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Go to the profile of Manas J. Saloi
Manas J. Saloi
Product Manager @Directi

Highlights from The Essays of Warren Buffett

The book ‘The Essays of Warren Buffett: Lessons for Corporate America’ is a must read for anyone who wants to learn how one of the most celebrated money managers of last century operates. I read the 3rd edition and am sharing my favourite parts from the book here.

Golden rules of Investing

  • The most revolutionary investing ideas of the past thirty-five years were those called modern finance theory. This is an elaborate set of ideas that boil down to one simple and misleading practical implication: it is a waste of time to study individual investment opportunities. One of modern finance theory’s main tenets is modern portfolio theory. It says that you can eliminate the peculiar risk of any security by holding a diversified portfolio — that is, it formalizes the folk slogan “don’t put all your eggs in one basket.” The risk that is leftover is the only risk for which the investors would be compensated. This leftover risk can be measured by a simple mathematical term — called beta — that shows how volatile the security is compared to the market. Beta measures this volatility risk well for securities that trade on efficient markets, where information about publicly traded securities is swiftly and accurately incorporated into prices. In the modern finance story, efficient markets rule. Buffett thinks most markets are not purely efficient and that equating volatility with risk is a gross distortion.
  • As to concentration of the portfolio, Buffett reminds us that Keynes, who was not only a brilliant economist but also an astute investor, believed that an investor should put fairly large sums into two or three businesses he knows something about and whose management is trustworthy.
    Buffett jokes that calling someone who trades actively in the market an investor “is like calling someone who repeatedly engages in one-night stands a romantic.” Buffett instead thinks we should follow Mark Twain’s advice from Pudd’nhead Wilson “Put all your eggs in one basket — and watch that basket.”
  • Buffet learned the art of investing from Ben Graham who in a number of classic works, including The Intelligent Investor, introduced a character who lives on Wall Street, Mr. Market. He is your hypothetical business partner who is daily willing to buy your interest in a business or sell you his at at prevailing market prices. He is moody and the more manic-depressive he is, the greater the spread between price and value, and therefore the greater the investment opportunities he offers. Buffett reintroduces Mr. Market, emphasizing how valuable Graham’s allegory of the overall market is for disciplined investment knitting. Another leading prudential legacy from Graham is his margin-of-safety principle. This principle holds that one should not make an investment in a security unless there is a sufficient basis for believing that the price being paid is substantially lower than the value being delivered.
  • All true investing must be based on an assessment of the relationship between price and value. Strategies that do not employ this comparison of price and value do not amount to investing at all, but to speculation — the hope that price will rise, rather than the conviction that the price being paid is lower than the value being obtained.
  • The circle of competence principle is the third leg of the Graham/Buffett stool of intelligent investing, along with Mr. Market and the margin of safety. This common sense rule instructs investors to consider investments only concerning businesses they are capable of understanding with a modicum of effort.
  • Three suggestions for investors from Buffett: First, beware of companies displaying weak accounting. If a company still does not expense options, or if its pension assumptions are fanciful, watch out. Second, unintelligible footnotes usually indicate untrustworthy management. If you can’t understand a footnote or other managerial explanation, it’s usually because the CEO doesn’t want you to. Finally, be suspicious of companies that trumpet earnings projections and growth expectations.
  • What needs to be reported is data — whether GAAP, non-GAAP, or extra-GAAP — that helps financially-literate readers answer three key questions: (1) Approximately how much is this company worth? (2) What is the likelihood that it can meet its future obligations? and (3) How good a job are its managers doing, given the hand they have been dealt?
  • On bonds: “The large numbers of corporations that failed in the early 1990s recession under crushing debt burdens to dispute academic research showing that higher interest rates on junk bonds more than compensated for their higher default rates.”
  • On “fallen angels” — bonds that were initially of investment grade but that were downgraded when the issuers fell on bad times:
    “A kind of bastardized fallen angel burst onto the investment scene in the 1980s — “junk bonds” that were far below investment-grade when issued. As the decade progressed, new offerings of manufactured junk became ever junkier and ultimately the predictable outcome occurred: Junk bonds lived up to their name. Thus, said the friendly salesmen, a diversified portfolio of junk bonds would produce greater net returns than would a portfolio of high-grade bonds. (Beware of past-performance “proofs” in finance: If history books were the key to riches, the Forbes 400 would consist of librarians). The manager of a fallen angel almost invariably yearned to regain investment-grade status and worked toward that goal. The junk-bond operator was usually an entirely different breed. Behaving much as a heroin user might, he devoted his energies not to finding a cure for his debt-ridden condition, but rather to finding another fix. Additionally, the fiduciary sensitivities of the executives managing the typical fallen angel were often, though not always, more finely developed than were those of the junk-bond-issuing financiopath.”
  • Most investors, both institutional and individual, will find that the best way to own common stocks is through an index fund that charges minimal fees. Those following this path are sure to beat the net results (after fees and expenses) delivered by the great majority of investment professionals. Should you choose, however, to construct your own portfolio, there are a few thoughts worth remembering: Intelligent investing is not complex, though that is far from saying that it is easy. What an investor needs is the ability to correctly evaluate selected businesses. Note that word “selected”: You don’t have to be an expert on every company, or even many. You only have to be able to evaluate companies within your circle of competence. The size of that circle is not very important; knowing its boundaries, however, is vital. To invest successfully, you need not understand beta, efficient markets, modern portfolio theory, option pricing, or emerging markets. You may, in fact, be better off knowing nothing of these. Your goal as an investor should simply be to purchase, at a rational price, a part interest in an easily-understandable business whose earnings are virtually certain to be materially higher five, ten and twenty years from now.
    If you aren’t willing to own a stock for ten years, don’t even think about owning it for ten minutes.
  • Bertrand Russell’s observation about life in general applies with unusual force in the financial world: “Most men would rather die than think. Many do.”
  • “Value is destroyed, not created, by any business that loses money over its lifetime, no matter how high its interim valuation may get. Intrinsic value can be defined simply: It is the discounted value of the cash that can be taken out of a business during its remaining life. Intrinsic value is an estimate rather than a precise figure.”
  • “You can gain some insight into the differences between book value and intrinsic value by looking at one form of investment, a college education. Think of the education’s cost as its “book value.” If this cost is to be accurate, it should include the earnings that were foregone by the student because he chose college rather than a job. For this exercise, we will ignore the important non-economic benefits of an education and focus strictly on its economic value. First, we must estimate the earnings that the graduate will receive over his lifetime and subtract from that figure an estimate of what he would have earned had he lacked his education. That gives us an excess earnings figure, which must then be discounted, at an appropriate interest rate, back to graduation day. The dollar result equals the intrinsic economic value of the education.
    Some graduates will find that the book value of their education exceeds its intrinsic value, which means that whoever paid for the education didn’t get his money’s worth. In other cases, the intrinsic value of an education will far exceed its book value, a result that proves capital was wisely deployed. In all cases, what is clear is that book value is meaningless as an indicator of intrinsic value.”
  • “We will continue to ignore political and economic forecasts, which are an expensive distraction for many investors and businessmen. Thirty years ago, no one could have foreseen the huge expansion of the Vietnam War, wage and price controls, two oil shocks, the resignation of a president, the dissolution of the Soviet Union, a one-day drop in the Dow of 508 points, or treasury bill yields fluctuating between 2.8% and 17.4%. But, surprise — none of these blockbuster events made the slightest dent in Ben Graham’s investment principles. Nor did they render unsound the negotiated purchases of fine businesses at sensible prices. A different set of major shocks is sure to occur in the next 30 years. We will neither try to predict these nor to profit from them. If we can identify businesses similar to those we have purchased in the past, external surprises will have little effect on our long-term results.”
  • “People who expect to earn 10% annually from equities during this century — envisioning that 2% of that will come from dividends and 8% from price appreciation — are implicitly forecasting a level of about 24,000,000 on the Dow by 2100. Think about it”

How Buffett and Charlie Munger run Berkshire

  • Buffett and Berkshire avoid making predictions and tell their managers to do the same. They think it is a bad managerial habit that too often leads managers to make up their financial reports.
  • Buffett just gives a simple set of commands to his CEOs: to run their business as if (1) they are its sole owner, (2) it is the only asset they hold, and (3) they can never sell or merge it for a hundred years. This enables Berkshire CEOs to manage with a long-term horizon ahead of them, something alien to the CEOs of public companies whose short-term oriented shareholders obsess with meeting the latest quarterly earnings estimate. Short-term results matter, of course, but the Berkshire approach avoids any pressure to achieve them at the expense of strengthening long-term competitive advantages.
  • “When a problem exists, whether in personnel or in business operations, the time to act is now.”
  • Unlike many CEOs, who desire their company’s stock to trade at the highest possible prices in the market, Buffett prefers Berkshire stock to trade at or around its intrinsic value — neither materially higher nor lower. Such linkage means that business results during one period will benefit the people who owned the company during that period.
  • Stock splits are another common action in corporate America that Buffett points out disserve owner interests. Stock splits have three consequences: they increase transaction costs by promoting high share turnover; they attract shareholders with short-term, market-oriented views who unduly focus on stock market prices; and, as a result of both of those effects, they lead to prices that depart materially from intrinsic business value.
  • Intrinsic value: The discounted value of the cash that can be taken out of a business during its remaining life. Charlie and Berkshire are interested only in acquisitions that they believe will raise the per-share intrinsic value of Berkshire’s stock.
  • According to Buffett: Useful financial statements must enable a user to answer three basic questions about a business: approximately how much a company is worth, its likely ability to meet its future obligations, and how good a job its managers are doing in operating the business. Charlie and Buffett think that it is both deceptive and dangerous for CEOs to predict growth rates for their companies.
  • “At Berkshire, we try to be as logical about compensation as about capital allocation. For example, we compensate Ralph Schey based upon the results of Scott Fetzer rather than those of Berkshire. What could make more sense, since he’s responsible for one operation but not the other? A cash bonus or a stock option tied to the fortunes of Berkshire would provide totally capricious rewards to Ralph. He could, for example, be hitting home runs at Scott Fetzer while Charlie and I rang up
    mistakes at Berkshire, thereby negating his efforts many times over. Conversely, why should option profits or bonuses be heaped upon Ralph if good things are occurring in other parts of Berkshire but Scott Fetzer is lagging?”
  • “Charlie and I believe that a CEO must not delegate risk control. It’s simply too important. If Berkshire ever gets in trouble, it will be my fault. It will not be because of misjudgments made by a Risk Committee or Chief Risk Officer.”
  • “It has not been shareholders who have botched the operations of some of our country’s largest financial institutions. Yet they have borne the burden, with 90% or more of the value of their holdings wiped out in most cases of failure. The CEOs and directors of the failed companies, however, have largely gone unscathed. Their fortunes may have been diminished by the disasters they oversaw, but they still live in grand style. It is the behavior of these CEOs and directors that needs to be changed: If their institutions and the country are harmed by their recklessness, they should pay a heavy price-one not reimbursable by the companies”
  • “Audit committees should unequivocally put auditors on the spot, making them understand they will become liable for major monetary penalties if they don’t come forth with what they know or suspect.”
  • On why Berkshire bought Washing Post Company: “We bought all of our [Washington Post Company (“WPC”)] holdings in mid-1973 at a price of not more than one-fourth of the then per-share business value of the enterprise. Calculating the price/value ratio required no unusual insights. Most security analysts, media brokers, and media executives would have estimated WPC’s intrinsic business value at $400 to $500 million just as we did. And its $100 million stock market valuation was published daily for all to see. Our advantage was our attitude, that we had learned from Ben Graham, that the key to successful investing was the purchase of shares in good businesses when market prices were at a large discount from underlying business values.”
  • “Whenever Charlie and I buy common stocks for Berkshire’s insurance companies (leaving aside arbitrage purchases, discussed) we approach the transaction as if we were buying into a private business. We look at the economic prospects of the business, the people in charge of running it, and the price we must pay. We do not have in mind any time or price for sale. Indeed, we are willing to hold a stock indefinitely so long as we expect the business to increase in intrinsic value at a satisfactory rate. When investing, we view ourselves as business analysts — not as market analysts, not as macroeconomic analysts, and not even as security analysts.”
  • “Ben Graham, my friend and teacher, long ago described the mental attitude toward market fluctuations that I believe to be most conducive to investment success. He said that you should imagine market quotations as coming from a remarkably accommodating fellow named Mr. Market who is your partner in a private business. Market appears daily and names a price at which he will either buy your interest or sell you his. Even though the business that the two of you own may have economic characteristics that are stable, Mr. Market’s quotations will be anything but. For, sad to say, the poor fellow has incurable emotional problems. At times he feels euphoric and can see only the favorable factors affecting the business. When in that mood, he names a very high buy-sell price because he fears that you will snap up his interest and rob him of imminent gains.
    is depressed and can see nothing but trouble ahead for both the business and the world. On these occasions he will name a very low price, since he is terrified that you will unload your interest on him. Rather an investor will succeed by coupling good business judgment with an ability to insulate his thoughts and behavior from the super-contagious emotions that swirl about the marketplace. In my own efforts to stay insulated, I have found it highly useful to keep Ben’s Mr. Market concept firmly in mind. As Ben said: “In the short run, the market is a voting machine but in the long run it is a weighing machine.”
  • The speed at which a business’s success is recognized, furthermore, is not that important as long as the company’s intrinsic value is increasing at a satisfactory rate.
  • Buffett then explains why he is happy when the stock market is stagnant or goes down: “ A short quiz: If you plan to eat hamburgers throughout your life and are not a cattle producer, should you wish for higher or lower prices for beef? This question answers itself. Similarly If you expect to be a net saver during the next five years, should you hope for a higher or lower stock market during that period? Many investors get this one wrong. Even though they are going to be net buyers of stocks for many years to come, they are elated when stock prices rise and depressed when they fall. In effect, they rejoice because prices have risen for the “hamburgers” they will soon be buying. This reaction makes no sense. Only those who will be sellers of equities in the near future should be happy at seeing stocks rise. Prospective purchasers should much prefer sinking prices.”
  • On arbitrage: “To evaluate arbitrage situations you must answer four questions: (1) How likely is it that the promised event will indeed occur? (2) How long will your money be tied up? (3) What chance is there that something still better will transpire — a competing takeover bid, for example? and (4) What will happen if the event does not take place because of anti-trust action, financing glitches, etc.?
  • The preceding discussion about arbitrage makes a small discussion of “efficient market theory” (EMT) also seem relevant. This doctrine became highly fashionable — indeed, almost holy scripture — in academic circles during the 1970s. Essentially, it said that analyzing stocks was useless because all public information about them was appropriately reflected in their prices. In other words, the market always knew everything. As a corollary, the professors who taught EMT said that someone throwing darts at the stock tables could select a stock portfolio having prospects just as good as one selected by the brightest, most hard-working security analyst. We continue to think that it is usually foolish to part with an interest in a business that is both understandable and durably wonderful. Business interests of that kind are simply too hard to replace. The strategy we’ve adopted precludes our following standard diversification dogma. Many pundits would therefore say the strategy must be riskier than that employed by more conventional investors. We disagree. We believe that a policy of portfolio concentration may well decrease risk if it raises, as it should, both the intensity with which an investor thinks about a business and the comfort-level he must feel with its economic characteristics before buying into it. In stating this opinion, we define risk, using dictionary terms, as “the possibility of loss or injury.” Academics, however, like to define investment “risk” differently, averring that it is the relative volatility of a stock or portfolio of stocks — that is, their volatility as compared to that of a large universe of stocks. Employing data bases and statistical skills, these academics compute with precision the “beta” of a stock — that shows how volatile the security is compared to the market. Beta measures this volatility risk well for securities that trade on efficient markets, where information about publicly traded securities is swiftly and accurately incorporated into prices. In our opinion, the real risk an investor must assess is whether his aggregate after-tax receipts from an investment (including those he receives on sale) will, over his prospective holding period, give him at least as much purchasing power as he had to begin with, plus a modest rate of interest on that initial stake. Though this risk cannot be calculated with engineering precision, it can in some cases be judged with a degree of accuracy that is useful. The primary factors bearing upon this evaluation are: (1) The certainty with which the long-term economic characteristics of the business can be evaluated; (2) The certainty with which management can be evaluated, both as to its ability to realise the full potential of the business and to wisely employ its cash flows; (3) The certainty with which management can be counted on to channel the reward from the business to the shareholders rather than to itself; (4) The purchase price of the business; (5) The levels of taxation and inflation that will be experienced and that will determine the degree by which an investor’s purchasing-power return is reduced from his gross return.
  • It is better to be approximately right than precisely wrong.
  • “If you are a know-something investor, able to understand business economics and to find five to ten sensibly-priced companies that possess important long-term competitive advantages, conventional diversification makes no sense for you. It is apt simply to hurt your results and increase your risk. I cannot understand why an investor of that sort elects to put money into a business that is his 20th favorite rather than simply adding that money to his top choices — the businesses he understands best and that present the least risk, along with the greatest profit potential. In the words of the prophet Mae West: “Too much of a good thing can be wonderful.”
  • “We continually search for large businesses with understandable, enduring and mouth-watering economics that are run by able and shareholder-oriented managements.”
  • “Our equity-investing strategy remains little changed from what it was when we said in the 1977 annual report: We select our marketable equity securities in much the way we would evaluate a business for acquisition in its entirety. We want the business to be one (a) that we can understand; (b) with favourable long-term prospects; operated by honest and competent people; and (d) available at a very attractive price.” We have seen cause to make only one change in this creed: Because of both market conditions and our size, we now substitute “an attractive price” for “a very attractive price.”
  • “Consciously paying more for a stock than its calculated value — in the hope that it can soon be sold for a still-higher price — should be labeled speculation (which is neither illegal, immoral nor — in our view — financially fattening). Growth benefits investors only when the business in point can invest at incremental returns that are enticing — in other words, only when each dollar used to finance the growth creates over a dollar of long-term market value. In the case of a low-return business requiring incremental funds, growth hurts the investor.”
  • Value investing typically connotes the purchase of stocks having attributes such as a low ratio of price to book value, a low price-earnings ratio, or a high dividend yield.
  • “Leaving the question of price aside, the best business to own is one that over an extended period can employ large amounts of incremental capital at very high rates of return. The worst business to own is one that must, or will, do the opposite — that is, consistently employ ever-greater amounts of capital at very low rates of return.”
  • “In studying the investments we have made in both subsidiary companies and common stocks, you will see that we favour businesses and industries unlikely to experience major change.”
  • If we have a strength, it is in recognising when we are operating well within our circle of competence and when we are approaching the perimeter. Predicting the long-term economics of companies that operate in fast-changing industries is simply far beyond our perimeter. A further related lesson: Easy does it. After 25 years of buying and supervising a great variety of businesses, Charlie and I have not learned how to solve difficult business problems. What we have learned is to avoid them.
  • On Cigar butt investing philosophy which Buffett followed earlier in his career “If you buy a stock at a sufficiently low price, there will usually be some hiccup in the fortunes of the business that gives you a chance to unload at a decent profit, even though the long-term performance of the business may be terrible. I call this the “cigar butt” approach to investing. A cigar butt found on the street that has only one puff left in it may not offer much of a smoke, but the “bargain purchase” will make that puff all profit.”
  • Time is the friend of the wonderful business, the enemy of the mediocre. For example, if you buy a business for $8 million that can be sold or liquidated for $10 million and promptly take either course, you can realise a high return. But the investment will disappoint if the business is sold for $10 million in ten years and in the interim has annually earned and distributed only a few percent on cost.
  • On institutional imperative: “I learned over time that rationality wilts when institutional imperative comes into play. Example: (1) As if governed by Newton’s First Law of Motion, an institution will resist any change in its current direction; (2) Just as work expands to fill available time, corporate projects or acquisitions will materialise to soak up available funds; (3) Any business craving of the leader, however foolish, will be quickly supported by detailed rate-of-return and strategic studies prepared by his troops; and (4) The behaviour of peer companies, whether they are expanding, acquiring, setting executive compensation or whatever, will be mindlessly imitated. Institutional dynamics, not venality or stupidity, set businesses on these courses, which are too often misguided.”
  • “After some other mistakes, I learned to go into business only with people whom I like, trust, and admire.”
  • “It’s no sin to miss a great opportunity outside one’s area of competence. But I have passed on a couple of really big purchases that were served up to me on a platter and that I was fully capable of understanding.”
  • “Over the years, a number of very smart people have learned the hard way that a long string of impressive numbers multiplied by a single zero always equals zero.”
  • On paying dividends: “Not a dime of cash has left Berkshire for dividends share repurchases during the past 40 years. Instead, we have retained all of our earnings to strengthen our business, a reinforcement now running about $1 billion per month.”
  • “ Our net worth has increased from $48 million to $157 billion during the last four decades. No other corporation has come to building its financial strength in this unrelenting way. By being so cautious in respect to leverage, we penalise our returns by a minor amount. Having loads of liquidity, though, lets us sleep well. Moreover, during the episodes of financial chaos that occasionally erupt in our economy, we will be equipped both financially and emotionally to play offense while others scramble for survival. That’s what allowed us to invest $15.6 billion in 25 days of panic following the Lehman bankruptcy in 2008.”

