual’s right, although it is not impossible to imagine that these judgments might change over time.


Legal Issues

WHAT, THEN, of people who seek to marry someone of the same sex? This is the question with which courts are currently wrestling. Recent state court decisions had to answer four questions (using not only federal constitutional law but also the text and tradition of their own state constitutions): First, will civil unions suffice, or is the status of marriage constitutionally compelled? Second, is this issue one of due process or equal protection or a complex mixture of both? Third, in assessing the putative right against the countervailing claims of state interest, is sexual orientation a suspect classification for equal protection purposes? In other words, does the state forbidding such unions have to show a mere rational basis for the law or a “compelling” state interest? Fourth, what interests might so qualify?

Three states that have recently confronted this question—Massachusetts, California, and Connecticut—give different answers to these questions, but there is a large measure of agreement. All agree that, as currently practiced, marriage is a status with a strong component of public dignity. Because of that unique status, it is fundamental to individual self-definition, autonomy, and the pursuit of happiness. The right to marry does not belong only to the potentially procreative. (The Massachusetts court notes, for example, that people who cannot stir from their deathbed are still permitted to marry.)

For all these expressive reasons, it seems that civil unions are a kind of second-class status, lacking the affirmation and recognition characteristic of marriage. As the California court put it, the right is not a right to a particular word, it is the right “to have their family relationship accorded dignity and respect equal to that accorded other officially recognized families.” All three courts draw on the miscegenation cases to make this point. The California court notes that if states opposed to miscegenation had created a separate category called “transracial union,” while still denying interracial couples the status of “marriage,” we would easily see that this was no solution.

All three courts invoke both due process and equal protection. The Massachusetts court notes that the two guarantees frequently “overlap, as they do here.” They all agree that the right to marry is an individual liberty right that also involves an equality component: a group of people can’t be fenced out of that right without a very strong governmental justification.

How strong? Here the states diverge. The Massachusetts court held that the denial of same-sex marriages fails to pass even the rational basis test. The California and Connecticut courts, by contrast, held that sexual orientation is a suspect classification, analogizing sexual orientation to gender.

What state interests lie on the other side? The California and Connecticut opinions examine carefully the main contenders, concluding that none rises to the level of a compelling interest. Preserving tradition all by itself cannot be such an interest: “the justification of ‘tradition’ does not explain the classification, it just repeats it.” Nor can discrimination be justified simply on the grounds that legislators have strong convictions. None of the other preferred policy considerations (the familiar ones we have already identified) stands up as sufficiently strong.

These opinions will not convince everyone. Nor will all who like their conclusion, or even their reasoning, agree that it’s good for courts to handle this issue, rather than democratic majorities. But the opinions, I believe, should convince a reasonable person that constitutional law, and therefore courts, have a legitimate role to play in this divisive area, at least sometimes, standing up for minorities who are at risk in the majoritarian political process.


Future of Marriage

WHAT OUGHT we to hope and work for, as a just future for families in our society? Should government continue to marry people at all? Should it drop the expressive dimension and simply offer civil-union packages? Should it back away from package deals entirely, in favor of a regime of disaggregated benefits and private contract? Such questions, the penumbra of any constitutional debate, require us to identify the vital rights and interests that need state protection and to think how to protect them without impermissibly infringing either equality or individual liberty. Our analysis of the constitutional issues does not dictate specific answers to these questions, but it does constrain the options we ought to consider.

The future of marriage looks, in one way, a lot like its past. People will continue to unite, form families, have children, and, sometimes, split up. What the Constitution dictates, however, is that whatever the state decides to do in this area will be done on a basis of equality. Government cannot exclude any group of citizens from the civil benefits or the expressive dignities of marriage without a compelling public interest. The full inclusion of same-sex couples is in one sense a large change, just as official recognition of interracial marriage was a large change, and just as the full inclusion of women and African Americans as voters and citizens was a large change. On the other hand, those changes are best seen as a true realization of the promise contained in our constitutional guarantees. We should view this change in the same way. The politics of humanity asks us to stop viewing same-sex marriage as a source of taint or defilement to traditional marriage but, instead, to understand the human purposes of those who seek marriage and the similarity of what they seek to that which straight people seek. When we think this way, the issue ought to look like the miscegenation issue: as an exclusion we can no longer tolerate in a society pursuing equal respect and justice for all.


Martha Nussbaum is Ernst Freund Distinguished Service Professor of Law and Ethics at the University of Chicago, appointed in Law, Philosophy, and Divinity. This essay is adapted from her From Disgust to Humanity: Sexual Orientation and the Constitution, which will be published by Oxford University Press in February 2010.

Read Martha Ackelsberg , Stephanie Coontz , and Katha Pollitt ’s online responses to “A Right to Marry?”

Works consulted for this essay include:

Nancy F. Cott, Public Vows: A History of Marriage and the Nation (Harvard University Press, 2000).
Charles Fried, Modern Liberty: and the Limits of Government (New York: W.W. Norton, 2006).
Hendrik Hartog, Man and Wife in America: A History (Harvard University Press, 2000).
Andrew Koppelman, Same Sex, Different States: When Same-Sex Marriages Cross State Lines (Yale University Press, 2006).
Cass R. Sunstein, “The Right to Marry,” Cardozo Law Review 26 (2005), 2081-2120.
Susan Treggiari, Roman Marriage (Oxford University Press, 1991).
Craig Williams, Roman Homosexuality (Oxford University Press, 1999). Updated edition forthcoming, 2009.

ED. NOTE: This article was written before the California court ruling on Proposition 8 or the proposed vote in the New York State legislature.

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Essay: Should Same Sex Marriage be Legalized?

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The argument for or against same sex marriage(SSM) has raged for several years in America and around the world. Some see same sex marriage as a legal civil right that is presently being denied to some who want to get married. Others, primarily right wing Christian conservatives as well as many in the Black church view same sex marriage as going against God’s law. Several American states and countries around the world allow for same sex unions. However the argument continues to go on and on and on.

Some argue that allowing same sex marriage will destroy the institution of marriage in general, yet studies in Scandinavia where same sex marriage started years ago, suggest otherwise. Some allege that children are negatively affected by having two parents of the same sex. But no credible study has ever been able to document this allegation. Some conservatives argue that allowing same sex marriage opens the door to other things such as polygamy. They don’t back it up with any real evidence just the charge that this will happen. Another allegation is that SSM will make heterosexual divorce too easy. Critics shoot back that heterosexual divorce can’t get too much easier because it is already at nearly 60% of married couples who seek divorce.

