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College of Engineering, Computing and Applied Sciences

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Glenn Department of Civil Engineering
Clemson University College of Engineering, Computing and Applied Sciences, South Carolina
 

Statics

Ist Summer Session (May 17-June 23, 2017)

Course: CE 2010 Statics

Course Description:
Forces and force systems and their external effect on bodies, principally the condition of equilibrium. The techniques of vector mathematics are employed, and the rigor of physical analysis is emphasized.
3.000 Credit hours
3.000 Lecture hours

This 5-week  course involves the same rigor, content and workload of a 15-week Statics course. Since this course will move three times faster than usual, students should anticipate spending a minimum of 35 hours/week on this course. In order to be in the best possible position to succeed, it is not recommended that students do more than one of the following while being enrolled in this course: have a part-time job, enroll in more than three other academic credits during the same five week term, go on a family vacation, or commit to other activities with significant time demands.

Printable Documents:

Course Syllabus

CE 2010 Statics Summer 1 2017 Course Schedule

CE 2010 Statics Summer 1 2017 Sample Proctor Form

Course Material Presentations:

Video Sample; Class Handout Sample; List of Course Topics

Lacture Video Sample   Course Handout

Topics Covered:

Week 1 
Includes Days 1-5 of the course content, with quizzes and assignments given each day.

    •  Apply vector algebra to find resultants and angles.
    •  Determine resultants using Cartesian vectors in 2D and 3D.
    •  Determine position vectors and force vectors directed along a line.
    •  Explain and apply the dot product.
    •  Explain and apply the concept of equilibrium to 2D concurrent force systems.
    •  Apply the concept of equilibrium to 3D concurrent force systems.

Week 2
Includes Days 6-10 of the course content, with quizzes and an assignment given each day and Exam 1.

    • Determine 2D & 3D moments using the scalar method.
    • Apply the cross product to determine 3D moments.
    • Determine the moment of a force about an axis.
    • Explain and determine the moment of a couple.
    • Replace forces with an equivalent force-couple system.
    • Reduce a force-couple system to a single force.
    • Replace a distributed load with equivalent resultant forces and couple moments.

Week 3
Includes Days 11-15 of the course content, with quizzes and an assignment given each day.

    • Identify the reaction force and moments associated with non-concurrent 2D supports.
    • Draw complete free body diagrams of 2D non-concurrent systems.
    • Explain and apply the 2D conditions of equilibrium in non-concurrent systems.
    • Determine the external reactions of two-force members in frames.
    • Identify the reaction force and moments associated with 3D supports in non-current force systems.
    • Explain and apply the 3D conditions of equilibrium.
    • Calculate the internal forces in truss members using the method of joints.
    • Identify zero force members.
    • Calculate internal forces in truss members using the method of sections.
    • Analyze a frame to determine the forces acting on individual members.

Week 4
Includes Days 16-18 of the course content, with quizzes and an assignment given each day and Exam 2.

    • Determine the output forces and loads carried by machine members.
    • Determine the internal loading in frames and beams.
    • Solve equilibrium problems involving friction.
    • Solve friction problems with wedges.

Week 5
Includes Days 19-22 of the course content, with quizzes and an assignment given each day and Exam 3.

    • Determine the centroid of 2D shapes and lines.
    • Apply known centroids of common shapes to find the centroids of complex shapes.
    • Determine the center of gravity of 3D objects.
    • Explain and determine the moment of inertia/second moment of an area.
    • Apply the parallel axis theorem to determine moment of inertia for composite bodies.
    • Determine rigid body mass moment of inertia.

Assessment:

Homework Assignments submitted online—Engineering Paper, Scanner and Mastering Engineering Access Code required

Quizzes—Timely Submission in Canvas is required

Three Exams—Proctored On-site or Student Responsible for Obtaining Proctor (Sample Draft Proctor Form)

Final Exam— Proctored On-site or Student Responsible for Obtaining Proctor at a Testing Center (Sample Proctor Form)

 Instructor:

Name: Melissa Sternhagen
Email: [email protected]
Phone: 864-656-6428

Student Outcomes—(ABET) This course contributes to the civil engineering student outcomes by developing:

  • An ability to apply knowledge of mathematics through  differential equations and science including calculus-based physics, chemistry, and at least one additional area of science appropriate to civil engineering. 
  • An ability to identify, formulate, and solve engineering problems. 

Not a Clemson Student?
Undergraduate Students from other institutions who wish to enroll in courses during the summer only are considered transient students. Visit our ” Registrar’s”  page for specific information regarding registration for summer classes.

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    • Curriculum
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      • Geotechnical Engineering Design
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Effective Communication Essay


 

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Biological Sex-Marriage:
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Submitted by:
Ellicia Jiona Candelaria

Submitted to:
Mrs. Joan Bataclan

ABSTRACT

Biological Sex-Marriage: “An Alteration to Humanity”

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Sayre Highway, Valencia City Bukidnon

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A TERM PAPER SUBMTTED TO EXILE, SOPHIA GOLDA, IN FULLFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE COURSE COMMUNICATION SKILLS 2

BY:

GLYDELLE O. LO
CHERRY JOY A. MEJOS
CLIFF EVANDER FORCADO

March, 2013
Abstract
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In 2001,…

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877 Words | 4 Pages

Same Sex Marriage!
There are many different views and opinions on the relationship between a man and a woman vs. the relationship between a man and a man or a woman and a woman for that matter. Same-sex marriage is a big issue in the United States, many are against it however; many are for it. If you do your research, you can find many negative and positive reasons for which society thinks it should be legal or illegal. What people fail to realize, is that what matters in a marriage is love. Marriage…

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no to same-sex marriage!

894 Words | 4 Pages

everything builds up.” I Corinthians 10:23

Against Same Sex Marriage – The Six Point Case
Each of these six points against same sex marriage will be explained in detail in the following articles. Click on each link for more explanation.

Natural marriage is the foundation of a civilized society.

Homosexual behavior is inherently destructive.

The law is a great teacher, and it encourages or discourages behavior.

Government-backed same-sex marriage would encourage and normalize homosexual behavior…

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Same-Sex Marriage Essays

1127 Words | 5 Pages

Same-Sex Marriage

The United States is known world wide for its civil rights and freedoms. Many Americans are appalled by the idea of same-sex marriages. What?s wrong with the idea of two people who care greatly for one another wanting to spend their lives together? The gay community is misunderstood because many straights are not willing to listen. These individuals would rather just be closed-minded in this situation and reticent to really think about what this means to the gay community and…

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Same Sex Marriage Essay

871 Words | 4 Pages

The argument of same-sex marriage is an important one. The question of legalization of same sex marriages is an issue in many of our states today. I would like to argue that same-sex marriages do not infringe on any civil rights, but it is also immoral. We, as Christians, should not be afraid to stand up and use our Constitutional rights to speak against same-sex marriages.
The debate over whether same-sex marriage should be legalized has focused on the infringement of civil rights. State recognition…

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All Same Sex Marriage Essays

  • Gay Marriage Exploratory
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English Reflective Essay Example

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When you graduate from school and your student life begins you realize that you have to do a lot of academic writing. The most common academic papers are essays of different types. From all essay types there are not many English reflective essay examples. This kind of essay  involves personal life experience and the influence it made on you. As a student I needed reflective essay  examples on English class. I surfed over the Internet and found some good reflective essay tips.

I had to describe personal situation that impressed me most. In the Internet some sites even provide reflective essay examples English 101 topic to derive inspiration from. There were stories about evening on the beach, some memories from childhood and stories about friendship. Firstly I was not sure what to write about and then a thought struck me. Yes, I will tell the story about my new friend.

I was 12 years old then. We lived in a nice neighbourhood with a big green park with benches and playgrounds. No wonder I spent lots of time outdoors. I played with my friends, rode a bike or simply walked in the park. One day I saw a new girl. She was about 10 years, blond and blue-eyed. Her name was Tracy.  However, she was lame of left leg and interestingly stumbled along. We made friends easily as she was an easy-going person and was always smiling and in good mood.

She participated in rowing and her team often won different prices. Tracy was a good rower and hit the gym. She helped me to develop a habit to go to the gym too. We spent a lot of time together and we often shared secrets with each other.

Yet, my new friend had a hang-up, she always wore socks or stockings even in summer. She rarely spoke about her sick leg and always tried to change the subject when it came to the matters of health.

Once I came early in the morning to Tracy and saw her secret. I waited for her in the hall when Tracy went downstairs without her socks. She had an artificial left leg. Tracy saw my embarrassment and run upstairs.

After that case I have not seen her for two days and  when we at last met at the gym she was silent and answered only short responses. My attitude to her did not change, she was the same blue-eyed blonde with astonishing inner strength.

It was late at night when my phone broke the silence. It was Tracy. In a shaking voice she asked if I was offended. I cheered her up and told that I had felt abashed when I saw her problem. Tracy told her story. They were returning from Tracy’s grandparents when the accident happened. Her father lost control of their motor car and crashed against the tree. Her parents died from trauma and she seriously hurt  her leg.

Five years have passed since that time, but Tracy remembered everything. Her leg was the outcome of the crash and reminded her of the loss she suffered with every new step. Tracy spent six months in the hospital and got on her feet after all her pain. She moved from her house she used to live together with her parents. Tracy’s granny and grandpa were very nice to her and cared of her wellbeing.

I was touched with her story and now looked at her inspiredly. She did not give up, nor she was down in the dumps. She loved life and life returned the love. She knew what the struggle for life was and shared her willingness to live with others. That day Tracy showed me pictures of her parents. She looked like her mother and had her father’s smile and eyes. I learned never lose faith in life and bear suffering with dignity. She taught me to struggle for life  and love life as it is.

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Different Cultures, Different Essay

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Different Cultures, Different Essay

957 Words
4 Pages

Every society and culture has different ways of interpreting and defining occurrences by the way their own culture or society functions. “A society’s culture, consists of whatever it is one has to know or believe in order to operate in a manner acceptable to its members”(Geertz 242). The rituals, customs, ethics and morals that are attributed to the cultures have caused these differences. To understand how the people of one culture interpret a situation or event, one must evaluate the attributes that a culture has. The criteria that an event is based on changes as one culture applies their own ideas to the given situation. Heroism and violation are two concepts that are easily misinterpreted depending on culture’s ideals. Since cultures

…show more content…

What tripped Cohen up, and with him the whole, ancient pattern of social and economic relationships within which he functioned, was a confusion of tongues. (Geertz 241)

Geertz explains that the reason for the confusion, and the different interpretations of the event that took place is a simple misunderstanding that when took place in clashing cultures with different views, both striving to claim the situation in their own contexts became a somewhat humorous event. This conflict between cultures causes a view of a person to change depending on which point of reference they are being seen from.
     In Ernest Hemingway’s “Indian Camp,” the conflict between cultures again cause a difference of views of the father. The concept of heroism and violation becomes the issue of conflict. The father or doctor is considered a hero or a violator of the Indian woman depending on the culture viewing him. From the father’s culture, he is viewed as a hero for his actions at the Indian camp. His actions are viewed as heroic under the circumstances of his procedure. Because of the culture of the Indian people, having a white man, an outsider of the tribe, come in and operate on an Indian woman is viewed as obscene and a violation of the woman not to

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    Different cultures view conformity in different ways. Western individualistic cultures view conformity negatively. They believe giving in to peer pressure is not an admirable trait. Standing out and showing uniqueness is admired and thought of as a superior trait. Other cultures that also believe this way, are the European and North American cultures. However, in Japan, it is considered a sign of maturity. They believe it…

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  • Culture Different Between China and Us

    1374 Words | 6 Pages

    It is well-know fact that different people have different opinion and this saying can be also used in the culture. For that reason, different cultures would make people have different behaviours.Culture can be defines as “the collective programming of the mind which distinguishes the members of one human group from another” (Hofstede 1984, p: 21). Culture is consisting of language, political, values, belief, food, cloth, etc. And those elements make people have different behaviours. Therefore, there…

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  • Analysis of World Mythology and the Different Cultures

    992 Words | 4 Pages

    Even a cursory analysis of world mythology reveals that there are a number of different cultures who have divinities in strikingly similar roles. One of the reasons why this occurs is that many despite the fact that these cultures may be autonomous of one another, they all live in the same world. The fact that they live in the same world is important because it largely means that they are exposed to the same natural phenomena, as well as to a number of simple human phenomena, and they are all attempting…

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Faculty of Arts and Humanities

Faculty link: 
humanities.ut.ee

Faculty contacts link: 
Employee contacts

Faculty phone: 
+372 737 5341

Faculty email: 
hv.dekanaat [at] ut.ee

Faculty address: 
Jakobi 2, rooms 116–121, 51005 Tartu

  • Dean’s Office

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  • Institute of History and Archaeology

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    Faculty address: 
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  • Institute of Estonian and General Linguistics

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    Faculty phone: 
    +372 737 5221

    Faculty email: 
    keeleteadus [at] ut.ee

    Faculty address: 
    Jakobi 2, 51005 Tartu

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    Faculty address: 
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  • Institute of Cultural Research

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    Faculty address: 
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Faculty of Social Sciences

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socialsciences.ut.ee

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Employee contacts

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+372 737 5957

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Lossi 36, 51003 Tartu

  • Dean’s Office

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    Faculty phone: 
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    sotsiaalteadused [at] ut.ee

    Faculty address: 
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  • Institute of Education

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    www.ht.ut.ee

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    Faculty phone: 
    +372 737 6440

    Faculty email: 
    haridus [at] ut.ee

    Faculty address: 
    Salme 1a–29, 50103 Tartu

  • Johan Skytte Institute of Political Studies

    Faculty link: 
    skytte.ut.ee

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    Faculty phone: 
    +372 737 5582

    Faculty email: 
    skytte [at] ut.ee

    Faculty address: 
    Lossi 36–301, 51003 Tartu

  • School of Economics and Business Administration

    Faculty link: 
    majandus.ut.ee

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    +372 737 6310

    Faculty email: 
    majandus [at] ut.ee

    Faculty address: 
    J. Liivi 4, 50409 Tartu

  • Institute of Psychology

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    psychology.ut.ee

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    Faculty phone: 
    +372 737 5902

    Faculty email: 
    psyhholoogia [at] ut.ee

    Faculty address: 
    Näituse 2, 50409 Tartu

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    +372 737 5390

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    oi [at] ut.ee

    Faculty address: 
    Näituse 20–324, 50409 Tartu

  • Institute of Social Studies

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    yti.ut.ee

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    Faculty phone: 
    +372 737 5188

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    yhiskonnateadused [at] ut.ee

    Faculty address: 
    Lossi 36, 51003 Tartu

  • Narva College

    Faculty link: 
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    +372 740 1900

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    Raekoja plats 2, 20307 Narva

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    Ringi 35, 80012 Pärnu

Faculty of Medicine

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medicine.ut.ee

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+372 737 5326

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med [at] ut.ee

Faculty address: 
Ravila 19, 50411 Tartu

  • Dean’s Office

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    +372 737 5326

    Faculty email: 
    med [at] ut.ee

    Faculty address: 
    Ravila 19, 50411 Tartu

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    +372 737 4210

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    Biomeedikum, Ravila 19, 50411 Tartu

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    farmaatsia.ut.ee

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    +372 737 5286

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    pharmacy [at] ut.ee

    Faculty address: 
    Nooruse 1, 50411 Tartu

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    hambaarstiteadus.ut.ee

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    +372 731 9856

    Faculty address: 
    Raekoja plats 6, 51003 Tartu

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    clinicalmedicine.ut.ee

    Faculty contacts link: 
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    Faculty phone: 
    +372 737 5323

    Faculty email: 
    kmi [at] ut.ee

    Faculty address: 
    L. Puusepa 8, 50406 Tartu

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    Faculty link: 
    tervis.ut.ee

    Faculty contacts link: 
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    Faculty phone: 
    +372 737 4190

    Faculty email: 
    dph [at] ut.ee

    Faculty address: 
    Ravila 19, 50411 Tartu

  • Institute of Sport Sciences and Physiotherapy

    Faculty link: 
    www.kk.ut.ee

    Faculty contacts link: 
    Employee contacts

    Faculty phone: 
    +372 737 5360

    Faculty email: 
    kkdek [at] ut.ee

    Faculty address: 
    Jakobi 5–205, 51005 Tartu

Faculty of Science and Technology

Faculty link: 
science.ut.ee

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Employee contacts

Faculty phone: 
+372 737 5820

Faculty email: 
ltt [at] ut.ee

Faculty address: 
Vanemuise 46–208, 51005 Tartu

  • Dean’s Office

    Faculty contacts link: 
    Employee contacts

    Faculty phone: 
    +372 737 5820

    Faculty email: 
    ltt [at] ut.ee

    Faculty address: 
    Vanemuise 46–208, 51005 Tartu

  • Institute of Computer Science

    Faculty link: 
    cs.ut.ee

    Faculty contacts link: 
    Employee contacts

    Faculty phone: 
    +372 737 5445

    Faculty email: 
    ics [at] ut.ee

    Faculty address: 
    J. Liivi 2, 50409 Tartu

  • Estonian Marine Institute

    Faculty link: 
    www.sea.ee

    Faculty contacts link: 
    Employee contacts

    Faculty phone: 
    +372 671 8902

    Faculty address: 
    Mäealuse 14, 12618 Tallinn

  • Institute of Physics

    Faculty link: 
    www.fi.ut.ee

    Faculty contacts link: 
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    Faculty address: 
    W. Ostwaldi 1, 50411 Tartu