On alternative investments

  • “Investments that are denominated in a given currency include money-market funds, bonds, mortgages, bank deposits, and other instruments. Most of these currency-based investments are thought of as “safe.” In truth they are among the most dangerous of assets. Their beta may be zero, but their risk is huge. Over the past century these instruments have destroyed the purchasing power of investors in many countries, even as the holders continued to receive timely payments of interest and principal. This ugly result, moreover, will forever recur.”
  • “Governments determine the ultimate value of money, and systemic forces will sometimes cause them to gravitate to policies that produce inflation. From time to time such policies spin out of control. Even in the U.S., where the wish for a stable currency is strong, the dollar has fallen a staggering 86% in value since 1965, when I took over management of Berkshire. It takes no less than $7 today to buy what $1 did at that time. Consequently, a tax-free institution would have needed 4.3% interest annually from bond investments over that period to simply maintain its purchasing power. For tax-paying investors, the picture has been far worse. During the same 47-year period, continuous rolling of U.S. Treasury bills produced 5.7% annually. That sounds satisfactory. But if an individual investor paid personal income taxes at a rate averaging 25%, this 5.7% return would have yielded nothing in the way of real income. This investor’s visible income tax would have stripped him of 1.4 points of the stated yield, and the invisible inflation tax would have devoured the remaining 4.3 points. Under today’s conditions, therefore, I do not like currency-based investments. Even so, Berkshire holds significant amounts of them, primarily of the short-term variety. We primarily hold U.S. Treasury bills, the only investment that can be counted on for liquidity under the most chaotic of economic conditions. Our working level for liquidity is $20 billion; $10 billion is our absolute minimum.”
  • “Gold, however, has two significant shortcomings, being neither of much use nor procreative. True, gold has some industrial and decorative utility, but the demand for these purposes is both limited and incapable of soaking up new production. Meanwhile, if you own one ounce of gold for an eternity, you will still own one ounce at its end. Today the world’s gold stock is about 170,000 metric tons. If all of this gold were melded together, it would form a cube of about 68 feet per side. (Picture it fitting comfortably within a baseball infield.) At $1,750 per ounce — gold’s price as I write this — its value would be $9.6 trillion. Let’s now create a pile B costing an equal amount. For that, we could buy all U.S. cropland (400 million acres with output of about $200 billion annually), plus 16 Exxon Mobils (the world’s most profitable company, one earning more than $40 billion annually). After these purchases, we would have about $1 trillion left over for walking-around money (no sense feeling strapped after this buying binge). Can you imagine an investor with $9.6 trillion selecting pile A over pile B? My own preference is investment in productive assets, whether businesses, farms, or real estate.
  • “Charlie and I are of one mind in how we feel about derivatives and the trading activities that go with them: We view them as time bombs, both for the parties that deal in them and the economic system. Essentially, these instruments call for money to change hands at some future date, with the amount to be determined by one or more reference items, such as interest rates, stock prices or currency values.”
  • “Indeed, recent events demonstrate that certain big-name CEOs (or former CEOs) at major financial institutions were simply incapable of managing a business with a huge, complex book of derivatives. Include Charlie and me in this hapless group: When Berkshire purchased General Re in 1998, we knew we could not get our minds around its book of 23,218 derivatives contracts, made with 884 counterparties (many of which we had never heard of). So we decided to close up shop. Though we were under no pressure and were operating in benign markets as we exited, it took us five years and more than $400 million in losses to largely complete minds around its book of 23,218 derivatives contracts, made with 884 counterparties (many of which we had never heard of). So we decided to close up shop. Though we were under no pressure and were operating in benign markets as we exited, it took us five years and more than $400 million in losses to largely complete”

On owning a Bank

  • “Month by month the foolish loan decisions of once well-regarded banks were put on public display. As one huge loss after another was unveiled — often on the heels of managerial assurances that all was well — investors understandably concluded that no bank’s numbers were to be trusted. Aided by their flight from bank stocks, we purchased our 10% interest in Wells Fargo for $290 million, less than five times after-tax earnings, and less than three times pre-tax earnings.
    Our purchase of one-tenth of the bank may be thought of as roughly equivalent to our buying 100% of a $5 billion bank with identical financial characteristics. Wells Fargo is big — it has $56 billion in assets — and has been earning more than 20% on equity and 1.25% on assets. Of course, ownership of a bank — or about any other business — is far from riskless. California banks face the specific risk of a major earthquake, which might wreak enough havoc on borrowers to in turn destroy the banks lending to them. A second risk is systemic — the possibility of a business contraction or financial panic so severe that it would endanger almost every highly-leveraged institution, no matter how intelligently run. Finally, the market’s major fear of the moment is that West Coast real estate values will tumble because of overbuilding and deliver huge losses to banks that have financed the expansion. Because it is a leading real estate lender, Wells Fargo is thought to be particularly vulnerable. Consider some mathematics: Wells Fargo currently earns well over $1 billion pre-tax annually after expensing more than $300 million for loan losses. If 10% of all $48 billion of the bank’s loans — not just its real estate loans — were hit by problems in 1991, and these produced losses (including foregone interest) averaging 30% of principal, the company would roughly break even. A year like that — which we consider only a low-level possibility, not a likelihood — would not distress us.”

On owning an Airline

  • “The day of reckoning for these airlines could be delayed by infusions of capital (such as ours into USAir), but eventually a fundamental rule of economics prevailed: In an unregulated commodity business, a company must lower its costs to competitive levels or face extinction. When Richard Branson, the wealthy owner of Virgin Atlantic Airways, was asked how to become a millionaire, he had a quick answer: “There’s really nothing to it. Start as a billionaire and then buy an airline.” Unwilling to accept Branson’s proposition on faith, your Chairman decided in 1989 to test it by investing $358 million in a 9¼% preferred stock of USAir. I liked and admired Ed Colodny, the company’s then-CEO, and I still do. But my analysis of USAir’s business was both superficial and wrong. I was so beguiled by the company’s long history of profitable operations, and by the protection that ownership of a senior security seemingly offered me, that I overlooked the crucial point: USAir’s revenues would increasingly feel the effects of an unregulated, fiercely competitive market whereas its cost structure was a holdover from the days when regulation protected profits. These costs, if left unchecked, portended disaster, however reassuring the airline’s past record might be. Since our purchase, the economics of the airline industry have deteriorated at an alarming pace, accelerated by the kamikaze pricing tactics of certain carriers. The trouble this pricing has produced for all carriers illustrates an important truth: In a business selling a commodity-type product, it’s impossible to be a lot smarter than your dumbest competitor.”

On stock repurchases

  • “We will never make purchases with the intention of stemming a decline in Berkshire’s price. Charlie and I favour repurchases when two conditions are met: first, a company has ample funds to take care of the operational and liquidity needs of its business; second, its stock is selling at a material discount to the company’s intrinsic business value, conservatively calculated. We have witnessed at a material discount to the company’s intrinsic business value, conservatively calculated. Today, IBM has 1.16 billion shares outstanding, of which we own about 63.9 million or 5.5%. Naturally, what happens to the company’s earnings over the next five years is of enormous importance to us. Beyond that, the company will likely spend $50 billion or so in those years to repurchase shares. Our quiz for the day: What should a long-term billion shares outstanding, of which we own about 63.9 million or 5.5%. Naturally, what happens to the company’s earnings over the next five years is of enormous importance to us. Beyond that, the company will likely spend $50 billion or so in those years to repurchase shares. Our quiz for the day: What should a long-term shareholder, such as Berkshire, cheer for during that period? I won’t keep you in suspense. We should wish for IBM’s stock price to languish throughout the five years. Let’s do the math. If IBM’s stock price averages, say, $200 during the period, the company will acquire 250 million shares for its $50 billion. There would consequently be 910 million shares outstanding, and we would own about 7% of the company. If the stock conversely sells for an average of $300 during the five-year period, IBM will acquire only 167 million shares. That would leave about 990 million shares outstanding after five years, of which we would own 6.5%.

    The logic is simple: If you are going to be a net buyer of stocks in the future, either directly with your own money or indirectly (through your ownership of a company that is repurchasing shares), you are hurt when stocks rise. You benefit when stocks swoon.”

On splitting Berkshire stock

  • “Were we to split the stock or take other actions focusing on stock price rather than business value, we would attract an entering class of buyers inferior to the exiting class of sellers.”
  • “A hyperactive stock market is the pickpocket of enterprise.
    For example, consider a typical company earning, say, 12% on equity. Assume a very high turnover rate in its shares of 100% per year. If a purchase and sale of the stock trades at book value, the owners of our hypothetical company will pay, in aggregate, 2% of the company’s net worth annually for the privilege of transferring ownership. This activity does nothing for the earnings of the business, and means that 1/6 of them are lost to the owners through the “frictional” cost of transfer. Consequently, our stock consistently trades in a price range that is sensibly related to intrinsic value.”
  • On issuing Class B common stock later: “We made two good-sized offerings through Salomon [during 1996], both with interesting aspects. The first was our sale in May of 517,500 shares of Class B Common, which generated net proceeds of $565 million. As I have told you before, we made this sale in response to the threatened
    creation of unit trusts that would have marketed themselves as Berkshire look-alikes. In the process, they would have used our past, and definitely non repeatable, record to entice naive small investors and would have charged these innocents high fees and commissions. The trusts would have meanwhile indiscriminately poured the proceeds of their offerings into a supply of Berkshire shares that is fixed and limited. The likely result: a speculative bubble in our stock.”

Why Buffet hates to part with Berkshire stock

  • “Our problem has been that we own a truly marvelous collection of businesses, which means that trading away a portion of them for something new almost never makes sense. If we issue shares in a merger, we reduce your ownership in all of our businesses — partly-owned companies such as Coca-Cola, Gillette and American Express, and all of our terrific operating companies as well.”
  • “The oracle Aesop and his enduring, though somewhat incomplete, investment insight was “a bird in the hand is worth
    two in the bush.”
    To flesh out this principle, you must answer only three questions. How certain are you that there are indeed birds in the bush? When will they emerge and how many will there be? What is the risk-free interest rate (which we consider to be the yield on long-term U.S. bonds)? If you can answer these three questions, you will know the maximum value of the bush — and the maximum number of the birds you now possess that should be offered for it.”

On acquisitions

  • “Over time, the skill with which a company’s managers allocate capital has an enormous impact on the enterprise’s value.
  • “Almost by definition, a really good business generates far more money (at least after its early years) than it can use internally. The company could, of course, distribute the money to shareholders by way of dividends or share repurchases. But often the CEO asks a strategic planning staff,
    consultants or investment bankers whether an acquisition or two might make sense. That’s like asking your interior decorator whether you need a $50,000 rug. We believe most deals do damage to the shareholders of the acquiring company. In any case, why potential buyers even look at projections prepared by sellers baffles me. Charlie and I never give them a glance, We would love to see an intermediary earn its fee by thinking of us — and therefore repeat here what we’re looking for: (1) Large purchases, (2) Demonstrated consistent earning power (future projections are of no interest to us, nor are “turnaround” situations), (3) Businesses earning good returns on equity while employing little or no debt, (4) Management in place (we can’t supply it), (5) Simple businesses (if there’s lots of technology, we won’t understand it), (6) An offering price (we don’t want to waste our time or that of the seller by talking, even preliminarily, about a transaction when price is unknown).”
  • “Berkshire is another kind of buyer — a rather unusual one. We buy to keep, but we don’t have, and don’t expect to have, operating people in our parent organisation. All of the businesses we own are run autonomously to an extraordinary degree. The areas I get involved in are capital allocation and selection and compensation of the top man. Other personnel decisions, operating strategies, etc. are his bailiwick.”

Note: I ignored highlights from a few chapters related to Accounting. Not being an accounting nerd, I had a hard time grasping all the concepts. I also mostly focussed on stocks and bonds and ignored other money instruments.

Links: Goodreads , Amazon

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The Life Of Warren Buffett History Essay

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INTRODUCTION

Warren Edward Buffett (born August 30, 1930) is a U.S. investor, and philanthropist. He is one of the most eminent investors in chronicle, the basic shareholder and chief executive officer of Berkshire Hathaway and in 2008 was ordered by Forbes as the 2nd most robust person in the world on an approximated net worth of around $62 billion.

Buffett is often called the "Oracle of Omaha" or the "Sage of Omaha’ and is noted for his adhesiveness to the value investing philosophy and for his own frugalness in spite of his huge riches.

Buffett is also a famed altruist, having engaged to impart 85 percentage of his fate to the Gates cornerstone. He as well assists as a appendage of the board of trustees at Grinnell College.

In 1999, Buffett personified described as the greatest money manager of the twentieth century in a surveil by the Carson Group, leading Peter Lynch and John Templeton. In 2007, he was enrolled amongst Time’s 100 virtually influencial people on the Earth.

BUFFETT’S HISTORY

Warren Buffett was born in Omaha, Nebraska. His father name is Howard Buffett and having 2 siblings. He worked at his grandpa’s grocery store. In 1943, Buffett registered his 1st income tax return, deducing his pedal and watch as an exercise disbursement for $35 for his employment as paper deliveryman. Later on his father was elected to United States Congress, Buffett was schooled at Woodrow Wilson High School , Washington. In 1945, in his fledgeling year of high school, Buffett and a acquaintance expended $25 to buy a secondhand pinball game machine, which they placed in a barber workshop. Within weeks, they possessed 3 game machines in different emplacements.

Buffett first entered at The Wharton School, University of Pennsylvania, (1947-49) where he united the Alpha Sigma Phi brotherhood. His father and uncles were Alpha Sigma Phi brothers from the chapter in Nebraska. In 1951, he changed to the University of Nebraska where he underwent a B.S. in Economics.

Buffett then enrolled at Columbia Business School subsequently memorising that Benjamin Graham, (the generator of The Intelligent Investor), and David Dodd, 2 long-familiar financial analyst*, tutored there. In 1951, he then underwent a M.S. in Economics from Columbia University.

In Buffett’s personal articulates:

I’m 15 percent Fisher and 85 percent Benjamin Graham.

The primary theme of investing is to consider stocks as business, utilise the market’s variations to your welfare, and look for a safety margin. That is what Benjamin Graham educated us. A century from today they’ll even be the fundaments of investing.

BENJAMIN GRAHAM – BUFFETT’S MENTOR

During the period of 1920’s, Ben Graham had become renowned. He looked for for stocks that comprised so low-priced they were almost entirely pregnant of risk, at a time when the rest of the world was approaching the investment field as a tremendous game of roulette. The Northern Pipe Line, an oil transportation company carried off by the Rockefellers was among his best known calls. The value investors tried to convince management to trade the portfolio, but they denied because Graham accomplished that the company had bond holdings worth $95 per share which was traded at $65 per share. Shortly thereafter, he engaged a adoptive warfare and procured a spot on the Board of Directors (BOD). The company gave a dividend in the amount of $70 per share and sold-out its bonds.

At the age of 40, Security Analysis, among the greatest works ever composed on the stock market was pubished by Ben Graham. At that time, it was dangerous; endowing in equities had become a prank (The Dow Jones had struck from 381.17 to 41.22 over the course of three to four short years following the crash of 1929). It was about this time that Graham arrived up with the rule of "intrinsic" business value – a touchstone of a business’s genuine worth that was wholly and entirely independent of the stock price. Utilising intrinsic value, investors could be in the position to determine what a company was worth and could be capable to take investment decisions consequently. His succeeding book, The Intelligent Investor, which Warren observes as "the greatest book on investing ever written", enclosed the world to Mr. Market – the best investment doctrine of analogy in history. Through his simple yet profound investment principles, Ben Graham turned an idyllic anatomy to the 21 year old, Warren Buffett.

CAREER CHRONICLE

From 1951-54, Buffett was hired at Buffett-Falk & Co., Omaha as an Investiture Salesman. From 1954-1956, he was hired at Graham-Newman Corp., New York as a financial analyst. From 1956-1969, he worked with Buffett Partnership, Ltd., Omaha as a superior general Partner and from 1970 onwards till Present at Berkshire Hathaway Inc, Omaha as its Chairman, Chief Executive Officer.

In 1951, Buffett Warren observed his mentor was the Chairman of a small, nameless insurance company named GEICO insurance. Taking a power train to Washington. on a Saturday, he tapped on the door of GEICO’s central office until a janitor permitted him in. At that place, he encountered Lorimer Davidson, Geico’s Vice President, and the both talked about the insurance business concern for hours. Davidson would eventually become Buffett’s womb-to-tomb friend and an everlasting charm and later on recollect that he discovered Buffett to be a "Prodigious man" after only fifteen minutes. Buffett calibrated from Columbia and desired to work at Wall Street, however both, his father and Ben Graham pressed him not to. He volunteered to work out for Graham free of charge, but Graham declined.

Buffett turned back to Omaha and worked as a stockbroker while acquiring a Dale Carnegie public speaking course. Utilising what he acquired, he sensed surefooted adequate to teach an "Investment Principles & Rules" night class at the University of Nebraska. The moderate age of his pupils was more than twice his personal. During this time he purchased a Sinclair Texaco gas station too as a side investment. Nevertheless, this didn’t boot out to be an eminent business jeopardize.

In 1952, Buffett wedded Susan Thompson and the following year they gave birth their 1st baby, Susan Alice Buffett. In 1954, Buffett received a job at Benjamin Graham’s partnership, which he always dreamed. His initiating remuneration was $12,000 a year (more or less $97,000 conformed to 2008 dollars). There he worked intimately with Walter Schloss. Graham was a bully man to work for. He was inexorable that stocks allow a ample safety margin after weighting the trade-off between their monetary value and their intrinsic value. The debate added up to Buffett simply he queried whether the standards were too demanding and induced the company to drop down on big successes that had more qualitative values. That same year the Buffetts birthed their 2nd baby, Howard Graham Buffett.

In 1956, Benjamin Graham adjourned and shut down his partnership. At this time Buffett’s own savings comprised over $174,000 and he commenced Buffett Partnership Ltd., an investment partnership in Omaha.

In 1957, Buffett had three partnerships manoeuvering the whole year. He bought a five-bedroom stucco mansion in Omaha, where he even dwells, for $31,500. In 1958, the Buffett’s 3rd baby, Peter Andrew Buffett , was born. Buffett controlled five partnerships the whole year. In 1959, the company raised to six partnerships running the full year and Buffett was acquainted to Charlie Munger. By 1960, Buffett had seven partnerships manoeuvering: Buffett Associates, Buffett Fund, Dacee, Emdee, Glenoff, Mo-Buff and Underwood. He asked one of his partners, a physician, to ascertain ten other physicians willing and able to invest $10,000 each in his partnership. Eventually eleven agreed. In 1961, Buffett unconcealed that Sanborn Map Company reported for 35% of the partnership’s pluses. He explicated that in 1958 Sanborn stock traded at only $45 per share when the value of the Sanborn investment portfolio was $65 per share. This implied that vendees valued Sanborn stock at "minus $20" per share and were involuntary to bear more than 70 cents on the dollar for an investment portfolio with a map business injected for nothing. This gained him a spot on the board of Sanborn.