Opponents of SSM claim that schools will be forced to teach tolerance in schools, meaning the schools would be forced to teach straight kids to be nice to gay kids. Tolerance is apparently no longer a Christian principle according to the conservative right. Allowing SSM also opens the door to same sexed couples being able to adopt children and this would be a way for homosexuals to recruit naive children into the ranks of militant homosexuals. This charge belies the fact that homosexuality just like heterosexuality is a born characteristic, not a learned characteristic.

Allowing SSM would mean that straight foster parents would now have to undergo sensitivity training, for so far, unclear reasons. This is one of many allegations that have no basis in fact or common sense but still viewed as legitimate arguments by Christian conservatives. Similar reasoning applies to the argument that Social Security can’t afford to pay for same sex couples. The so called justification for this allegation is convoluted with no basis in fact. One other argument claims that SSM would hinder evangelists in doing their job. In other words, that SSM would impede religion and religious practices.

Still others maintain that allowing SSM will bring divine retribution from God. These conservatives claim that God will destroy America or other tolerant countries in the same fashion as Sodom was destroyed. Those in favor of SSM view it simply as a civil right that has nothing really to do with religion but everything to do with equality of all people.

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Dr. Janice Carter-Steward

Sample Persuasive Message

In this paper the subject to identify is three behaviors inherent in e-tailing, explain how each medium enables e-commerce, and analyze each behavior using the communication process. The three behaviors to be discussed are independent variables, intervening variables, and dependent variables.
Two types of independent variables are personal characteristics and environmental…

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1984 Essay and Persuasive Techniques

762 Words | 4 Pages

unravels, Winston begins to show his opposition against the party. The party controls everything in the society and puts everything the way they want it to be, endlessly reminding people that they need to support their country, Oceania. Using the persuasive techniques of reasons, loaded words, and bandwagon appeal, George Orwell develops his theme that thoughts can be controlled.
First, Orwell uses the technique of reasons to develop his theme of thought control. “Do it to Julia! Do it to Julia!…

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Persuasive Essay : Gun Control

798 Words | 4 Pages

Persuasive Essay
Did you know that in the United States almost 100,000 people are shot or killed with a gun in one year? 10,527 people die a year in handgun related incidents in the United States. This number, by far, outweighs the number of gun related deaths in countries such as Sweden, Great Britain, and Japan, which number 13, 22, and 87, respectively. What is the reason for such drastic differences in numbers? Sweden, Great Britain, and Japan are all countries that have stricter gun control…

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Persuasive Speech Essay

736 Words | 3 Pages

PERSUASIVE SPEECH

“It’s that sad animal shelter commercial again, change the channel!”
How many of you have said this before? I have. This used to be my
initial reaction almost every time ads of animal adoption agencies
came on TV. This is also probably the general reaction of most
viewers when presented with such sad images. We all prefer to watch
those funny videos of dogs standing on two legs or cats wearing silly
outfits. And of course that’s fine; we all need a little entertainment…

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Persuasive Essay

804 Words | 4 Pages

Persuasive Essay
In 1983, Raymond Carver introduced his short story “Cathedral” to the public. The first-person narrative takes place within the narrator’s home, where his wife is waiting upon the arrival of her blind friend Robert. The narrator, however, becomes more concerned about how Robert’s visit will affect him rather than enjoy the situation. Once Robert arrives, the narrator tries to understand the blind man, but he is unaware of what tasks Robert is capable of performing due to the narrator’s…

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Essay on Persuasive Speech

822 Words | 4 Pages

Ashley Buckner
Persuasive Speech
COMM210D
4/20/12

Why should you smile?

I. Imagine: you wake up in the morning. You get ready and grab a cup of coffee. Then, you walk out the door, seeing many faces as you make your way to work, and walk up to your building. When you walk inside expecting to be greeted by many more positive faces, you see none, and so you walk over and sit down at your desk. While thinking back on your morning to work you were realizing that there was not a moment of…

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Mice and Men Persuasive Essay

799 Words | 4 Pages

Of Mice and Men persuasive essay
Death, the one thing every person will eventually face, could be seen as an end or an entrance. What is your extent of a friendship? How far are you willing to go to help the person you care for? For many reasons, the majority of people think murder is immoral—especially if it was your own best friend. But sometimes we may have to go to the extreme, as long as we know it was the right thing to do from the heart because that’s how much you know you care. In the story…

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Persuasive Speech Outline Essay

1117 Words | 5 Pages

Persuasive Speech Outline
ALL 50 STATES SHOULD HAVE MANDATORY MOTORCYCLE HELMET LAWS
TOPIC: Mandatory motorcycle helmet laws
PURPOSE: To persuade the audience that all 50 states should enact and enforce a mandatory
motorcycle helmet law.
THESIS STATEMENT: Mandatory helmet laws save lives and dollars.
INTRODUCTION


Did you know that only 19 states and the District of Columbia have laws in place that
require all motorcycle riders to wear a helmet? 19!?
28 states have laws covering…

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Persuasive Speech Essay

875 Words | 4 Pages

PERSUASIVE SPEECH

GENERAL PURPOSE: To persuade the audience that pit bulls are nice loving dogs.
SPECIFIC PURPOSE: To persuade the audience that pit bulls are not naturally dangerous.
CENTRAL IDEA: Pit bulls are just like any other dog. It depends on how a pit bull or any other breed of dog is nurtured to determine the characteristics of the dog.