  • Institute of Chemistry

    Faculty link: 
    chem.ut.ee

    Faculty contacts link: 
    Employee contacts

    Faculty phone: 
    +372 737 5261

    Faculty email: 
    chemistry [at] ut.ee

    Faculty address: 
    Ravila 14a, 50411 Tartu

  • Institute of Mathematics and Statistics

    Faculty link: 
    www.math.ut.ee

    Faculty contacts link: 
    Employee contacts

    Faculty phone: 
    +372 737 5860

    Faculty email: 
    math [at] ut.ee

    Faculty address: 
    J. Liivi 2, 50409 Tartu

  • Institute of Molecular and Cell Biology

    Faculty link: 
    tymri.ut.ee

    Faculty contacts link: 
    Employee contacts

    Faculty phone: 
    +372 737 5011

    Faculty email: 
    lomr [at] ut.ee

    Faculty address: 
    Riia 23, 23b–134, 51010 Tartu

  • Tartu Observatory

    Faculty link: 
    www.to.ee

    Faculty contacts link: 
    Employee contacts

    Faculty phone: 
    +372 737 4510

    Faculty email: 
    info [at] to.ee

    Faculty address: 
    Observatooriumi 1, Tõravere, 61602 Tartumaa

  • Institute of Technology

    Faculty link: 
    tuit.ut.ee

    Faculty contacts link: 
    Employee contacts

    Faculty phone: 
    +372 737 4800

    Faculty email: 
    info [at] tuit.ut.ee

    Faculty address: 
    Nooruse 1, 50411 Tartu

  • Institute of Ecology and Earth Sciences

    Faculty link: 
    www.omi.ut.ee

    Faculty contacts link: 
    Employee contacts

    Faculty phone: 
    +372 737 5835

    Faculty email: 
    om [at] ut.ee

    Faculty address: 
    Vanemuise 46, 51003 Tartu

Institutions
  • Library

    Faculty link: 
    utlib.ut.ee

    Faculty contacts link: 
    Employee contacts

    Faculty phone: 
    +372 737 5702

    Faculty email: 
    library [at] utlib.ee

    Faculty address: 
    W. Struve 1, 50091 Tartu

  • Youth Academy

    Faculty link: 
    teaduskool.ut.ee

    Faculty contacts link: 
    Employee contacts

    Faculty phone: 
    +372 737 5581

    Faculty email: 
    teaduskool [at] ut.ee

    Faculty address: 
    Uppsala 10, 51003 Tartu

  • Institute of Genomics

    Faculty link: 
    genomics.ut.ee

    Faculty contacts link: 
    Employee contacts

    Faculty phone: 
    +372 737 4000

    Faculty email: 
    egv [at] ut.ee

    Faculty address: 
    Riia 23b, 51010 Tartu

  • Museum

    Faculty link: 
    muuseum.ut.ee

    Faculty contacts link: 
    Employee contacts

    Faculty phone: 
    +372 737 5674

    Faculty email: 
    muuseum [at] ut.ee

    Faculty address: 
    Lossi 25, 51003 Tartu

  • University of Tartu Natural History Museum and Botanical Garden

    Faculty link: 
    natmuseum.ut.ee

    Faculty contacts link: 
    https://www.ut.ee/en/kontakt/loodusmuuseum-botaanikaaed-0

    Faculty phone: 
    +372 737 6076

    Faculty email: 
    loodusmuuseum [at] ut.ee

    Faculty address: 
    Vanemuise 46, 51003 Tartu

Support Units
  • Administrative Office

    Faculty contacts link: 
    Employee contacts

    Faculty phone: 
    +372 737 5606

    Faculty email: 
    kantselei [at] ut.ee

    Faculty address: 
    Ülikooli 18a, 51005 Tartu

  • Centre for Entrepreneurship and Innovation

    Faculty contacts link: 
    Employee contacts

    Faculty phone: 
    +372 737 6339

    Faculty address: 
    Lossi 3, III floor, 51003 Tartu

  • University Office in Tallinn

    Faculty link: 
    University Office in Tallinn

    Faculty contacts link: 
    Employeescontacts

    Faculty phone: 
    +372 737 6600

    Faculty email: 
    esindus [at] tallinn.ut.ee

    Faculty address: 
    Teatri väljak 3, 10143 Tallinn

  • Estates Office

    Faculty contacts link: 
    Employee contacts

    Faculty phone: 
    +372 737 5137

    Faculty address: 
    Ülikooli 18a, 51005 Tartu

  • Finance Office

    Faculty contacts link: 
    Employee contacts

    Faculty phone: 
    +372 737 5125

    Faculty email: 
    rahandus [at] ut.ee

    Faculty address: 
    Jakobi 4, 51005 Tartu

  • Grant Office

    Faculty contacts link: 
    Employee contacts

    Faculty phone: 
    +372 737 6215

    Faculty address: 
    Lossi 3, III floor, 51003 Tartu

  • Information Technology Office

    Faculty contacts link: 
    Employee contacts

    Faculty phone: 
    +372 737 6000, IT-help: +372 737 5500

    Faculty email: 
    itk [at] ut.ee, arvutiabi [at] ut.ee

    Faculty address: 
    Ülikooli 18a, 51005 Tartu

  • Human Resources Office

    Faculty contacts link: 
    Employee contacts

    Faculty phone: 
    +372 737 5145

    Faculty email: 
    personal [at] ut.ee

    Faculty address: 
    Ülikooli 18, rooms 302 and 304, 50090 Tartu

  • Internal Audit Office

    Faculty contacts link: 
    Employee contacts

    Faculty email: 
    siseaudit [at] ut.ee

    Faculty address: 
    Ülikooli 17–103, 51005 Tartu

  • Marketing and Communication Office

    Faculty contacts link: 
    Employee contacts

    Faculty phone: 
    +372 737 5687

    Faculty email: 
    info [at] ut.ee, avalik [at] ut.ee

    Faculty address: 
    Ülikooli 18, rooms 102, 104, 209, 210, 50090 Tartu

  • Office of Academic Affairs

    Faculty contacts link: 
    Employee contacts

    Faculty phone: 
    +372 737 5620

    Faculty email: 
    study [at] ut.ee

    Faculty address: 
    Ülikooli 18, 50090 Tartu

  • Procurement Office

    Faculty contacts link: 
    Employee contacts

    Faculty phone: 
    +372 737 6632

    Faculty email: 
    tuuli.ilula [at] ut.ee

    Faculty address: 
    Ülikooli 18a, 51005 Tartu

  • Rectors Office

  • Rector’s Strategy Office

    Faculty contacts link: 
    Employee contacts

    Faculty phone: 
    +372 737 5600

    Faculty email: 
    rektor [at] ut.ee

    Faculty address: 
    Ülikooli 18, 50090 Tartu

  • Student Council

    Faculty link: 
    tyye.ut.ee

    Faculty contacts link: 
    Employee contacts

    Faculty phone: 
    +372 737 5400

    Faculty email: 
    info [at] tyye.ee

    Faculty address: 
    Ülikooli 18b, 51005 Tartu

Other Units

  • University of Tartu Academic Sports Club

    Faculty link: 
    sport.ut.ee

    Faculty phone: 
    +372 737 5371

    Faculty email: 
    info [at] tysk.ee

    Faculty address: 
    Ujula 4, 51008 Tartu

  • Tartu Student Village

    Faculty link: 
    campus.ee

    Faculty phone: 
    +372 740 9959

    Faculty email: 
    info [at] kyla.ee

    Faculty address: 
    Narva mnt 25, 51013 Tartu

  • Tartu Students’ Club

    Faculty link: 
    www.tym.ee

    Faculty phone: 
    +372 730 2400

    Faculty email: 
    tym [at] ut.ee

    Faculty address: 
    Kalevi 24, 51010 Tartu

  • University of Tartu Press

    Faculty link: 
    www.tyk.ee

    Faculty phone: 
    +372 737 5945

    Faculty email: 
    tyk [at] ut.ee

    Faculty address: 
    W. Struve 1, 50091 Tartu

  • Tartu University Hospital

    Faculty link: 
    www.kliinikum.ee/eng

    Faculty email: 
    kliinikum [at] kliinikum.ee

    Faculty address: 
    L. Puusepa 1a, 50406 Tartu

  • University of Tartu Foundation

    Faculty link: 
    sihtasutus.ut.ee/en

    Faculty phone: 
    +372 737 5852

    Faculty email: 
    triin.vakker [at] ut.ee

    Faculty address: 
    Ülikooli 18, 50090 Tartu

  • View all other units

    Faculty link: 
    www.ut.ee/en/other-units

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College of Foreign Languages and Cultures of University of Tartu

Contacts of UT units

Faculty of Arts and Humanities

Faculty link: 
humanities.ut.ee

Faculty contacts link: 
Employee contacts

Faculty phone: 
+372 737 5341

Faculty email: 
hv.dekanaat [at] ut.ee

Faculty address: 
Jakobi 2, rooms 116–121, 51005 Tartu

  • Dean’s Office

    Faculty contacts link: 
    Employee contacts

    Faculty phone: 
    + 372 737 5341

    Faculty email: 
    hv.dekanaat [at] ut.ee

    Faculty address: 
    Jakobi 2, rooms 116–121, 51005 Tartu

  • Institute of History and Archaeology

    Faculty link: 
    www.flaj.ut.ee

    Faculty contacts link: 
    Employee contacts

    Faculty phone: 
    +372 737 5651

    Faculty address: 
    Jakobi 2, 51005 Tartu

  • Institute of Estonian and General Linguistics

    Faculty link: 
    keel.ut.ee

    Faculty contacts link: 
    Employee contacts

    Faculty phone: 
    +372 737 5221

    Faculty email: 
    keeleteadus [at] ut.ee

    Faculty address: 
    Jakobi 2, 51005 Tartu

  • Institute of Philosophy and Semiotics

    Faculty link: 
    www.flfi.ut.ee

    Faculty contacts link: 
    Employee contacts

    Faculty phone: 
    +372 737 5314

    Faculty email: 
    filosoofia.semiootika [at] ut.ee

    Faculty address: 
    Jakobi 2, rooms 309–352, 51005 Tartu

  • Institute of Cultural Research

    Faculty link: 
    www.flku.ut.ee

    Faculty contacts link: 
    Employee contacts

    Faculty phone: 
    (+372) 737 5223

    Faculty email: 
    kultuuriteadused [at] ut.ee

    Faculty address: 
    Ülikooli 16, 51003 Tartu

  • School of Theology and Religious Studies

    Faculty link: 
    us.ut.ee

    Faculty contacts link: 
    Employee contacts

    Faculty phone: 
    +372 737 5301

    Faculty email: 
    us [at] ut.ee

    Faculty address: 
    Ülikooli 18–310, 50090 Tartu

  • College of Foreign Languages and Cultures

    Faculty link: 
    maailmakeeled.ut.ee

    Faculty contacts link: 
    Employee contacts

    Faculty email: 
    keeled [at] ut.ee

    Faculty address: 
    Lossi 3, 51003 Tartu

  • Viljandi Culture Academy

    Faculty link: 
    kultuur.ut.ee

    Faculty contacts link: 
    Employee contacts

    Faculty phone: 
    +372 435 5232

    Faculty email: 
    kultuur [at] ut.ee

    Faculty address: 
    Posti 1, 71004 Viljandi

Faculty of Social Sciences

Faculty link: 
socialsciences.ut.ee

Faculty contacts link: 
Employee contacts

Faculty phone: 
+372 737 5957

Faculty email: 
sotsiaalteadused [at] ut.ee

Faculty address: 
Lossi 36, 51003 Tartu

  • Dean’s Office

    Faculty contacts link: 
    Employee contacts

    Faculty phone: 
    + 372 737 5900

    Faculty email: 
    sotsiaalteadused [at] ut.ee

    Faculty address: 
    Lossi 36, 51003 Tartu

  • Institute of Education

    Faculty link: 
    www.ht.ut.ee

    Faculty contacts link: 
    Employee contacts

    Faculty phone: 
    +372 737 6440

    Faculty email: 
    haridus [at] ut.ee

    Faculty address: 
    Salme 1a–29, 50103 Tartu

  • Johan Skytte Institute of Political Studies

    Faculty link: 
    skytte.ut.ee

    Faculty contacts link: 
    Employee contacts

    Faculty phone: 
    +372 737 5582

    Faculty email: 
    skytte [at] ut.ee

    Faculty address: 
    Lossi 36–301, 51003 Tartu

  • School of Economics and Business Administration

    Faculty link: 
    majandus.ut.ee

    Faculty contacts link: 
    Employee contacts

    Faculty phone: 
    +372 737 6310

    Faculty email: 
    majandus [at] ut.ee

    Faculty address: 
    J. Liivi 4, 50409 Tartu

  • Institute of Psychology

    Faculty link: 
    psychology.ut.ee

    Faculty contacts link: 
    Employee contacts

    Faculty phone: 
    +372 737 5902

    Faculty email: 
    psyhholoogia [at] ut.ee

    Faculty address: 
    Näituse 2, 50409 Tartu

  • School of Law

    Faculty link: 
    law.ut.ee

    Faculty contacts link: 
    Employee contacts

    Faculty phone: 
    +372 737 5390

    Faculty email: 
    oi [at] ut.ee

    Faculty address: 
    Näituse 20–324, 50409 Tartu

  • Institute of Social Studies

    Faculty link: 
    yti.ut.ee

    Faculty contacts link: 
    Employee contacts

    Faculty phone: 
    +372 737 5188

    Faculty email: 
    yhiskonnateadused [at] ut.ee

    Faculty address: 
    Lossi 36, 51003 Tartu

  • Narva College

    Faculty link: 
    www.narva.ut.ee

    Faculty contacts link: 
    Employee contacts

    Faculty phone: 
    +372 740 1900

    Faculty email: 
    college [at] narva.ut.ee

    Faculty address: 
    Raekoja plats 2, 20307 Narva

  • Pärnu College

    Faculty link: 
    www.pc.ut.ee

    Faculty contacts link: 
    Employee contacts

    Faculty phone: 
    +372 445 0520

    Faculty email: 
    info [at] pc.ut.ee

    Faculty address: 
    Ringi 35, 80012 Pärnu

Faculty of Medicine

Faculty link: 
medicine.ut.ee

Faculty contacts link: 
Employee contacts

Faculty phone: 
+372 737 5326

Faculty email: 
med [at] ut.ee

Faculty address: 
Ravila 19, 50411 Tartu

  • Dean’s Office

    Faculty contacts link: 
    Employee contacts

    Faculty phone: 
    +372 737 5326

    Faculty email: 
    med [at] ut.ee

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Essay

The essay (required in the specialities of English language and literature, Russian and Slavic philology, French language and literature, Spanish language and literature, German language and literature and Scandinavian languages and literatures) is a 7200-9000-character text in which the student candidates in a structured manner discuss a problem related to the speciality. The essay is written in the language of the speciality (English, Russian, French, Spanish, German, Swedish, Norwegian or Danish). Essay topics for all specialities are announced on this page on 15 February 2018. 

Go to the essay topics

Aspects considered in assessing the essay:

  • adherence to the topic;
  • clear formulation of the problem;
  • logic and coherence of the argument;
  • structuring of the text in accordance with the academic argumentation rules of the language of the speciality;
  • correctness and idiomaticity of language.

The essay has to be the author’s original work and has to be written within the time given. The deadline for submitting the essay is 15 March 2018 (application deadline). The results of the essay can be used on admission to the Foreign language teacher curriculum (see Entrance requirements for the Foreign language teacher curriculum).

In the speciality of classical philology, student candidates prepare an independent translation with their commentary of either a Latin or Ancient Greek text excerpt of an intermediate level of difficulty into Estonian. This means that applicants to the classical philology specialty are expected to be proficient in Estonian. The length of the text is 150-200 words. Excerpts will be made public on this page on 15 February 2018. The deadline for the translation is 15 March 2018 (application deadline). 

Aspects considered in assessing the translation:

  • the adequacy or independence of the translation;
  • the grammatical, syntactic and lexical correctness of the translation;
  • the candidate’s ability to comment on the names and phenomena in the text from the perspective of daily culture, ancient history, mythology, geography, topography and the author’s biography;
  • in the case of a verse text the competence of determining the meter.