WAY TO RICHES

In 1962, Buffett turned a millionaire, because of his partnerships, which in January 1962 had a surplus of $7,178,500, of which over $1,025,000 belonged to Buffett. Buffett integrated all partnerships into one partnership. Buffett divulged a textile fabricating business firm named Berkshire Hathaway. Buffett’s partnerships started buying shares at $7.60 per share. In 1965, when Buffett’s partnerships aggressively started buying Berkshire, they paid $14.86 per share while the company had working capital of $19 per share. This didn’t include the evaluation of fixed assets (factory, machinery and equipment etc.). Buffett took charge of Berkshire Hathaway at the board meeting and appointed a new president, Ken Chace, to feed the company. In 1966, Buffett closed the partnership to fresh income. Buffett published in his letter: unless it seems that conditions have changed (under some considerations added capital would better final result) or unless new partners can contribute some asset to the partnership other than simply working capital, I think not to admit more additional partners to BPL.

In his second letter, Buffett declared his foremost investment in a private business concern – Hochschild, Kohn and Co, a privately owned Baltimore emporium. In 1967, Berkshire disbursed its initiatory and exclusive dividend of 10 cents. In 1969, observing his most eminent year, Buffett neutralised the partnership and shifted their assets to his partners. Among the assets, disbursed were shares of Berkshire Hathaway. In 1970, as chairman of Berkshire Hathaway, Buffett commenced publishing his now-famous yearly letters to stockholders.

However, he survived solely on his salary of $50,000 per year, and his external investment revenue. In 1979, Berkshire commenced the year dealing at $775 per share, and finished at $1,310. Buffett’s income reached $620 million, ranking him on the Forbes 400 for the first time.

In 2006, Buffett declared in June that he step by step would impart 85% of his Berkshire retentions to five foundations in annual gifts of stock, starting in July 2006. The largest share would go to the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation.

In 2007, in a letter to shareholders, Buffett declared that he was seeking a younger successor, or possibly successors, to execute his investment business. Buffett had antecedently picked out Lou Simpson, who runs investments at Geico, to meet that role. However, Simpson is only six years younger than Buffett.

In 2008, Buffett became the wealthiest man in the world dethroning Bill Gates, worth $62 billion reported by Forbes, and $58 billion reported by Yahoo. Bill Gates had been first on the Forbes list for 13 successive years. On March 11 2009, Bill Gates regained number one of the list according to Forbes magazine, with Buffett second. Their values have dropped to $40 billion and $37 billion respectively, which is probably an outcome of the 2008/2009 economical downswing.

BUSINESS ACQUISITION

In 1973, Berkshire commenced to gain stock in the Washington Post Company. Buffett became close acquaintances with Katharine Graham, who disciplined the company and its flagship newsprint, and became a member of its directorate.

In 1974, the SEC opened up a schematic investigation into Warren Buffett and Berkshire’s attainment of WESCO, referable possible engagement of interest. No accusations were brought.

In 1977, Berkshire indirectly bought the Buffalo Evening News for $32.5 million. Fair charges began, inspired by its competitor, the Buffalo Courier-Express. Both compositions lost income, till the Courier-Express folded in 1982.

In 1979, Berkshire started to acquire stock in ABC. On March 18, Capital Cities’ declared $3.5 billion. Leverage of ABC stormed the media industry, as ABC was approximately four times larger than Capital Cities was at that time. Warren Buffett, Chairman Berkshire Hathaway, served finance the deal in return for a 25 percent stake in the merged company. The newly merged company, titled Capital Cities/ABC (or CapCities/ABC), was pressured to trade away a few stations due to FCC ownership conventions. Also, the two companies possessed several radio stations in the equivalent markets.

In 1987, Berkshire Hathaway bought 12% stake in Salomon Inc., making it the greatest shareholder and Buffett the director. In 1990, a outrage involving John Gutfreund (former CEO of Salomon Brothers) rose up. A knave trader, Paul Mozer, was passing on bids in excess of what was permitted by the Treasury rules. When this was ascertained and brought to the aid of Gutfreund, he didn’t immediately debar the knave trader. In August 1991, Gutfreund leftover the company. Buffett turned CEO of Salomon until the crisis surpassed. On September 4 1991, he evidenced before Congress.

In 1988, Buffett commenced purchasing stock in Coca-Cola Company, finally buying up to 7 percent of the company for $1.02 billion. It would come out to be one of Berkshire’s most profitable investments, and one which it still controls. In 2002, Buffett entered in $11 billion worth of forward contracts to deliver U.S. dollars against other currencies. By April 2006, his overall gain on these contracts was over $2 billion.

In 1998, he took on General Re, (in an infrequent move, for stock). In 2002, Buffett got interested with Maurice R. Greenberg at AIG, with General Re providing reinsurance. On March 15, 2005, AIG’s board forced Greenberg to leave office from his post as Chairman and CEO under the shadow of unfavorable judgment from Eliot Spitzer, attorney general of the state of New York. On February 9, 2006, AIG and the New York State Attorney General’s office agreed to a settlement in which AIG would pay a fine of $1.6 billion.

In 2009, Warren Buffett endowed $2.6 billion as a part of Swiss Re’s raising equity capital. Berkshire Hathaway already possesses a 3% stake, with rights to possess more than 20%.

LATE 2000’S RECESSION

Buffett encounter criticism during the -subprime crisis of 2007-2008, component of the late 2000s recession, that he had apportioned capital too early leading in suboptimal deals. "Buy American. I am." To quote Warren Buffett’s popular opinion piece published in the New York Times.

Buffett has called the 2007’s downswing in the financial sector "poetic justice".

Buffett’s Berkshire Hathaway met a 77% drop in earnings during Q3 2008 and many of his new deals look to be running into heavy mark-to-market losses.

Berkshire Hathaway gained 10% perpetual preference shares of Goldman Sachs .Some of Buffett’s exponent puts that he wrote (sold) are presently running around $6.73 billion mark-to-market losses. The scale of the expected loss inspired the SEC to demand that Berkshire produce, "a more robust revealing" of components accustomed assess the contracts.

Buffett also helped Dow Chemical pay for its $18.8 billion takeover of Rohm & Haas. He, thus, turned the only largest shareholder in the enlarged group with his Berkshire Hathaway, which offered $3 billion, emphasising his helpful role during the prevailing crisis in debt and equity markets.

In October 2008, the media rumoured that Warren Buffett had harmonised to buy General Electric(GE) preferred stock. The process admitted extraordinary incentives: he accepted an option to buy 3 billion General Electric at $22.25 in the incoming five years, and also accepted a 10% dividend (due within three years). In February 2009, Warren Buffett sold piece of Procter & Gamble Co, and Johnson & Johnson shares from his portfolio.

In addition to traces of anachronism, queries have been elevated as to the wisdom in keeping some of Berkshire’s major retentions, including The Coca-Cola Company (NYSE:KO) which peaked at $86 in 1998. Buffett talked over the troubles of acknowledging when to sell in the company’s 2004 annual report: "That may appear comfortable to do when one looks through an always-clean, rear-view mirror. Unluckily, however, it’s the windscreen through which investors must peer, and that glass is invariably fogged.". In March 2009, Buffett expressed in a cable television interview that the economy had "fallen off a cliff… Not only has the economy slowed down a lot, but people have really changed their habits like I haven’t seen." Additionally, Buffett awes we may revisit a 1970s level of ostentation, which led to a painful stagflation that lasted many years.

PERSONAL LIFE

Buffett married Susan Thompson in 1952. They had 3 kids, Susie, Howard, and Peter. In 1977, the couple started inhabiting separately, though they stayed married until her death in July 2004. Their daughter Susie lives in Omaha and does philanthropic work through the Susan A Buffett Foundation and is a national board member of Girls, Inc. In 2006, on his seventy-sixth birthday, he wedded his never-married longtime-companion, Astrid Menks, who was then sixty years old. From 1977, since his wife’s departure, She had lived with him to San Francisco. It was Susan Buffett who set for the two to meet before she left Omaha to engage her singing career. All three were close and vacation cards to friends were signed "Warren, Susie and Astrid". Susan Buffett briefly talked over this relationship in an interview on the Charlie Rose Show shortly earlier her death, in a rare glimpse into Buffett’s personal life. In 2006, His annual earnings was about $100,000, which is little as compared to senior executive remuneration in comparable companions.In 2007, and 2008, he earned a total compensation of $175,000, which enclosed a basic wage of just $100,000. He dwells in the same house in the central Dundee vicinity of Omaha that he purchased in 1958 for $31,500, today assessed at around $700,000 (though he too does have a $4 million home in Laguna Beach, California). In 1989, after having spent almost 10 million dollars of Berkshire’s funds on a private jet, Buffett sheepishly named it "The Indefensible." This act constituted a break from his past conviction of wasteful purchases by early CEOs and his account of practising more public conveyance.

He stays a desirous player of the card game bridge, which he acquired from Sharon Osberg, and plays with her and Bill Gates. He passes twelve hours a week playing the game. In 2006, he sponsored a bridge match for the Buffett Cup. Shapely on the Ryder Cup in golf, declared straightaway ahead it, and in the same city, a squad of 12 bridge players from the United States took on 12 Europeans in the event.

Warren Buffett acted with Christopher Webber on an animated series with head Andy Heyward, of DiC Entertainment,and then A Squared Entertainment. The series characteristics Buffett and Munger, and instructs children healthy financial habits for life.

Buffett was elevated Presbyterian but has since represented himself as agnostic as it strikes religious beliefs. In December 2006, it was accounted that Buffett doesn’t carry a cellphone, does not have a computer at his desk, and driveways his personal automobile, a Cadillac DTS.

Mr Warren Buffet wears off tailor-made suits from the Chinese label Trands, before he used to wear Ermenegildo Zegna.

LINEAGE

Buffett’s DNA report disclosed that his paternal roots hail from northern Scandinavia, while his maternal roots most likely have roots in Iberia or Estonia. Despite general propositions to the contrary, and the casual friendly relationship which has formed between their families, Warren Buffett has no clear reference to the well-known vocalist Jimmy Buffett.

POLITICS

In addition to, other political contributions across the years, Buffett has officially certified and made campaign contributions to Barack Obama’s presidential campaign. On July 2, 2008, Buffett attended a $28,500 per plate fundraiser for Obama’s campaign in Chicago hosted by Obama’s National Finance Chair, Penny Pritzker and her husband, as well as Obama advisor Valerie Jarrett. Buffett supported Obama for president, and suggested that John McCain’s aspects on social justice comprised so far from his own that McCain would need a "lobotomy" for Buffett to alter his indorsement.During the second 2008 U.S. presidential debate, nominees John McCain and Barack Obama, later on being asked first by presidential debate intermediator Tom Brokaw, both referred Buffett as a potential future Secretary of the Treasury. Later, in the third and concluding presidential debate, Obama mentioned Buffett as a potential economic consultant. Buffett was also finance consultant to California Republican Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger on his 2003 election crusade.

COMPOSITIONS

Warren Buffett’s compositions include his annual reports and various articles.

He admonished about the harmful effects of inflation:

"The arithmetic makes it plain that pomposity is a far more annihilating tax than anything that has been acted out by our general assembly. The inflation tax has a tremendous ability to merely wipe out capital. It creates no divergence to a widow with her savings in a 5 percent passbook account whether she pays 100 percent income tax on her interest money during a period of zero inflation, or pays no income taxes during years of 5 percent inflation."

In his article "The Superinvestors of Graham-and-Doddsville", Buffett controverted the scholarly Efficient-market hypothesis, that baffling the S&P 500 was "pure chance", by spotlighting a number of pupils of the Graham and Dodd value adorning school of thought. In addition to himself, Buffett named Walter J. Schloss, Tom Knapp, Ed Anderson (Tweedy, Brown Inc.), Bill Ruane (Sequoia Fund, Inc.), Charles Munger (Buffett’s own business partner at Berkshire), Rick Guerin (Pacific Partners, Ltd.), and Stan Perlmeter (Perlmeter Investments).

In his November, 1999 Fortune article, he admonished of investors’ delusive anticipations:

" Let me summarise what I’ve been saying about the stock market: I think it’s very hard to come up with a compelling case that equities will over the next 17 years perform anything like–anything like–they’ve performed in the past 17. If I had to pick the likeliest return, from appreciation and dividends combined, that investors in aggregate–repeat, aggregate–would earn in a world of constant interest rates, 2% inflation, and those ever injurious frictional costs, it would be 6%."

PHILANTHROPY

The following quotation from 1988, respectively, highlights Warren Buffett’s thoughts on his wealth and why he long planned to reapportion it:

" I don’t have a trouble with guiltiness about money. The way I see it is that my money represents an tremendous number of claim checks on society. It’s like I have these little pieces of paper that I can turn into consumption. If I desired to, I could hire 10,000 people to do nothing but paint my impression everyday for the rest of my lifespan. And the GNP would go up. But the utility of the product would be zero, and I would be keeping those 10,000 people from doing AIDS research, or teaching, or nursing. I don’t do that though. I don’t use very many of those claim checks. There’s nothing material I want very much. And I’m going to give literally all of those lay claim checks to brotherly love when my wife and I die."

From a NY Times article:

"I don’t believe in dynastic wealthiness," Warren Buffett said, calling those who raise up in affluent circumstances "members of the lucky sperm club."

Buffett has written numerous times of his opinion that, in a free enterprise, the plentiful gain oversized advantages for their talents:

" A market economy creates some lopsided yields to participants. The right talent of vocal chords, anatomical structure, physical strength, or mental powers can produce tremendous piles of claim checks on upcoming national output. Right choice of roots likewise can outcome in lifetime issues of such tickets upon birth. If zero actual investment returns disported a little greater part of the national output from specified stockholders to equally desirable and diligent citizens missing jackpot-producing talents, it would appear improbable to baffle such an abuse to an equitable world as to risk Divine intercession."

His children won’t come into an important proportion of his wealth. These activities are uniform with affirmations he has made in the past suggesting his opposition to the transfer of outstanding fortunes from one genesis to the next. Buffett once remarked, "I would like to give my kids just sufficient so that they’d experience that they could do anything, but not such that they’d experience like doing nothing".

In 2006, he auctioned his 2001 Lincoln Town Caron eBay to hike money for Girls, Inc.

In 2007, he auctioned off a luncheon with himself that brought up a final bid of $650,100 for a charity.

In 2006, he declared a program to bring out his luck to charity, with 83% of it going to the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation. In June 2006, Buffett devoted approximately 10 million Berkshire Hathaway Class B shares to the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, valuable approximately US$30.7 billion as of 23 June 2006, building it the greatest charitable contribution in history and Buffett among the leaders in the philanthrocapitalism revolution. The foundation will have 5% of the total contribution on an annualised basis each July, commencing in 2006. Buffett also joined the directorate of the Gates Foundation, although he doesn’t program to be actively engaged in the foundation’s investment.

This is a substantial shift from previous affirmations Buffett has made, having expressed that most of his fortune would surpass to his Buffett Foundation. In 2004, the majority of the estate of his wife, prized at $2.6 billion, went to that foundation when she died.

He also committed $50-million to the Nuclear Threat Initiative, in Washington, where he has assisted as an consultant since 2002.

On 27 June 2008, Zhao Danyang, a general manager at Pure Heart China Growth Investment Fund, succeeded the 2008 5-day online "Power Lunch with Warren Buffett" charity auction with a bid of $2,110,100. Auction continues benefit the San Francisco Glide Foundation.

PUBLIC POSITIONINGS

Buffett’s deliveries are recognised for merging business discussions humorously. Every year, Buffett presides over Berkshire Hathaway’s yearly stockholder assembling in the Qwest Center in Omaha, Nebraska, an issue eviscerating over 20,000 visitors from both United States and abroad, giving it the nickname "Woodstock of Capitalism". Berkshire’s yearly articles and letters to stockholders, prepared by Buffett, frequently experience coverage by the financial media. Buffett’s compositions are recognised for carrying well-written quotations laying out from the Bible to Mae West. as well as Midwestern advice, and several jokes. Various websites proclaim Buffett’s merits while others objurgate Buffett’s business models or dismiss his investment advice and decisions.

WARREN BUFFETT AS A LEADER

What he does understand is business. At 5 Years old, he started earning income. At only 6 years old, Buffett bought 6-packs of Coke from his grandpa’s grocery store for 25 cents and resold all of the bottles for a nickel, pocketing a 5 cent income. While other children of his age were enjoying hopscotch and jacks, Warren was earning income. Five years later, Buffett underwent his step into the world of high finance. At 11 years old, he bought 3 shares of Cities Service Preferred at $38 per share for both himself and his older sister, Doris. Just after his buying of the stock, it fell down to just over $27 per share. A scared but spirited Warren held his shares until they rebounded to $40. He quickly sold them – an error he would shortly come to regret. Cities Service stroke up to $200. The experience taught him one of the basic lessons of investing: Patience is a Virtue. As he commenced on his investment career, he had invested among others in businesses in textiles and newspapers. He knew the newspaper business from experience: he was a paper boy as a adolescent. When he was investing in these businesses, the related industries were in great downslope or integration. The textile business is an industry unexhausted from the industrial revolution. As fabricating moved to inexpensive labor countries, American textile manufacturers contracted. In the 19 th century, Newspapers growth industry, competing with television and radio for news were consolidating from a rivalrous market of numerous newspapers to one major "monopoly" newspaper in major towns. Wall Street wasn’t fascinated in putting in these business concerns, so these were value bargains that pulled in Buffet. By investing in these businesses, Buffet got discounted assets and cash flows which he could utilise to invest in other businesses.

One biased and negative perspective of Buffet would be as a scavenger of American business: acquiring fat on the misfortunes of asset rich, but impassive, turning down, and tedious businesses. However, in realism, he stands by businesses in which he invests, he makes sure that the business is a benevolent business. He normally buys businesses and seldom deals them. For instance, GEICO Insurance is among his core properties, he has controlled GEICO most of his investment vocation. When he brought in Berkshire Hathaway, it was a textile business, asset rich and with a stabilise cash flow. But Wall Street considered the textile industry as a worsening business. Berkshire did finally get out of the business of textiles, but it owned among the last textile manufactory in America. If one purchased a share of Berkshire Hathaway just about the time Buffet did, approximately $8, and held it to today, its worth is about ten thousand times its value in 1965, over $80,000.

Buffet was progressive in the domain of efficaciously utilising capital. Before the crowd, Buffet realised the businesses of insurance and reinsurance as having great value of cash flow. Berkshire’s golden business is reinsurance. Reinsurance is the wholesale end of the insurance business, involving large sources of comparatively quick assets. Buffet knew what to do with that cash pool and how to invest it.

In the early 1980’s the insurance companies cut costs on premiums to keep market share. They wanted to reveal constant increase for the market idols. On the other hand, Buffet realised that writing policies for any kind of chance wasn’t judicious. He just wrote policies that added up to him. He acknowledged that finally, losses would force underwriters to recede and premiums would hike. in 1985, When the insurance market reversed, the industry was having terrible losses and several companies bring down the reporting they proposed. The insurance companies created a miserly market with their hesitation to issue policies, partly because their reserves were at an wane. Buffet came forward to the plate, boot with cash, he was set to publish big policies, at his own terms and conditions, offcourse.

Investments in securities are probably to interest this type, especially investments in blue chips securities. ISTJs [Inspector Guardians] are not probably to take chances either with their personal or other’s money.

Efficient and effective use of capital have been Buffet’s countersigns all his life.

"We simply attempt to be fearful when others are greedy and to be greedy only when others are fearful." is his policy.


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Warren Buffett Shares the Secrets to Wealth in America






By

Warren Buffett

January 4, 2018

IDEAS
Buffett is the CEO and chairman of Berkshire Hathaway

I have good news. First, most American children are going to live far better than their parents did. Second, large gains in the living standards of Americans will continue for many generations to come.

Some years back, people generally agreed with my optimism. Today, however, pollsters find that most Americans are pessimistic about their children’s future. Politicians, business leaders and the press constantly tell us that our economic machine is sputtering. Their evidence: GDP growth of only 2% or so in recent years.

Before we shed tears over that figure, let’s do a little math, recognizing that GDP per capita is what counts. If, for example, the U.S. population were to grow 3% annually while GDP grew 2%, prospects would indeed be bleak for our children.