Pit bulls are very loving and obedient

INTRODUCTION

I. Do you have a dog? Does anyone have a pit bull? Well I happy to say that I…

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Persuasive Essay

1207 Words | 5 Pages

Final: Persuasive Essay
“Home Sweet Home”
COM/156

Why spend money that is really needed for other things? Why live uncomfortably? Why be trapped in this hole called a home that belongs to another person? Why not live free and peacefully? When a person rents he or she usually throws away money that could be used to purchase something that belongs to them. Money is not easy to come by so why pay out hundreds toward something that is not benefit to the person paying it out. There is no good explanation…

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E-Tailing Persuasive Message

978 Words | 4 Pages

similar model. The sender must make clear the purpose of the message, choose the best media for their message, and the technology they will use to deliver the message. When a business chooses the right forum they can be very effective in e tailing.
Persuasive Message
Member of the Community,
Your local City Animal Shelter is making the move into becoming a no kill shelter by the year 2012. We are asking the residents of this city to assist us in meeting this goal by participating in our upcoming low…

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Persuasive Outline-Organ Donation

886 Words | 4 Pages

PERSUASIVE SPEECH OUTLINE – ORGAN DONATION
Topic: Organ donation
Thesis Statement: Becoming an organ donor after death is not only an important decision for yourself, but it is also an important decision for the life that you may have the power to save.
Purpose: To persuade my audience to consider becoming organ donors after death

Introduction:
1. Organ donation is a selfless way to give back to others, and to be able to make a huge difference by giving another person a second chance…

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Sample Persuasive Message

1116 Words | 5 Pages

Sample Persuasive Message
Rodolfo G. Garcia Jr.
COMM/470
August 22, 2011
Margarette Chavez

Sample Persuasive Message
E-tailing, short for electronic retailing is the sale of retail merchandise over the internet. There are many factors that beckon different behaviors in e-tailing ( Searchcio.com, 2011 ). It is the new wave of the world today. As technology steers our habits toward electronic commerce, it affects different behavioral aspects for both e-tailers and their customers. E-commerce…

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Persuasive Communication Theory

9998 Words | 40 Pages

Persuasive Communication Theory in Social Psychology: A Historical Perspective

Icek Ajzen University of Massachusetts – Amherst

From M. J. Manfredo (Ed) (1992). Influencing Human Behavior: Theory and Applications in Recreation and Tourism (pp 1– 27). Champaign, IL: Sagamore Publishing.

Persuasive Communication Theory

Page 1

Few subjects in social psychology have attracted as much interest and attention as persuasive communication. One of the first topics to be systematically investigated, persuasion…

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Persuasive Advertising (Example of an Ad)

1860 Words | 8 Pages

Persuasive Advertising
Advertising plays an important role in our diverse, media-saturated world. It surrounds our everyday lives. It is in everything we do, whether we are looking for a number in the phone directory, taking a ride down a road, or watching TV. According to Jamie Beckett’s article in San Francisco Chronicle, “The average U.S. adult is bombarded by 255 advertisements every day–100 on TV, 60 in magazines, 50 on the radio, and 45 in newspapers” (Beckett). More recently, Advertising…

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Persuasive Communication and

1272 Words | 6 Pages

Persuasive Communication and

Effective Negotiations

Introduction

In business the most vital skill is communication. In a setting where ideas are the business, it is imperative to be able to communicate those ideas effectively. The most important part of communication is the persuasive message. Communication is defined as a process by which we give and express meaning in an effort to create shared understanding. This process requires a huge range of skills in intrapersonal and interpersonal…

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Persuasive Approach to Communication

681 Words | 3 Pages

What different persuasive approaches would you use on the following audiences: a boss, a peer, a challenging person, and an open-minded person? Why would your approach differ with each. (275 words)

Each of the audiences of boss, peer, challenging person and open-minded person require significantly different communication strategies. With each, advanced planning and organization of the persuasive message, from the informal to the highly structured, are essential if the persuasive communication…

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Persuasive Essay

1168 Words | 5 Pages

Persuasive Essay Draft
Daniel Petry
Keiser University

Being an athletes is one of the best-paid jobs on Earth. Being that they are paid so much the cost for the consumer is very high. The prices of tickets and sports memorabilia have been steadily rising over the years. The average ticket prices for the NHL, MLB, NBA and NFL all rose 5% to 10% this year, according to Jon Greenberg, executive editor of Team Marketing Report. (Mihoces).
Athletes are very highly paid due to the fact that there…

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Minimum Wage Persuasive Essay

1067 Words | 5 Pages

Randy Oczkowski
Mrs. Kenny
March 25, 2013
Persuasive Essay

$7.25 equals two gallons of gas, one fast food meal, or a simple school supply. With the minimum wage at the current rate you must work one hour to earn the seven dollars and twenty-five cents that only supply you with small necessities for everyday living. This problem was encountered before and was resolved with the agreement to higher the minimum wage from $5.85 to the current $7.25. Although that was a big increase in salaries…

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Romeo and Juliet Persuasive Essay

660 Words | 3 Pages

Romeo and Juliet Persuasive Essay

This play is about a boy named Romeo and girl named Juliet. Their family are mortal enemies so that means that they are always fighting with one another. At a Capulet party Romeo and Juliet meet for the first time not knowing who each other are, until later that night that they are enemies. They begin to fall in love with each other and get married after meeting for one night. Then the drama gets to their head and they kill themselves. In Romeo and Juliet…

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Persuasive Speech

2173 Words | 9 Pages

PERSUASIVE SPEECH OUTLINE SAMPLE – MOTIVATED SEQUENCE PATTERN By Fui Oili (with modifications made by S. Pastor) TITLE: Vacation in Hawaii GENERAL PURPOSE: To persuade SPECIFIC PURPOSE (GOAL): To persuade my audience to choose to take a vacation to the neighbor islands before taking a vacation out of the state or country. GENERAL IDEA: Visitors come from all over the world to experience the beauty and adventure of Hawaii. However, many local residents haven’t had the opportunity to experience all…

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Persuasive Business Messages Essay

756 Words | 4 Pages

MANAGEMENT 101

BUSINESS COMMUNICATION

Why is it important to present both sides of an argument when writing a persuasive message to a potentially hostile audience?