Download your translation text here:

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  • Classics translation text in Greek
  • Classics translation text in Latin

 

Download your essay topic here:

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  • English language and literature
  • French language and literature
  • German language and literature
  • Russian and Slavic philology
  • Scandinavian languages and literatures
  • Spanish language and literature

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Your search returned over 400 essays for “Culture

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Canadian Culture vs American Culture

– Although Canada and the United States share the same continent, they are divided by their unique ideas and views. After WWI ,Canada broke its ties with Britain and new independent nation was born with a unique culture. This new culture developed through the Canadian citizens. As a Canadian citizen, Prime Minister William Lyon Mackenzie helped achieve autonomy from Britain and solidify national unity at home. Canadian inventor ,Fredrick Banting ,maintained his culture as Canadian and contributed to the world through his invention of insulin….   [tags: Culture ]


Term Papers

1875 words | (5.4 pages)
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A Discussion on the Culture of the Performer

– A Discussion on the Culture of the Performer Culture is one of the most difficult things to define. Trying to fit all of the subtle nuances and colloquialisms of a people group into a ridged form often requires drastic simplification. However, for the purpose of enlightening others in regards to one’s own culture, there is no other alternative. Culture in short, as defined by the Roshan Cultural Heritage Institute, is “the following ways of life, including but not limited to: Language, Arts and Sciences, Thought, Spirituality, Social Activity, and Interaction.” To that end, the culture of the performer may be defined as the aforementioned ways of life in regards to the people group known…   [tags: Culture ]


Powerful Essays

1684 words | (4.8 pages)
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A Name for Culture and Assimilation

– There are myriad reasons why a name becomes a crucial identity for many people. They believe that a name can give power, authority, allegiances, and other special values. In many African countries such as Ghana and Nigeria or Asian countries such as Myanmar, the naming ceremony for a newborn baby is very special for the baby and the family. The entire society may become involved in celebrating it. People believe a name will bring the prestigious culture values to the baby that will allow him or her to fit well in the society….   [tags: Culture]


Strong Essays

1206 words | (3.4 pages)
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Trusting Culture on Knowledge Management

– Trusting Culture on knowledge management (KM) According to Strong and Weber (1998), a trusting culture is one that is characterized by actions and personal conducts, which discourage use of personal interests over group interest, and it incorporates positive attitude in regard to the conduct of others in the group. Trusting culture is a very reliable tool in knowledge management. This is attributed to the fact that the surrounding atmosphere is composed of trust, thus the quality of information being disseminated is high….   [tags: Culture ]


Better Essays

988 words | (2.8 pages)
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The Many Faces of Culture

– Defining culture has been a debate among sociologists and anthropologists since the 19th century. Culture is vital for the perseverance of a society and has its own identity that distinguishes it from others. Culture is not rooted into a person from birth, but it is learned from wherever he or she is from. It acts in a subconscious manner in that when a culture differs, one society may find another society to be odd. Every society has a different culture where the people share a specific language, gesture, belief, behavior, norms, sanctions and more….   [tags: Culture ]


Strong Essays

1378 words | (3.9 pages)
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Music and the American Culture

– Music has played a vital role in human culture and evidence based on archaeological sites can date it back to prehistoric times. It can be traced through almost all civilizations in one form or another. As time has progressed so has the music and the influences it has on people. Music is an important part of popular culture throughout the world, but it is especially popular in the United States. The music industry here is, and has been, a multi-million dollar business that continues to play an important role in American popular culture….   [tags: Culture ]


Powerful Essays

1632 words | (4.7 pages)
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Trusting Culture on Knowledge Management

– Trusting Culture on knowledge management (KM) Trusting culture is very reliable tool in knowledge management. This is attributed to the fact that the surrounding atmosphere is composed of trust, thus the quality of information being disseminated is high. King (2008) argues that, an overwhelming trust among employees in a firm or organization, yields good results for knowledge management. However, if the employees will be engaged in competition among themselves, then the trust will be inadequate as a measure of quality of information disseminated….   [tags: Culture ]


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935 words | (2.7 pages)
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Individualism and Collectivism Culture Theories

– Individualism and Collectivism are two accepted theories that are commonly used when dealing with one’s culture and political views. According to Kemmelmeier, H. M. and Coon, Individualism and Collectivism concepts has been used to “depict, clarify, and envision divergence in people’s opinion, behavior, principles, attribution, self perception, socialization, and communication.” Nonetheless, individualism and collectivism has shared some mutual views as well as incongruous stances on humanity, the disposition of human beings, the affiliation of society and the characteristics of people in the individualistic culture….   [tags: Culture ]


Powerful Essays

1366 words | (3.9 pages)
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The ‘60s: Culture and Music

– Throughout history, music have defined or depicted the culture and social events in America. Music has constantly played an important role in constituting American culture, where people have expressed themselves through music during flourishing and turbulent times. In the 1930’s, Swing music created a platform for audiences to vent their emotions in the midst of Great Depression and political unrest. Such strong relationship between music and culture can be seen throughout history, especially in the sixties….   [tags: Culture ]


Powerful Essays

1486 words | (4.2 pages)
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A True Culture Shock

– The United States is a continent with a diverse existing population today; this country is known as a melting pot of different cultures, each one unique in its own respect. Culture; differentiate one societal group from another by identification beliefs, behaviors, language, traditions, Art, fashion styles, food, religion, politics, and economic systems. Through lifelong and ever changing processes of learning, creativity, and sharing, culture shapes our patterns of behavior and thinking. A culture’s significance is so profound that it touches almost every aspect of who and what we are….   [tags: Culture]


Better Essays

865 words | (2.5 pages)
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Shopping For American Culture

– When James J. Farrell, professor of history, American studies, and American conversations at St. Olaf College wrote his article “Shopping for American Culture,” there were more malls than high schools within the United States. Malls were also generating more than 46.6 billion dollars in sales tax, which is “almost half of all state tax revenue.”1 Farrell recognizes these statements in the introduction of his article. In fact, he uses these statistics and determines that because of the population going to malls, shopping centers accurately reflect American culture….   [tags: Culture]


Better Essays

907 words | (2.6 pages)
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Assimilating into American Culture

– Immigration and assimilation is a divisive topic that has been heavily debated in America ever since we became a country. There are two stories that explore the assimilation issue from different viewpoints’; in Mary Pipher’s story; “The Beautiful Laughing Sisters – An Arrival Story”; provides the viewpoint of immigrants leaving a hostile home for America. Elizabeth Wong details her journey to break with her culture and become Americanized in, “The Struggle to be an all American girl.” and (McWhorter, 2010 pp522-529)….   [tags: Culture ]


Strong Essays

1202 words | (3.4 pages)
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American vs. Japanese Culture

– Psychological anthropology is the study of individuals and their personalities and identities, within particular cultural contexts. In this paper I will identify two different cultures in the world which are the American and Japanese. Then, I will examine their traditions through various life cycles. Based on the behaviors, customs, and beliefs of each of the two cultures, I will discuss how personalities and identities are formed and shaped within the two different cultures. Finally, I will be giving two specific examples for each of the selected cultures….   [tags: Culture]


Strong Essays

1039 words | (3 pages)
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Hegemony and Youth Culture

– Hegemony is a concept that involves uses of power. It was created by Antonio Gramsci in order to understand the difference between dominant groups in society that have power and that use “intellectual and moral leadership” in an attempt to win over the less powerful submissive groups (Storey 8). In this way, hegemony will be demonstrated in youth culture. Willard states that the cultural authority of the dominant society must be questioned as to its legitimacy in the dominant role as the authority plays an important role in its production (739)….   [tags: Culture]


Strong Essays

1102 words | (3.1 pages)
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Culture Conflict in Sudan

– Culture is an essential part of conflict and conflict resolution. Cultures are what shapes our perceptions, attributions, judgments, and ideas of self and other. We are all born individuals; then we are raised, socialized and sensitized to the norms of our respective civilizations which led us to identify consciously and unconsciously to our societies. In 1993, Samuel Huntington wrote an influential paper that was published in Foreign Affairs titled “ Clash of the Civilizations.” Huntington states, “The great divisions among humankind and the dominating source of conflict will be cultural (Huntington 1993, 1).” According to Huntington, cultural identities bind people together more fastidious…   [tags: Culture ]


Powerful Essays

1778 words | (5.1 pages)
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Perceptions of Bushmen Culture

– In the 1800s Europeans discovered Saartjie Baartman, a South African Bushman woman. They called her the Hottentot Venus and exploited her mainly because of her physical and cultural differences. Hottentot, Khoisan, San and Bushmen are all common names for the group of indigenous people of which she belonged. These people have been largely viewed by Western society as “savages who were part human, part animal” and considered to be “the lowest rung in the ladder of human development.” This unilateral yet widespread notoriety has existed since the 1800s and many of the banal conceptions of the Bushmen have remained unchanged through the course of modern history….   [tags: Culture ]


Powerful Essays

1385 words | (4 pages)
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Does Technology Affects Culture or Does Culture Affect Technology?

– Culture is the unique set of beliefs, behaviors, and way of life of a group of people. Our culture, according to many, is undergoing a steady increase in the culture gap, and for the most part, their main target when seeking whom to blame is technology. Our culture drives us to pursue success and pleasure, complete tasks efficiently, and contemplate how to improve the lives of the generations to come and ourselves. These elements of our culture, these demands, the majority, are fulfilled by technology….   [tags: Culture ]


Good Essays

964 words | (2.8 pages)
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Benefits of Japanese Culture

– Heighten Your Health with the Benefits of Green Tea Originally planted and grown solely in Asia, Camellia sinensis is now grown almost everywhere because of its popularity. This plant is used for producing oolong, white, black, and green tea. Its leaves and leaf buds are fermented to achieve various oxidation levels that result to different types of teas. Lesser fermentation keeps the high levels of antioxidants present in the drink. These antioxidants are the molecules that can safely counter the effects of free radicals in the body….   [tags: Culture ]


Better Essays

1616 words | (4.6 pages)
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Culture and Foreign Language: Teaching and Learning

– In this subsection, different approaches to teaching culture within the foreign language teaching practice and different views of the term “culture” are going to be presented as a mean to explore the close relationship between culture and language and determine what is understood as culture in this study. As it was mentioned above, there are different definitions of culture. These views have relied on the different language acquisition theories and teaching approaches that have emerged in the history of foreign language teaching….   [tags: Culture]


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Culture: It Makes Us Who We Are

– According to Webster’s Dictionary, culture is defined as tradition or a way of life. It is also a defining principle in how we live our life and the type of people we become. The Salish Indians of the Montana and Celie, the main character of the book The Color Purple, are two examples of cultures that made them who they are. Celie is a poor, black, woman growing up in Memphis, Tennessee in the mid-twentieth century. The men have constantly put her down, through beatings and rape, for being a woman with no talent at all….   [tags: Culture ]


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1127 words | (3.2 pages)
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Indian Culture And How It Translates to America

– India is a captivating country full of humble traditions, lively festivals, and honest beliefs. With over 2 billion people, India has a vast array of religions and languages with Hindi being the most popular. The Hindu culture is a culture of love, respect, honoring others and humbling one’s own ego so that the inner nature, which is naturally pure and modest, will shine forth (Mailerindia Infotek Limited). Hindi is a kind and peaceful religion. It is only fitting to combine a temperate religion with a humble society of people….   [tags: Culture ]


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1498 words | (4.3 pages)
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Affects of Popular Culture on Today’s Generation

– People today blame popular culture for the “corrupting” of today’s generation. Many Americans do not think of the other factors that go into popular culture. There are in fact many factors that go into the things such as teen pregnancy, education failure, and violence of today’s youth. Factors such as money, home life, and enviorment. Not only do Americans feel popular culture is to blame, but also feels popular culture is having its affect too soon. Before being able to discuss the effects popular culture has on children, what exactly is “childhood?” With the ongoing debate of abortion many people do not agree on when a child’s life beings….   [tags: Culture]


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The Importance of Learning One’s Own Culture

– Alice Walker writes about the importance of culture and about the acceptance of where people have come from in her short story, “Everyday Use.” There are three main characters in the story, all of whom has her own personal traits and views on how to deal with her life and deciding what is most important to her. The significance of this story is vast, from the value of culture, to the characteristics of each person. Walker describes the way each character’s attitude reflects on her culture. The three main characters include the mother, who is also the narrator, and her daughters, Dee and Maggie….   [tags: Culture ]


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1270 words | (3.6 pages)
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Hispanic and Native Americans Culture in California

– Upon initial research of the rich heritage of California the two minority groups that stood out as especially influential in historic California and today’s society are the Native Americans and Hispanic Americans. To better understand and identify with these minority groups we must identify the common themes within their day to day life. By researching each culture’s common family traditions, religious beliefs, arts & entertainment, and language one can gain a greater appreciation of many different kinds of people, and in turn have more effective relationships in a multicultural society….   [tags: Culture ]


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The Culture of Naming Nwborns and Its Functions

– Introduction Naming of newborns is an issue that is rooted under cultural and geographical backgrounds, with different places having a strong history concerning it and a unique process of doing it. Although the naming process has changed in one way or another among different communities, there are some trends that still remain, which are important in an attempt to try to understand the naming process among various ethnic groups. In this research, I will focus on the different naming behaviours among the Asians and the westerners and establish whether there are similarities or differences between these two processes….   [tags: Culture ]


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1949 words | (5.6 pages)
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Culture and Gender Influences: Language Development

– Culture and Gender Influences: Language Development There are many facets of language development including: the brain, delayed speech, and expected milestones. Biological factors in newborns are—for the most part—the same across the world. However, once introduced into their culture the differences begin to emerge, and it appears that there are some biological factors that influence gender based language development. Craig and Dunn (p 164) identifies play differences as one of the determining factors of gender differences in language development….   [tags: Culture ]


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Defining Deaf Culture

– Imagine if you were a proud Native-American, or Hispanic and someone said that your culture is not real, that the way you were born is just a disability, and you should change to be more like everyone else. You would probably be quite offended. That is what the Deaf community has had to deal with constantly for the past 40 years because of the social unawareness of much of the hearing community. 90% of all deaf children are born to hearing parents who never thought much about the deaf community (Bat-Chava)….   [tags: Culture ]


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2086 words | (6 pages)
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Popular Culture Artifacts

– Bertolt Brecht asserted, “Art is not a mirror held up to reality, but a hammer with which to shape it.” Art, encompassing all popular culture artifacts, both reflects the society that creates it and is itself an agent capable of changing social reality. Popular culture artifacts, like the Harry Potter series discussed in Nexon and Neumann’s work, Harry Potter and International Relations, exert agency, or causal power over the meaning and interpretation of cultural elements, by influencing the way ideas and values are constructed in everyday life….   [tags: Culture ]


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1228 words | (3.5 pages)
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Country vs. Culture

– America is a land based on freedom. This freedom is for every individual no matter their race or culture. Our society has surpassed many judgments and concerns that these demographic differences had created in the past. These differences had previously led to a great amount of cultural diversity through the act of discrimination among our nation. America, as a country, has now opened opportunities for individuals to work and interact in environments which were previously unsuited. USA Today surveyed a minority group in 2005 and found that over one third of corporate culture embraces diversity (El Nasser)….   [tags: Culture]


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Hip Hop Culture

– Hip Hop culture has come from a inner city expression of life to a multi-billion dollar business. At the beginning of the new millennium it was the top selling genre in the pop charts. It had influences not only on music, but on fashion, film, television, and print. In 2004 Hip Hop celebrated its 30th year anniversary. It wasn’t big for the fact that it was still kicking. It was big because the once Black/Brown inner city culture had grown into a multi-billion dollar global phenomenon (Reeves). Hip Hop culture has provided a platform for all walks of life to speak their mind….   [tags: Culture ]


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Afghanistan Food Culture

– Cooking and Foods In the novel “The Kite Runner”, Khaled Hosseini discusses many different types of food from Afghanistan. Tea was mentioned a few times as Baba retreated to his reading area and drank tea with Rahim Khan. Food is the epicenter of being a guest in an Afghan house because the host takes pride in what he/she serves. A person who is welcomed into the household, that person will be offered the best that the family has to present. They will constantly fill your tea glass and offer snacks until you cover your glass with your hand and say that you’ve had enough….   [tags: Culture ]


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Essay on Demonstrating a Conceptual Understanding of School Culture

– “Students will be nurtured in a safe, caring environment that challenges them to shoot for the stars”. “He tini nga whetu, e ngaro I te kapua iti” There are many stars; a small cloud cannot conceal them. (Wanganui City College, 2010) Learning a culture is involved and extremely intricate as each school is unique and the schools student populace being unique. Culture as we understand relates to relationships, traditions, beliefs, attitudes and behaviors. So why is culture an important aspect with regards to schools, and how can cultures affect the schools running….   [tags: Culture ]


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837 words | (2.4 pages)
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Bangkok’s Effot to Build a Positive Image of the Nation’s Culture

– INTRODUCTION In Bangkok, there have been a number of well managed cultural activities to preserve particularly a forever focus on the historic and religious heritage, for example, make a merit with nine temple tour of Bangkok or one day trip in Grand Palace and the temple of Emerald Buddha. Those are presented and treated as treasures of the nation’s artistic and cultural richness of the country and the people since 1965, a first year of emergence of TAT’s oversea office to promote Thailand through western eyes….   [tags: Culture]


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2881 words | (8.2 pages)
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What is Culture?