But that’s not the case. We can be confident that births minus deaths will add no more than 0.5% yearly to America’s population. Immigration is more difficult to predict. I believe 1 million people annually is a reasonable estimate, an influx that will add 0.3% annually to population growth.

In total, therefore, you can expect America’s population to increase about 0.8% a year. Under that assumption, gains of 2% in real GDP–that is, without nominal gains produced by inflation–will annually deliver 1.2% growth in per capita GDP.

This pace no doubt sounds paltry. But over time, it works wonders. In 25 years–a single generation–1.2% annual growth boosts our current $59,000 of GDP per capita to $79,000. This $20,000 increase guarantees a far better life for our children.

In America, it should be noted, there’s nothing unusual about that sort of gain, magnificent though it will be. Just look at what has happened in my lifetime.

I was born in 1930, when the symbol of American wealth was John D. Rockefeller Sr. Today my upper-middle-class neighbors enjoy options in travel, entertainment, medicine and education that were simply not available to Rockefeller and his family. With all of his riches, John D. couldn’t buy the pleasures and conveniences we now take for granted.

Two words explain this miracle: innovation and productivity. Conversely, were today’s Americans doing the same things in the same ways as they did in 1776, we would be leading the same sort of lives as our forebears.

An American icon is depicted through composite photography.

An American icon is depicted through composite photography.
Stephen Wilkes

Replicating those early days would require that 80% or so of today’s workers be employed on farms simply to provide the food and cotton we need. So why does it take only 2% of today’s workers to do this job? Give the credit to those who brought us tractors, planters, cotton gins, combines, fertilizer, irrigation and a host of other productivity improvements.

To all this good news there is, of course, an important offset: in our 241 years, the progress that I’ve described has disrupted and displaced almost all of our country’s labor force. If that level of upheaval had been foreseen–which it clearly wasn’t–strong worker opposition would surely have formed and possibly doomed innovation. How, Americans would have asked, could all these unemployed farmers find work?

We know today that the staggering productivity gains in farming were a blessing. They freed nearly 80% of the nation’s workforce to redeploy their efforts into new industries that have changed our way of life.

You can describe these develop-ments as productivity gains or disruptions. Whatever the label, they explain why we now have our amazing $59,000 of GDP per capita.

This game of economic miracles is in its early innings. Americans will benefit from far more and better “stuff” in the future. The challenge will be to have this bounty deliver a better life to the disrupted as well as to the disrupters. And on this matter, many Americans are justifiably worried.

Let’s think again about 1930. Imagine someone then predicting that real per capita GDP would increase sixfold during my lifetime. My parents would have immediately dismissed such a gain as impossible. If somehow, though, they could have imagined it actually transpiring, they would concurrently have predicted something close to universal prosperity.

Instead, another invention of the ensuing decades, the Forbes 400, paints a far different picture. Between the first computation in 1982 and today, the wealth of the 400 increased 29-fold–from $93 billion to $2.7 trillion–while many millions of hardworking citizens remained stuck on an economic treadmill. During this period, the tsunami of wealth didn’t trickle down. It surged upward.

In 1776, America set off to unleash human potential by combining market economics, the rule of law and equality of opportunity. This foundation was an act of genius that in only 241 years converted our original villages and prairies into $96 trillion of wealth.

The market system, however, has also left many people hopelessly behind, particularly as it has become ever more specialized. These devastating side effects can be ameliorated: a rich family takes care of all its children, not just those with talents valued by the marketplace.

In the years of growth that certainly lie ahead, I have no doubt that America can both deliver riches to many and a decent life to all. We must not settle for less.

Buffett is the CEO and chairman of Berkshire Hathaway

IDEAS
TIME Ideas hosts the world’s leading voices, providing commentary on events in news, society, and culture. We welcome outside contributions. Opinions expressed do not necessarily reflect the views of TIME editors.

This appears in the January 15, 2018 issue of TIME.

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  1. 12-21-2010, 11:05 AM


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    Default Manhattan GMAT Elluminate Live Online Classes

    Manhattan GMAT Elluminate Live Online Classes


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  3. 12-23-2010, 04:57 AM


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    Default Re: Manhattan GMAT Elluminate Live Online Classes

    Megaupload links added to the header.

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  4. 09-08-2014, 03:13 PM


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    Default Re: Manhattan GMAT Elluminate Live Online Classes

    none of the links above is working, kindly upload some new links or a torrent one for the entire seasons

    thanks in advance


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Paradise Lost: Building a Socialist Utopia in Contra Costa County

By William Mero

The 1890s were a time of social and political turmoil. Labor strife, votes for women, prohibitionists, free love, and the sight of cigarette smoking women began stirring America’s intellectual stew. The rise of monopolies and industrial trusts created a fertile field for the growth of socialism that was brought to America by the rising wave of left leaning European immigrants. California was swept up in this spirit of experimentation and idealism. A reflection of this social ferment was an interest in forming communes that wouldn’t be seen again until the 1960s hippie phenomena. A few of the most famous "utopian" societies were those near Visalia (Kaweah), Santa Rosa (Alturia), Fountain Grove (The New Eden of the West), Russian River (Icaria Speranza), and Bakersfield (Joyful).

Our own little Contra Costa County was not immune to this frenzy of experimentation and search for social justice. The Brotherhood of Winters Island was intended to be a new communist society living together with complete equality after the elimination of private property. Winter Island is a soggy, little, tule covered patch located within the junction of the Sacramento and San Joaquin rivers opposite the small town of Pittsburg. On the face of it, the island appears to have been a strange place to create a utopia.

In 1893 the 650 acre Winter Island was sold to the Brotherhood by its first leader, Erastus Kelsey, for $20,000. For a socialist Kelsey was a pretty good businessman. He used his idealistic connections in an attempt to make a handsome real estate deal. Each of the Brotherhood’s 100 members paid a $1.25 membership fee and $5.00 per month to establish the new social order(and help pay off its new mortgage). Farming was expected to support the group with the profits divided evenly among the society members. Their first major task was to build a levee so that the island could be protected from the river.

The first president of the utopian colony, Andrew J. Gregg, was from Oakland,. He was a carpenter and Populist Party candidate for lieutenant-Governor in 1894. Gregg campaigned for the elimination of private property and helped found the Carpenters Union. One of the most prominent and influential members of the colony were Kate and Louis Nevins. The rest of their lives would be involved in some way with Winter Island.

Kate was elected assistant secretary of the colony. Eventually she would become the vice president and a driving force behind this ambitious enterprise. Louis and Kate Nevins were some of the most colorful characters living in the Delta. Louis was a supporter of Native American rights and a friend of Chief Seattle and his daughter, Queen Angeline. Among the northwestern Indians Louis Nevins was known as "Heap Pony." Kate was a strong promoter of Esperanto as a universal language and organizer of the million man Farmer’s Alliance. Traveling alone on organizing trips, she always carried a shotgun for protection and often camped by the roadside. She was famed as a tough suffragist and street corner socialist agitator espousing various radical doctrines.

Active participation by the Brotherhood members in the commune was disappointing. No more than 10 members lived and worked on Winter Island at any one time. Crops included tomatoes, onions, grapes, raspberries, blackberries, strawberries, milk, hay and pasture. In time an orchard was also planted. Word spread to the members living in Berkeley and Oakland that building the levee was hard, dirty work. Once built the levee was under constant attack from burrowing muskrats and beavers. Two years later in 1895 the levee was still unfinished. High tides often brought water up to the house and barn.

However, during this time, a sympathetic visitor to the island wrote that "we had a chance to see what love and unity could do..there is a way to live in quiet and peace-not as slaves to arbitrary laws, but to be holders of a certain share..which would free our mind from poverty and friendlessness." Unfortunately the real truth was that personal and financial storm clouds were gathering around this outpost of Contra Costa idealism.

There was one huge issue that gnawed at the heart of the cooperative. This was the unhappiness of workers who did the dirty work but got the same pay as the administrators, planners, and accountants. Many of those who labored in the fields began to feel that they should earn more than those who never dirtied their hands in the muck. There were increasingly serious arguments over who should labor and who should supervise. There was also the problem of equal pay for those who worked hard and those who were lazy. Eventually even the radical socialist Kate Nevins admitted "..that the labor of one adult was equal in value to the labor of any other one adult was wrong. One man may accomplish twice as much as another one."

In 1895 the commune faced an environmental issue. Some members strongly urged that their human waste be spread on the fields so as not to waste this "natural resource." However it was decided it would be easier to sell their farm produce if their untreated human sewage was piped into the river. Later that year it was announced that "We pump the water out of the Bay for drinking and cooking, and mighty good water it is too!"

The severe depression and panic of 1894 began cutting into the financial support that the Brotherhood had found essential for its survival. Two projects on the island provided an economic transfusion which for a time held off the looming collapse. In 1896 the San Francisco Fire Department began pasturing over 40 horses on the island for a $1.00 a month per horse. The soft soil allowed the horses to restore their hooves after galloping on the hard, city cobblestones. On January 1, 1897 the Brotherhood took over the operation of the government navigational lights on Winter Island. But soon payments to Kelsey on his $20,000 mortgage began to falter. Dissatisfied workers began drifting away. Equality of reward regardless of equality of contribution continued to cause dissent among the colony’s members.

By 1898 the last crop of onions were harvested by the dying colony. In 1901 the Brotherhood defaulted on the Winter Island mortgage and the property reverted to Kelsey. Within a few years most of the land was sold to private duck hunting clubs and then farming corporations. Today the island has pretty much reverted to its natural state.

In later years the Nevins bought a small plot of land on Winter Island. Kate was supposed to have beat a tin dishpan during spells of dense tule fog to warn passing river ships of the island. On the island the Nevins lived in a cabin salvaged from the ship wrecked sternwheel steamship, Orizaba. After Louis died in 1921, Kate divided her time between Winter Island and a shabby house boat along the Antioch waterfront. Always a free spirit she enjoyed the companionship of a variety of men friends. She died in the Napa State Mental Hospital in 1943. The floating community of house boats were burned in 1945 by the fire department in order to rid Antioch of its notorious red-light district.

All of the utopian social experiments in California gradually withered away. Most suffered from the same personal and philosophic infighting that destroyed the Brotherhood of Winter Island. Some like Kaweah ran smack into the budding environmental movement. The financial success of the Kaweah colony depended on their being able to log the giant redwoods on the communes’ land. The fire storm of opposition to the proposed destruction of these magnificent trees, doomed the socialist community and it was eventually abandoned. The last large Marxist-socialist utopian colony was established in the Antelope Valley in the 1920s. Internal dissent and legal irregularities in selling membership shares soon had state investigators invading the commune at the same time as disgruntled settlers were leaving. These early experiments in constructing a new society were run by largely gentle souls.

Sadly, during the latter part of the 20th century, the most recent upsurge in building utopian societies led to the murderous insanity of Manson, Jim Jones, and Waco.


Suggested Reading:

  • Schmalenberger, Jerry & Carol, 1997, Winter Island: The Delta’s Attempt at Eden, Pittsburg, California.

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Exploring the Role of Marriage in Paradise Lost Essay

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Exploring the Role of Marriage in Paradise Lost

In his epic poem, Paradise Lost, John Milton addresses the role of woman and man within the institution of marriage. More specifically, he explores why such a bond is considered sacred within the context of his Protestant religion. The book of Genesis offers two guidelines for an ideal marriage, both exemplified in the relationship between Adam and Eve. The first account states, “Therefore shall a man leave his father and his mother, and shall cleave unto his wife: and they shall be one flesh” (Gen. 2.24). A contextual reading gives the reader the impression that God encourages man and wife to pursue a spiritually enriched relationship, in which they share such intimate feelings that

…show more content…

There are several similarities between both the relationship between God and Adam, and the relationship between Adam and Eve. One that relates closely to scripture is the account of the creation of Adam and Eve. During Eve’s recount of her own creation, she says, “O thou for whom and from whom I was formd flesh of thy flesh” (IV 441). Milton follows closely, the story of Genesis, which states Eve was created from the rib closest to the heart of Adam. Eve observes during her creation speech, “hee whose image thou art” (IV 470-471). Since Eve, at one time, was physically part of Adam’s body, she shares similarities with his own outer appearance. Also, due to Eve’s unique creation, he possesses a specific type of love for her, known as caritas. Caritas, the love one feels for their creation, is the greatest of all loves. Therefore, before the Fall, Adam and Eve’s ideal marriage is one in which love goes beyond a physical relationship. This further helps to illustrate Milton’s purposeful placement of the spiritual bond Adam and Eve share with each other above the necessity of procreation within their marriage. Instead, physical love is a conduit for spiritual love, in which a “sexual union of ‘pure lovers’ is…the means to the nearest possible approach to a full realization of the spiritual union to which the souls of these are constantly striving” (Marilla 104). Offspring is a positive side-effect of the sexual

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Paradise Lost Essay

Mr. Milton’s “Paradise Lost”

1935 Words | 8 Pages

he Poem

Andrew Marvell’s poem chronicles his reactions to the artistic merit of John Milton’s Paradise Lost (1667) in seven verse paragraphs of fifty-four rhymed iambic pentameter lines. The opening sentence forms a grammatical unit of ten lines. The remaining lines, marked with a grammatical pause at the end of each couplet, follow the poetic practice of end-stopped couplets.

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1774 Words | 8 Pages

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1282 Words | 6 Pages

Between the two novels, Paradise Lost and Frankenstein, there are many striking similarities. What makes these two books so wonderful to read is the author ‘s ability to write about the ultimate struggle; the struggle between God and Satan, or Good and Evil. The characters in Paradise Lost and in Frankenstein seem to be very similar to one another. God and Victor Frankenstein have many similarities. One of their similarities is that they are both creators of new life. The monster, Victor ‘s creation…

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Milton Paradise Lost Commentary

1955 Words | 8 Pages

intellectual hegemony of the Roman Catholic Church in Western Europe. Intellectuals of this era began to think on mankind, looking for answers outside of the Religious constraints. Written during this context of political and religious upheaval, Paradise Lost, an epic poem published in 1667 in ten books, reflects in a way the great changes of the Renaissance. This poem, written by John Milton (December 1608 – November 1674), an English poet, polemicist and civil servant, tell the Christian story of…

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1589 Words | 7 Pages

The importance Milton attached to Eve’s role in Paradise Lost and in the Garden of Eden is now recognised and acknowledged. (Green, 1996) Milton’s treatment of Adam and Eve’s relationship is complex. Sometimes referring to them in ways that indicate equality, (ibid) sometimes stressing their separateness as individuals (ibid) and other times they are complementary halves of a whole. (ibid) Taking on the view that many support; that Milton intended Eve to seem completely inferior to Adam, we can examine…

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Great works of literature have been written throughout history. However, The Divine Comedy and Paradise Lost have the inept ability to stir the soul and cause a person to examine and re-examine their life. The brilliant descriptions, use of imagery, metaphor and simile give a person a vivid picture of the creation of man and the possibilities for life in the hereafter. This is done, as a person is able to see, full circle, from the beginning of time to the…

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2127 Words | 9 Pages

John Miltons Paradise Lost

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863 Words | 4 Pages

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1073 Words | 5 Pages

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Paradise Lost

788 Words | 4 Pages

Paradise Lost
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In “Paradise…

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1473 Words | 6 Pages

In Milton’s Paradise Lost, he writes the story of the fall of Satan, his followers, and mankind. Many critics often view Satan as the unlikely or tragic hero of the epic poem. Satan is, obviously, the main character throughout most of the poem, but not necessarily the hero. Satan’s main purpose is to fight G-d, and try to be on the same level as Him. The important thing is to realize that Satan is sin, and being humans, who are all born into sin, we can easily relate to a sinful character. G-d…

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1637 Words | 7 Pages

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1326 Words | 6 Pages

Dante’s Inferno glimmers through here and there in Milton’s Paradise Lost. While at first glance the two poems seem quite drastically different in their portrayal of Hell, but scholars have made arguments that influence from Dante shines through Milton’s work as well as arguments refuting these claims. All of these arguments have their own merit and while there are instances where a Dantean influence can be seen throughout Paradise Lost, Milton’s progression of evil and Satan are quite different…

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2072 Words | 9 Pages

greatest Puritan poet and the first English revolutionary poet in the 17th century. Milton’s ‘Paradise Lost’, written during the last stage of his life and being one of the poet’s greatest creations, covers the ideas of humanism most deeply and widely.
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1455 Words | 6 Pages

The Role of Satan in “Paradise Lost”
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1089 Words | 5 Pages

A Comparison of Odyssey, Divine Comedy, and Paradise Lost

Epics by definition are long narrative poems, that are grand in both theme

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significance. Most epics deal with the deeds of a single individual, however,

it is not uncommon to have more than one main character. Epics embody several

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3087 Words | 13 Pages

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1152 Words | 5 Pages

Elucidate the importance of The Fourth Book of Paradise Lost.
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792 Words | 3 Pages

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1447 Words | 6 Pages

as inferior to men, Milton’s Paradise Lost presents a view of women that could be described as proto-feminist and advanced for its time. During the 17th century, the stereotypical women lived as “either obedient as ‘Milton Mother’ or disobedient and wanton if they neglect[ed] their responsibilities as wife, which [signified] submissiveness and motherhood” (qtd. in Wang 4). Some scholars argue that Milton used this predominant viewpoint of his time in Paradise Lost; Sandra Gilbert (1978) writes…

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John Milton's Paradise Lost Essay

1848 Words | 8 Pages

John Milton’s Paradise Lost

Freedom (free will) is the absence of imposed behavior.
Individual freedom is obviously attractive, but when there is real
freedom of choice, the wrong choice is the one that is made – such as
the choice made by Satan who although he can be admired for his having
dared to rebel against the norm, is not heroic for having chosen to
plot against God. Free will was given to man in order to be able to
choose the faith since in the absence of free will, there is…

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John Milton's Theodicy in Paradise Lost

595 Words | 2 Pages

Paradise Lost is an epic of John Milton, a seventeenth century English author, known for being the greatest reader in English history. The poem goes back to the beginning of time and tells of the rebellion of Satan and his followers, the war in that took place in heaven, and the defeat of Satan. The story also tells of the creation of the world, the life of Adam and Eve in the Garden of Eden, and their loss of everything when they give into the temptations of Satan in the form of a reptile. It ends…

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Justifying the Ways of God in Milton's Paradise Lost Essay

1311 Words | 6 Pages

Justifying the Ways of God in Milton’s Paradise Lost

Through Paradise Lost, Milton ?justifies the ways of God to men?, he explains why man fell and how he is affected by the fall. He shows that although man had a fall it was a fortunate fall, ?felix culpa?. As a result of the fall there are bad outcomes that man and women will endure but it was a fulfillment of God?s purpose. In creating man, God gave him free will; he created him a perfect being but ?free to fall?. In God?s plan man…

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Essay on Shelley's Frankenstein and Milton's Paradise Lost

3164 Words | 13 Pages

Shelley’s Frankenstein and Milton’s Paradise Lost

Even upon first glance, Mary Shelley’s Frankenstein and John Milton’s Paradise Lost seem to have a complex relationship, which is discernible only in fractions at a time. Frankenstein is Mary Shelley’s reaction to John Milton’s epic poem, in which he wrote the Creation myth as we perceive it today. His characterizations of Adam and Eve and the interactions of Satan and God and the impending Fall seem to have almost taken a Biblical proportion…

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Adam and Eve in Paradise lost Essay

608 Words | 3 Pages

Milton was looked on by many feminists, “of or relating to or advocating equal rights for women,”(comma before quotation mark)[1] as rather chauvinistic in the way he portrayed Eve. In, (delete,) Paradise Lost, there are many examples of Eve being slighted (comma and substitute well with while) well Adam remains unscathed.