It is important to present both sides of the argument in a persuasive message to a potentially hostile audience because one has to try and avoid angering the audience even more. What one aims to do is to persuade the audience and let them know that they acknowledge the audiences view on the matter at hand.
To show that one…

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Essay on The Persuasive Text

836 Words | 4 Pages

The purpose of a persuasive text is to change or alter the viewpoint of the reader for it to agree with the author’s perspective. The intention of this specific text is to persuade the reader to help end poverty today by joining ‘Make Poverty History’ and it uses persuasive language and techniques to do this – this essay will explain the effect on the reader and will focus on analysing persuasive language.
Pronouns are an effective persuasive language technique because they address the reader directly…

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Persuasive Lying Essay

1907 Words | 8 Pages

Persuasive Lying Essay
People often say that honesty is the best policy. You should listen to them they know what they’re talking about. Lying. In the dictionary the definition of lying is an “intentionally told false statement” but the dictionary doesn’t list the consequences of a lie or why said false statements were used. So, I’ll have to do it.
I know that no one wants to hear that they look fat or grotesque , or that the ugly sweater they gave someone for Christmas will never see anything…

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Persuasive Speech Outline Essay

1164 Words | 5 Pages

Persuasive Speech
Strategy
Specific Purpose: To persuade the audience that Capital Punishment does not deter crime and that it should be abolished.
Central Idea: Homicide rates are lower in non-death penalty states when compared to states with the death penalty.
Main Points: I. The death penalty has no deterrent effect.
II. The costs of administrating capital punishment are prohibitive.
III. States with the death penalty have higher murder rates than those without…

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Persuasive Messages Paper

1165 Words | 5 Pages

Persuasive Messages Paper
The new advances in technology allow businesses to reach different customer bases. This includes buying and selling products over the Internet. The online shopping process is considered e-commerce. E-commerce is made up of different behaviors but for the purpose of this discussion the three discussed are consumer-to-consumer (C2C), business-to-business (B2B), and consumer-to-business (C2B). The different behaviors have different mediums to reach their targeted audience…

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Blood Donation Persuasive Speaking

1497 Words | 6 Pages

Persuasive Speech: Donate Blood
Summary: Objective essay to persuade people to give blood.
Specific Purpose Statement: To persuade my audience to go out and give blood
Introduction:

I. Imagine your father has just suffered a heart attack and must undergo open-heart surgery in order to repair the damage.

II. Imagine your little nephew or niece baby was born with a heart defect and required daily transfusions of blood in order to have a chance at survival.

III. Imagine your best friend…

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Sample Persuasive Message

1623 Words | 7 Pages

Sample Persuasive Message
Your Name
COMM 470
Instructore
March 29, 2012

Sample Persuasive Message
Most people have ventured onto the world wide web. Some enter the online world to check email from family members far away. Other people enjoy the web to watch videos on YouTube of babies doing the weirdest thing. Some log online for social media websites that let them know what their friends, family and celebrities are doing that day. Most people who have ventured online have shopped on…

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Persuasive Essay on Layoffs

1078 Words | 5 Pages

Persuasive Essay: Layoffs within a Company
Prudence Blackman
COMM/215
October-13, 2014
Dr. Stephanie Lyncheski

Persuasive Essay: Layoffs within a Company
The decision to lay off employees cannot be the easiest for companies. There is a variety of different reasons why employers layoff their employees, and the laws in many states allow them to at any time as long as the reason does not contravene state or federal law. Being let go from your job can happen by firing or layoff, and though neither…

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Persuasive Speech

1777 Words | 8 Pages

Persuasive speech outline purpose: To persuade my audience to donate blood through the American Red Cross. Introduction:
1. Did you know that blood donated to the American Red Cross saves XXX lives per year?
2. People should give blood because it is easy and though there might be a little pain involved it is worth it because it saves so many lives and you get great snacks. Body:
I. Giving blood is easy
a. It only takes about an hour
b. You just lay back and let the nurses do the work
c. It…

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Persuasive Speech Outline

1309 Words | 6 Pages

Persuasive Speech Outline (Using Monroe’s Motivated Sequence)

Topic: Voting in Election
Specific Purpose: To persuade the audience to vote in democratic elections to voice out their opinions and beliefs regardless of their background, to decide for their future, and to preserve the essence of democracy.

Attention:
* Provide a vivid description of people struggling to fight for their voting rights in certain countries.
* Share relevant facts /statistics of how a small number of votes…

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Persuasive Essay

873 Words | 4 Pages

Evan Bennett
November 4, 2010
Persuasive Essay
Gay discrimination is a major problem that affects individuals all across the country. The Defense of Marriage Act needs to be repealed. First, the Defense against Marriage Act will be explained and then why it needs to be repealed, then the effects the law has on society.
The federal government needs to give same sex couples the same health benefits that heterosexual couples receive. Currently, the government offers employees benefits such as health…

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Persuasive Speech Essays

1052 Words | 5 Pages

Persuasive Speech

Introduction
a. Attention Getter : When people ask me why I joined the military I think of all the reason that I did it for, but I think Toby Keith sums it up the best : “ ’cause freedom don’t come free.”
b. Topic : Freedoms come with a great cost but yet we still do not care for our veterans well enough
c. Preview: Today I will tell you how veterans suffer from Post traumatic stress disorder or PTSD and cant get help, how veterans are homeless and why they are…

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Drinking and Driving Persuasive Essay

858 Words | 4 Pages

Drinking and Driving Persuasive Essay

Comm215

July 12, 2010

Drinking and Driving

Each year numerous lives are lost due to careless and irrational driving. The disregard for safe driving has been a predicament to the United States of America for years. Many years Police have relied heavily on speed cameras, breathalyzer tests and heavy fines as a deterrent against unlawful drivers. Over the years fatality rates have increased, so the Department of Transportation and Highway Safety has…

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Persuasive Speech

1153 Words | 5 Pages

PERSUASIVE SPEECH OUTLINE
Topic: Organ Donation
Specific Purpose: To persuade my audience to donate their organs and tissues when they die and to act upon their decision to donate.
INTODUCTION
Attention: How do you feel when you have to wait for something you really, really want? What if it was something you couldn’t live without? Ladies and gentlemen I’m here today to share with you my views on organ donation, in the hope that you will take them on board and give someone the ultimate…

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Persuasive Speech Essay

1164 Words | 5 Pages

Persuasive Speech

WHY BOTHER TO VOTE
Introduction:
Ever since this country was established citizens have fought for a right that often is not exercised by today’s youth; along with many others. This right that I speak of is the right to vote. In the beginning one had to be a white male landowner in order to receive this right. However through the years and many trying battles all citizens of the US that are 18 years and older have earned this right. Voting is something that many of us take for…

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Illuminati Paper Persuasive

1717 Words | 7 Pages

Manar khateeb
Mr. Carli

Persuasive (Final Draft)

Com 102 6:30

March 20, 2011

The Illuminati

The illuminati are a secret society that infiltrated government to rule the world. It all started in Bavaria on May 1st 1776 by group of European higher ups lead by Adam Weishaupt. Adams philosophy was that the Illuminati should one day rule the world with a one world government, or a new world order. Adam Weishaupt said, “The great strength of our order lies in its concealment, let it never appear in…

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Persuasive Speech

1641 Words | 7 Pages

Laura Boreen
Neilson
Intro to Public Speaking
14 November 2010

Persuasive Speech
Reduce Landfill Waste by Reduce, Reuse and Recycling and the financial benefits

I. Introduction
A. Attention Getter: Over half of the waste that ends up in the landfill does not belong there because it could have been recycled or reused.