– The first definition of ‘culture’ by Oxford’s Dictionary is ‘art, literature, music and other intellectual expressions of a particular society or time’ (“Culture,” Oxford’s Advanced Learner’s Dictionary of Current English). Anthropologist of culture, Raymond Williams argued that the term ‘culture’ was first used in reference to the cultivation of crops which was later associated in relation to the cultivation of the human mind, hence the expression ‘cultured/cultivated person’. The noun of process thenceforth grew into a noun of configuration in the later 18th century where culture meant ‘the generalisation of the ‘spirit’ which informed the ‘whole way of life’ of a distinct people’ (William…   [tags: Sociology of Culture]


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1834 words | (5.2 pages)
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Culture of Critique

– Americans have embraced debate since before we were a country. The idea that we would provide reasoned support for any position that we took is what made us different from the English king. Our love of debate came from the old country, and embedded itself in our culture as a defining value. Thus, it should not come as a surprise that the affinity for debate is still strong, and finds itself as a regular feature of the mainstream media. However, if Deborah Tannen of the New York Times is correct, our understanding of what it means to argue may be very different from what it once was; a “culture of critique” has developed within our media, and it relies on the exclusive opposition of two confl…   [tags: American Culture]


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Organizational Culture: Diverse Types of Cultures and Employees Viewpoints

– Quantitative An article by Ophillia Ledimo entitled, Managing Organizational Culture Through an Assessment of Employees’ Current and Preferred Culture, was examined for the quantitative portion of this research paper (2013). Quantitative research presents relationships among data collected (Plano Clark & Creswell, 2010). This article reflects this definition of quantitative research. Ledimo (2013) presents the problem that exists as a gap in literature that although employee perceptions of organizational culture exist, employee’s preferred culture are often missed in research….   [tags: culture, power culture, motivation]


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High Culture

– The modern definition of ‘culture’ is the ‘art, literature, music and other intellectual expressions of a particular society or time’ (“Culture,” Oxford’s Advanced Learner’s Dictionary of Current English). There are two principal concepts in the study of communication and culture – the materialist and the idealist view of culture. The materialist approach concerns itself with the literary criticisms of Karl Marx and Freidrich Engels, and the Frankfurt School where culture is constituted by class relations and social structure, whereas, the idealist approach concerns itself with literary criticisms of Matthew Arnold (Arnoldian), F.R….   [tags: Culture ]


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1846 words | (5.3 pages)
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Culture Competence

– These nine terms are all correlated and intertwined with each other. Without one, like culture, you cannot have the other, such as diversity. If one is going to work as a health care professional, they must know these terms and be able to respect the meaning of each one. A meaning of a word can differ from person to person, depending on his or her culture and upbringing. Culture in a general sense is patterns, behaviors, beliefs, values, customs and life ways that have been passed on from person to person, generation to generation, within a family and group of people….   [tags: Culture ]


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Egyptian Culture

– Culture in Egypt is rich and deep. Having one of the oldest cultures dating back to before the pharaohs; Egypt’s culture is well developed and distinctive. With a religious cultured background, Egypt is developing rapidly into a restructured culture, combining old with new. An overview shows a complex structured culture built on many influences. Humanity builds around culture and is a complex system that is difficult to define due to many factors. Webster dictionary defines culture as “the integrated pattern of human knowledge, belief, and behavior that depends upon the capacity for learning and transmitting knowledge to succeeding generations” (Web)….   [tags: Culture ]


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French Culture

– The French are all about preserving their culture and being individualized. They often take great pride in the French products and the French style, and believe in keeping the French culture “pure” so they also limit the amount of foreign goods that are being imported. But during the World Wars the French began to allow foreigners to immigrate into France to take jobs due to an increase in job shortages. The immigration from the World Wars added to the diversity of the French culture. Ever since the 1850’s there has been a steady flow of immigration into France, and now nine percent of the French population is made up of immigrants (Gofen 62)….   [tags: Culture ]


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Balinese Culture

– BACKGROUND ON THE CULTURE The island of Bali is a city among the islands of Indonesia, located east of Java and west of Lombak in the Indian Ocean. As stated in “The Anthropological Romance of Bali 1597-1972,” Bali is “in the very center of the Indonesian archipelago” (Boon 1). This island is part of the largest nation in size and population in Southeast Asia. Bali is quite complex in their belief systems, especially when perceived by the western world. Their belief system is not comprised of a singular core religion, but of a sort of amalgam of various world religions….   [tags: Culture ]


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1584 words | (4.5 pages)
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Death and Dying in the Somali Culture

– Culturally competent cares in the medical field can make a huge difference in the satisfaction and the healing of patients who are guests in the facilities that we will be at. In central Minnesota we have the privilege of having many different cultures in a small area. With many people immigrating here from their homeland it is important, as health care professionals, to have an understanding of the many different beliefs and traditions that we may come across in our personal and professional lives….   [tags: Culture ]


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American Culture

– America has been known to be a successful and free country. Through popular music, art, film and literature, we can discern that American identity is defined as being based on freedoms within the country, helping others and treating everyone as equals. One means of experiencing American culture is, the movie, The Blind Side, shows what it means to be an American by telling a story of helping others and treating everyone as equals. The movie is about a seventeen year old African-American boy, named Michael Ohr, who is homeless and has drifted in and out of the school system for years….   [tags: Culture ]


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931 words | (2.7 pages)
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Greek Culture as Exhibited in “The Odyssey”

– Many diverse cultures are found in every corner of the world. Every culture is defined by its traditions and values. The film “The Odyssey,” depicts the culture of the ancient Greeks where it illustrates the life of a man, Odysseus, who has gone on a journey just to get back to his kingdom. Many values and traditions could be identified through the path of the journey. Some elements that are found important to the Greeks are the music, the religion, and the duty to the kingdom. One important feature found in ancient Greek culture is the music….   [tags: Greek Culture]


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Indian Culture

– Religions. There are many religions that started in India. The two most well known religions are Hinduism and Buddhism. The other religions include Jainism and Sikhism, while Christianity and Islam are also practiced in India. The graph below shows the dispersion of religion in India14: Your browser may not support display of this image. The majority of people in India are Hindus as they make up 80.5% of the population, whereas Islam is in second with 13.4%. Hinduism is considered to be one of the oldest religions and the only major polytheistic religions that is currently being practice, making it unique compare to other major religions….   [tags: Culture]


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1454 words | (4.2 pages)
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Culture is a Gift to Humans

– Anthropology shows culture to us as a gift to human beings because without culture we would not exist. As described in our first reading culture is observational. As a result, anthropologists study ethnographic fieldwork. “Whether in a jungle village in Peru or on the streets on New York, anthropologists go to where people live and ‘does fieldwork.’ ” This means participating in activities and asking questions, eating strange foods, interviewing informants, and learning a new language. Above all, anthropologists are observers of culture….   [tags: culture, anthropology, ]


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1538 words | (4.4 pages)
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Communication and Culture

– My most interesting and most challenging job is one in the same. It was for a small, start-up trucking company. The owner, who already owned one small, non-union trucking company, had secured a contract with a large national grocery chain to haul groceries outside a 150-mile radius of the city. However, because the grocery chain was a unionized company, the owner, in fear of an attempt to organize his current trucking company, chose to start a new entity to handle the newly acquired business. This is a story of two conflicting cultures, overt cultural interpretation, and the struggles associated with bringing the two cultures together to meet the conflicting needs of the owner and the union…   [tags: conflicting cultures, overt culture interpretation]


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1196 words | (3.4 pages)
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The Decay of the American Culture

– Anxiety and affluence are terms that are often applied to the post war decades in an attempt to define them. The newfound wealth that Americans enjoyed after World War II wrought changes on the American social landscape that many may not have been able to predict. The push for heavy consumerism that accompanied the sudden upswing of the U.S. economy gave way to concerns about the decay of moral character in the American home. Increasingly filled with anxieties over the ever-present threat of Communism, which most Americans were aware was an issue they themselves could do little about, the population instead turned towards new distractions, such as television, to attempt to reclaim some sense…   [tags: American Culture]


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1290 words | (3.7 pages)
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How Does the Line Between High and Pop Culture Become Blurred?

– In this essay I intend to explore what is meant by the terms popular culture and high culture. I will also look at how the relationship between these two terms has become distorted and blurred over time. In order to reinforce what I am saying about popular and high culture I will be using a range of examples from the music industry to show how the line between high culture and popular culture has become ambiguous. I will also call upon the work of John Storey to give my work an academic foundation….   [tags: Culture ]


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Negotiating in a Foreign Culture

– Case Study Summary When Anne Burns, an American expatriate, moved to Jordan with her husband to promote female entrepreneurship through the non-profit organization ExportJordan, she had no idea that her American style of communication and negotiation would clash so severely with the Jordanian culture. As she settled into her new office aided by a western educated female employee named Hayat, she quickly ran into a number of minor differences such as men not shaking her hand. Major issues soon started happening, as evidenced by her less than warm welcome by Jafar, a male employee who warned her about her attitude and actions with cryptic phrases and obvious disapproval….   [tags: Culture Sensitivity]


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2165 words | (6.2 pages)
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Historical and Contemporary Aspects of Food and Culture in America and the Influence of Cuban Cuisine

– Caribbean cuisine is a fusion of various foods ranging from foods brought to the region by European colonizers, to those from the cuisine of African, Chinese, and Indian immigrants to the region. Original Caribbean foods are said to be those of the Carib, Arawak, and Taino tribes (Miller, Vandome, McBrewster, 2010). Common foods in the region include pork, goat, and fish, cassava, rice, various types of beans. Fresh fruits grown in the region such as Guava, and Papaya are also a favorite. The Caribbean region consists of several islands and countries….   [tags: Culture ]


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1371 words | (3.9 pages)
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Culture of Ireland

– Ireland This paper will investigate the culture of Ireland by taking a look at the five characteristics. Each characteristic will be allotted its own subsections. The first section will encompass the history to illuminate the connection of a country’s struggle and their learned culture. I will communicate the key aspects that connect an individual culture to the region of the world it inhabits in the second section. In the third section, the language and art of the land are discussed to draw lines to the symbols a culture is founded upon….   [tags: Irish Culture Research Paper]


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3089 words | (8.8 pages)
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The Canadian Culture

– Culture can be defined as the behaviours and belief characteristics of a particular social, ethnic, or age group. Every country has its own special way of life. Canada’s in particular can be considered unique because Canada is a cultural mosaic, which allows elements of many cultures to be integrated into one. Canada’s culture has many influences because the numerous people who immigrate here are encouraged to keep their culture. These immigrants also teach the people they meet when they move here about their own ways of life….   [tags: Canadian Culture, Canada,]


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Corn and Culture

– A rise of culture and tradition often came down to food. Food was the principle part of culture. It depicted how the people of that culture would live out their days. As the food source changed, so did the cultural practices. This cultural phenomenon often is connected to the food pertaining to the main calorie source of that culture. For many cultures, the major calorie and nutrient supplying crop was corn. Corn has grown from a primary source of calories in culture to an inescapable source of starch and sugars in culture, especially in American culture….   [tags: Food, Traditions, Culture, People]


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Examining Sub-Cultures: The Goth Culture

– Individuals in society are inherently subject to collaborative norms and values that have been instilled in humanity, with the consideration that this varies across cultures. The paradigm between collective action and individual desire results in the formation of what is deemed socially acceptable, such as gender roles, sexual orientation, gender performance etc. “It is social norms that provide the constraints by which the interaction between the basic dyad of self and other is governed…social norms also provide the source of identity between the individual action, the complete system and the overall social order itself resides in the identity between the action and the system” (Jinks, 2…   [tags: hegemonic masculinity, punk culture, identity]


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The Culture of Nova, by Samuel Delany

– From the start Nova works hard to convince readers the society presented to us has no culture. Set in 32nd century Nova’s message The characters explicably tell us there is no culture but they show us evidence to the contrary. Culture is inevitable. I would like to focus on three supporting arguments; that Nova is a culture of appropriation, that work itself can create culture, and that cultural capital persists even when the applicable societies think otherwise. These layers blend together to create the unique culture presented in the novel….   [tags: social issues, the future of culture]


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Culture Is Ordinary, by Raymond Williams

– According to Cambridge Dictionary, the definition of “culture” is “the way of life, especially the general customs and beliefs, of a particular group of people at a particular time”. On the other hand, accroding to Raymond Williams, it is more complicated. However, ther is something that is certain: Culture is ordinary, which happens to be the title of an article he wrote to define and explain what culture is. In his article “Culture Is Ordinary”, Raymond Williams defines culture, based on his knowledge, and experience –which would, as he defines, would be his culture….   [tags: Culture Is Ordinary Essays]


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1076 words | (3.1 pages)
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The Afar Culture

– … The surrounding groups are from Ethiopia. The Afar claim descent from the Arabs. The other name for the Afar is “Danakil,” which was heard of in an Arab’s writings. The name came from the Ankala tribe. They occupy a 143,000 square kilometer area of Djibouti and northeastern Ethiopia, sometimes called the Afar Triangle. The Eastern point of the triangle lies at the intersection of the Red Sea and the Indian Ocean. The land the Afar live on is very barren, with a stone and sand dessert with salt lakes and lava streams….   [tags: arabs, ankala tribe, world culture]


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798 words | (2.3 pages)
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The Myth of Rape Culture in America

– “Rape is as American as apple pie,” says blogger Jessica Valenti. She and other feminists describe our society as a “rape culture” where violence against women is almost invisible. According to feminists, films, magazines, fashion, books, music, and humor cooperate in conveying the message that women are there to be used, abused and exploited.(Kitchens, 2015) Rape culture, which was coined as a culture during the second wave of feminism during the early 1970’s and was, according to the encyclopedia of rape, “often used by feminists to describe contemporary American culture as a whole.” Rape culture, by definition though, is “a culture in which rape and other sexual violence (usually against…   [tags: Rape Culture Essays]


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3170 words | (9.1 pages)
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Contemporary American Culture and Materialism

– Throughout the semester we have covered many different topics during our study of contemporary American culture. We studied topics relating to our everyday lives such as, relationships, life habits, work, and school. The various readings, films, and discussions during class have helped me reflect upon my life. I would like to elaborate and focus on the aspects of this class that directly influence the way I see the world today. Before I took this course my mental image of materialism, happiness, and love were entirely different….   [tags: contemporary American culture, culture, USA, mater]


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866 words | (2.5 pages)
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Campus Culture: How Culture Affects How Students Interact

– What is culture. According to Kottak cultures are traditions and customs, transmitted through learning, that form and guide the beliefs and behavior of the people exposed to them. With this definition given when it comes to campus culture I feel that an anthropologist would define it as the way we interact with other people through the environment that we share. When it comes down to campus culture it has to do with the way we interact, behave and follow certain things that are brought forth through the culture of the campus….   [tags: culture, relationships, ]


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1280 words | (3.7 pages)
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The Deaf Community and Its Culture

– During registration last semester, when I decided to take this course to see if I wanted to continue onward with ASL as my minor, I was not sure what to expect. Through my brief introduction of Deaf culture during my first sign language courses, I knew some vague details about historical events. Gallaudet had been mentioned several times within not only my workbook, but also by my professor. I could have given you a short synopsis of the oral movement that threatened to wipe ASL out as a language….   [tags: culture, norms, communication]


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1558 words | (4.5 pages)
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Insight Into How the German Culture Is

– Germany is a country of its own uniqueness and beauty. The country is located to the North of Europe, north east of France, west of Poland and below Denmark. Unification in Germany was achieved in 1871, under the leadership of Prussian Chancellor Otto von Bismarck. Ever since that time period, the country has flourished into one of the thriving, top nations in the world economically. Within this report, readers will gain insight into how the German culture is, and how to do business with the Germans….   [tags: germany, german culture, dutch]


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2264 words | (6.5 pages)
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Overview of the Culture of Los Tsachillas

– Overview of the Culture of Los Tsachillas Let’s go down to South America where we find the country Ecuador, within these areas we come across a place called Santo Domingo de los Colorados but is now known as Santo Domingo de los Tsachillas. This place we come too is named after its main habitants which are known as Los Colorados but original name is Los Tsachillas….   [tags: Comparative Culture, Anthropology]


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2675 words | (7.6 pages)
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Beauty Perceptions in the Islamic Culture

– Beauty in Islamic culture Picture yourself running into a Muslim woman in her Burqa. (A Burqa is usually black and it covers everything but their eyes.) Scary right. You always wondered what they are. Maybe even thinking they were Islamic KKKs or something. As a child I was raised Muslim and even then I was terrified at the women wearing Burqa’s. I asked my father how a man knows if the woman is beautiful if you can’t see her face. His response was “today in the world many people mistake beauty for the way a woman looks….   [tags: Women, Modesty, Culture]


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829 words | (2.4 pages)
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Diversity of Christian Culture In India

– Finding common ground with Hindu culture and practices Christianity in Southern India tried to influence Indians to convert, which broken up with a Christian form vastly different from traditional Christian practices in Southern India. Christianity opened Indian door in 1813, when the abolition of the East Indian Company’s monopoly over Indian trade allowed the entry of commercial and religious trade. India was named as Hindustan, nation of Hinduism long way before during 18the century. Thus, when Christianity began to spread its roots into West India in the early 19th century, they were having minimum chances to spread Christianity widely due to the deep rooted believes and customs of Hindu…   [tags: Hindu culture, Christitanity practices]


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1418 words | (4.1 pages)
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Corporate Culture and Organizational Behaviour

– TABLE OF CONTENTS 1.0 INTRODUCTION…………………………………………………………..Page 1 1.1 Background of the Study…………….…………………………Page 1 1.2 Purpose of the Study…………………………………………….Page 2 1.3 Scope of the Study…………………………………….………….Page 2 2.0 THE CONCEPT OF CORPORATE CULTURE……………….……Page 3 3.0 ASPECTS OF CORPORATE CULTURE…………………………..….Page 5 3.1 Shared Assumptions………………………………………………Page 5 3.2 Shared Values………………………………………………………..Page 5 3.3 Shared Socialization……………………………………………….Page 5 3.4 Shared Symbols and Language……………………………….Page 6 4.0 TYPES OF CORPORATE CULTURE…………………………………………Page 7 5.0 FACTORS AFFECTING CORPORATE CULTURE……………………….Page 10 5.1 Organizational Climate……………………………………………Page 10 5.2 Orga…   [tags: Corporate Culture Essays]


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Big Money for a Little Culture

– The constant whirring of electric slot machines, the clatter of drink glasses on a bar, the plethora of bright, flashing lights – these are typical in an average Native American casino. However, beyond the trivial entertainment these establishments provide, a much greater purpose is served. Native American communities are rampant with jobless members and poor fiscal conditions. A shabbily maintained economy could eventually lead to a loss of traditional lifestyles. Gambling establishments, especially those who donate a portion of their income to their respective reservations, assist in keeping economic and cultural order amongst tribes and contribute to decreasing unemployment….   [tags: Native American Culture]


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1354 words | (3.9 pages)
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Indonesian Culture, Music and Religion

– Throughout the year we have delved into the culture of various different countries and we have learned their ways and their religion. We went about this, however, in a completely different way than what is normally done when examining and studying other cultures; we learned an amazing amount of information about these cultures simply by looking at their music. This semester I have learned about fascinating cultures from different cultures such as Indonesia, India, and Africa, and I have learned how exactly these countries have expressed their cultures through their music….   [tags: delving into the culture of different countries]


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694 words | (2 pages)
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Global Competition: Culture and Tourism

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Law Firms Embrace Business School 101

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    • Executive Education

    Law Firms Embrace Business School 101

    As Recession Bites, More Attorneys Attend Management Training and Take Mini-M.B.A. Courses

    By

    Bankers, consultants and marketers aren’t the only professionals looking to beef up their business skills for competitive advantage these days. At a growing number of law firms, top attorneys are being trained like business people, using executive education courses designed to strengthen management and business skills.