**** Haven’t Developed introduction completely ****

When Eve first enters the world, (comma maybe) she awakes, “Under a shade on flow’rs…,”[2] by a lake. In putting Eve…

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Essay on Satan in John Milton's Paradise Lost

2512 Words | 11 Pages

a personification of evil, the fallen angel, a spirit created by God, and also the accuser. People see Satan differently, some know of his existence, others think of him as just a myth, and there are those that just ignore him. John Milton’s Paradise Lost tells of Satan’s banishment from Heaven and his gain of earth. He and his brigade have plotted war against God and are now doomed to billow in the fiery pits of hell. Satan is a complex character with many different qualities. God is a character…

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Epic Characteristics of Paradise Lost Essay

770 Words | 4 Pages

Epic Characteristics of Paradise Lost

Paradise Lost is one of the finest examples of epic tradition in all of literature. In composing this work, John Milton was, for the most part, following in the manner of epic poets of past centuries. By knowing the background of epic characteristics and conventions, it is easy to trace their presence in Book I of Paradise Lost.

One of the biggest questions that a reader must face is that of the hero; exactly who is the epic hero in the poem…

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Paradise Lost – John Milton's Satan; Hero or Not? Essay

1844 Words | 8 Pages

Throughout time, John Milton’s Paradise Lost has been studied by many people and comprehended in many different fashions, developing all kinds of new interpretations of the great epic. There have been many different interpretations of this great epic. Milton’s purpose in writing the epic was to explain the biblical story of Adam and Eve. Although the epic is similar to the Bible story in many ways, Milton’s character structure differs from that of the Bible’s version. All through out the epic Milton…

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Essay about Milton's Paradise Lost

1123 Words | 5 Pages

Milton’s Paradise Lost

From the War in Heaven through the fall of man in Paradise Lost,
Satan’s weapon at every point is some form of fraud (Anderson, 135).
Milton’s Paradise Lost explains the biblical story of Adam and Eve.
Although the epic is similar to the Bible story in many ways, Milton’s
character structure of Satan differs from that of the Bible’s version.
Milton describes the characters as the way he believes they are
throughout the epic. In book two of Paradise…

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Shelly's "Frankenstein" and Milton's "Paradise Lost" Essay

1136 Words | 5 Pages

Frankenstein, and his creation of a monster set apart from all worldly creatures. Frankenstein’s creation parallels Milton’s “Paradise Lost” and God’s creation of man; Victor Frankenstein is symbolic of God and the monster is symbolic of Adam. The parallel emphasizes the moral limitations of mankind through Victor Frankenstein and the disjunction and correlation with “Paradise Lost”. Shelly links the two stories together through Victor’s creation of the monster and his “fall” from humanity which I will…

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The Female Character in the Epic Stories 'Paradise Lost' and 'the Ramayana'

1555 Words | 7 Pages

THE FEMALE CHARACTER IN THE EPIC STORIES ‘PARADISE LOST’ AND ‘THE RAMAYANA’
[Name of the Student]
[Name of the Instructor]
[Subject]
[Date]

‘The Ramayana’ and ‘Paradise Lost’ hold stories of ancient times that tend to explain the existence of two different cultures in the present world. Milton, the author of ‘Paradise Lost,’ concerns himself with the Christian story of the ‘Fall of man’ while Valmiki, the author of The Ramayana, tries to bring out an explanation to the goals…

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The Divine Comedy vs. Paradise Lost Essay

3038 Words | 13 Pages

Full Circle – from Sin to Salvation

Great works of literature have been written throughout history. However, The Divine Comedy and Paradise Lost have the inept ability to stir the soul and cause a person to examine and re-examine their life. The brilliant descriptions, use of imagery, metaphor and simile give a person a vivid picture of the creation of man and the possibilities for life in the hereafter. This is done, as a person is able to see, full circle, from the beginning of time to…

Continue Reading

Treatment of Eve in Paradise Lost Essay

734 Words | 3 Pages

The treatment of eve in Paradise Lost
We can see the poem deals with the entire story of man’s fall from grace, including background for Satan’s motives. In Paradise Lost, Eve was tricked by Satan, who assumed the form of a serpent, into eating from the Tree of Knowledge. Satan had whispered into her ear when she was asleep, and when he spoke to her later, he used his cunning to mislead her:

He ended, and his words replete with guile

Into her heart too easy entrance won.

Fixed on the fruit…

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A Discussion of Milton’s Theodicy in Paradise Lost

745 Words | 3 Pages

What is free will? Milton explains in Paradise Lost that free will is the answer to the justification of Gods ways to man. There are three parts, or triangle, of theodicy, they are that God is all powerful, all good, yet there are still bad things that happen. Milton wrote to explain and justify why there are still bad things even though God is all good, and all powerful. Milton’s answer to this is that there is all good and all power, but the bad is not God’s fault. Milton has three key ideas to…

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Essay on the Downfall of Man in John Milton's Paradise Lost

1393 Words | 6 Pages

The classic tragedy Paradise Lost, written by John Milton, demonstrates how the fallen angels lose the paradise they have been given, and how this fall directly effects the downfall of man as well.

Before anything ever was, all matter was chaos; utter darkness and filth. A mighty being, God, rose up out of chaos and created the firmament called Heaven, and all the universe (4). The angels, and archangels that populated Heaven, danced in the realms of the magnificent light (8).

Lucifer,…

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"Paradise Lost": An Epic to Surpass All Epics Essay

1004 Words | 5 Pages

An Epic to Surpass all Epics

The epic poem Paradise Lost by John Milton was written during a time of religious revolution in England. The subject matter of this epic poem, in the words of Milton, is “[o]f man’s first disobedience” (line 1). In this blank verse, Milton refers to the story in Genesis where Eve tempts Adam to eat the “forbidden fruit.” In the first five lines of the poem he describes the beginning of mortality, suffering, and man’s restoration, as “the fruit [o]f that forbidden…

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Influence of The Metamorphoses and Paradise Lost in Frankenstein by Mary Shelley

891 Words | 4 Pages

Metamorphoses and Paradise Lost in Frankenstein by Mary Shelley

Frankenstein, possibly Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley’s most well-known work, is
considered by some to be the greatest Gothic Romance Novel. Due to her marriage to
Percy Bysshe Shelley and close friendship with other prolific Romantic authors and poets,
namely Lord Byron, Shelley’s works permeate with Romantic themes and references. Also
present in Frankenstein are obvious allusions to The Metamorphoses by Ovid and Paradise
Lost by Milton…

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Paradise Lost Essay

2124 Words | 9 Pages

Paradise Lost

The poem is divided up into 12 books. The verse is English heroic without rhyme, as that of Homer in Greek, and of Virgil in Latin. (Knopf, 1996) “This neglect then of rhyme so little is to be taken for a defect, though it may seem so perhaps to vulgar readers, that it rather is to be esteemed an example set, the first in English, of ancient liberty recovered to heroic poem from the troublesome and modern bondage of writing.” (Knopf, 1996)

Book One proposes…

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Milton’s Paradise Lost Essay examples

4372 Words | 18 Pages

Milton’s Paradise Lost has been praised as being the greatest English epic of all time, most stunningly in its author’s depiction of the parents of humanity, Adam and Eve. How Milton chose to portray the original mother and father has been a focus of much criticism with contemporary readers. One of the main subjects of these comments is in reference to Eve, who, according to many, is a trivial character that is most definitely inferior to her mate. Nonetheless, many do not recognize that, after…

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A Comparison of God and Satan in Paradise Lost Essay

1571 Words | 7 Pages

Comparison of God and Satan in Paradise Lost

In this essay I shall be focusing on the characters of G-d and Satan from ‘Paradise Lost’ by John Milton. Within the essay I shall be attempting to elucidate on the themes of ambiguity of the two characters as well as the uncertainty of moral integrity of each, characterized by John’s Milton’s use of sentence structure, private thoughts and symbolism.

Foremost I would like to look at the way the way in which Milton characterizes the…

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Christian and Pagan Influence in Paradise Lost and Beowulf Essay

4093 Words | 17 Pages

Christian and Pagan Influence in Paradise Lost and Beowulf

In Paradise Lost, Milton is adept at drawing from both Christian and pagan sources and integrating them in such a way that they reinforce one another (Abrams 1075). Of course it is a commonplace for critics to believe that Milton valued his Christian sources more highly than the pagan ones (Martindale 20); this is most likely due to the fact that he regarded the Christian sources as vessels of the truth. His classical allusions…

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Discuss Milton’s presentation of Satan in Paradise Lost Essay

2739 Words | 11 Pages

Discuss Milton’s presentation of Satan in Paradise Lost

There has been considerable critical interest in the figure of Satan in Paradise Lost,
and in the possibility that he may be the true hero of the epic poem. The opening of
the poem finds Milton in a tough spot: writing an epic poem without an epic hero in
sight. In order to achieve a rationally balanced poem, he wants to let the first half rise from Hell through Chaos and towards Heaven, thereby balancing the fall of
humankind in the…

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Milton's Satan in Paradise Lost Essay

1783 Words | 8 Pages

Milton’s Satan in Paradise Lost

After researching Satan and his kingdom, Hell, through the Bible and Paradise Lost to compare and contrast the two characterizations, I realized that Milton must have been a true Bible scholar. Milton’s Satan is described so closely to the Biblical view of Satan that it is often times hard to distinguish the two. Milton changed and elaborated on a few characteristics of his Satan and his Hell in order to create Paradise Lost, but based his characterization and…

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A Different Perspective of Satan in Paradise Lost by John Milson

685 Words | 3 Pages

In the first book of Paradise Lost, created by Milton, it can most accurately be perceived as Milton attempting to give the reader a different perspective on Satan, the greatest lost angel. In the first book of Paradise Lost, Milton writes about how Satan was the closest angel to God. Milton’s attempt at making Satan a sympathetic character evolved after his original audience had seen it, because in modern times it is much easier to sympathize with Satan than it was many years ago. The perspective…

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Adam & Eve Lost in Paradise

782 Words | 4 Pages

Paradise Lost by John Milton: Discuss the relationship between Adam and Eve, as portrayed in Book 9 of Paradise Lost. How does Milton’s portrayal compare to or differ from how Adam and Eve are typically portrayed, described, or understood?

Thoughts of Eve conjure images of a meek woman who is submissive and created to serve her husband. Adam is thought of as a strong, beautiful man created in the likeness of God. He is the ruler of land and sea and leader of all mankind. Their relationship is…

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Adam in Milton's Paradise Lost Essay

1603 Words | 7 Pages

Adam in “Paradise Lost”: Fate’s Ruler – and Subject

A central problem in John Milton’s “Paradise Lost” in the theological issue of free will versus fate, a traditionally much-debated question. Free will is the condition of having control or direction over fate or destiny; the individual shapes his life and future through his actions. The opposing view, complete lack of free will (made famous by John Calvin), is predestination, which expresses the idea that our futures have been foreseen long…

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Paradise Lost by John Milton

828 Words | 3 Pages

Written at the heart of the Enlightenment John Milton’s epic poem, Paradise Lost, illustrates some of the impacts that the key principles of the controversial time. Paradise Lost, unlike the King James Bible, shows logical thinking, complexity, and true love in Adam and Eve. This gives the reader more of an idea of how he tries to justify God’s ways to men. In doing this John Milton shows the reader that Adam and Eve should be held most responsible for the fall of mankind, because God created them…

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Research Paper: Paradise Lost

1888 Words | 8 Pages

Paradise Lost
-John Milton-

John Milton (9 December 1608 – 8 November 1674) was an English poet, polemicist, man of letters, and a civil servant for the Commonwealth of England under Oliver Cromwell. He wrote at a time of religious flux and political upheaval, and is best known for his epic poem Paradise Lost (1667), written in blank verse.
Milton’s poetry and prose reflect deep personal convictions, a passion for freedom and self-determination, and the urgent issues and political…

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Blending of Renaissance and Reformation in Paradise Lost

2288 Words | 10 Pages

fearing man. He is also a great writer who wrote in a grand style. As a god fearing man, Milton writes his Paradise Lost, on the basis of religion, Bible and as a great writer he advances his writing in a classical manner. The theme of Paradise Lost is Biblical as it shows the wrongdoing of Adam and Eve by the influence of Satan and the justice of God for sinners. Milton writes Paradise Lost in such a style which holds classical flavor. So, Milton shows Biblical theme in classical mood. We can also…

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Cosmology in Milton's Paradise Lost

2810 Words | 12 Pages

and/or ornamental thing.
When God created the world he had this in mind. To have a harmonious system in the universe where everything can live in peace and free of all worry. God was on top and everything was peaceful. Until the angles in Milton’s Paradise Lost had a fight. After the fight God banished these bad angels and had the last part of his universe created, hell. This completed a very complex picture of Milton’s vision of the universe in the beginning.

The encyclopedic writers of the early Middle…

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All Paradise Lost Essays

  • Reconstruction and the Myth of the Lost Cause
  • THe Garden of Eden
  • British Literature Exam
  • Remarkable Minds: The Influence of Great Texts
  • Wild: From Lost to Found on the Pacific Crest Trail, by Cheryl Strayed
  • The Sympathetic Monster
  • Love's Labour's Lost
  • Man and Nature after the Fall in John Milton's Paradise Lost
  • Literary Masterpieces Matrix
  • The Teaching of Jesus: The Lost Sheep
  • Eternal Punishment vs. Universalism and Annihilationism
  • How Successfully Do Walton's Letters Introduce the Central Themes and Concerns of the Novel "Frankenstein" by Mary Shelley?
  • Lost Military Id
  • How Literature Mirrors the Era
  • Woman's Role Defined in "Paradise Lost" and the Bible
  • Analysis of Shakespeare's Loves Labours Lost
  • An Analysis of The Lost World by Arthur Conan Doyle
  • Critiques of Sara Rimer’s A Lost Moment Recaptured and Stephen Mosher’s Where Have All the Heroes Gone?
  • Adam and Eve's Relationship to Each Other and God in Paradise Lost
  • John Milton
  • milton and his life
  • The Lost Type Co-Op
  • I Feel Lost
  • Lost in the Sky at Grandpa's Cabin
  • Tool Of The Devil: Comparing Satan in Paradise Lost and The Golden Compass
  • Trouble in Paradise
  • The Lost Letters of Pergamum by Bruce W Longenecker
  • Shakespeare’s Macbeth and Milton’s Satan of Paradise Lost
  • Lost Forests and Their Impact
  • Amory Blaine's "Mirrors" in Fitzgerald's This Side of Paradise
  • Whistleblower Edward Snowden
  • Memory in Exile: Eva Hoffman's "Lost in Translation"
  • Is Falling Failure or Freedom?
  • The Character of Yolanda Garcia in How the Garcia Girls Lost Their Accents and !Yo!
  • Essay on Freedom and Satan in John Milton’s Paradise Lost
  • Comparing The Opening Scene In Raiders Of The Lost Ark and Tomorrow Never Dies
  • Meaning of Edgar Allan Poe's The Raven
  • Lost Identity Found
  • John Milton's Paradise Lost as Christian Epic
  • Volunteering at the Colorado State Fair Lost Child Center
  • Lost Generation of Writers
  • Essay on John Milton’s Paradise Lost – Defense for the Allegory of Sin and Death
  • Narcissism in John Milton’s Paradise Lost
  • Essay on Milton's Paradise Lost -Satan’s Myth of Free Will
  • The Lost Inca Indian Culture
  • Satanic Cults In The Late 1900s
  • Paradise Vacations – Case
  • The Definition of Religion Can Be Academically Useful
  • Obedience: The Odyssey to Freedom
  • Alternate Universe in the Lost Treasure
  • The 2010s – A lost, instead of blossoming decade for China?
  • Lost Sister by Cathy Songs
  • Commentary on the Lost Heritage by Heather Buck
  • The Lost Honour of Katharina Blum
  • Tool of the Devil: Comparing Satan in Paradise Lost and the Golden Compass
  • Lost Property by James Maloney
  • Mark Bixler's The Lost Boys of Sudan
  • Lost Names
  • The Ghost Road by Par Barker and Paradise by Abdulrazak Gurnah: Viewing the Germans from the British Viewpoint during World War I in Two Novels
  • Utopia in Gulliver Travels and Paradise Lost
  • The Moral of the Story
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  • Lost Between Love and Abuse
  • Mythology and Archetypes in Harper Lee's To Kill a Mockingbird
  • Cause and Effect
  • Social Interactions in Shakespeare’s As You Like It, Hancock’s The Blind Side and Shaun Tan’s The Lost thing
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  • Men and Women in British Literature
  • The Lost Thing Essay
  • Comparison between the Tyger and the Lamb
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  • Lost in Translation Analysis- Interpersonal Communication
  • How HTC Lost US$ 40 Million?
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  • Kubla Khan
  • What is Heaven without Hell? in Paradise Lost by John Milton
  • Analysis of Mary Shelley's Frankenstein
  • Palestinian-Israeli Conflict from the Perspective of Palestinian Filmmakers
  • Mark Bixler’s The Lost Boys of Sudan: An American Story of The Refugee Experience
  • Paris in the 1920’s – “The Lost Generation”
  • How I Lost My Weight
  • How the Garcia Girls Lost Their Accents
  • Milton: The Achievement Of Humans
  • Powerful Women of The Faerie Queene and Paradise Lost
  • temptopia Theme of Utopianism in The Tempest
  • Review of the Article “How the West was Lost”
  • Portfolio Piece : 'Tis Better to Have Loved and Lost, Then Never to Have Loved at All '
  • Lost Along the Way
  • Mary Shelley's Frankenstein
  • No Love Lost
  • Trouble in Paradise: Stakeholder Conflict in the Paseo Caribe Project
  • John Milton's Epic Poem about Satan, Paradise Lost
  • A Mothers Love Lost
  • My Lost Memory: Short Story
  • Analysis of the Film, Indiana Jones and the Raiders of the Lost Ark
  • The Involvement of War in British Literature
  • A Critique of Hew Strachan's 'The Lost Meaning of Strategy'
  • John Milton's Life and Writing
  • The Lost And Found
  • The Powers of Satan in Paradise Lost
  • Paradise Lost: Moloch's Warfare Vs. Belial's Coexistence
  • Dante's Inferno vs. Milton's Paradise Lost
  • Essay on the Devil in Paradise Lost, Holy Bible, Faust, and Devil and Tom Walker
  • Comparing Social Class in Baby of the Family and Black Girl Lost
  • The Case of Lost Labor
  • John Milton's Epic Poem, Paradise Lost
  • Tolerance: A Lost Value
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  • The Puppy That Lost Its Way
  • Taking a Look at John Milton
  • Why the Confederacy Lost the War
  • Wuthering Heights by Emily Brontë : A Perfect Misanthropist’s Heaven
  • Paradise Lost: Censorship and Hypocrisy in the Italian Film Cinema Paradiso
  • The Destructive Nature of Industrialization Depicted in Herman Melville's The Paradise of Bachelors and The Tartarus of Maids
  • West Memphis 3 Argumentative Paper
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  • In Our Time and the Lost Generation
  • The Lost and Lonely People of John Ernst Steinbeck (of Mice and Men)
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  • Satan in Paradise Lost and The Myth of Sisyphus
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  • Analysis of Kubla Khan by Samuel Taylor Coleridge
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  • Paradise and the Sooner State
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  • PARADISE FLUBBED: Pynchon & the New World
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  • Willa Cather Describes Erotics of Place in her Novel, A Lost Lady
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  • A Jewish Reading of Milton
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  • Ernest Hemingway, the Writer of Lost Generation
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  • Augustine’s Divided Line
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  • Critique of Dave Pelzer's Autobiography, "The Lost Boy"
  • The American Dream in The Great Gatsby and This Side of Paradise
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  • Why the South Lost the Civil War
  • Critical Analysis of Edwin Arlington Robsin
  • Edgar Allan Poe: Youth, Beauty, and Death
  • Creative Writing: Lost in the Mountains
  • Between “Eternal Light” and “Darkness and Distance” as Main Symbols in Mary Shelley’s Frankenstein, or the Modern Prometheus
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  • Stylistic Analysis of the Lost Baby Poem
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  • Marketing Strategy for Hilton Surfers Paradise Residences
  • Lost Sales Forecast
  • Madonna Kolbenschlag's Lost in the Land of Oz
  • Satan, the Core of Milton´s Paradise Lost
  • Heinrich Boll's Context and Lost Honour
  • Food of Paradise
  • John Milton: An Inspirational British Poet
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  • Why Germany Lost Wwii
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  • Classic vs Best Seller
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  • Raiders of the Lost Ark Movie Analysis
  • Article Analysis: 'Leaders Lost in Transformation' by M Emiliani
  • How We Lost the Robot Tournament
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  • Of Mice and Men, John Steinbeck : How does the killing of candy's dog relate to the killing of Lennie? What were the similarities between them? What was the reason for killing?
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  • . Facebook Lost Out to Twitter Recuiting Highly-Respected Algorithms Engineer Pankaj Gupta. Facebook Has Had Trouble Finding a Director of Monetization.
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  • How The USA Lost The Vietnam War
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  • Why the Spanish Armada Invaded Britain and Lost
  • Feminism Lost in Margaret Atwood’s A Handmaid’s Tale
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  • LOST IN THE DESERT
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  • Why did Germany lose the First World War in 1918? An essay answering the question of why Germany lost and why they lost when they did.
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  • The True Appearance and Purpose of Angels
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  • The Lost Honour of Katharina Blum by Heinrich Boll
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  • Comparing Digging by Seamus Heaney, Catrin by Gilliam Clarke, The Little Boy Lost y William Blake and Tichborne's Elegy by Charles Tichborne
  • Frankenstein – The Humanity of the Monster
  • Reception of F. Scott Fitzgerald’s Work, This Side of Paradise
  • The Search for Language in The Awakening
  • Satan as a Hero
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  • Atlantis, the Lost City
  • The Ladies Paradise by Émile Zola
  • Elliot Richards' Bedazzled
  • Use of Language in How the Garcia Girls Lost Their Accents by Julia Alvarez
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  • Sin and Death in John Milton's Paradise Lost
  • Eve
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  • ‘the Usa Lost the Vietnam War Because Its Military Strategy and Tactics Were Wrong’ How Far Do You Agree?
  • Meet Xavier, a Male Nurse Who Lost His Wife
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  • Rainbows End + the Lost Thing Essay (Belonging)
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  • Emptiness in The Hollow Men
  • Little Paradise Taught me to Appreciate Beauty Everywhere
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  • Power and Manipulation in The Ladies Paradise
  • The Divine Comedy
  • A Woman’s Paradise on Earth: The Rise of the Department Store
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  • Milton's Paradise Lost and His Justification of the Ways of God to Man.
  • Dante's Work
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  • The Lost but Found Sheep
  • Speech: History of Haiti
  • How America Lost the Vietnam War
  • Frankenstein Allusions
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  • Milton and Classical Predecessors
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  • Mission: Lost Snow
  • The Influences and Impacts of Settings on Characters and Readers
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  • Lost Lady
  • The Analysis of Canonical Literature
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  • Character Analysis of Satan in Milton's 'Paradise Lost'
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  • Why the North Won the Civil War by David Donald: Reflection on the economic, military, diplomatic, political, and social reasons the South lost.
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  • Paradise
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difference between abstract and introduction
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Abstract vs. Introduction: Do You Know the Difference?