B. Credibility Statement: Not only do I religiously practice reducing, reusing, and recycling, but I have done a great deal of research for this speech, also research…

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Persuasive Speech : Social Networks

960 Words | 4 Pages

Persuasive Speech : Social Networks

INTRODUCTION
Nowdays, many existing social sites mediate worldwide. Among the popular website and the choice and the madness of all ages, especially teens are Facebook, Twitter, Friendster, and Myspace. Most social network services are web based and offers multiple ways of interaction between users, such as online chats, exchange messages, e-mail, video, voice chat, file sharing, blogging, discussion groups…

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Essay on Is Cricket a Global Game

Is Cricket a Global Game Indeed?

Recently the International Cricket Council has started a campaign named “Bigger Better Global Game”. The campaign is calculated for four sequent years, and enshrines the increasing popularity of cricket, which is believed to turn cricket into a truly global game with increased number of teams and fans. But aren’t the board of ICC too optimistic, and have they any reasons for making such claims on a day before the fair? Let’s take a closer look on the game of cricket and try to identify can it really be called a global game.
Read more »

Persuasive Speech on Abortion

Abortion

Abortion is one of the most debatable and controversial issues that exist today in our society. There are people who support the idea that it should be a choice of each and every woman – whether to do it or not, while others claim that no one has a power to decide, whether to bring life on the planet, or put an end to it. As for me, I have done a certain research on the subject and I found out that there is no other right variant for me, than to choose life. I will explain what I mean.

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Should Privileges of Teenage Drivers Be Restricted?

It is Friday evening… I cannot wait to have my friends jump into the car to catch up with Tom’s birthday party. We have barely driven a mile when a police officer greets me with a ticket. Why? I am 16 years old, carrying four teenagers, at night and in absence of an adult. Our plan for some fun just failed. So, is there a basis for restricting the privileges of teenage drivers? Yes, I do find merit in that reasoning.

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What Are the Positive Effects of Teenagers Surfing the Net?

Everywhere you look nowadays there will be an article or a news story on the detriments of teenagers using the Internet: from social networking disasters, to them being scammed out of their (or their parents’) money. However, very few people have taken the time to look at the positive effects of teenagers surfing the Internet, and this is a great shame.

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Plagiarism Essay

Effects of Plagiarism

Plagiarism, one of the main scourges of the academic life, is quite an easy concept, but, nonetheless, harmful. In short, to plagiarize means to steal someone else’s idea or part of work and use it as your own. But why exactly it is considered to be so bad and immoral? And it is really considered immoral and a serious offence. In case it is discovered, it may lead to very unpleasant consequences; the higher the position of the offender is, the more unpleasant they are.

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Sample Persuasive Speech on Why Discrimination Will Always Exist

Our society is developing and continuously improving. That is what we hear all the time from TV screens and front pages of the newspapers. Undoubtedly, there are problems, but we are becoming more socially oriented, tolerant, and culturally diverse. There is less discrimination and more understanding. And we are on the way to our ideal future. It all sounds very enthusiastic, but the truth is that discrimination will never be eliminated.

Read more »

Sample Persuasive Speech on War Is a Female Game

It seems that the time of sexual prejudice and discrimination, when war and military service were thought to be a purely male affair, has long become a thing in the past, giving women a freedom to choose such a career. However, if you consider this issue seriously, you will be surprised to find that an idea of a woman joining the army is still met with lots of raised eyebrows.

Read more »

Sample Persuasive Speech on Society Is Not the Key Factor in the Development of a Human Being

Almost all theories of human development agree upon the fact that society is the key factor in the development of a human being. This is what teaches people to learn how the world is organized and structured by means of communication and provides them with possibility to evaluate themselves through the perception of other individuals. However, I strongly disagree that society is the key factor shaping a personality.

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Sample Persuasive Speech on School Is Not Necessary for Successful Socialization of the Personality

School education is traditionally considered to be the necessary prerequisite of the successful socialization of a personality. Going to school children not only acquire knowledge about the surrounding world, but also go through a preparation stage for successful adaptation to life in the modern world. It helps children learn how to organize their day, communicate with peers, evaluate and assess themselves and others and form a complex system of ties with the surrounding world.

Read more »

Sample Persuasive Speech on Natural Parenting as the Only Right Way to Bring up a Child

For more than a century we have been taught by the medical science how to bring children up and take care of them in the correct, up-to-date way. However, nowadays more and more people turn to what is called natural parenting – simple, instinctive and traditional methods of parenting without any common goods created just to enrich commercial companies and make you feel more distant and separated from your baby.

Read more »

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    16 Best Online Colleges in Minnesota

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    Best Online Colleges in Minnesota
    Best Online Colleges in Minnesota
    Best Online Colleges in Minnesota
    Best Online Colleges in Minnesota

    COLLEGE CHOICE

    COLLEGE CHOICE

    COLLEGE CHOICE

    COLLEGE CHOICE

    Degree Finder

    COLLEGE CHOICE

    COLLEGE CHOICE

    COLLEGE CHOICE

    COLLEGE CHOICE

    Degree Finder

    Best Online Colleges in Minnesota
    Best Online Colleges in Minnesota
    Best Online Colleges in Minnesota
    Best Online Colleges in Minnesota

    16 Best Online Colleges in Minnesota

    16 Best Online Colleges in Minnesota

    16 Best Online Colleges in Minnesota

    16 Best Online Colleges in Minnesota

    When starting a search with the words “Why is Minnesota” the first option is the question “Why is Minnesota so cold?”

    Best Online Colleges in Minnesota 1

    A state with more than 10,000 lakes and a population of over 5 million, Minnesota is known for its freezing temperatures than can drop to a record -60 degrees Fahrenheit. Luckily, the state has a variety of schools offering online degree options for students, meaning you can avoid these extreme temperature changes and still take advantage of Minnesota’s wonderful educational programs from the comfort of your own home.