    Some firms have been actively teaching lawyers business skills for the past half-decade. But this year’s shrinking client lists — and profits — have encouraged more law firms to invest in management education. "Law firms are still run the way they were in the 17th century," says James Bailey, a leadership professor at the George Washington School of Business who studies law firms and helps run a program for managing partners. "They never really had to worry about [management skills] because every law firm in the country made money every year."

    More firms are turning to short, executive education programs at business schools. Responding to the demand and eager to shore up losses from corporate training budget cuts, business schools are creating new programs for lawyers. The courses are often tailored for individual firms or geared toward partners and high-potential attorneys. The classes aim to prepare attorneys to either take top management positions at firms or help them better understand their business — and their clients’ businesses.

    • Lawyers Often Lack Client Skills
    • Creating a Shorter Path to a J.D./M.B.A.

    "When you have the kind of challenges we have right now, (you need) really well-trained, smart managers talking the same language," says Kevin Fitzgerald, a partner at Nixon Peabody LLP who was one of the first in his firm to attend an executive education program at Harvard University in 2007. The program is designed for employees of professional service firms, and includes training on how lawyer-managers can lead firms successfully. Despite a tighter budget this year, Nixon Peabody still plans to send about six participants to the program.

    Meanwhile, some firms are using business training to give their attorneys a better understanding of clients. At Wilmer Cutler Pickering Hale and Dorr LLP in Boston, Jane Eiselein, director of professional development, says the firm last September piloted an executive education business program for second-year associates taught by Northeastern University. "We realized our associates don’t have an inside view of how our clients work," says Ms. Eiselein, who said the program was successful and will be offered at other locations this year.

    Jim Hever, head of the Client Development Centre at Addleshaw Goddard LLP in London, attended Harvard’s program last year, and said that the program helps the firm’s partners learn about the needs of their clients. "Lawyers are business solutions and to be able to be that, you must have an understanding of business dynamics," says Mr. Hever.

    Law Firms Embrace Business School 101



    Jason Schneider

    In September, the executive education program at Georgetown University McDonough School of Business will offer a custom program tailored to a large global firm with several thousand attorneys. The three four-day modules will focus on each of the firm’s key practice areas, says the business school dean, George Daly, and revolve around topics including new regulatory issues, client development and leadership training.

    In other cases, schools are partnering with legal organizations to build their offerings. In early 2008, Boston University School of Management partnered with the Association of Corporate Counsel, a trade organization for in-house counsel based in Washington D.C., for a mini-M.B.A. program for its members. The $1,940, intensive course lasts three days and focuses on the skills traditionally taught in business schools — organizational behavior, finance, accounting, risk analysis, marketing and strategy.

    This year, Boston University added a fourth session, including one hosted at its executive education facility in Los Angeles, in an effort to meet the growing demand for the program. So far, more than 300 attorneys have passed through the program.

    Recent attendees say the course has boosted their business acumen. Renee Benjamin, a senior counsel at CalPortland Company, attended the program in Los Angeles last month. Ms. Benjamin says that not only did the program improve her finance skills, but it also helped her get a better understanding of how business decisions are made. Boston University is also planning a comprehensive follow-up program for attorneys who have completed the program, says the business school’s director of executive education Elizabeth Nassar.

    George Washington University launched a degree program in law firm management with executive training provider Hildebrandt Institute in 2005. The two-year program targets firm managers and combines residencies with online learning. The main goal: To teach participants how to apply general management skills to law firms. George Washington’s Mr. Bailey says business acumen for law professionals is critical nowadays. "(Firms have) gotten big; they’ve gotten complex and don’t have the management talent to run the large convoluted organization," says Mr. Bailey.

    European business schools are also getting into the game. IMD, a business school in Lausanne, Switzerland is in talks to offer a custom executive M.B.A. program to a global law firm with offices in more than 50 countries next year and about 4,000 employees, says professor Sean Meehan, dean of external relations at the school.

    The firm and the school are in the process of developing modules for the degree, which will be designed to help the organization grow globally.

    And in the last few years, IE Business School in Madrid has added law firms to its client roster, including Cuatrecasas and Uria Menendez, says Dean Santiago Iniguez. The school was approached by the firms to develop offerings for attorneys three years ago. Participants delve into workshops on topics including working across borders, and market segmentation, both of which are relevant to firms with an international growth strategy. "Managing partners at law firms resemble CEOs of conventional corporations and they need to practice similar managerial skills," says Mr. Iniguez.

    Write to Alina Dizik at [email protected]

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    Law Firms Embrace Business School 101

    As Recession Bites, More Attorneys Attend Management Training and Take Mini-M.B.A. Courses

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    MBA Programs » MBA Headlines » More universities combine MBA, legal programs

    More universities combine MBA, legal programs


    March 04, 2011



    | By Maricelle Ruiz-Calderon

    An increasing number of contemporary politicians have graduated from JD and MBA programs. U.S. President George W. Bush and Bush Administration Treasury Secretary Henry Paulson graduated from Harvard Business School. President Barack Obama graduated from Harvard Law School, while Secretary of State Hillary Clinton is an alumna of Yale Law School.

    Law and business degrees are not only great assets if you plan to become a politician, but also if you strive to succeed in a world where legal and financial matters increasingly intermingle. As a result, more universities are combining JD and MBA programs, and some are even reducing the time it takes to complete dual law and business school degrees.

    “I knew coming in that I wanted to practice corporate law, and the complementary MBA and JD degrees offered by this School of Management program have helped me reach my goal,” Brett Church, a 2009 MBA and JD graduate, says at the Boston University site. “The MBA program increased my financial literacy, such that I feel confident discussing complex business concepts with clients and associates.”

    Combining JD and MBA degrees not only provides an added edge. It should also expand professional opportunities and boost the salaries of graduates.

    Legal and MBA programs

    About 42 schools throughout the United States combine legal and business school education, according to The Wall Street Journal. Among the universities providing dual law and business degrees are:

    • Columbia University
    • Boston University
    • Northwestern University
    • Yale University
    • University of Pennsylvania
    • Stanford University

    Columbia University has been one of the latest schools to reduce the time to complete the JD and MBA degree from four to three years to allow students to start their career faster. The first three-year law and business school class at Columbia should begin classes in August 2011.


    Students interested in simultaneously attending JD and MBA programs must submit two applications at the same time, one to Columbia Law School and another one to Columbia Business School. Although the schools may consult with each other during the evaluation of applications, at the end of the process, each makes an independent decision based on its own admission criteria. Students accepted into the JD and MBA programs should spend their first and third years at Columbia Law School and their second year at Columbia Business School. Courses could include: Corporate finance, Capital Markets & Investments, Deals, and The Law, Economics and Regulation of executive Compensation.

    Lawyers could pursue business school education through masters of law or mini MBA programs, as well.

    Concord Law School offers exclusively online the Small Business Practice LLM, a master of law degree focused on small business matters. Core courses include Regulation and finance in Starting and Growing a Small Business, Electronic Contracting and E-Commerce, Taxation of Small Businesses and Succession Planning.

    Combining law and business school education is also popular overseas. Starting in 2011, the Sorbonne Law School and INSEAD should offer a nine-month LLM for business lawyers in Paris and Singapore, according to the Financial Times article “Insead resorts to the law.”

    As a minimal example, the Association of Corporate Counsel and Boston University School of Management offer a three-day Mini MBA for In-house Counsel seminar. Topics include Corporate Finance, Financial Accounting for Lawyers, Risk Analysis and Management Skills for In-house Counsel.

    Law and business school careers

    The Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) reports that the employment of lawyers in the United States is expected to grow 13 percent between 2008 and 2018 due to population and business growth. Bankruptcies, corporate and security litigation, antitrust cases and mediation and dispute resolution should keep lawyers busy. Experienced lawyers specialized in areas, such as tax, patent and maritime law could also do well.

    Organizations interested in lawyers with a business school education could include:

    • Government agencies
    • Federal, state and local courts
    • Urban and suburban law firms
    • Banks, insurance and real estate companies
    • Other large corporations

    As of May 2009, the median annual wage for lawyers in the United States was $113,240. The highest-paid lawyers worked in the energy and technology industries or represented public figures and lived in D.C., New York, Delaware, California and Georgia.

    Business lawyers trained by the Sorbonne and INSEAD, meanwhile, are expected to become chief financial officers or managers at large companies.

    “The LLM is going to be more like the MBA in the global market,” José Maria de Areilza, dean at Spain’s IE Law School, tells the Financial Times. “Law schools are talking more to business schools.”

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    Richard III Essay Topics

    Choose any of the topics below. Your essay should be
    between 750-1000 words.

     1. Within the play Richard III, God is
    manifested through human conscience. Discuss.

    2. Richard’s physical deformity motivates his actions
    in the play. Discuss.

    3. Discuss how the play explores the quality of mercy.

    4. Explore Shakespeare’s portrayal of women in Richard
    III
    .

    5. None of the other characters in the play are any
    better than Richard. Discuss.

    6. Richard III shows the Elizabethan concept of
    the Wheel of Fortune. Richard, the characters of the play, the throne, and
    England are all tied to fortune’s wheel. Discuss.

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    Lovers’ Declarations in Shakespeare’s Richard III and Austen’s Pride and Prejudice

    – Shakespeare’s “Richard III” portrays a ‘serious’ yet passionate declaration of love to Anne greatly contrasting with the more solemn and composed confession given by Mr Collins in Austen’s “Pride and Prejudice”. Where Richard III seems to be unable to hold back his feelings Mr Collins appears to quite calmly lay out his reasoning for his proposed match to Elizabeth Bennet. Thus both extracts could be said to be giving us very different depictions of the idea of a ‘declaration of love’. Shakespeare uses hyperbolic language and melodrama in order to exaggerate the supposed love that Richard feels for Anne as he declares that “[Anne’s] beauty, …did haunt me in my sleep” which can also be desc…   [tags: Shakespeare, Richard III]


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    William Shakespeare’s Richard III

    – William Shakespeare’s Richard III William Shakespeare’s characterization of Britain’s historical monarch Richard III, formerly Duke of Gloucester, is one of the most controversial in literature. To this day there are arguments upholding Richard III’s villainy and ascertaining his murder of the Princes in the tower, just as there are those who believe that he has been falsely represented by Shakespeare’s play and fight avidly to clear his name of any and all crimes. Because of the uncertainty surrounding his true character, Richard III is an intriguing personality to put into modern culture, which is exactly what Ian McKellen does in his rendition of the infamous ruler….   [tags: William Shakespeare Richard III Essays]


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    The Supernatural in Shakespeare’s Richard III

    – The Supernatural in Shakespeare’s Richard III Casting a darkly mythical aura around Richard III, supernatural elements are intrinsic to this Shakespearean history play. The prophetic dreams of Clarence and Stanley blur the line between dream and reality, serving to foreshadow impending doom. The ghosts that appear before Richard III and Richmond before their battle create an atmosphere of dread and suspense, and they also herald Richard’s destiny. The curses of three female royalties are fulfilled at the end, serving as reminders that the divine powers are stronger than Richard’s malice….   [tags: Richard III William Shakespeare Essays Papers]


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    Shakespeare on Machiavelli: The Prince in Richard III

    – Shakespeare on Machiavelli:  The Prince in Richard III     According to many, Shakespeare intentionally portrays Richard III in ways that would have the world hail him as the ultimate Machiavel.  This build up only serves to further the dramatic irony when Richard falls from his throne.  The nature of Richard’s character is key to discovering the commentary Shakespeare is delivering on the nature of tyrants.  By setting up Richard to be seen as the ultimate Machiavel, only to have him utterly destroyed, Shakespeare makes a dramatic commentary on the frailty of tyranny and such men as would aspire to tyrannical rule….   [tags: Richard II Richard III Essays Shakespeare]


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    The Lack of Usage and Necessity of the Aristotelian Unities in Richard III

    – One major purpose of works of fiction, whether they be prose, poetry, or plays, is to transport their audience to another time, to another place, somewhere beyond where they sit or stand or lie. That, after all, is why there is a distinction between fiction and nonfiction. This purpose holds true even in the case of a historical play like Richard III, which is based on actual happenings. However, in seeming contrast to this purpose is the principle of Aristotle’s three unities, which is to “make a plot more plausible, more true-to-life, and thus to follow Aristotle’s concept of mimesis, i.e., the attempt to imitate or reflect life as authentically as possible” by making sure there is a sense…   [tags: richard III, aristotle, shakespeare]


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    Richard III by William Shakespeare

    – Written during a time of peace immediately following the conclusion of the War of the Roses between the Yorks and the Lancasters, William Shakespeare’s play Richard III showcases a multi-faceted master of linguistic eloquence, Richard, Duke of Gloucester, a character who simultaneously manages to be droll, revolting, deadly, yet fascinating. Richard’s villainy works in a keen, detestable manner, manifesting itself in his specific use or, rather, abuse of rhetoric. He spends a substantial amount of time directly interacting and therefore breaking the fourth wall and orating to the audience in order to forge a relationship with them, to make members not only his confidants of murderous intenti…   [tags: richard, Duke of Gloucester]


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    The Evil King in Shakespeare’s Richard III

    – The Evil King in Shakespeare’s Richard III Richard is an actor, a fully evil actor, who through his mastery of the stage has come to appreciate his skill. Richard Moulton, in his Shakespeare as a Dramatic Thinker, proclaims Richard’s wonder at his own command of the stage: “Richard has become an artist in evil: the natural emotions attending crime-whether of passionate longing, or horror and remorse-have given place to artistic appreciation of masterpieces” (40). And Robert Weimann, comparing Richard Gloucester to a character in Shakespeare’s King John states: “Both characters exemplify a strenuous need to perform, ‘toiling desperately’ to play a role, ‘to find out,’ and, for better or wor…   [tags: Richard II Richard III Essays]


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    Sun Imagery in Shakespeare’s Richard III

    – Sun Imagery in Shakespeare’s Richard III      Shakespeare’s Richard III is a play pervasive in figurative language, one of the most notable being the symbolic image of the sun and the shadow it casts. In an examination of a short passage from the text, it will be argued that Richard is compared to a shadow in relation to the sun, which has traditionally been held as a symbol of the king. The passage is significant not only because it speaks volumes about the plots of Richard, but also because it is relevant in understanding the overall plot of the play, which in the first few acts is almost indistinguishable from the plot of the scheming Duke of Gloucester….   [tags: Richard II Richard III Essays]


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    William Shakespeare’s Richard III, the Duchess of York

    – We often say there is no love other than mothers love, but the character of the Duchess conflict that. In William Shakespeare’s Richard III, the Duchess of York seemed vague with her responds, She seems very patient also with Richard III at the being of the play; nonetheless She never explore her hatred throughout the play. She is a widowed mother, of Clarence, King Edward IV and Richard III. The Duchess of York has very bad relationship with her son due to his bad things he do, for example killing anyone that gets on his way to become king….   [tags: clarence, richard, queen elizabeth]


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    William Shakespeare’s Richard III

    – The premise of William Shakespeare’s circa 1597 historic tragedy Richard III relies on the violent struggle between two noble houses, the Lancastrians and the Yorkists, known as the Wars of the Roses. Even though it can stand entirely on its own, the preceding plays of this tetralogy, 1 Henry VI, 2 Henry VI, and 3 Henry VI brilliantly sketch the foreground for Richard III as it picks up directly from the events described in 3 Henry VI. The last Lancastrian king, Henry VI, and his heir, Prince Edward, have been killed and Richard’s eldest brother has been crowned King Edward IV (Greenblatt 541)….   [tags: story, character and historical anaysis]


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    Richard III by William Shakespeare

    – In Christian philosophy, love is a revered virtue built upon understanding, trust, respect, and compassion. The act of marriage is its ultimate expression: a promise of abundant happiness and fertility. Many poets and authors in classical literature share this idea, depicting righteous resolutions and jubilant atmospheres through successful unions in their works. One such playwright is William Shakespeare, who in the tragedy Richard III uses marriage to end a tyrant’s bloody rule and restore peace to England….   [tags: Play analysis, Tragedy, Love]


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    The Portrayal of Socially Destructive and Over-Ambitious Richard, in Shakespeare’s Richard III

    – Richard, the main character of the Shakespeare’s play, Richard III is portrayed as socially destructive and politically over-ambitious. His destructive potential is depicted by the way he relates with the other protagonists in the play and also by what he confesses as his intentions. Richard’s political ambition is revealed through his strategic calculations based on the order of birth in his York family which puts him third away from the throne. Ahead of him is his elder brother, George Clarence, a barrier which will have to eradicate….   [tags: English Literature, Literary Analysis, Analytical ]


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    Post Traumatic Stress Disorder in Shakespeare’s Richard the Third

    – All the passions of the irascible rise from the passions of the concupiscible appetite and terminate in them. For instance, anger rises from sadness, and, having wrought vengeance, terminates in joy. — St. Thomas Aquinas Richard the Third is an intense exploration of the psychology of Post Traumatic Stress Disorder and that exploration is centered on Richard’s mind. Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder, PTSD, is an anxiety disorder that can develop after exposure to a terrifying event or ordeal in which grave physical harm occurred or was threatened….   [tags: Shakespeare, Richard III]


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    The Power of Women in Richard III

    – The Power of Women in Richard III In Shakespeare’s The Tragedy of King Richard the Third, the historical context of the play is dominated by male figures. As a result, women are relegated to an inferior role. However, they achieve verbal power through their own discourse of religion and superstition. In the opening speech of Act 1, Scene 2, Lines 1-30 Lady Anne orients the reader to the crucial political context of the play and the metaphysical issues contained within it (Greenblatt, 509)….   [tags: William Shakespeare Richard III Richard II]


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    Shakespeare’s Richard III Essay: Richard’s Loss of Self