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Ross wants to publish his research. He sits to draft his manuscript. After completing the abstract, he proceeds to write the introduction. He finds himself a bit confused. Do the abstract and introduction mean the same? How is the content for both the sections different? This is a dilemma faced by several young researchers while drafting their first manuscript. An abstract is similar to a summary except that it is more concise and direct. The introduction section of your paper is more detailed. It states why you conducted your study, what you wanted to accomplish, and what is your hypothesis. Let us learn more about the difference between the abstract and introduction.

The Abstract

The details of a study, such as precise methods and measurements, are not necessary in the abstract. An abstract provides the reader with a clear description of your study and its results without the reader having to read the entire paper. The abstract is an important tool for researchers who must sift through hundreds of papers from their field of study.

The abstract  holds more significance  in articles without open access. Reading the abstract would give an idea of the articles, which would otherwise require monetary payment for access. In most cases, reviewers will read the abstract to decide whether to continue to review the paper, which is important for you.

Your abstract should begin with a background or objective to clearly state why the research was done, its importance to the field of study, and any previous roadblocks encountered. It should include a very concise version of your methods, results, and conclusions but no references. It must be concise while still providing enough information so that the reader need not read the full article. Most journals ask that the abstract be no more than 200–250 words long.

Format of an Abstract

There are two general formats—“structured” and “unstructured.” A structured abstract  helps the reader find pertinent information  very quickly. It is divided into sections clearly defined by headings as follows:

  • Background: Latest information on the topic; key phrases that pique interest (e.g., “…the role of this enzyme has never been clearly understood”).
  • Objective: Your goals; what the study examined and why.
  • Methods: Brief description of the study (e.g., retrospective study).
  • Results: Findings and observations.
  • Conclusions: Were these results expected? Whether more research is needed or not?

Authors get tempted to write too much  in an abstract but it is helpful to remember that there is usually a maximum word count. The main point is to relay the important aspects of the study without sharing too many details so that the readers do not have to go through the entire manuscript text for finding more information.

The unstructured abstract is often used in fields of study that do not fall under the category of science. This type of abstracts does not have different sections. It summarizes the manuscript’s objectives, methods, etc., in one paragraph.

Lastly, you must check the author guidelines of the target journal. It will describe the format required and the maximum word count of your abstract.

The Introduction

Your introduction is the first section of your research paper. It is not a repetition of the abstract. It does not provide data about methods, results, or conclusions. However, it  provides more in-depth information  on the background of the subject matter. It also explains your hypothesis, what you attempted to discover, or issues that you wanted to resolve. The introduction will also explain if and why your study is new in the subject field and why it is important.

It is often a good idea to wait until the rest of the paper is completed before drafting your introduction. This will help you to stay focused on the manuscript’s important points. The introduction, unlike the abstract, should contain citations to references. The information will help guide your readers through the rest of your document. The key points to remember while drafting the introduction:

  • Beginning: The importance of the study.
  • Tone/Tense: Formal, impersonal; present tense.
  • Content: Brief description of manuscript but without results and conclusions.
  • Length: Generally up to four paragraphs. May vary slightly with journal guidelines.

Once you are sure that possible doubts on the difference between the abstract and introduction are clear, review and submit your manuscript.

What struggles have you had in writing an abstract or introduction? Were you able to resolve them? Please share your thoughts with us in the comments section below.



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Home » Difference Between Case Study and Research

Difference Between Case Study and Research

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Case Study vs Research

Those involved in completing their thesis are often required to write both case studies as well as research papers. Many students cannot differentiate between a case study and research with the result that they suffer from poor grades from their teachers. There is a great difference in writing styles of the two, and also their content. This article will help one to appreciate the differences between a case study and a research paper.

Case Study

A case study is about a person, company, a product, or an event. If you are writing about a company, you need to make it interesting by writing a few paragraphs about the company and its history. It makes sense to talk about its growth along with the course it has taken that differentiates it from its competitors. After you have introduced the company from different angles, one comes down to the real problem that he wishes to address and the reasons for taking up the problems. It is at the end of the case study that a student must make his suggestions and recommendations for the problems that he has chosen for his case study.

Research Paper

Research paper is different from a case study in the sense that a student needs to acquaint himself with various views on the subject matter. This is necessary to develop one’s own views about the subject. Obviously all this requires much reading of the subject matter from as many sources that the student can lay his hands upon. In a research paper, a student needs to refer to other researches that have taken place on the subject. A research paper also requires you to cite other authors, which forms an important part of a research.

Difference between Case Study and Research

Thus the most important difference between a case study and research is that you are not concerned with earlier reviews on the subject and start straightway with an introduction of the company. On the other hand, you not only talk about earlier reviews, you also present your own views about a topic in the end of a research paper.

Another difference between a case study and research pertains to your focus. Entire focus remains on the company that is being presented as a case study. It would be proper to term a case study as a specific case while one can make generalizations in a research paper. If you are writing about gender inequality with respect to their salaries, you may have to do a lot of research in various industries but if you take up a particular company, it becomes a case study.

In brief:

Case Study vs Research

• A research is broader in spectrum than a case study

• Case study requires proper introduction about the company whereas there is no such requirement in a research paper

• Research requires citing other similar works and author’s views whereas you do not need it in a case study.

Comments

  1. So the early release etc etc etc that Obama admin granted at the end of his term, of several thousand incarcerated people will make for very relevant research and multiple case study on down the line?! I’m curious to know 5, 10, 15 years from now-
    IF ANY/ how many might reoffend and other pertinent imformation. The “relevance” is pretty basic.
    In my opinion.

    Reply

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You Can Pick Your Friends

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After the initial stumbling block more commonly known as residential life, I faced the towering challenge of settling into classes. Once I had registered (which was itself something of a dilemma), I had in my hand a sheet of abbreviations that rivaled a military briefing or a computer manual. My first class, on a Thursday morning, was located in a building called CBW, which stood for Classroom Building West. Surely the

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The Narrative in First-Year Composition

 
  

Writing in the first year composition class allows students

to interact with an audience in order to inform or persuade (Behar

143).In the current-traditional

teaching pedagogy, there are typically five types of writing assignments:

narrative, expository, persuasive, compare and contrast, and prose.

Most college composition instructors from the current composition

teaching pedagogy see these different types of writing as elements

or strategies that are combined within a paper rather than different

sorts of papers. For example, someone may use a story to persuade

and also include some exposition or comparison/contrast in the same

paper, or a narrative might contain information or comparison/contrast.

In narrative assignments, students usually write a personal essay,

journal, reflection, analysis or any other autobiographical story

about themselves. This type of narrative is primarily used at the

community colleges in developmental writing courses and in basic

writing courses.

When used at the four-year university,

narratives are primarily seen in advanced exposition and taught

as memoirs, folk tales and fables.

Students tell stories about themselves that have a beginning,

middle, and end and that use plot to make the story interesting

and complex (Sharton 2). In the first year composition course, the

word narrative is not used, and narrative writing assignments are

usually used at the beginning of the term as way for teachers to

know, �a history or an account of a person�s development�..meaningful

language experiences with their peers, at home, and at various community

sites� (Scott 108) and are called literacy narratives, and reflective

writing essays.

Abstract | Situated Story | The Narrative in First-Year Composition |

Rationale for Teaching the Narrative |

Why this Teaching Strategy Does Not Work |

Why Use Video Games | Connecting Video Games & Narratives |

Suggested Teaching Strategies | Conclusion | References


Connecting Video Games and Storytelling to Teach Narratives In First-Year

Composition

Zoevera Ann Jackson

25 Great Essay topics for Students — Edgalaxy: Cool Stuff for Nerdy …

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The Latest in Tech, Tools and Toys for Teachers.  Lesson Plans, Classroom resources and ideas for busy teachers.  iPad Apps and Android Apps for teachers and students.

25 Great Essay topics for Students

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Writing an essay can be a daunting task for both teachers and students in terms of creating and crafting a high quality essay,  and finally editing and grading them.

It seems though we may have overlooked one of the toughest steps in writing an essay and that is actually selecting an appropriate and interesting topic for your students.

Thankfully I have put together a list of 25 great essay topics that might just make that process a little easier.  Enjoy.  And remember to add any other great suggestions in the comment section below.

If you are still struggling with the essay writing process and need further guidance be sure to check out our definitive guide to writing a great essay. 

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  1. Zoos are sometimes seen as necessary but not poor alternatives to a natural environment.  Discuss some of the arguments for and/or against keeping animals in zoos.
  2. Imaginethat your teacher wants to teach a new subject for the next few weeks.  Your teacher will take suggestions, and then let the students vote on the new subject. What subject should your class choose? Write an essay to support your choice and to persuade the other students to vote for your choice.
  3. Are actors and professional athletes paid too much?
  4.  Should teachers have to wear uniforms or have a dress code?
  5. Since the invention of nuclear weapons we have had a long period of GLOBAL peace and stability.  Are nuclear weapons global peacemakers or killing devices?
  6. Should boys and girls be in separate classes?
  7. Is the death penalty effective?
  8. To what extent is the use of animals in scientific research acceptable?
  9. What age is appropriate for dating?
  10. Pretend you woke up one day and there were no rules. People could suddenly do whatever they wanted! Explain what the world would be like. Use your    imagination!
  11. Should student’s textbooks be replaced by notebook computers?
  12. Should students be allowed to have cell phones in elementary and high schools?
  13. Should wealthy nations be required to share their wealth among poorer nations?
  14. Should money be spent on space exploration?
  15. Is fashion important?
  16. Are we too dependent on computers?
  17. Ifyou had the opportunity to bring any person — past or present, fictional    or nonfictional — to a place that is special to you (your hometown or    country, a favourite location, etc.), who would you bring and why? Tell us    what you would share with that person
  18. Most high level jobs are done by men. Should the government encourage a certain percentage of these jobs to be reserved for women?
  19. Should students be allowed to grade their teachers?
  20. In your opinion what factors contribute to a good movie?
  21. The destruction of the world’s forests is inevitable as our need for land and food grows.  Do you agree?
  22. Many parents give their children certain chores or tasks to do at home. Should    children have to do chores or tasks at home? Be sure to explain why you    think it is a good idea or a bad idea. Include examples to support your    reasons.
  23. Should the voting age be lowered to thirteen?
  24. Should the government place a tax on junk food and fatty snacks?
  25. Should more be done to protect and preserve endangered animals?

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101 Argumentative Essay Topics Recommended by Top College Tutors




101 Argumentative Essay Topics Recommended by Top College Tutors

“Is after-class homework harmful or useful?” That is how a good argumentative paper topic may sound.

Argumentative essay is one more type of college paper. Students might be assigned it as part of their homework or even in-class activity. Argumentative papers exist to check student’s English and ability to think critically. Another reason is to see how well students argue on different views and demonstrate knowledge of the studied subject.

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Have a look at this article to understand teacher’s grading rubric better. Find a list of debatable essay topics divided into several different categories below.

Ways to Choose Argumentative Essay Topics

There are a lot of argumentative topics to come up with in the age of political debates, economical movements, and technological progress. Picking the subject is one of the most responsible stages (unless your teacher assigns his own subject to cover). Deciding on your topic is not that easy.

It is recommended to choose rather contradictive topics when writing a critical paper. The reader should be impressed by the way you defend your ideas. It is recommended to avoid argument essay topics on moral issues because they do not support logical discussion. Recent argumentative essay topics which are relevant to society will do.

A debatable paper must contain both analysis and fair criticism of various problems. Make sure each time you want to say something against one’s claim, you need solid arguments. Otherwise, your paper won’t persuade your teacher. The lack of good support sources will result in a lower grade.

Those who try to obtain their business administration degrees (BBA or MBA) must evaluate and analyze the efficiency of some marketing or HRM tools to discover the most effective approaches. Potential nurses and healthcare experts must check and discuss the efficiency of treatment.

The second thing you should take care of once you decide on the title is to keep in mind five types of argument claims.

101 Argumentative Essay Topics for Your Essay

Once you select the main subject, start working on the action plan known as academic paper outline. Keep an eye on academic paper formatting while writing.

Follow this link to find out 101 argumentative essay topics or just continue reading.

Argumentative essay from NickyReich

The Principles of Formatting Academic Papers

While working, mention all applied sources separately. Take notes each time you decide to add a new quote: later, this information will help to create Bibliography list much faster. Keep in mind that proper formatting is 1/3 of your grade! Thus, it is important to read corresponding formatting guide.

In contrast to middle and high school students, college students apply a greater variety of academic writings styles.

  • MLA (Modern Language Association)
  • APA (American Psychologic Association)
  • Harvard
  • Chicago
  • Harvard
  • Oxford
  • Vancouver
  • IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers)
  • ACS (American Chemical Society)

APA is often applied to format the argumentative essay. It also depends on the particular college subject. APA is applied in Psychology, Philosophy, and Social Sciences while History students must be well-aware of Harvard format. Theology, Anthropology, and Religious Studies classes involve Turabian/Chicago style. Computer Science researchers apply IEEE referencing style while Chemistry students are into ACS. Teachers assign the necessary format, but keep in mind these tips if they don’t.

Before writing your piece, conduct additional research on academic paper formatting. It is better to use templates as they include all necessary formatting elements. Control the margins, font, font’s size, indents, and other features in your Word document. Each style is different in two ways. First, in-text citations may be either numerical or author-date style. Second, every style has a unique approach to referencing.

Young writers may try simple online citation generators which are usually free of charge. Add the details on your selected sources to get automatically generated references.

Good Argumentative Essay Topics & Ideas

Have a look at how to come up with an essay topic! It is important to focus only on one subject instead of involving several ideas and make readers confused. Read the advice from educational expert carefully.

“A clear, firm, and debatable thesis is the goal of an argumentative paper. It is impossible to cover several issues at a time as your audience may get lost and lose interest in reading. Besides, any academic paper is limited in length: the more issues your try to cover, the more extra information comes up. I would recommend avoiding argumentative essay topic ideas associated with national/global problems. They usually require more than a few pages. If you choose a broad issue, narrow it down by tossing away details such as descriptions and useless examples.

There are four main characteristics of good argumentative essay topics. They are always CDRM.

C – current

D – debatable

R – researchable

M – manageable

Finally, great argument essay topics are always passionate!”

Tara Christianson, Yale’s Literature and Arts Professor

Get acquainted with the list of persuasive paper ideas! Take a look at the list of critical thinking essay topics for students from different areas of expertise. These are the most popular paper titles. Change them according to your requirements.

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Argumentative essay from NickyReich

Argumentative Essay Topics for College

  1. What should be changed about current taxation system?
  2. Shakespeare: Was he real?
  3. Are Project Managers and CEOs paid too much?
  4. Is college admission getting too sharp?
  5. Are test scores the most accurate indication of individual competency?
  6. Military service and the role of gender
  7. Why are left-handed guitar players more gifted?
  8. Do all religions have a right to exist?
  9. What are the causes of the increased number of teenage mothers?
  10. What happens once we die?

Easy Argumentative Essay Topics

  1. My favorite music
  2. Burton’s “Ed Wood”: Was Depp the best choice?
  3. Is particular fashion important today?
  4. Are girls too mean?
  5. Do human beings cause global climate change?
  6. Polygamy is natural, so it’s not evil
  7. Can you succeed in life being a philosopher?
  8. Is art a profession?
  9. How long a modern film usually takes?
  10. What is the true meaning of “love”?

Controversial Argumentative Essay Topics

  1. Is US election process fair?
  2. Should animals be used in experiments/testing?
  3. Is the death penalty effective?
  4. Do religious movements cause war?
  5. The politics of British government
  6. Celebrities tend to fail their political careers
  7. The system is too much corrupted today
  8. Politics is everywhere and always a “dirty” game
  9. Clinton could be a better US President
  10. Positive and negative outcomes of feminism

Social Media Argumentative Essay Topics

  1. Critical factors of quickly modifying consumer behavior
  2. Can girls ask boys out first?
  3. Should cigarettes be sold?
  4. Is our society a throw-away?
  5. Should nation market to children?
  6. What is the best alternative to Twitter?
  7. Do people really find a job through effective LinkedIn Profile?
  8. Does government have a right to view private profiles?
  9. Are popular online activists too shy in real life?
  10. Is it possible earn good money on YouTube?

Argumentative Essay Topics Technology Students May Choose

  1. Are cell phones too harmful?
  2. Are spy applications for mobile phones an invasion of privacy?
  3. Are modern young people too dependent on computers?
  4. Is any online lottery fair?
  5. Is TypeScript a future of front-end development?
  6. Are modern teens too much reliant on Information Technologies?
  7. Do we still need cell phones?
  8. How do people survive in the age of technological explosion?
  9. Can corporations create chips to control their employees’ minds?
  10. What will our world look like in technological sense in the next century?

Argumentative Essay Topics about Sports

  1. Are violent video games that dangerous?
  2. Does participation in sports keep teens out of trouble?
  3. Is competition the best way to prove your competence?
  4. Are children changing positively when doing sports?
  5. Is cheating in sports games out of control?
  6. What is the most dangerous type of sports?
  7. Is swimming the only activity which trains every group of muscles?
  8. Are there any legal alternatives to steroids?
  9. Does cheerleading fit in games?
  10. Which type of sports is meant only for the wealthiest?