    Minnesota is the 2nd highest ranked state in the country to have a population between 25-64 years of age educated at the undergraduate level or higher, with half at this status according to the Minnesota Office of Higher Education. Being one of the most highly educated states impacts, of course, both Minnesota’s culture and economy. Minnesota residents rank among the most charitable, and the state is home to Mayo Clinic, one of the largest nonprofit medical organizations.

    Minnesota not only has well-renowned brick-and-mortar universities but also universities with online programs which are equally as engaging, rigorous and esteemed that allow students from all around the country to experience the educational opportunity of studying there without leaving their homes. Online programs have an overwhelming amount of advantages. They are ideal particularly for students who have full-time jobs and other obligations, are non-traditional students, or simply prefer the flexibility online degrees offer. When taking courses online, whether fully or partially, students save a significant amount of money by cutting transportation, housing, and other typical on-campus expenses.

    For those who possess time-management skills, a complicated schedule, or find the idea of working on their own pace appealing, online school in Minnesota is a wonderful choice.

    What are the best online colleges in Minnesota?

    In order to determine which higher learning institutions belong on the list below, we take several factors into account. Calculating the institutional excellence and return on investment are critical, decided through examining the school’s reputation, graduation rate, costs, anticipated post-graduation salaries, and more. Data sources are the National Center for Education Statistics’ IPEDS, Payscale, and US News & World Report. Additionally, student satisfaction is a component measured through student reviews.

    1

    University of Minnesota-Twin Cities

    College Choice Score: 100

    Average Net Price: $15,371

    School Website

    University of Minnesota Twin Cities University of Minnesota Twin Cities University of Minnesota Twin Cities University of Minnesota Twin Cities

    Overview

    Founded in 1851, University of Minnesota-Twin Cities is located in Minneapolis-Saint Paul, Minnesota. This public university is the largest of the 5 campuses in the University of Minnesota school system with over 46,000 total enrolled students.

    Features

    In total, this Twin Cities location offers 7 undergraduate certificates, 13 graduate certificates, 20 bachelor’s degrees, 18 master’s degrees, and 15 doctorate degrees either partially or fully online. As the university’s website states, students do not pay for the cost of additional credits after 13. Additionally, transcripts do not specify programs were completed online. The following are popular undergraduate online programs:

    • Psychology (B.A.S)
    • Accounting (B.S.)
    • Marketing (B.S.)
    • International Business (B.S.)

    Notables

    The University of Minnesota Twin Cities emphasizes the importance of volunteer work, earning federal recognition for community service. The university is home to Minnesota’s sole pharmacy, dental and veterinary colleges.

    2

    The College of Saint Scholastica

    College Choice Score: 92.79

    Average Net Price: $22,719

    School Website

    The College of Saint Scholastica The College of Saint Scholastica The College of Saint Scholastica The College of Saint Scholastica

    Overview

    Founded in 1912 by Benedictine missionaries, The College of Saint Scholastica is part of a larger Saint Scholastica system, in which this Duluth location is the main campus. This private institution continues to be religiously affiliated, specifically Benedictine Catholic. The population consists of 2,284 undergraduate and 1,565 graduate students.

    Features

    The College of Saint Scholastica offers two types of online learning: synchronous virtual classrooms and asynchronous online courses. Online courses allow for students to have more flexible hours, while virtual classrooms provide an environment where students can engage with their peers and instructors without leaving their location through video/audio conferencing.

    There is an ample variety of programs available to take either partially or fully online, including 8 undergraduate, 5 master’s, and 3 doctorates, along with a range of both graduate and undergraduate certifications and licensures. Along with for-credit courses, the college also offers MOOCs (short for massive online open course), which are free courses thousands can sign up for and participate in. Many programs provide eight-week terms, which allow students to finish their degree at a faster pace than one otherwise would on campus. The following are popular fully or partially online undergraduate programs offered:

    • Accounting (B.A.)
    • Elementary Education Degree Completion (B.S.)
    • Health Information Management (B.S.)
    • A./B.S. Computer Information Systems (CIS)
    • Nursing (Post-Baccalaureate-B.S.)

    Notables

    Most instructors at The College of Saint Scholastica use Blackboard, a widely used online learning interface. St. Scholastica also offers easily accessible 24/7 technological support and demos to help students on their online degree path.

    3

    Bethel University

    College Choice Score: 90.56

    Average Net Price: $18,628

    School Website

    Bethel University MN copy Bethel University MN copy Bethel University MN copy Bethel University MN copy

    Overview

    Bethel University is a private Evangelical Christian college located in Saint Paul, Minnesota. Originally founded in 1871 as a seminary school, it now is one of the largest colleges in a 13-college Christian consortium with about 6,000 total students enrolled. The college is sponsored by a Christian body of churches called Converge Worldwide.

    Features

    Bethel University specializes in seminary programs and offers undergraduate, graduate and seminary courses online. Both hybrid and wholly online classes are available. Among fully-online undergraduate degrees are:

    • Business Management (B.S.)
    • Nursing (RN to B.S.)
    • Christian Ministries (B.A.)
    • Human Services (B.A.)

    Notables

    Christian faith is highly implemented in the college’s mission statement. The college proclaims itself as a “Christ-centered educational community,” an ideal university for those with strong religious ties.

    4

    University of Minnesota Duluth

    College Choice Score: 89.31

    Average Net Price: $15,653

    School Website

    University of Minnesota Duluth University of Minnesota Duluth University of Minnesota Duluth University of Minnesota Duluth

    Overview

    The University of Minnesota Duluth is a public university founded in 1895, originally as the Duluth Normal School. The campus covers 244 acres, and the school has an enrollment of over 11,000 students. The institution is one of 5 locations for the University of Minnesota system.

    Features

    The university offers both partially and fully online programs, each with the same level of engagement as wholly on-campus courses. The following are University of Minnesota Duluth’s online degree programs:

    Fully online –

    • Psychology (B.S.)
    • Tribal Administration and Governance (B.A)

    Hybrid –

    • Social Work (B.S.W.)
    • Master of Education (M.Ed.)
    • Master of Tribal Administration and Governance

    Along with these, the university also offers many non-credit certificate programs.

    Notables

    The University of Minnesota Duluth uses Moodle for their online courses for students to engage with their classmates and instructors. The school is accredited by the Higher Learning Commission. It is the home of the Large Lakes Observatory and carries a reputation for leading research on large lakes worldwide.