    – Richard’s Loss of Self in Richard III         The attack of “conscience” that King Richard suffers in Act 5, Scene 5 of Shakespeare’s Richard III (133-157) can be seen as the psychological climax of the drama, one that is critical to both Richard’s development as a character and the play’s ultimate success. Richard’s struggle to reconcile the many different roles he attempts to play into one unified self, reflected in the tone and composition of his speech, adds depth and humanity to his character; at the same time, his ultimate failure to maintain his “self-made” identity simplifies the play in a way that allows the author to satisfy his audience by punishing the villain and reaffirmi…   [tags: Richard II Richard III Essays]


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    Richard Loncraine’s Rendition of William Shakespeare’s Richard III

    – Richard Loncraine’s rendition of William Shakespeare’s Richard III is memorable in its appeal to modern viewers partly because it relocates the action of the play to a fantasized Nazi Germany-styled England of the 1940s, rather than keeping fifteenth-century England as the setting as Shakespeare originally intended. But while this approach undoubtedly allows the story of Richard III to be broadcasted to a more diverse audience, its total rejection of historical fact, along with the way in which Loncraine skips around the text, cuts scenes, and adds small but important details to the aesthetics of Shakespeare’s play may mislead the audience and thus distract them from the original piece….   [tags: play, nazi germany, queen margaret]


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    Richard III – Ian McKellen Makes Shakespeare Accessible to All

    – Richard III – Ian McKellen Makes Shakespeare Accessible to All Shakespeare at the time and even now still seems like a foreign language to many minds. From its deep and complicated plot development, and the archaic English that was its makeup, to the strange and old-fashioned medieval settings and costumes, a Shakespeare film of that time was not something very appealing to the public. McKellen’s approach to making the film Richard III eliminated many of these prejudices people had of Shakespeare movies….   [tags: Film Movies Richard III Ian McKellen]


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    The Foreshadow in the Death of Richard III in Shakespeare

    – The Foreshadow in the Death of Richard III in Shakespeare Shakespeare’s tragedy of Richard III is a play where death is one of the central themes. It is therefore essential that Shakespeare makes this theme obvious to the audience even before characters die, and his primary way of doing this is through the foreshadowing of these deaths. He does this through dreams, language forms, imagery, curses, character and broken oaths. Due to these devices, the audience is already aware that certain characters will die, enabling Shakespeare to create dramatic irony….   [tags: Papers]


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    Directing William Shakespeare’s Richard III

    – Directing William Shakespeare’s Richard III Dear Mr Akter, I am writing to congratulate you upon being chosen to play the part of Richard in our forthcoming production of Richard III. This letter is a guide for you for how I would like the part of Richard to be acted. This shall be primarily based upon two key scenes in the play, which are Act 1 Scene I (opening scene) and Act 5 Scene VII (eve of battle scene). This guide covers 3 main aspects of playing the part of Richard….   [tags: Papers]


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    Glorifying the Tudor Dynasty: Shakespeare’s Richard III and the Perfect Villain

    – … This results in Richard’s actions that lead him to kill his brother and manipulate his family into getting the throne. Additionally, the plot of the play portrays a turning point for English history, the rise of the Tudor dynasty. In combination with Machiavelli’s tenants, the fact that Elizabeth was the patron of the arts also influenced Shakespeare’s piece. Shakespeare evidently courts the Queen with the twisted characterization of Richard that leads to her current role as Queen of England….   [tags: Elizabethan plays, Golden age]


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    Morality in Richard III by William Shakespeare

    – Morality in Richard III by William Shakespeare In Richard III, Shakespeare invites us on moral holiday. The early part of the play draws its readers to identify with Richard and thereby to participate in a fantasy of total control of self and domination of others. We begin to be pulled into the fantasy in the play’s opening speech, where Richard presents himself as an enterprising, self made villain and offers an elaborate justification for this self he renovation….   [tags: Papers]


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    William Shakespeare’s Aim in Richard III

    – William Shakespeare’s Aim in Richard III Richard III, in my opinion, was written to portray Richard as an arch villain, to show him as an evil and even more callous person than he actually was. Although, the dialogue in the play compiles of a large amount of entertaining situations, remarks, asides and conversations. Richard III was based on a true life king who ruled between 1483-1485. Upon the death of his brother, Edward IV, he became guardian to his two nephews, Edward V, the new young king, and his younger brother, Richard….   [tags: Papers]


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    Film Review of Richard Loncraine’s Adaptation of William Shakespeare’s Richard III

    – Film Review of Richard Loncraine’s Adaptation of William Shakespeare’s Richard III “Civil war divides the nation” the first caption we see at the onset of this adaptation of Shakespeare’s Richard III sets the tone for scenes to come later in the movie. It starts by focusing on Shakespeare’s underlying tone regarding Richard as somewhat an outlandish character to be mocked and amused by. Enter Richard to “stab” Edward in his war room at Tewkesbury in his tank. He then fills Edward full of holes with a gun rather than a sword to start the play on words that Richard is known for throughout the play….   [tags: Papers]


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    evilmac Essay on Evil in Shakespeare’s Richard III and Macbeth

    – Vision of Evil in Richard III and Macbeth   Shakesperae’s play Macbeth is in some respects a relatively simple play. Like Richard III its’ structure follows a standard conventional form: the rise and fall of a great man. The first part of the play follows Macbeth’s rise to power. By 3.1 he has assumed the kingship. The rest of the play follows the disintegration of all he has achieved, a process that culminates with his death and the installment of new king. In that sense, there is very little difference in the structure between Richard III and Macbeth….   [tags: comparison compare contrast essays]


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    The Character of Richard III as Shakespeare Presents Him to Us

    – The Character of Richard III as Shakespeare Presents Him to Us Shakespeare presents Richard to us in a very negative way. Richard is portrayed as an evil person who is attracted to the power that the throne could bring him and would take whatever risk is necessary. Driven by his need for power he manipulates and murders his way to the throne. Richard shows himself as a manipulator right from the start of the play. He tricks Clarence and makes him think that he has nothing to do with his arrest….   [tags: Papers]


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    Clarence’s Speech in William Shakespeare’s Richard III

    – Clarence’s Speech in William Shakespeare’s Richard III The speech I am going to be examining is from one of Shakespeare’s plays, Richard III. It is the part of the play where George, Duke of Clarence is explaining a prophetic nightmare he had whilst being locked in the Tower of London. Richard III was a real king of England, but had been killed in battle, around 100 years prior to when Shakespeare wrote this play. At the time of writing, in 1594, the queen was Elizabeth I, a Tudor….   [tags: Papers]


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    Love and Marriage an Affliction or an Alliance: Deceit and Betrayal in Shakespeare’s Richard III

    – During the Middle Ages and Renaissance period marriage and love were idealized, divine and celebrated. Weddings were large events that included the entire families of both the groom and the bride. Reality was different; women were viewed as being fickle, inferior to men and a possession of men. Women had very little, if any, choice in who they would marry. Marriages were arranged so that both families would benefit in gaining wealth or power. Even though the ruler of England for over 4 decades was female, women were still not respected….   [tags: History, Middle Ages, Renaissance]


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    The Opening Speech of Richard III in William Shakespeare’s Play

    – The Opening Speech of Richard III in William Shakespeare’s Play Richard III is a historical play and we are drawn to this factor from Richard’s speech at the opening of the play. Shakespeare uses Richard’s character as his main device for setting the scene. As it is a play the audience would see Richard entering on a bare stage and this alone would leave an effect of them which would soon be reinforced by the speech he is about to give. The speech itself is delivered in a soliloquy, a device that is well associated with Shakespeare….   [tags: Papers]


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    The Character of King Richard III in William Shakespeare’s Play

    – The Character of King Richard III in William Shakespeare’s Play In my opinion Richard is definitely not a hero, he is nothing more than an immoral villain. He is a cunning, callous and carefree murderer. However, for much of the play the audience view him as a hero. Throughout my essay I aim to argue why Richard is an immoral villain whilst contrasting why many may perceive him as a hero. For much of the play Richard may be seen as a hero. One reason for this is his dramatic language….   [tags: Papers]


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    “Thou Camst on Earth to Make the Earth My Hell”: Richard as a Satanic Hero in Richard III by William Shakespeare

    – In mythology, the term “Satan” is defined as the ruler of the underworld. In literature however, that title is associated with the “opposer”, or the arch-rebel. This name originates from the corrupt hero Satan in Milton’s Paradise Lost. Interestingly, Satan is not completely depicted as demonic and repugnant. On the contrary, he is able to deliver exhilarating speeches, evoke pity of the public, and even demonstrate some virtues normally affiliated with a tragic hero. However, Milton is not the only one to use such a figure in his writing….   [tags: Shakespearean Literature ]


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    The Ghost of Richard III Visits William Shakespeare

    – The Ghost of Richard III Visits William Shakespeare I was sitting at my desk in my candle-lit room, a gentle breeze made the candle flicker and a chill ran down my spine. I remember having a strange feeling, as if there was another spirit present, it is hard to explain, but it was nothing like I had ever felt before. The breeze was making me shiver and it was getting colder as time passed, I picked up my lantern and walked across to the window and pulled it to, but still left it slightly ajar, I liked the feel of the air, but today it did not feel the same….   [tags: Papers]


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    The Significance of Act 3 Scene 7 to Shakespeare’s Richard III

    – The Significance of Act 3 Scene 7 to Shakespeare’s Richard III Richard iii essay Richard the third is the last play in a cycle of eight plays that Shakespeare wrote to dramatize the history of England between 1398-1485. The plays depict the struggle for the crown and in Richard the third it shows how Richard finally gets to the crown by committing lots of murders but then is toppled by Richmond. In this essay I will explore how significant act 3 scene 7 is to the play. In this play Richard is presented as a ingenious man who can easily manipulate others for his sake , he does this through his use of clever language, in act1 scene 2 Richard persuades Anne to marry…   [tags: Papers]


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    Movie Essays – Loncraine’s Film Production of Shakespeare’s Richard III

    – Loncraine’s Film Production of Shakespeare’s Richard III Loncraine’s film brilliantly furthers Richard III’s role as the diabolical genius. His use of economy and symbolism in portraying Richard gives completeness to the character that the text in some ways lacks. The short but intriguing stable scene in the film makes this clear. The first thing I noticed about the stable scene in the film was the monochromatic color scheme. As Donaldson noted, the muted browns, grays, and beiges are reminiscent of the several death scenes….   [tags: Movie Film comparison compare contrast]


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    Women as Authroity Figures in Things Fall Apart by Chinua Achebe and Richard III by William Shakespeare

    – One cannot escape one’s fate. The theme of fate and freewill is central to William Shakespeare’s play Richard III, in which Richard III battles with the two in his quest for the crown. Richard seeks to escape his fate as a deformed and unfinished hunchback by using what little power he has to gain more power and respect. Although Richard thinks that he is acting on his own free will, fate still controls him throughout his journey. In addition, Richard’s fate is expressed in the form of a curse that Margaret delivers as punishment for his crimes against her and her family….   [tags: culture, priestess, power]


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    Inner Evil Revealed in Film and BBC Productions of Shakespeare’s Richard III

    – Inner Evil Revealed in Film and BBC Productions of Shakespeare’s Richard III     All the passions of the irascible rise from the passions of the concupiscible appetite and terminate in them. For instance, anger rises from sadness, and, having wrought vengeance, terminates in joy. —  St. Thomas Aquinas        In Richard III, Shakespeare creates evil personified.  The wicked protagonist conspires against kin, plots political takeovers, woos widows, sets assassins against children, and relishes each nefarious act.  We watch Richard’s bravado with wicked glee and delight in each boasting comment sent our direction.  Once the bad guy becomes seductive, even amusing, in his blatant cruelty…   [tags: Movie Film Essays]


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    Déjà Vu: Motifs of Hitler in Richard III(1995) and How They Help Modern Audience to Understand Shakespeare’s Richard

    – It is not terribly odd to see directors adapt Shakespearian plays to a different era. In fact, contemporary elements in films like Baz Luhrmann’s Romeo and Juliet and the most recent Much Ado About Nothing by Joss Whedon have definitely bring valuable new readings to the text. Embracing this trend, Richard III (1995) by Richard Loncraine shifts its background to 1930s Britain. Starring Ian McKellen as Richard, the movie makes an undeniable connection to Nazi Germany; very details include costume design, set and prop, and cinematography choices all closely relate Richard to Hitler, an equivalent villain from modern history….   [tags: background, evil, characteristic, audience]


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    The Effectiveness of William Shakespeare’s Use of Supernatural in the Final Act of Richard III

    – The Effectiveness of William Shakespeare’s Use of Supernatural in the Final Act of Richard III Richard III was written by William Shakespeare and tells the story of how Richard III wants to become king and does everything in his power to get there by assassinating members of his family to do so, for example, the Duke of Clarence, Lord Hastings, Lady Anne, Lord Rivers, the Duke of Buckingham, Henry VI, Prince Edward, Prince Edward V and Prince Richard. The last Act contains many supernatural elements such as ghosts of the people Richard III has murdered or got killed and curses, for example, Buckingham remembering Margaret’s curse, prophecies and dreams, a message…   [tags: Papers]


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    Canadian Alternative Theater

    – My Kingdom For a Canadian Alternative Theatre: The Richard III That Never Was Of all the parts she played in her brief time as an actress during the late 1960s, the part my mother remembers most fondly is one she never got to perform – the role of Richard III’s hump in Theatre Passe Muraille’s production of Richard III. The production was conceived of more than twenty years before I was born, and I’ve never seen video recordings, photographs, or even a review of the piece. In fact, the play was cancelled for financial reasons before it was ever performed….   [tags: Richard III 3 William Shakespeare]


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    The Scrivener and History in Richard III

    – Richard III challenges notions of how history is created and presented. Shakespeare’s play depicts the infamous Richard not only at odds with the other characters, but also fighting for a different interpretation of history. Richard and Margaret function as two characters opposed to each other with regard to history; Richard attempts to cover up the past as Margaret attempts to expose it. However, the creation and acceptance of history is largely predicated on more common figures. In particular the scrivener, a seemingly small side character, becomes an integral figure who creates the documentation of history, cementing the written version as a truth….   [tags: Literary Analysis, Shakespeare]


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    The Importance of the Garden Scene in Shakespeare’s Richard II

    – Why is Garden Scene included in Shakespeare’s Richard II. What does it contribute to the overall flow and development of the play.  The Garden Scene (Act III, Scene IV) is an important and pivotal moment, providing plot update, allegory, exposition, and character contrasts. The Garden Scene is important for several reasons, firstly, it occurs between two scenes in which Richard, Bolingbroke, and others are present, but between which some time has passed. This implies a costume change, and this little scene provides just such an opportunity….   [tags: Richard II Richard III Essays]


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    History and Tragedy in Shakespeare’s Richard II

    – History and Tragedy in Richard II         An attempt to sort Shakespeare’s plays into neat categories may appear to have its benefits when striving to understand his work, but even a superficial reading of Richard II indicates that this approach is largely futile and sometimes misleading. While it cannot be doubted that the play is of a historical nature, based on events recorded in Holinshed’s Chronicles of 1577 and named after an actual king, a sense of true Shakespearean tragedy is also present throughout….   [tags: Richard II Richard III Essays]


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    Shakespeare’s Richard II Essay: Search for Identity in Richard II

    – Search for Identity in Richard II   Shakespeare’s Richard II tells the story of Richard’s fall from power. Being dethroned by Bolingbroke forces Richard to confront the limitations and nature of his power as king. As audience members, we follow Richard on his journey of self-discovery, which enlightens him even as his life is shattered by Bolingbroke’s revolt. Paradoxically, it is in utter defeat that Richard comes closest to understanding what it is to be human. Unfortunately he is unable to accept life as an ordinary subject after having tasted what it means to rule….   [tags: Richard II Richard III Essays]


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    Biblical Figures and Ideals in Shakespeare’s Richard II

    – Biblical Figures and Ideals in William Shakespeare’s Richard II William Shakespeare’s Richard II tells the story of one monarch’s fall from the throne and the ascension of another, Henry Bullingbrook, later to become Henry IV. There is no battle fought between the factions, nor does the process take long. The play is not action-packed, nor does it keep readers in any form of suspense, but rather is comprised of a series of quietly dignified ruminations on the nature of majesty. Thus, the drama lies not in the historical facts, but in the effects of the situation on the major characters and the parallels drawn by Shakespeare to other tales….   [tags: Richard II Richard III Essays]


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    Shakespeare’s Richard II Essay: The Rape of a Nation

    – Richard II  – The Rape of a Nation        By bowing down to the needs of his subjects, a king allows others to dictate his actions and hence compromises the essence of his power. Paradoxically, failing to heed the desires of his subjects transforms a king into a self-indulgent tyrant and propels his kingdom towards ruin and decay. Can a sovereign rule his subjects without considering their general welfare. If a king rules unconscionably, do his subjects have the right to replace him. William Shakespeare’s Richard II considers this authoritarian quandary at great length….   [tags: Richard II Richard III Essays]


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    Richard III and Adolf Hitler

    – Richard III and Adolf Hitler In William Shakespeare’s Richard III, we see Shakespeare’s interpretation of despot rule and the parallels that stem from this interpretation. The character type of Richard has been examined and marveled for thousands of years. From Plato’s examination of despot rule in the Republic, we see the motives of what drives despot rulers. A look at the background of Richard and how his upbringing and personal life contributed to his insecurities will help to understand why someone may become a despot….   [tags: Richard II Richard III Essays]


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    Deformity in Richard III

    – Richard III and Deformity Some scholars insist that Richard was neither crippled nor humpbacked, and they are passionately dedicated to proving that Shakespeare’s portrait of the inhuman monster is based on Tudor propaganda used to bolster Henry VII’s weak claim to the throne The only “proof” we have of Richard III’s deformity is that which is provided by Sir Thomas More in “The History of King Richard the Third”. It is here that modern readers digest the adjectives which forever plague Richard “Little of stature, ill-featured of limbs, crooked-backed, his left shoulder much higher than his right”….   [tags: Richard II Richard III Essays]