Argumentative Essay Topics for Middle School

  1. Should metal music be banned due to the violent lyrics?
  2. How can children be effectively punished?
  3. What age is appropriate to start dating?
  4. Can students evaluate and critique their teachers?
  5. Should public schools add creationism to their programs?
  6. Which genre of music may help to study?
  7. Females prefer romantic movies.
  8. Is it possible to trace someone online?
  9. Is it possible to make friends virtually?
  10. The role of school uniform.

Argumentative Essay Topics for High School

  1. The educational system in China
  2. Is homeschooling effective?
  3. Is the cost of university too high?
  4. Should the government have a say in our nutrition?
  5. What are the advantages of attending a single-sex school?
  6. Can graffiti be viewed as art?
  7. What type of social activity should be legally punished?
  8. Is the United States too lenient on Israel?
  9. Is India a genuine superpower?
  10. Pros and cons of globalization.

Health Related Argumentative Essay Topics

  1. Should alcohol usage be restricted legally?
  2. Government has to provide premium health care?
  3. Do curfews really keep adolescents out of trouble?
  4. Supplements used to cure cancer
  5. Are gay couples under the threat of HIV more than straight pairs?
  6. Can technological devices cause cancer?
  7. How much water should we drink per day?
  8. How do vegetarians survive?
  9. The risks coming from fast food.
  10. Going to the hospital versus self-treatment.

Social Argumentative Essay Topics

  1. Is torture or rape ever acceptable?
  2. Should sexual maniacs be sentenced to death?
  3. Can male employees get paternity leave from work?
  4. Does age matter in relationships?
  5. Do low prices on condoms prevent teen pregnancy?
  6. Ways to handle naughty teens
  7. What is the right punishment for the failed parenting?
  8. What are the causes of Down’s syndrome?
  9. Is black PR acceptable?
  10. Can we treat abortion as a crime?

Are you ready to discover one more extra topic? Let it be something universal like “What are the best methods to control modern generation?”

Tips on Writing Powerful Argumentative Essay

Make a candy out of your paper by following expert recommendations!

  • Write about different aspects of contemporary life. Do not cover fantastic issues in an argumentative essay as you must sound realistic by providing real-life examples. That’s why choosing social media, sports, politics, gender issues, and school/college themes would work.
  • Start with a great hook to capture attention. It can be a rhetorical question, literary quote, or else, but it is important not to use more than one hook in your paper. Mind this professional advice when choosing the best hooking sentence.
  • There is no need to include a first-person (“I,” “we”) unless required by instructions. Still, students are encouraged to share their own opinions.
  • It is important to read all relevant literature to add ideas that oppose personal opinion. To debate fairly, the evidence must be taken from the credible sources only! Exclude topics that do not have opposing opinions.
  • Feel free to create an original topic, but you may also use numerous lists of prepared themes.
  • Try to sound unbiased when protecting your point of view. The following elements will support your research:
    • clear criteria
    • judgments
    • expert feedback
    • supportive arguments
  • End up your text with a strong call-to-action (CTA) . Unlike in marketing, your goal is to sell your article. In other words, make the reader want to discuss the problem even once he’s done with reading. Motivate your audience to continue the research.
  • Don’t forget to refer to this article to recall the best argumentative essay ideas chosen by many successful students throughout the world!

Tired of endless academic writing? Need quick help with formatting? Sometimes you might need some professional help with argumentative essay topics. Don’t lose your head trying to master every writing style, academic discipline, and research method trying. Sit down and assume each advantage proposed by the best companies. Discover them thanks to your Google. Remember: students can always count on professional essay writing assistance. Just make an order to check it out !

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Statics

Ist Summer Session (May 17-June 23, 2017)

Course: CE 2010 Statics

Course Description:
Forces and force systems and their external effect on bodies, principally the condition of equilibrium. The techniques of vector mathematics are employed, and the rigor of physical analysis is emphasized.
3.000 Credit hours
3.000 Lecture hours

This 5-week  course involves the same rigor, content and workload of a 15-week Statics course. Since this course will move three times faster than usual, students should anticipate spending a minimum of 35 hours/week on this course. In order to be in the best possible position to succeed, it is not recommended that students do more than one of the following while being enrolled in this course: have a part-time job, enroll in more than three other academic credits during the same five week term, go on a family vacation, or commit to other activities with significant time demands.

Printable Documents:

Course Syllabus

CE 2010 Statics Summer 1 2017 Course Schedule

CE 2010 Statics Summer 1 2017 Sample Proctor Form

Course Material Presentations:

Video Sample; Class Handout Sample; List of Course Topics

Lacture Video Sample   Course Handout

Topics Covered:

Week 1 
Includes Days 1-5 of the course content, with quizzes and assignments given each day.

    •  Apply vector algebra to find resultants and angles.
    •  Determine resultants using Cartesian vectors in 2D and 3D.
    •  Determine position vectors and force vectors directed along a line.
    •  Explain and apply the dot product.
    •  Explain and apply the concept of equilibrium to 2D concurrent force systems.
    •  Apply the concept of equilibrium to 3D concurrent force systems.

Week 2
Includes Days 6-10 of the course content, with quizzes and an assignment given each day and Exam 1.

    • Determine 2D & 3D moments using the scalar method.
    • Apply the cross product to determine 3D moments.
    • Determine the moment of a force about an axis.
    • Explain and determine the moment of a couple.
    • Replace forces with an equivalent force-couple system.
    • Reduce a force-couple system to a single force.
    • Replace a distributed load with equivalent resultant forces and couple moments.

Week 3
Includes Days 11-15 of the course content, with quizzes and an assignment given each day.

    • Identify the reaction force and moments associated with non-concurrent 2D supports.
    • Draw complete free body diagrams of 2D non-concurrent systems.
    • Explain and apply the 2D conditions of equilibrium in non-concurrent systems.
    • Determine the external reactions of two-force members in frames.
    • Identify the reaction force and moments associated with 3D supports in non-current force systems.
    • Explain and apply the 3D conditions of equilibrium.
    • Calculate the internal forces in truss members using the method of joints.
    • Identify zero force members.
    • Calculate internal forces in truss members using the method of sections.
    • Analyze a frame to determine the forces acting on individual members.

Week 4
Includes Days 16-18 of the course content, with quizzes and an assignment given each day and Exam 2.

    • Determine the output forces and loads carried by machine members.
    • Determine the internal loading in frames and beams.
    • Solve equilibrium problems involving friction.
    • Solve friction problems with wedges.

Week 5
Includes Days 19-22 of the course content, with quizzes and an assignment given each day and Exam 3.

    • Determine the centroid of 2D shapes and lines.
    • Apply known centroids of common shapes to find the centroids of complex shapes.
    • Determine the center of gravity of 3D objects.
    • Explain and determine the moment of inertia/second moment of an area.
    • Apply the parallel axis theorem to determine moment of inertia for composite bodies.
    • Determine rigid body mass moment of inertia.

Assessment:

Homework Assignments submitted online—Engineering Paper, Scanner and Mastering Engineering Access Code required

Quizzes—Timely Submission in Canvas is required

Three Exams—Proctored On-site or Student Responsible for Obtaining Proctor (Sample Draft Proctor Form)

Final Exam— Proctored On-site or Student Responsible for Obtaining Proctor at a Testing Center (Sample Proctor Form)

 Instructor:

Name: Melissa Sternhagen
Email: [email protected]
Phone: 864-656-6428

Student Outcomes—(ABET) This course contributes to the civil engineering student outcomes by developing:

  • An ability to apply knowledge of mathematics through  differential equations and science including calculus-based physics, chemistry, and at least one additional area of science appropriate to civil engineering. 
  • An ability to identify, formulate, and solve engineering problems. 

Not a Clemson Student?
Undergraduate Students from other institutions who wish to enroll in courses during the summer only are considered transient students. Visit our ” Registrar’s”  page for specific information regarding registration for summer classes.

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Communication Essay Examples

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The Evolution of Same-Sex Marriage

976 Words | 4 Pages

call it marriage equality, and opponents refer to it as “redefining” marriage. The issue of legalizing same-sex marriage has evolved over the years. Same-sex marriage and the fight to legalize it publically started in 1972 in the ‘Baker v. Nelson’ Supreme Court case, which involved a Minnesota couple that was denied a marriage license. The couple ended up taking their issue to court but their trial was dismissed because the Supreme Court stated that the clerk was allowed to refuse same-sex couples…

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Same Sex Marriage

1643 Words | 7 Pages

Same-sex marriage has continuously been contradicted throughout our nation and so the arguments never seem to cease. Some argue the legality of same-sex marriage while others suggest that it compromises the sacredness of marriage. Various religious groups and their supporters in the U.S. tend to either support same-sex marriage or greatly oppose it, depending on their viewpoints and beliefs. Thus, the constant, bitter arguments between these parties.
These two groups constantly argue over the validity…

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Recognition of Same Sex Marriage

1592 Words | 7 Pages

began a relationship. As their relationship progressed, Oliver and Erik wanted to take the next step. Denmark has allowed same-sex civil unions since the 1980s, but same-sex marriage was illegal; although couples engaged in same-sex civil unions received nearly all of the same benefits and obligations of opposite-sex marriages. In 2012, Denmark passed legislation permitting same-sex couples to be legally married and naturally, the couple did so. Erik got an amazing job offer in Chattanooga, Tennessee…

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Debating Same-Sex Marriages

1036 Words | 5 Pages

From the point of view of Gallagher, marriage is to give a child a mother and a father and to raise them in the best environment possible. She argues that when men a women have a kid and are not married or stay married the family structure falls apart and then is when many bad things happen to more kids like: poverty, welfare dependence, child abuse, sexual abuse, physical illness, infant mortality, homicide, premature and promiscuous sexuality, juvenile delinquency, educational failure, conduct…

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The Legalization of Same Sex Marriage

1623 Words | 6 Pages

how the citizens value their morals. An every day American would think that being with the same sex is not normal, or is frowned upon. Recent studies show that half of all Americans believe that gay men and lesbians have a constitutional right to marry (Craighill). Same-sex marriage has caused many conflicts around the country and even the world with multiple stand points. World views on same-sex marriage are changing day to day. “Of the 15 countries worldwide to permit gay men and lesbians to marry…

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Same Sex Marriage

1120 Words | 5 Pages

Same sex marriage has been a topic on the rise throughout the U.S. It is what some of us may consider one of the more important topics of discussion for this time period. So far 17 states out of 50 have declared same sex marriage legal (States, 2013). Same sex marriage should be legal throughout the U.S. because same sex couples have a civil right to get married, along with a right to have access to the same benefits as heterosexual couples, and to be treated as equals without fear of discrimination…

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Legalization of Same-Sex Marriage

1033 Words | 4 Pages

Gay Marriage
Gay marriage has become more and more important to more and more people in the recent past. Many people want gay people to be allowed to get married. They say that marriage is a right, not a privilege. People who oppose gay marriage say that marriage is defined as a union of one man and one woman. Many people, who otherwise are very supportive of a homosexual’s rights, say that they shouldn’t be allowed to marry simply because two people of the same sex can’t get married.
According…

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Same-sex Marriage

604 Words | 2 Pages

in the media, same sex marriage has been widely discussed and debated. Some feel it should be legalized, while others believe that it is a sin and should remain illegal. Their are many pros and cons on both sides of this argument, however there are main points leading to why gay marriage should be legal. Legalizing gay marriage will not harm heterosexual marriages or family values, and society will continue to function normally. This is a true statement, because when two people get…

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Same Sex Marriage

884 Words | 4 Pages

Same Sex Marriage
Is the definition of marriage being threatened in the United States? President Bill Clinton signed the federal Defense of Marriage Act into law on September 21, 1996. This Act defined marriage at the federal level as between a man and a woman. The federal DOMA statute ensured that no state would be forced to recognize gay marriages performed in other states and prevented same-sex couples from receiving federal protections and benefits given to married heterosexual couples. On…

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Are Same Sex Marriages Right?

518 Words | 2 Pages

Are same sex marriages right?
Same sex marriage is allowable because everyone deserves to make their own decisions and choose the life they want. Every day there are people getting married and joining as partners to have a life together. So I say every person should do what their happiness is and if that falls under straight marriage or gay marriage then it should be socially acceptable. Same sex marriage is one of the top most controversional debates in politics currently because the United States…

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Legalization of Same-Sex Marriage

1446 Words | 6 Pages

homosexuals are demanding the same rights and benefits as others (The Gay Rights Movement). Many homosexual Americans believe that they are being excluded from “one of the basic civil rights of man (Support for same-sex marriage hits new high; half say Constitution guarantees right”). They have formed organizations, gone to court, and rioted all over the nation; but they are still being denied the simple right to marry (The Gay Rights Movement). Redefining marriage will allow all Americans access…

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Same Sex Marriage

990 Words | 4 Pages

Supporters of gay marriage argue around the concept of equality in America. Our country is said to be found on the principle that all men are created equal, so that make it hypocritical to deny the rights of homosexuals, as it was hypocritical to deny freedom to African Americans or to prohibit women ‘s suffrage. Supporters also believe that Gays should be allows the same benefits as regular married couples. For instance, only through marriage do same sex couples have the rights to their partner…

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Essay on Same Sex Marriages

615 Words | 3 Pages

The proposed legalization concerning same-sex marriage is one of the most significant issues in contemporary American family law. Presently, it is one of the most vigorously advocated reforms discussed in law reviews, one of the most explosive political questions facing lawmakers, and one of the most provocative issues emerging before American courts. If same-sex marriage is legalized, it could be one of the most revolutionary policy decisions in the history.

The potential…

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The Issue With Same-Sex Marriages

1568 Words | 6 Pages

debate about the issue of same-sex marriage. For many, it is one of the fundamental human rights to love and marry whomever one chooses. Others feel that this right should be ruled by certain moral codes and restrictions in order to maintain the basic moral fabric of Western society. Today, many critics who advocate for the legalization of same-sex marriage across the United States do so on the grounds of the fact that it will create a more equal and fair society. Same-sex marriage, or indeed simply the…

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Against Same-Sex-Marriage

882 Words | 4 Pages

Against Same-Sex Marriage
Marriage is the formal relationship between a man and a woman, usually recognized by the law, by which they become husband and wife. In terms of legal recognition and acknowledgement, the majority of states, authorities, and jurisdiction limit marriage to opposite sex couples or two persons of opposite gender. Same sex marriage would weaken the definition and respect for the institution of marriage. When discussing same sex marriage, the true meaning and definition of marriage…

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Essay on Same Sex Marriage

1805 Words | 8 Pages

Many years ago one may have thought that marriage was just between a man and a woman but today that is not always the case. People of this era have now begun to exploring a new aspect of marriage, same sex marriage. Should two people of the same sex be allowed to marry?

Throughout the years same sex couples have been pursuing the same rights as heterosexual couples. Since the 1970s homosexual couples have been trying climb this social ladder and gain their civil rights. They have been seeking…

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Same-Sex Marriage Essay

1536 Words | 7 Pages

People can define marriage in numerous ways. By definition, to marry means to join together. So, a marriage would constitute as a joining together of two individuals into a legal union, which means being joined as one. Some of the many purposes of marriage would include: family, companionship, financial benefits, commitment, and love. Starting a family is an important part of getting married, as well as the commitment to love just the one person for the rest of their lives. Financially, married couples…

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Legalization of Same Sex Marriage

9779 Words | 40 Pages

THE LEGALIZATION OF SAME SEX MARRIAGE AS ASSESED BY CITHM STUDENTS
S.Y. 2011-2012

A Thesis Presented to the
Faculty of the College of International Tourism
And Hospitality Management
LYCEUM OF THE PHILIPPINES UNIVERSITY

In partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of
Bachelor of Science in Tourism

By
Ang, Dianne Marie M.
Bayot, Donalynne B.

October 2011

CHAPTER 1
THE PROBLEM AND ITS BACKGROUND

INTRODUCTION

In our generation today, homosexuals…

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Same-Sex Marriage

1478 Words | 6 Pages

Same-Sex Marriage: The Problems with DOMA and the Pursuit for Equality

Believe it or not, same-sex marriage has been around since ancient times. At least two Roman Emperors, Nero and Elagabalus, were in gay unions. It wasn’t until the advent of Christianity that the practice of same sex marriage was out-lawed by the emperors Constantius II and Constans in 342 AD and has continued to be through-out most of the world until the twenty-first century (Boswell 83). With the advent of gay rights…

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Legalizing Same-Sex Marriages

2075 Words | 8 Pages

The topic of legalizing same sex marriages brings up heated debates on legal, religious, moral, and philosophical grounds. In researching material for this paper this writer could not help but read reports that indicate that the country is fairly well divided on this issue. The debate can go round and around and the answer to the question of legalizing same sex marriages is not as easy as it may seem. There are solid rebuttals to any supposition one makes on the issue, making the debate a lot more…

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Same-sex Marriage Opponents

1167 Words | 5 Pages

Americans are opposed to same-sex marriage, while, at the same time, in support of civil unions (Dudley). Many same-sex marriage opponents disagree based solely on the use of the word “marriage.” Those opponents to same-sex marriage feel that the term marriage is defined by societal norms or established by religious tradition and should be limited to only define a relationship between a man and a woman. Opponents to same-sex marriage based solely on the use of the word “marriage” point out that “from…

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Same-Sex Marriage Essay

1176 Words | 5 Pages

many countries such as the United States and the United Kingdom have begun to acknowledge the rights of homosexuals. However, homosexuals are still fighting today to become equal with all citizens in hopes of receiving their respective rights. Same-sex marriage is against the axiom of many religions and is predicted to be controversial for a very long time. Nonetheless, we are known to have the separation of church from state. Separation of church and state is known to be the distance between organized…

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Same-Sex Marriage Essay

1186 Words | 5 Pages

Supreme Court unanimously voted against the laws of Virginia that banned interracial marriage, officially ending years of oppression towards couples of different races (Loving). Yet today, decades after the civil rights movement, another form of subjugation is plaguing America. This subjugation is of the homosexual community, as most states ban same-sex marriage and refuse to even recognise it. Opponents of same-sex marriage state several reasons as to why it should not be permitted, however, these arguments…

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Legalization of Same-Sex Marriages

2281 Words | 9 Pages

of whether or not that is through grandparents raising children, foster children and adopted children being raised in families, single parenting, interracial couples, etc. One of the most talked about issues of our time is the legality of same sex union/marriages. The standpoint that many take on this issue is one rooted very deeply in traditions and personal beliefs. There is a constant conflict of opinions. However, research consistently that relationships between families are tied together based…

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Same-Sex Marriage

962 Words | 4 Pages

caucasian because of laws passing interracial marriages around the 20th century due to Loving V. Virginia (Melina Patria). By the 1960s, the women’s rights movement was in full motion switching male and female roles drastically(Human right’s watch). The home may have no longer been spacious and big with the stock market crash of 1929(First Member Century). Its 2013 and there may be another possible alteration; same sex marriage. Even though same sex marriage may be a sensitive issue with people, as a…

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Same Sex Marriages Essay

1773 Words | 8 Pages

Same Sex Marriages
Introduction
From the day we are born to the day that we die the one thing EVERYONE is looking for is that one person that they could spend the rest of their lives with. Each person dreams about their one true love, someone they can marry, have a family with and live happily ever after. We were all taught this at a very young age watching the adults around us, and Disney movies about finding our prince charming, but what if you fall in love with someone you never expected? What…

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In Pro of Same-Sex Marriage

1009 Words | 5 Pages

minority, but also being declared illegal. I believe that homosexual marriage should be legal in Georgia.
To delve into an issue as divisive as this, understanding why it is illegal in the first place is in order. In 1996 the United States Congress passed DOMA, the Defense of Marriage Act, into law. This law was made in order to define what marriage means when writing laws. The Defense of Marriage Act states “… The word “marriage” means only a legal union between one man and one woman as husband and…

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Same-sex Marriage

553 Words | 3 Pages

While many people oppose same-sex marriage, there are really no valid reasons against it. If your daughter told you she wanted to marry another woman because she loved her and it would make her completely happy, would you oppose it? If you really think it through, you might find it’s not as easy to answer the question as you thought. First let’s look at some of the common reasons against same-sex marriage.