    5

    Minnesota State University-Mankato

    College Choice Score: 87.91

    Average Net Price: $13,515

    School Website

    Minnesota State University Mankato Minnesota State University Mankato Minnesota State University Mankato Minnesota State University Mankato

    Overview

    Originally founded in 1868 as the Mankato Normal School, the school became Minnesota State University-Mankato in 1998.  It is part of a larger Minnesota State Colleges and Universities System. The public university is located in Mankato, Minnesota with a total student population of over 15,000 and boasts more than 130 undergraduate programs.

    Features

    Minnesota State University-Mankato offers a variety of bachelor’s, master’s, and doctorate programs, along with certificate programs at both the undergraduate and graduate level. Specifically, the college offers many online master’s programs that focus on education. The following are popular fully-online programs Minnesota State University-Mankato offers:

    • International Business (B.S.)
    • Elementary Education (M.S.)
    • Dental Hygiene (B.S.)
    • Technical Communication (M.A.)

    Notables

    The university utilizes rolling admission, allowing for a quick response time regarding your application. Additionally, students can submit a request to receive in-state tuition rates if they take exclusively 100% online courses at Minnesota State University-Mankato.

    6

    Minnesota State University Moorhead

    College Choice Score: 82.96

    Average Net Price: $14,305

    School Website

    minnesota state university moorhead minnesota state university moorhead minnesota state university moorhead minnesota state university moorhead

    Overview

    Minnesota State University Moorhead is a public university located in Moorhead, Minnesota. Originally founded in 1888 as The Moorhead Normal School, the institution received many name changes throughout the years as it boosted in student population and accreditation, eventually landing on its current name in 2000. It is part of a larger Minnesota State Colleges and Universities System. The school has no religious affiliation and holds a student body of 5,923.

    Features

    This school’s online programs are ideal for graduate students and transfer undergraduate students, as the undergraduate courses are designed for degree completion from transferring, and the university provides an ample selection of graduate programs. Both hybrid and fully-online courses are offered, along with “online plus” courses which are fully online with the option to have in person classes as well. The following are undergraduate degree programs offered fully online:

    • Business Administration (B.S.)
    • Special Education (B.S.)
    • Nursing (B.S.N.)
    • Project Management (B.S.)

    Notables

    Minnesota State University Moorhead enrolls students through rolling admission and guarantees prospective students hear back from the university within two weeks time. It also emphasizes its affordability: students are able to take 19 credits with the same price they would pay to take 12 at other colleges.

    7

    Saint Cloud State University

    College Choice Score: 81.84

    Average Net Price: $12,935

    School Website

    Saint Cloud State University Saint Cloud State University Saint Cloud State University Saint Cloud State University

    Overview

    Located in Saint Cloud, Minnesota, Saint Cloud University is one of the biggest public universities in Minnesota with over 15,400 students. It is one of many institutions in The Minnesota State Colleges and Universities System. The university is part of a larger system of Minnesota State Colleges and Universities and went through several name changes prior to its current title.

    Features

    The university offers more than 200 online courses with hybrid and wholly-online options available. St. Cloud State University utilizes a semester-based calendar and online students can have books delivered directly to a home address from the library. In total, there are 17 online certificates and degrees for graduate students, and three for undergraduate students. The following are online undergraduate programs:

    • Bachelor of Elective Studies (BES)
    • Nursing RN-to-BSN
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    St. Cloud State University provides online tutoring, along with tech support 7 days a week. The university is in the top 1% most affordable of Forbes “America’s Top Colleges.” Additionally, Saint Cloud University is accredited by many institutions, such as the Higher Learning Commission and the Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology.

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    Bemidji State University stands beside the Lake Bemidji shore, where it was founded in 1919 as Bemidji Normal School and renamed in 1975 to its current name. It is part of a larger Minnesota State Colleges and Universities System. Today, the public university serves over 5,000 students and continues to grow their online degree options.

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    The online programs are tailored for transfer students, most with a 24-credit minimum transfer required. Students can choose between hybrid and fully online options to fulfill their degree. Bemidji State University offers 7 major and 7 minor online undergraduate programs, including:

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    • Marketing Communication (B.S.)

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    Bemidji State University offers scholarships specifically for online/distance students. Utilizing the popular D2L Brightspace, the university provides a wonderful learning software for students completing their degrees online. The college values environmentalism and a focused awareness of the indigenous population and roots of the land.

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    The school runs on a semester-based calendar with online courses available all year. Fully online courses and hybrid classes that allow students to take classes online and meeting in person just once a week are offered. Master of Divinity, Theological Studies, and Education are all examples of graduate online programs students can pursue at the University of Northwestern St. Paul. Additionally, these are popular online undergraduate areas of study:

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    Crown College provides Bible-related classes for its students every semester and is known for being affordable. Both transfer and new students have a variety of program options, including online biblical certificates and degrees. Top online undergraduate majors include:

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    Affiliated with multiple Christian associations such as the Association of Christian Schools International, Crown College was also listed in “Best Midwest Regional Colleges” by U.S. News & World Report. A Christ-centered institution, Crown College is equally as religiously devoted and engaging online as it is face-to-face.

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    Southwest Minnesota State University

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    12

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    Martin Luther College is a private institution located on a 50-acre campus in New Ulm, Minnesota. The college is operated by Wisconsin Evangelical Lutheran Synod (WELS) with a dedicated mission of training church leaders. The school has a total enrollment of 1,266 students, 116 of which are graduate students.

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    Martin Luther College only offers master’s programs online. These are flexible in their focus – students are able to choose between several concentrations for the majors available. The following are Martin Luther College’s fully online master’s degrees:

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    Martin Luther College received 1st place in AffordableColleges.com’s ranking of the best value in the United States for its Master of Science in Education online program. The class ratio is quite small in comparison to most colleges at 12:1 for an optimally engaging environment.

    13

    Concordia University, St. Paul

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    Concordia University, St. Paul is a private liberal arts college located in Saint Paul, Minnesota. It was founded in 1892 and is historically affiliated with The Lutheran Church – Missouri Synod. Today, these roots continue to shape the university’s mission and values. The university is part of a larger Concordia University System, which has 10 campuses.