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    Free College Essays – The Last Act of Richard III

    – The Last Act of Richard III In Shakespeare’s play Richard III, the main character Richard is developed as an actor – to the degree of morbidity. Richard is forever putting on an act, and playing the part that he thinks will most please whomever he shares the stage with at a given moment. Not that to please is his ultimate goal, it is just a means to get what he wants–which is the tempting role of the king. His acts are from the start plentiful, and for some time almost surprisingly effective….   [tags: Richard II Richard III Essays]


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    Comparing the Behavior of Characters in Richard III

    – RICHARD III Compare the behavior and reactions of Richard, Anne and Elizabeth in Act One Scene Two and Act Four Scene Four. In the start of both scenes, both Elizabeth and Anne are enraged and verbally attack Richard. Both women did not intend to marry Richard. hard was a very clever man, until he became king. He became over confident and did not even realise when he was losing a battle with the not-so-soft Elizabeth. He was successful with the weak, tenderhearted Anne in Act one Scene Two. He was very ruthless….   [tags: William Shakespeare]


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    Shakespeare, Loncraine, Donaldson, Richard, and Me

    – Shakespeare, Loncraine, Donaldson, Richard, and Me Act 2.4 of Loncraine’s Richard III is where I started furiously scribbling notes in the margins of notes. After Rivers is shockingly murdered, Loncraine films a still shot of the countryside. A farmer leads an ox in the foreground, while a train noisily passes in the background. There is a quick cut to the train, smoke billowing from its engines, entering a dark tunnel and then another cut to a toy train in the palace. The young Yorks are playing with the toy train and also a gray airplane….   [tags: Shakespeare Loncraine Donaldson Richard Essays]


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    A Study of the Dramatic Roles of Women in Richard III

    – There are five female characters in the play Richard III. Of these five there are four central female characters; the Duchess of York, Richard’s mother; Anne who later becomes Richard’s wife; Queen Margaret who was the former queen and Richard’s arch enemy and Queen Elizabeth, the current queen. The final female character who plays a minor role in the play is Queen Elizabeth’s daughter, Elizabeth, but she is merely a pawn in Richard’s plan and we never meet her. Each woman has a significant role in Richard III and is vital to the script….   [tags: five female characters in Richard III]


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    Richard III: A Ruthless King

    – Richard III is known to this day as a ruthless king, remaining infamous for his alleged murders and nefarious acts. There are many rumors surrounding his rule, telling stories of his horrid temperament and appearance, and how he unscrupulously killed anyone who might oppose his reign. But modern historians are taking another look at his history, and some say he was not as bad as the stories claimed. Despite Richard III’s notoriety and bloody rise to power, he served as a successful king of England because of his skill in battle, unyielding determination, and political prowess….   [tags: edward IV, feudal kings]


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    Free Richard III Essays: The Seduction of Lady Anne

    – Richard III and The Seduction of Lady Anne Richard, Duke of Gloucester, is a great seducer. However, it is easier when the seducee is rather frail in mind and heart, as I believe was the case with Lady Anne. Perhaps Lady Anne’s ego was as much engaged as her anger was initially. Gloucester chips away at her resolve masterfully, but let’s look at the facts. She knows that Gloucester killed her husband and her father-in-law. This fact is undisputed (within the play). Gloucester admits both murders to her saying, “[y]our beauty was the cause of that effect [the murders]” (I.ii.121)….   [tags: Richard II Richard III Essays]


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    The Contribution of the Supernatural to Richard III

    – The Contribution of the Supernatural to Richard III During the Renaissance period people were very superstitious and England on a whole was an extremely religious country; people believed in both God and the Devil and Heaven and Hell. They also believed in prophecies, supernatural and curses. A modern audience would have reacted very differently to the play than a Shakespearean audience. The events contained within Richard III must have seemed very real to a Shakespearean audience as it depicts the historical events of the rise and fall of Richard III….   [tags: Papers]


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    Richard III as a Successful Politician

    – Richard III as a Successful Politician Shakespeare’s Richard III is set in England after the War of the Roses. Richard, the megalomanic eponymous character, is desperate for the throne of England. He tells us that he seeks the crown to compensate for his deformity (he was a hunchback from birth). Richard has his own brother killed and later has former allies and those who still stood in his way killed also. When Richard eventually gains the throne he finds his conscience and begins to feel insecure, he has the two Princes he has locked away killed….   [tags: Papers]


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    Comparison/Contrast: The Merchant of Venice and Richard III

    – In William Shakespeare’s tale of The Merchant of Venice and Richard III both plays show similar qualities as well as differences between the two plays. The Merchant of Venice and Richard III are similar in that both plays have women that are independent. These women are not afraid to speak up and lash out with hard words towards who they do not prefer. In the Merchant of Venice, Portia never gives up. She is a very strong character and goes as far as to dress as a man and pretends to be a lawyer in order to save Antonio….   [tags: powerful women, death, friendship]


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    Stylistic Techniques in “Richard III”

    – Throughout the Play Richard III, author William Shakespeare incorporates great uses of stylistic features to aid the overall quality of the story and to help achieve success within the very complicated plot. In an attempt to intensify Richard’s plot to gain the throne of England, he uses three specific minor plays, to create an overall production for the audience. The first play which we see involves Richard connecting directly with the audience on the same level in Act 1 Scene 1. He tells us that despite the recent bloodshed and destruction caused by the War of the Roses, he is in full swing in an attempt to take over the throne of England….   [tags: European Literature]


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    Looking for Answers in Looking for Richard

    – Looking for Answers in Looking for Richard       Al Pacino’s “Looking for Richard” is an unusual film. It is a documentary about the complexities of Shakespeare, the performing of the play Richard III, and the ignorance of the average American regarding Shakespeare. The unusual nature of the film – it’s similar to a filmed Cliff-notes version of the text – provokes wildly different reactions from film buffs, critics, and Shakespeare purists. A perusal of five different reviews of the film show such variant descriptors that range from Mary Brennan’s comment that the documentary is “decidedly narcissistic” to Edwin Jahiel’s comment that the film is an “original, mesmerizing exploration.” T…   [tags: Looking for Richard Essays]


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    The Short Lived Success of Richard III

    – Richard III, by William Shakespeare, is a play based on the amount of power and decisiveness needed to become the king of England. The main character Richard of Gloucester is the brother of the current king. The fact that Richard is evil for no apparent reason troubles readers. Yet overtime, the audience begins to warm up to Richard in part because of his skill with words. Richard’s obvious skill of language allows him to successfully manipulate nearly every character in the play. This skill enables him to woo Lady Anne, have Clarence thrown in prison, blame the king for Clarence’s death, and achieve Hastings’s execution, all without any harm to himself….   [tags: European Literature]


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    Sir Laurence Olivier’s Richard III versus Ian McKellan’s Richard III

    – Sir Laurence Olivier’s Richard III versus Ian McKellan’s Richard III INTRODUCTION It seems that modern Hollywood filmmakers are as much in love with Shakespeare’s plays as were the 16th century audiences who first enjoyed them. Recent updates of Hamlet (1996) and Romeo and Juliet (1996), both highly successful movies, bear this out, as well as the two best film versions of Richard III; Sir Laurence Olivier’s 1954 “period piece”, and Ian McKellan’s more modern interpretation (1995). In McKellan’s Richard III, we see Britain in the late 1930s, at the end of a savage civil war between the House of York and the House of Lancaster….   [tags: Papers]


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    Essay on the Tyrant in Richard III and Macbeth

    – The Tyrant in Richard III and Macbeth   In Richard III and Macbeth Shakespeare used the title characters to reveal the typical characteristics of the tyrant such as limited foresight, mental instability, paranoia, the alienation of allies, and a clearly defined persona of evilness. Both Richard III and Macbeth are noblemen that usurp the crown through treachery, deceitfulness, and murder. Their rule is short-lived, though, because the reign with fear and terror. This clearly sets them up as tyrants, however, Shakespeare elaborated on this subject and revealed the typical characteristics of the tyrant through their actions, their climb to power, and the way they reigned….   [tags: comparison compare contrast essays]


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    The Invocation of Moral Codes in Richard III

    – Shakespeare’s Richard III is from the outset a very moral play. It opens with an introduction to the character of Richard in his “Now is the winter…” speech. In this we are first introduced to the idea of a man becoming evil from his own free will, excused (by him) on the grounds of his inability to fit in with the physical ideals of society, saying, “And therefore, since I cannot prove a lover… I am determined to prove a villain.” Although we are not, at this point, given a definite indication of Shakespeare’s opinion on this moral position, it is the opening for a discussion on what is morally acceptable, which is continued quite decisively throughout the play….   [tags: European Literature]


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    The Lancastrian Avenger Queen Margaret In Richard III: Chorus, Prophetess, and Conscience

    – The premise of William Shakespeare’s circa 1597 historic tragedy Richard III relies on the violent struggle between two noble houses, the Lancastrians and the Yorkists, known as the Wars of the Roses. Even though it can stand entirely on its own, the preceding plays of this tetralogy, 1 Henry VI, 2 Henry VI, and 3 Henry VI brilliantly sketch the foreground for Richard III as it picks up directly from the events described in 3 Henry VI. The last Lancastrian king, Henry VI, and his heir, Prince Edward, have been killed and Richard’s eldest brother has been crowned King Edward IV….   [tags: Wars of the Roses, English Plays]


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    Essay on Honor in Richard II

    – The Importance of Honor in Richard II         The tension-charged exchange between Bolingbroke and Mowbray in the first scenes of Richard II provides exciting action for the audience, and gives a glimpse into trial by combat and the importance of honor in Shakespeare’s plays. Trial by combat, or a judicial duel was a traditional way to settle disputes in England and Europe for many generations. People dueled to defend their own honor, and to prove personal claims against the honor of others….   [tags: Richard II Richard III Essays]


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    Essay on Narcissism and Metadrama in Richard II

    – Narcissism and Metadrama in Richard II      Over the last thirty years, Shakespeare criticism has demonstrated a growing awareness of the self-reflexive or metadramatic elements in his works. Lionel Abel’s 1963 study, Metatheatre: A New View of Dramatic Form, provided perhaps the first significant analysis of the ways in which Shakespeare thematizes theatricality, in the broadest sense of the term, in his tragedies, comedies, and histories. In his discussion of Hamlet, he makes the observation—perhaps a bit commonplace and obvious to us thirty years later—that the famous “play within a play” is only the most blatant example of self-conscious technique found throughout the tragedy: once w…   [tags: Richard II Richard III Essays]


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    William Shakespeare’s Richard II

    – The famed saying goes, “Absolute power corrupts absolutely”. While this is true, an unwavering belief in the impenetrability of that power can be just as corruptive. In William Shakespeare’s Richard II, the plays titular character faces exactly this dilemma. Believing his claim to the throne to be ironclad and divinely mandated, Richard finds himself at odds when he returns from war to find he has lost his power over England. In the “death of kings” speech of Act III, scene II, Richard wrestles with the realization that though he is king, he is also a man….   [tags: literary analysis, shakespeare]


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    A Comparison of Evil in Richard III, Titus, and Romeo and Juliet

    – Evil Within and Evil External in Richard III, Titus, and Romeo and Juliet      Shakespeare’s villains seem to fall into one of two categories: those who are villainous of heart (inherently and genuinely evil or Machiavellian) and those who are circumstantially turned antagonists. Richard III’s carefully plotted plans to usurp the throne contrast heavily against Aaron’s (of Titus Andronicus) rambling which contrasts with Aaron’s lack of action. The motivations of these two characters are different however….   [tags: comparison compare contrast essays]


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    978 words | (2.8 pages)
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    Richard as an Anti-hero

    – Richard as an Anti-hero: To what extent does Richard embody this archetype. In William Shakespeare’s play, Richard III, Richard is portrayed as physically deformed and psychologically affected. It is believed that his inner soul is a reflection of his physical deformities. Richard is considered as the protagonist of this play, however this is highly contradictive. A protagonist is the hero of the story who exhibits characteristics of courage and perseverance, and is admired for their brave deeds as well as their noble qualities….   [tags: Shakespeare, Play Analysis]


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    Soliloquies Essay – Self-Realization in Richard II’s Final Soliloquy

    – Self-Realization in Richard II’s Final Soliloquy       William Shakespeare’s The Tragedy of King Richard II, first published in a quarto edition in 1597, is the first in a sequence of four history plays known as the second tetrology, which deal with the early phases of a power struggle between the houses of Lancaster and York. The Richard II of the play has been called both mercurial and self-indulgent; however, several sustained soliloquies in the play demonstrate how deeply realized his character is….   [tags: Richard II Richard III Essays]


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    “Naked Villainy”: Richard as a Satanic Hero

    – In many religions and cultures, a demonic entity embodies the spirit of evil, ruler of hell, enemy of God, and tempter of humankind. This arch rebel figure often emerges in literature, and one of the most well-known is Satan, a defiant epitome of evil from John Milton’s epic poem Paradise Lost. There must be good in the presence of evil, thus there must be a hero with whom the villain clashes with, a bold character whom the audience roots for. In Shakespeare’s tragic play Richard III, Richard plays the role of both the hero and the villain by using his heroic traits to underscore his satanic persona….   [tags: Literary Analysis, Shakespeare]


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    Richard III a Tyrant as King

    – Richard III a Tyrant as King Throughout history, this very title has been disputed and the outcome has remained debatable to this very day. Richard, Duke of York had remained loyal to his brother, Edward IV throughout his years of reign, and had been well rewarded for his support, he became the Duke of Gloucester. In marrying Anne Neville, daughter of Earl of Warwick, he had inherited mass amounts of Neville land in the north of England after both the Earl and Anne died. He was respected within the northern parts of England and provided land for his friends….   [tags: Papers]


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    868 words | (2.5 pages)
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    Francis Bacon Was Shakespeare

    – The point of this research paper is to prove that Francis Bacon was Shakespeare. However, the fact of who really wrote the writings of Shakespeare is still unknown today. Many researchers have come up with a list of candidates that have the traits or characteristics of Shakespeare. The list includes Queen Elizabeth I, Edward de Vere, Francis Bacon, Christopher Marlow, and William Stanley. There is even a possibility of William Shakespeare being the actual writer of his works. At the top of that list is Francis Bacon, who had an almost direct match the thinking and personality of Shakespeare when reviewing his literature….   [tags: classic, shakespeare]


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    Comparing Development of the King in Richard II, Richard III, Henry IV, Henry V

    – Shakespeare’s Development of the King in Richard II, Richard III, Henry IV, Henry V                        Shakespeare’s plays beginning with Richard II and concluding with Henry V presents an interesting look at the role of a king. England’s search for “the mirror of all Christian kings” provided the opportunity to explore the many facets of kingship showing the strengths and weaknesses of both the position and the men who filled that position. Through careful examination, Shakespeare develops the “king” as a physical, emotional, and psychological being….   [tags: comparison compare contrast essays]


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    Contrasting Shakespeare’s Richard with the Historical Figure

    – There are two Richards: the Machiavellian monster created by Shakespeare and the historical figure who many historians claim is a much-maligned innocent man. So is Richard the sinner or the one sinned against. How can we decide. Is a decision even possible. In Shakespeare’s play Richard III, Richard describes himself as a deformed malcontent in the opening soliloquy. (Shakespeare often uses physical deformity to mirror an evil mind.) I, that am curtail’d of this fair proportion, Cheated of feature by dissembling nature, Deformed, unfinish’d, sent before my time Into this breathing world, scarce half made up, ……   [tags: compare contrast essays]


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    Similarities in Main Characters of Shakespeare´s Richard the Third and Macbeth

    – William Shakespeare’s Richard III and Macbeth, one a historical play, and the other a tragedy respectfully, are two of Shakespeare’s plays that embody several similarities. The most evident similarities in the two plays are the number of shared characteristics between the two main characters for which the plays are named, Richard of Gloucester (Richard III), and Macbeth. Both men are soldiers, attain the throne through a series of murders, and are eventually slain by their nemesis in a battle at the end of the play that restores power to that of a strong, humble, and virtuous leader, as opposed to a tyrannical one (Manning-Smith 1003)….   [tags: Soldiers, Leadership, Death]


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    Richard Burbage and the Theatre

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    Transformation of Costume Selection and Incorporating Props into the performance of Shakespeare’s plays of King Richard, Richard the II and Richard II

    – Transformation of Costume Selection and Incorporating Props into the performance of Shakespeare’s plays of King Richard, Richard the II and Richard III Performance of plays can take various shapes depending on the director’s perspective of the text, the key element, within the framework of the play. In addition text can be interpreted different ways, regarding directing technique, such as style and action choices, and scenery decisions. These factors contribute to the overall result of the performance containing either conventional elements or having a contemporary twist….   [tags: Papers]


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    The Supernatural in Shakespeare’s Works

    – The Supernatural in Shakespeare’s Works No one questions the fact that William Shakespeare is a pure genius when it comes to creating immortal characters whose characteristics transcends those of the normal supernatural beings, but most students of literature agree that his uses of the supernatural aren’t merely figments of his creative imagination. Every man, woman, and child is influenced by the age into which they are born and Shakespeare was no exception. Not only does his use of supernatural elements within his works reveal the Elizabethans’ obsession with mythical beliefs, but it also reveals his attitude toward these beliefs at different points of his writing career….   [tags: William Shakespeare English Literature Essays]


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    Shakespeare in Contemporary Movies

    – Shakespeare in Contemporary Movies In the middle of Looking for Richard, Al Pacino’s documentary about making Richard III and bringing Shakespeare to the people, there is a moment which illuminates the relationship of scholarship, Shakespeare and popular culture. The director is ranting at Pacino for offering (threatening?) to bring a Shakespearean scholar into the film: You said you were going to find a scholar to speak directly into the camera and explain what really went down and I’m telling you that is ridiculous, that you know more about Richard III than any fucking scholar at Columbia or Harvard….   [tags: William Shakespeare Films Religion Essays]


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    Searching for the Skeletons in the Closet: Did Richard III Have his Nephews Killed?