One of the reasons someone might give against same-sex marriage is that it goes against…

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Same Sex Marriage in the Philippines

2330 Words | 10 Pages

PRO Gay Marriage

Same-sex couples should be allowed to publicly celebrate their commitment in the same way as heterosexual couples. [40] The Human Rights Campaign Foundation states that many same-sex couples “want the right to legally marry [and] honor their relationship in the greatest way our society has to offer…”

Same-sex couples should have access to the same benefits enjoyed by heterosexual married couples. Many benefits are only available to married couples, such as hospital visitation…

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Same Sex Marriage

1152 Words | 5 Pages

Biological Sex-Marriage:
“An Alteration to Humanity”

Submitted by:
Ellicia Jiona Candelaria

Submitted to:
Mrs. Joan Bataclan

ABSTRACT

Biological Sex-Marriage: “An Alteration to Humanity”

This study describes the advantages and also the disadvantages of couples of the same sex being married. It aims to explore how it affects the society and most importantly the church. Same-sex marriage, popularly known as gay marriage, is a socially or legally reorganized wedlock between two persons of similar…

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Same Sex Marriage Essay

1370 Words | 6 Pages

What are others doing?
Canada is not the first country in the world to address whether and how to legally recognize same-sex unions. Indeed, Canada is coming to the debate later than many countries. Several countries have debated this issue for many years and have come up with a variety of approaches, ranging from same-sex marriage in the Netherlands to the legal recognition of domestic partners, registered partnerships and civil unions in Scandinavia, parts of Europe and parts of the United States…

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Same Sex Marriage in the Philippines

1931 Words | 8 Pages

Sayre Highway, Valencia City Bukidnon

SAME SEX MARRIAGE IN THE PHILIPPINES: A CALL FOR ARGUMENT

A TERM PAPER SUBMTTED TO EXILE, SOPHIA GOLDA, IN FULLFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE COURSE COMMUNICATION SKILLS 2

BY:

GLYDELLE O. LO
CHERRY JOY A. MEJOS
CLIFF EVANDER FORCADO

March, 2013
Abstract
Since 2001 it has been possible in the Netherlands for two men or two women to marry. There are certain differences, however, between same-sex marriage and marriage between a man and a woman.
In 2001,…

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Same Sex Marriage Debate

785 Words | 4 Pages

The gay marriage debate is complex, to say the least. Bitter, emotional, and controversial are just a few words that can be used to describe it. In 2004, Massachusetts became the first state to legalize same sex marriage; since then twelve states have approved gay marriage (Shapiro). Even though some states have decided to legalize same sex marriage others are standing firm on constitutional amendments that ban it. Deciding whether or not gay couples should be allowed to marry is drawing passion…

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The Ban on Same Sex Marriage

1037 Words | 4 Pages

on same sex marriage. Homosexuals should be able to get married. I believe this because the main opposition of this are hypocrites, there are actions that are worse than same sex marriage that are legal, and there is nothing wrong with it.
The main opposition of this are hypocrites. The religious leaders and figureheads that try to use the Bible as support for their campaign against same sex marriage are hypocrites. The book of Leviticus states that no man shall lie with another man. The same book…

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Same Sex Marriage Essay

954 Words | 4 Pages

legalize same sex marriages?
The religious point of view, whether you are Christian, Jewish, Hindu, Buddhist, or Muslim, the same holds true, all belief that woman was created for man. We as parents, aunts, uncles, grandparents, and godparents strive to raise our children in a sound foundation, based on the principles of the bible. But now, out of fear of being criticized and losing our children and friends, we give in to the society’s growing norm to legalize same sex marriages. American…

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Legalizing Same-Sex Marriage

1119 Words | 5 Pages

“Marriage plays a fundamental role in civil society because it is characterized by sexual complementarity, monogamy, exclusive, and permanence” (Anderson). Legalizing same-sex marriage would affect every aspect ethically and morally, resulting in an unacceptable outcome. Therefore same-sex marriage should not be considered respectable and adequate in any lifestyle.
Same-sex marriage is the union between partners of the same sex, whether it is a male and a male or a female and another female. Traditional…

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Same-Sex Marriage Essay

1474 Words | 6 Pages

Just about everyone has an opinion on whether same-sex couples should be allowed to legally marry. The arguments range from personal beliefs to what marriage is said to be in the Bible. Why should a couple be forbidden from showing each other along with family and friends that they are fully committed to each other? What place is it for the government to say that said couple is not allowed to commit to the one who truly makes you happy? Why should these people who are willing to be together for…

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Same-Sex Marriage Essay

1633 Words | 7 Pages

are still struggling to earn civil liberties, like same-sex marriage. If some change isn’t made now, their struggle for rights could last even longer than other minorities have endured. Since there is no national ruling made to abolish same-sex marriage, each state sets its own laws regarding gay marriage. Currently in the US, five states allow same-sex marriage, several states offer civil unions, and the large majority of states ban same-sex marriage. Today, several groups, including Conservatives…

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Same-Sex Marriage in India

1534 Words | 6 Pages

Same sex marriage in India
Introduction
Same-sex marriage is one of the most debated social topics in the world today especially with regards to equality and rights of such couples. There are a few countries that provide rights of full civil marriage to same-sex couples such as Belgium and Canada (Graff, 2004). Some other countries such as South Africa, Australia, and France amongst others provide such couples with civil union rights or legal partnership rights (Graff, 2004). The debate on whether…

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Same-Sex Marriage Is Unnatural

907 Words | 4 Pages

Traditional marriage supporters will have you believe that marriage is a natural, pre-political institution and between a man and a wife only. Anything that forms or occurs before the creation of society as we know it would signify that its meaning is beyond redefining by our evolving political and social systems of present. Before I try to defend why I believe marriage is in fact a political institution in need of expansion, I first want to talk about the essential qualities that keep our system…

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Same Sex Marriage Essay

877 Words | 4 Pages

Same Sex Marriage!
There are many different views and opinions on the relationship between a man and a woman vs. the relationship between a man and a man or a woman and a woman for that matter. Same-sex marriage is a big issue in the United States, many are against it however; many are for it. If you do your research, you can find many negative and positive reasons for which society thinks it should be legal or illegal. What people fail to realize, is that what matters in a marriage is love. Marriage…

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no to same-sex marriage!

894 Words | 4 Pages

everything builds up.” I Corinthians 10:23

Against Same Sex Marriage – The Six Point Case
Each of these six points against same sex marriage will be explained in detail in the following articles. Click on each link for more explanation.

Natural marriage is the foundation of a civilized society.

Homosexual behavior is inherently destructive.

The law is a great teacher, and it encourages or discourages behavior.

Government-backed same-sex marriage would encourage and normalize homosexual behavior…

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Same-Sex Marriage Essays

1127 Words | 5 Pages

Same-Sex Marriage

The United States is known world wide for its civil rights and freedoms. Many Americans are appalled by the idea of same-sex marriages. What?s wrong with the idea of two people who care greatly for one another wanting to spend their lives together? The gay community is misunderstood because many straights are not willing to listen. These individuals would rather just be closed-minded in this situation and reticent to really think about what this means to the gay community and…

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Same Sex Marriage Essay

871 Words | 4 Pages

The argument of same-sex marriage is an important one. The question of legalization of same sex marriages is an issue in many of our states today. I would like to argue that same-sex marriages do not infringe on any civil rights, but it is also immoral. We, as Christians, should not be afraid to stand up and use our Constitutional rights to speak against same-sex marriages.
The debate over whether same-sex marriage should be legalized has focused on the infringement of civil rights. State recognition…

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All Same Sex Marriage Essays

  • Gay Marriage Exploratory
  • Premarital Sex and Catholicism´s View on It
  • The Right to Marriage for the Gays
  • Unprotected Sex
  • Romantic love is a poor basis for marriage.
  • Determinism and Existentialism in View of Same-Sex Marriage
  • Marriage by Gregory Corso
  • The Tragedy of Gay Marriage
  • Same Sex Relationships
  • Applying Critical Thinking Techniques to the Issue of Same-Sex Marriage
  • A Closer Look at Same Sex Relationships
  • Premarital Sex Is Not a Sin Against God?
  • Legalization of Same Sex Marriage in America
  • Same Sex Marriage Affirmative Side
  • Teenage Marriage
  • Gay Marriage
  • Defense of Marriage Act
  • Should Same-Sex Marriage Be Legalized in Hong Kong?
  • Sex in Advertising
  • Gay And Lesbians Marriage
  • Marriage and Cohabitation
  • A Discussion of Same-Sex Marriage
  • Same-Sex Discrimination
  • Premarital Sex
  • Taking a Look at Marriage
  • Gay Marriage Research Paper
  • Pre-Marital Sex
  • Sex Tourism
  • Gay Marriage
  • Legalizing Gay Marriage
  • Same-sex Rights Should Be a Federal Matter
  • Marriage in 18th Century Europe
  • Premarital Sex
  • Islamic Ideas on Arranged Marriages
  • The History of Marriage
  • Same Sex Marriage Should NOT Be Allowed
  • Attitudes Towards Same-Sex Marriage
  • Trends in Family Formation Supporting Same Sex Marriage
  • An Argument Against Same-Sex Adoption
  • Same Sex Marriage Should Be Legalized
  • Gay Marriage Should Be Legal
  • Homosexual Marriage Should Be Legal
  • Should Same-Sex Marriage Be Legalized?
  • Gay Marriage Should be Legal
  • How Marriage Has Changed
  • Same-Sex Marriage Should be Legalized
  • Utilitarian & Kantian View on Same Sex Marraige
  • Gay Marriage
  • Interracial Relationships Sex and Marriage
  • Anti Same Sex-Marriages
  • The Debate Regarding Same Sex Marriage
  • Sex and Gender
  • Morality of Sex
  • Same-Sex Marriage Should Be Legal
  • Adoption by Same-Sex Couples
  • Perceptions of Youth Towards Premarital Sex
  • Gay Marriage Will Harm Children
  • Trends in Family Formation: A Look at Same-Sex Marriage
  • Sex in Advertising
  • Marriage and Cohabitation
  • Same-Sex Marriage
  • Sex in Advertising
  • Defining Legal Marriage in America
  • How Does Same Sex Marriage Affects in Decreasing Population Growth
  • Sex Education and Religious Influence
  • Same-Sex Parenting
  • Benedick's Attitude's to Love and Marriage
  • Legalize Gay Marriage
  • The Case for Gay Marriage
  • The Disadvantages of Allowing Same Sex Marriages
  • The Gay Marriage Controversy
  • Gay, Lesbian and Bisexual Issues – Same-sex Marriage is Inevitable
  • Christian Churches and Marriage Equality
  • Sex Education in School
  • The Battle Over Same-Sex Marriage
  • Marriage: Is It Just for a Man and a Woman?
  • Against Legalizing Homosexual Marriages
  • Defense of Marriage Act
  • Same Sex Marriage and the Church
  • Same-Sex Marriage Should be Legal
  • Critical essay on gay marriage
  • Recognizing Same-Sex Marriage Legally in the United States
  • Legalizing Same-Sex Marriage
  • Gay Marriage Ethics Paper
  • Effects of Scrutiny and Verbal Abuse on Same-Sex Couples and LGBQT People
  • Same-Sex Marriage and Adoption Should Be Legal
  • A Biblical Look At Marriage
  • The Same Sex Marriage Debate
  • Gay Rights: Homosexuals Deserve the same Rights as Heterosexuals
  • Marriage Is a Commitment and Legal Contract Between Same Sexes Too
  • Can There Be a Love Without Sex?
  • Gay Marriage Right or Wrong
  • Marriage Discrimination: Ending Soon
  • Gay Marriage and Religion
  • Sex Crimes
  • The Feud Over Gay Marriage
  • Myths about Sex
  • Legalization of Gay Marriage
  • Marriage in the Middle Ages
  • The Second Sex!
  • Co-ed versus Same Sex Physical Education Classes
  • Should Gay Marriage Be Legal?
  • Sex and the City
  • Child Abuse and Sex Trafficking
  • Gay Marriage Research Paper
  • Perspective of an Ideal Marriage
  • Family Arranged Marriages in India Versus Self-Arranged Marriages in the United States
  • Are Arranged Marriages and Forced Marriages Unethical
  • Gay Marriage Should Be Legal
  • Same Love Analysis
  • Gay, Lesbian and Bisexual Issues – Same-Sex Marriage and the Destruction of American Culture
  • Gay Marriage
  • Gay Marriage Should Be Legalized
  • Issue of Gay Marriage
  • The Future of Marriage in America
  • Same Sex Marriage Should be Legalized
  • The Equality of Marriage
  • Sex and Temperament
  • The Romance Novel Marriage
  • Primary Research Tool-Same-Sex Marriage
  • Domestic Violence Occurrences in Same Sex Relationships
  • Changes in Women and Marriage
  • The Marriage Process in Turkish Culture
  • Legalizing Same-Sex Marriage
  • Ethics of Same Sex Marriage
  • Civil Unions and Same-Sex Marriages
  • Gay Marriage in America
  • Gay Marriage Should Remain Legal in California
  • 09 Marriage And Kinship 1
  • The Legalization of Gay Marriage
  • Sex Tourism
  • Equal Rights for Same-Sex Couples
  • Interracial Marriage
  • Reflective Paper on Gay Marriage
  • Gay Marriage- A Controversial Topic
  • Marriage in Ancient Rome
  • Should Marriage for Same Sex Couples be Legal in United States?
  • second sex
  • Gay Marriage and the Government
  • Anthropology: Marriage and Divorce
  • The Debated Issue of Same-Sex Marriage
  • Child Marriages: A human rights issue
  • Same Sex Classrooms
  • Analysis of Koppelman's Arguement in Support of Same Sex Marriage
  • Recognizing Same-Sex Marriage
  • Trends of Marriage and Divorce
  • Modern Marriage
  • Gay Marriage
  • Same Sex Parenting and Children
  • Kant and Gay Marriage
  • Marriage
  • Pre-Marital Sex, Sample Paper
  • Adoption of Children by Same-Sex Couples
  • Sex Education: Helping Teenagers Make Smart Choices About Sex
  • God Hates Same Sex Marriage
  • Controversial Topic of Same-Sex Marriage
  • Cohabitation, Marriage, and Divorce
  • Gay Marriage Persuasive Speech
  • Opposition Toward Same Sex Marriage
  • Expanding Marriage to Same-Sex Couples
  • Negative Effects of Arranged Marriage
  • Marriage Equailty for the LGBT Community
  • Gay Marriage
  • The Controversy of Same Sex Marriages
  • A Religious View on Same-sex Marriage
  • Gay Marriage Must Be Legal
  • Marriage in Pamela and Fanny Hill
  • Sex Offenders
  • The Marriage Contract
  • Gay Marriage
  • Child Marriage in Islam and Its Consequences
  • Sex and Sexuality: Interviews
  • Sex Education in Nigeria
  • The Pros and Cons of Gay Marriage
  • Legalisation of Same Sex Marriage and the Impact on Family Values
  • Same-sex Parents in Custody Cases
  • Marriage Equality
  • Marriage Pattern of the Gbandi Tribe
  • Same Sex Marriage Defies the Laws of Christianity
  • Sex Education Programs
  • Same-Sex Marriage: The Obvious Choice
  • Gay Marriage Will Help America
  • Gay Marriage
  • Do Not Stigmatize Same-Sex Marriages as Inferior by Not Legalizing These Unions
  • The History of and Issues surrounding the Same-Sex Marriage Debate
  • Should Gay Marriage Be Legalized?
  • Pro Gay Marriage
  • Sex, Marriage, and Family: Revision Paper
  • The Issue of Gay Marriage
  • Gay Marriage in the 21st Century
  • Same-Sex Marriage Should Be Legalized
  • Should Marriage Be Left To The States?
  • Same-Sex Marriage: A Human Right
  • Same-Sex Marriage Should Be Legal
  • Interracial Marriage
  • The Debate over Same Sex Marriage
  • The History of Marriage and Family is Changing
  • Legalization of Gay Marriage
  • Recognition of Gay and Lesbian Marriage and Pluralism
  • Same Sex Marriages in the United States
  • In Favor of Sex Education in Schools
  • Equality for All: Gay Marriage
  • Gay Marriage is An Attack on Christianity
  • Massachusetts Legislature Votes to Ban Same-Sex Marriages but Approves of Civil Unions
  • The Pros and Cons of Gay Marriage
  • Sexual Orientation and Gay Marriage
  • The Need for Comprehensive Sex Education
  • Gay Marriage Position Paper
  • Same Sex Marriage Should Be Legal in All States
  • Gay Marriage: A Right That Is to Be Accepted
  • The Fight for Gay Marriage
  • Gay Marriage Critique Paper
  • Views on Sex and Marriage Depicted in Kate Chopin's The Storm
  • Are Same-Sex Marriages Cool or ‘Gay?’ An Argument for Same-Sex Marriage
  • Marriage and Cohabitation
  • Discrimination and Same-Sex Marriages
  • Premarital Sex
  • To Legalize, or Not to Legalize Gay Marriage
  • Same Sex Marriage Should be Legal
  • Policy Advice Memorandum: Equality of Marriage
  • Marriage
  • Article 20 Arranging a Marriage
  • History of Marriage Law
  • Same Sex Parenting is Just as Effective as Straight Parenting
  • Legalizing Gay Marriage
  • A Refutation of an Argument by William J Bennett on Recognizing Same-Sex Marriage
  • Marriage in the Victorian Age
  • The Effects of Effects of Early Marriage
  • Recognition and Legalization of Same-sex Marriage
  • The Persecution of Same-Sex Sexual Orientation during the Holocaust
  • Early Marriage
  • The Argument on the Legalization of Same Sex Marriages
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English Reflective Essay Example

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When you graduate from school and your student life begins you realize that you have to do a lot of academic writing. The most common academic papers are essays of different types. From all essay types there are not many English reflective essay examples. This kind of essay  involves personal life experience and the influence it made on you. As a student I needed reflective essay  examples on English class. I surfed over the Internet and found some good reflective essay tips.

I had to describe personal situation that impressed me most. In the Internet some sites even provide reflective essay examples English 101 topic to derive inspiration from. There were stories about evening on the beach, some memories from childhood and stories about friendship. Firstly I was not sure what to write about and then a thought struck me. Yes, I will tell the story about my new friend.

I was 12 years old then. We lived in a nice neighbourhood with a big green park with benches and playgrounds. No wonder I spent lots of time outdoors. I played with my friends, rode a bike or simply walked in the park. One day I saw a new girl. She was about 10 years, blond and blue-eyed. Her name was Tracy.  However, she was lame of left leg and interestingly stumbled along. We made friends easily as she was an easy-going person and was always smiling and in good mood.

She participated in rowing and her team often won different prices. Tracy was a good rower and hit the gym. She helped me to develop a habit to go to the gym too. We spent a lot of time together and we often shared secrets with each other.

Yet, my new friend had a hang-up, she always wore socks or stockings even in summer. She rarely spoke about her sick leg and always tried to change the subject when it came to the matters of health.

Once I came early in the morning to Tracy and saw her secret. I waited for her in the hall when Tracy went downstairs without her socks. She had an artificial left leg. Tracy saw my embarrassment and run upstairs.

After that case I have not seen her for two days and  when we at last met at the gym she was silent and answered only short responses. My attitude to her did not change, she was the same blue-eyed blonde with astonishing inner strength.

It was late at night when my phone broke the silence. It was Tracy. In a shaking voice she asked if I was offended. I cheered her up and told that I had felt abashed when I saw her problem. Tracy told her story. They were returning from Tracy’s grandparents when the accident happened. Her father lost control of their motor car and crashed against the tree. Her parents died from trauma and she seriously hurt  her leg.

Five years have passed since that time, but Tracy remembered everything. Her leg was the outcome of the crash and reminded her of the loss she suffered with every new step. Tracy spent six months in the hospital and got on her feet after all her pain. She moved from her house she used to live together with her parents. Tracy’s granny and grandpa were very nice to her and cared of her wellbeing.

I was touched with her story and now looked at her inspiredly. She did not give up, nor she was down in the dumps. She loved life and life returned the love. She knew what the struggle for life was and shared her willingness to live with others. That day Tracy showed me pictures of her parents. She looked like her mother and had her father’s smile and eyes. I learned never lose faith in life and bear suffering with dignity. She taught me to struggle for life  and love life as it is.

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