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    Concordia follows a semester calendar. The institution offers many unique online degrees at the associate’s, bachelor’s, master’s, and doctorate level, along with certificates, with over 30 total online programs available. Some of these include:

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    Concordia University Saint Paul provides benefits for those who served/are serving in the military. The school also provides advantages to those transferring from certain community colleges in the area, who are eligible to receive a $2,000 discount on their tuition.

    14

    University of Minnesota-Crookston

    College Choice Score: 70.28

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    Overview

    University of Minnesota-Crookston is a small public university located in Crookston, Minnesota. Student enrollment is about 1,800, half of which are online students. The typical class ratio is 16:1, providing a highly personalized educational environment. The institution is part of a larger University of Minnesota system which includes locations in Duluth, Twin Cities, Morris, and Rochester.

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    • Finance (B.S.)
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    The University of Minnesota-Crookston has offered online programs for its students for 20 years. Additionally, all students receive laptops through the university, which offers multiple scholarships with one annual scholarship dedicated to assisting online students.

    15

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    College Choice Score: 68.44

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    Founded in 1946, Oak Hills Christian College is a highly selective private, interdenominational Christian college in Bemidji, Minnesota. The college is accredited by the Association for Biblical Higher Education.

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    Oak Hills Christian College seeks to provide a Bible-centered education for all enrolled students, whether online or face-to-face. The college allows transfer students seeking to complete their degrees to apply for online programs as well. The following are Oak Hill’s fully online programs:

    • Bachelor:
      • Business Administration
      • Leadership and Ministry
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      • Business Administration

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    Oak Hills has a total enrollment of 125 students. The university expects their students to be involved with weekly ministry and participate in the community.

    16

    Metropolitan State University

    College Choice Score: 68.25

    Average Net Price: $14,625

    School Website

    Metropolitan State University Metropolitan State University Metropolitan State University Metropolitan State University

    Overview

    Founded in 1971, Metropolitan State University aimed to provide non-traditional students an opportunity to earn their bachelor degree. Today, the public university is still focused on older students. It is part of The Minnesota State Colleges and Universities System, and it located in the Twin Cities of Minnesota.

    Features

    Because the school specializes in educating working adults, it offers an ample variety of undergraduate and graduate programs online. Metropolitan State University offers many business-related degrees, along with the opportunity for students to design their own major with guidance. Popular fully-online bachelor’s degrees include:

    • Business Administration (B.S.)
    • Marketing (B.S.)
    • Individualized Studies (B.A.)
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    Notables

    Metropolitan State University has an acceptance rate of 100%, according to US News & World Report. Additionally, the online tuition is more affordable than nonresident tuition. The university is accredited by the Higher Learning Commission.

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    Sexism Ed: Essays on Gender and Labor in Academia by [Baker, Kelly J.]

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    Why aren’t more women at the top of the ivory tower?

    The academy claims to be a meritocracy, in which the best and brightest graduate students gain employment as professors. When Kelly J. Baker earned her doctorate in religion, she assumed that merit mattered more than gender. After all, women appeared to be succeeding in higher ed, graduating at higher rates than men. And yet, the higher up she looked in the academic hierarchy, the fewer women there were. After leaving academia, she began to write about gender, labor, and higher ed to figure out whether academia had a gender problem. Eventually, Baker realized how wrong she’d been about how academia worked. This book is her effort to document how very common sexism—paired with labor exploitation—is in higher ed.

    Baker writes about gender inequity, precarious labor, misogyny, and structural oppression. Sexism and patriarchy define our work and our lives, within and outside of academia. She not only examines the sexism inherent in hiring practices, promotion, leave policies, and citation, but also the cultural assumptions about who can and should be a professor. Baker also shows the consequences of sexism and patriarchy in her own life: hating the sound of her voice, fake allies, the cultural boundaries of motherhood, and the perils of being visible. It’s exhausting to be a woman, but Baker never gives up hope that we can change higher ed—and the world—if only we continue to try.

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        1.0 out of 5 starsUnreadable.

        This fascist continues her(?) plight to destroy the youth of America with this drivel. Don’t waste your money.


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        Kristian Petersen

        5.0 out of 5 starsKelly Baker’s excellent book should be an essential read for anyone in …

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        Saved Essays
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        Topics in Paper
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        • Feminist Theory
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        @Example Essays

          Gender Theory



          1 Pages
          351 Words

                       Gender Theory seems to be quite simple on an external level. When one thinks of
                      
          gender they think of being entirely, or encompassing the characteristics of, the male or
                      
          female species. Gender Theory calls for more than just thinking about gender in a very
                      
          dichotomous way, it entails the separation of sex and gender; essentially dismissing the
                      
          roles prescribed to a certain sex by which gender category they are associated, thus
                      
          explaining why women have been oppressed by men throughout the ages. Gender
                      
          Theory has become one of the most popular of all the feminist theories because it proves
                      
          to be more inclusive than all the other theories.
                      
          The all inclusive Gender Theory states that the oppression of women comes from
                      
          the gender biased society we live in. "The term "gender" is part of the attempt by
                      
          contemporary feminists to stake claim to a certain definitional ground, to insist on the
                      
          inadequacy of existing bodies of theory for explaining persistent inequalities between
                      
          women and men" (Scott, 41). Most societies throughout the ages have had a "universal
                      
          need to establish classifications…on the basis of physical traits." (Delphy, 4). Namely,
                      
          prescribing roles to those belonging to a certain gender; male or female. Women are
                      
          prescribed to be mothers, wives, homemakers, and the subordinate; men are supposed to
                      
          be strong, the breadwinners, and the dominant. Gender is, "described as the cause of
                      
          certain beliefs about the world; the force that molds a plastic humanity, produces
                      
          naturalized bodies, or imposes sexual dimorphism; the determinant of identity; the
                      
          process that structures labor, power, and cathexis; or the mental category that structures a
                      
          form of dichotomous perception" (Hawkensworth, 680). According to Gender Theory
                      
          we need to separate sex and gender, and renounce the stereotypical attributes that are
                      

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          Gender Theory. (1969, December 31). In MegaEssays.com. Retrieved 03:06, September 06, 2018, from https://www.megaessays.com/viewpaper/37310.html
          MegaEssays. “Gender Theory.” MegaEssays.com. MegaEssays.com, (December 31, 1969). Web. 06 Sep. 2018.
          MegaEssays, “Gender Theory.,” MegaEssays.com, https://www.megaessays.com/viewpaper/37310.html (accessed September 06, 2018)