    – Did Richard III Have His Nephews Killed. The reign of Richard III is something of a paradox. His rule was brief and he lost his crown to a usurper, allowing the House of York to die with him. Yet few English kings have been the subject of such continuous debate, and none have spawned such fervent denigration, or such enthusiastic support. Much of the debate fuelling pro- and anti-Richardians has been whether or not Richard had his two young nephews, Edward V and Richard of York, murdered. Unfortunately to date it has been a debate mired in speculation….   [tags: Argumentative Persuasive History Essays]


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    Hope, a Theme in Shakespeare´s Richard the Third and in George Frederick Watts´s Painting

    – Famous English poet and playwright William Shakespeare uses “hope” in King Richard III as: “True hope is swift, and flies with swallow’s wings: Kings it makes gods, and meaner creatures kings.” (Shakespeare) In this quote from Shakespeare, hope is liken to wings that elevates people during its existence, a power which strengthens people. During my research different sources, from academic writings to visual sources, discussed how the result of an aim is affected by “hope”. The results that I gained from my research have shown that people can’t achieve their dreams in the lack of hope….   [tags: Situations, Achievements]


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    Richard III: Red-Blooded Richard

    By Amy Taubin

    On Film /

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    Apr 22, 2013


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    I first saw Laurence Olivier’s film version of Shakespeare’s Richard III in a theater in New York City sometime in the late 1950s, when I was a teenage acting student. What I’ve always remembered from that screening, besides the nasty, metallic timbre of Olivier’s voice—when it suddenly rose to a shriek, he sounded just like Hitler—were his thin, carmine lips, his oxblood doublet, and his scarlet gloves. In other words, more than fifty years later, I could still see in my mind’s eye all the different shades of red in this Technicolor rendering of Shakespeare’s bloody historical drama about the last days of the corrupt house of York and how the twisted Duke of Gloucester, afterward Richard III (Olivier), murdered his way to the throne of England.

    Subsequent viewings of both 35 mm and 16 mm prints and the DVD did nothing to reinforce my original impression. Sadly, the color in the prints was murky and faded. This would be unfortunate in the case of any film, but it was particularly devastating to Richard III (1955), where color is such an important expressive element—and not only because the reds are employed as a substitute for bloody thoughts and deeds. (There is very little blood actually shown on-screen.) A subtler use of color occurs in the big battle scene that climaxes the film. From the moment that we see the Earl of Richmond, afterward Henry VII, and his forces, we know he will be victorious over King Richard and his army, if for no other reason than because the pale blue-gray and light brown costumes that Richmond and his soldiers wear are perfectly matched to the colors of the sky and fields of the English countryside. The colors themselves proclaim that Henry, the first of the Tudors, is the rightful king. (The Battle of Bosworth Field was, in fact, shot in southern Spain, but no matter.)

    Richard III has now been restored: the VistaVision negative and other elements were digitally scanned and color corrected frame by frame at 4K resolution—which, given current technology, is about as good as it gets—and a few sequences that disappeared when the film was edited for television have been returned. So we can now see Olivier’s spectacle in all its glory.

    Olivier had had one of the greatest successes of his acting career when he played Richard III for the Old Vic in 1944. The echo of Hitler in his vocal delivery was deliberate; the atmosphere of paranoia and the violence and rampant betrayals attendant on Richard’s rise to power struck a nerve. The question of how Richard could have pulled the wool over so many eyes had obvious parallels with Germany under fascism, but it also resonated and still resonates with our collective fears of the unknown “dark side” of the contemporary world. Despite the late-medieval setting, the film continues to feel utterly modern, particularly the scenes in which Richard uses the clergy as window dressing for his claims to piety and morality.

    Although Olivier had directed and starred in celebrated film versions of Henry V (1944) and Hamlet (1948), he did not want to assume that double task for Richard III, which may be the reason for the ten-year delay between the stage and film versions. Producer Alexander Korda lured him back into the director’s chair with the promise that Richard III would be the first in a series of Shakespeare films that he and Olivier would make. Sadly, Korda died in 1955, the year that Richard III was released.

    In the opening titles, Olivier alludes to the differences between historical fact and the legend of Richard III as serial murderer, the latter encouraged by the Tudors, who needed to prove Richard a usurper in order to claim the throne for Henry VII and his descendants. Shakespeare’s play reinforces the Tudor version of history (his theater was supported by the monarchy). Four centuries later, undoubtedly aware of the dedicated efforts of the Richard III Society to question whether Richard was in fact such a monster, Olivier felt obliged to make note of the controversy—before proceeding, with great relish, to “print the legend.”

    If Shakespeare took liberties with history in his text, Olivier played a bit fast and loose with Shakespeare. The play, one of the Bard’s longest, has been considerably cut down for the film, the focus placed almost exclusively on Richard, with secondary characters, most notably Richard’s older brother Clarence (John Gielgud), getting short shrift. However, the film opens with an addition to the action—the final scene of Henry VI, Part 3, which depicts the coronation of Richard’s eldest brother as Edward IV, as Richard watches jealously from the sidelines. The scene introduces not only Richard but some of the other crucial characters and suggests some of their relationships. It is only after this “show” that Richard tells us, from his distorted perspective, what the situation is and what he plans to do to gain the throne. This is the famous soliloquy “Now is the winter of our discontent,” with which Shakespeare actually opens his play.

    The character of Richard is almost unique in the history of the movies (excepting certain modern horror films—Mary Harron’s American Psycho, for example) in being both an unredeemable villain and the protagonist of the story. And more than a mere protagonist, he is the narrator and the confidant of the audience, providing us with titillating coming attractions, scabrous gossip, and mockingly reasonable accounts of his murderous schemes and acts. Unlike Macbeth, Richard is not a tragic figure, nor is he insane (at least not in Olivier’s interpretation). He does not murder for the betterment of the state or to make the throne more secure. He murders because he wants to be king, plain and simple. And if he is troubled by bad dreams, they do not rise to the level of a guilty conscience. Richard is an extremely intelligent and witty sociopath and, to the extent that he is a product of his times, the most brutal blossom of the protracted War of the Roses. He seduces us by flaunting crimes too horrendous for us to dare even imagine. And he gets away with them—until he suddenly dies an ugly, agonizing death on the battlefield. Olivier’s Richard ends up writhing in the dirt, disemboweled and bleeding from dozens of stab wounds. It is by far the most violent of the deaths depicted in the film, but it is also over in less than a minute. The story of the life that leads to this terrible death takes more than two and a half hours of our time.

    It is this time—the time in which we are drawn together, conspiratorially, with Richard—that Olivier’s film makes us notice. The director’s visual strategy is startlingly simple. Apart from the final battle, the film was shot on sets, mostly in medium and long shots employing a relatively wide-angle lens. The lens has the effect of flattening the space so that, combined with the artificiality of the sets and the unobtrusive dolly moves, the images resemble medieval paintings or tapestries. When Richard takes command of this seemingly two-dimensional space, however, it is as if we had suddenly donned 3D glasses. He achieves this three-dimensionality physically, through his robust movements, and also, taking it a step further, psychologically, by breaking the fourth wall to include us in the drama—sometimes with a mere glance at the camera, sometimes inviting our complicity by speaking entire soliloquies directly into the lens, as if there were no one else in the world but him and you. The connection feels much more personal than in the theater, where in Shakespeare productions, actors play their asides and sometimes their soliloquies to the audience in general, trying to embrace everyone.

    As a result of Olivier’s manipulation of what cinema theorists refer to as “the gaze,” we perceive a fully enlivened Richard existing in some amalgam of then (the late-medieval setting of the film) and now (speaking directly to us as we watch him on the screen). Olivier establishes this strategy immediately. In the opening coronation scene, rather than fixing his attention on the new king, Richard keeps turning to us, as if his sardonic perspective on the event is all that should matter. Even as he is wooing us, his audience, he is also exchanging conspiratorial glances with Buckingham (Ralph Richardson), his principal ally, which makes the moment late in the film when Richard, now the king, turns on Buckingham (“I am not in the giving vein today”) all the more chilling. If Richard can cast off Buckingham—virtually imposing a death sentence—what would he do to us if we were to displease him?

    Alone after the coronation, Richard takes possession of the now empty throne room, pacing its length and width, leaping up stairs, leaning on railings. This three-dimensionality suggests that Richard is ahead of his time—he knows that the Renaissance is fast approaching. He also puts himself on display, allowing us to examine him from every angle, even as he confides his hatred of his misshapen body (“Deformed, unfinish’d, sent before my time / Into this breathing world, scarce half made up, / And that so lamely and unfashionable / That dogs bark at me as I halt by them”). Olivier makes Richard’s deformity considerably less noticeable to us than it is in his perception of his own body. Despite his limp, he moves with the authority and grace of an athlete. (Yes, there is the suggestion that something is amiss in his upper back, but he seems to have found a genius of a tailor to hide it.)

    It is the hatred of his own body that Richard projects onto the world, and that is the root of his paranoia. He kills to avenge not only actual slights to his person but imagined ones as well. Olivier brings an enormous, concentrated physical energy to the character, in his movements as well as in his reading of the text. This athleticism, vocal and physical, is combined with a quickness of speech that makes him seem almost lighthearted in his villainy—as if he is mocking us for taking seriously his murderous plans and actions.

    That said, Olivier, brilliantly directing his own performance, chooses about a half dozen moments in which to suddenly bring the horror of the character into focus. One is the betrayal of Buckingham mentioned above. Another is his response when the younger of Edward’s sons makes a childish joke in which he likens Richard to an ape. At that moment, his and his brother’s fates are sealed. Olivier’s Richard has the two child princes murdered in the Tower not because they stand in his way to the throne (he has already been successful with his false accusation that they are bastards) but because one of them teased him about his humped back.

    Olivier filled the supporting roles with fine actors—including Claire Bloom as an enigmatic Lady Anne—who seldom emerge from the background tapestry as distinct characters. A notable exception is Gielgud, who, despite the fact that his role has been drastically cut, gives a performance of surprising and affecting simplicity.

    Still, far more than his films of Hamlet and Henry V, Olivier’s Richard III is a one-man show—and also a rip-roaring action melodrama. As actor and director, Olivier gives us a murderous, fanatical protagonist, legendary in history and all too familiar in the modern world.

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      Richard III
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    The Educational Problems Of Pakistan Education Essay

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    Disclaimer: This essay has been submitted by a student. This is not an example of the work written by our professional essay writers. You can view samples of our professional work here .

    Any opinions, findings, conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of UK Essays.

    This research paper is an accomplishment to find out the educational problems of Pakistan.

    The main motivation behind this the literacy rate of Pakistan. A study said that Pakistan have 48.7% literacy rate which is even less than 50%. This is because of several reasons like educational problems, corruption in education etc, that’s why I am motivated to conduct a research on educational problems.

    Table of Contents

    1. Introduction…………………………………………………………………page 3

    2. Review Of Literature…………………………………………………….page5

    3. Methodology………………………………………………………………..page 14

    4. Conclusion………..……………………………………………………………page 15

    5. References……………………………………………………………………page 16

    Problems of Education in Pakistan

    Introduction

    Education must be a cheapest and most preceding item of a nation, and it’s a best weapon of a country. Countries that are well developed in this world have very strong educational system. Underdeveloped countries are losing in this effort, especially Pakistan. In the area of education, Pakistan is lagging behind other countries of South Asia, even lower than Nepal, Bangladesh and Maldives. Our education standard is uneven, private schools follow different syllabus and public schools follow different. Our private schools doing a bit good but our public schools perform badly and deteriorating its educational standard day by day. There is a lot of corruption in the public sector like cheating in exams, fake results, fake degrees etc.

    Why I have chosen this topic? The main motivation behind this the literacy rate of Pakistan. A study said that Pakistan have 48.7% literacy rate which is even less than 50%. This is because of several reasons like educational problems, corruption in education etc, that’s why I am motivated to conduct a research on educational problems.

    I have read some articles on this topic, according to those articles still our population is not fully acknowledged about the importance of education especially in rural areas. Although there are some problems like lack of facilities, teacher training, syllabus and attitude of the people as well but the government should have enough strong plans to overcome these kinds of problems. Study reflected that the educated, working and economically sound parents were more interested towards Pre-school education. Pre-school education starts at the age of two or three up to five years and kids learn in ‘social learning environments’ (Ormrod, 1999) out of home. The preschool education actually results with personality traits and social development of the children in the school environment. Children learn more through relations with their age fellows. At early stage of life children are very sharp with their minds and they tends to do questioning and get understand things easily, that’s why early education is too essential for making them creative, artistic, social and developing communication skills. In Pakistan, formally education starts at the age of five years from grade-1. Working and economically well off parents prefer to send their children to day care centers, nursery or kindergarten schools at the age of three to five years. Private sector expands this facility in fact on commercial basis in urban areas throughout the country. While public schools, kids sit in pre-primary (Kachi Class) in multi-grade classrooms which are not equipped with appropriate facilities. Parents and kids faced problems due to lack of trained teachers and insufficient facilities in pre-school education centers. Previous studies attempting to explain the low level of educational development in Pakistan have pointed to a wide range of macro social issues from population growth and political instability to feudalism and a lack of human rights (Rahman, 2004).

    Main problems that I have found government could not pay attention and don’t have strong policies to conduct this system in better way. In government schools we don’t have proper facilities for example furniture, trained teachers, books are not available in the market, the allocation of funds for education are very low. It is only 1.5 to 2.0 percent of the total GDP; the ratio of gender discrimination is a cause which is projecting the primary school ratio of boys & girls which is 10:4 respectively. For the last few years there has been an increase in the growth of private schools. That only harms the quality of education but creates a gap among them and Poverty is also another factor that restricts the parents to send their children to public or private schools. So, they prefer to send their children to madressahs where education is totally free.

    Review of Literature

    The literature review section is deals about the summary of articles that I have read.

    This article has been written by "Mr Irshad Hussaina and Mr Sarwat Sultanb" and its title is "Parent’s literacy and pre-school education: a study of practices and problems of early childhood education in Pakistan" in this article the writers try to expose some main problems and root cause regarding pre-school education in Pakistan. They mentioned number of problems through which some of them I am describing. According to writers working parents and parents who are economically well off are more interested to give their children pre-school education that’s mean people have money problem, they can’t afford schooling fees. Along with the income problem our schools do not provide good study environment, we are lacking of class room facilities especially in government schools, our teachers are not well trained, we are not providing good syllabus to our children and make our syllabus interesting so that kids show their desire towards studies and do not waste their golden time. We should take some measures regarding all the problems because when kids at their early stage of life, they are very intelligent with their minds and they have a propensity to do inquiring and get understand things easily, that’s why early education is too essential for making them creative, artistic, social and developing communication skills. The study was descriptive in nature, so that survey approach was considered more suitable and adopted to collect the data. Sample size was 120 parents and the areas were Islamabad, Lahore, Karachi, Peshawar, Quetta and Bahawalpur Districts. Two research tools a questionnaire on five point rating (likert) scale and an interview schedule were developed. Interview schedule were used for deep understanding of the scenario. The data analyzed on the basis of qualitative and quantitative method and mean score. Results were shown in percentages in the form of tables. (Mr. Irshad Hussaina and Mr. Sarwat Sultanb Jan 5,2010)

    This article has been written by "Taro Komatsu" and its title is "Qualitative inquiry into local education administration in Pakistan" in this article the author explained that the educational development in Pakistan is very low. In year 2000 government introduce decentralization system to improve the delivery of basic education which was administering by local government body who take control on its primary responsibilities. By doing research he specifically talked about the Northwest Frontier Province of Pakistan which was found problematic in terms of effective and efficient delivery of education along with shortage of teachers. He finds out many findings which are interconnected with each other and are mainly cause educational destruction. The district education office is over loaded with work handling. Transfers of teachers to different areas are big issue, teachers want to do job in their home cities and reasons behind this were categorized in to following: inconveniences relating to travel and accommodation; cultural Constraints; and economical constraints. Local education officers seem to place high main concern on moral development as the role of public education, but not keenly request to find and satisfy the particular needs of the local area.

    The author utilized ethnographic observational techniques and semi-structured interviews; both are commonly used qualitative research methods. Research was conducted in two districts of the NWFP, Pakistan. Two districts were chosen based on comparative geographical characteristics; one is urban, and the other is rural. (Taro Komatsu 29, 2009)

    This article has been written by "Jo Westbrook, Nazneen Shah a, Naureen Durrani, Clare Tikly, Wazim Khan and Ma´ ire ´ad Dunne" and its title is "Becoming a teacher: Transitions from training to the classroom in the NWFP, Pakistan" this article is about the educational level of teachers which are teaching in schools especially in case of north west Frontier of Pakistan. Writes tried to find out capabilities of teachers, have the guts to do teaching or just they passing time and generating their income only. With respect to this they also concentrate on the conditions of schools and their class rooms. More over they bring in to light the importance of superior thought towards the social and professional perspective of the school within training program as a means to make continual improvements in the quality of classroom teaching and learning. Results initiate with the newly qualified teachers NQT’s describe the importance what they learned from their trainings and how they implement to the students. Three set of constraints were taken out from the analysis of the transition from student to teacher. Out of those three, two were related to the physical conditions of the schools and cultural context of the schools community. While the third constraint related to the professional climate and support for the newly trained teachers within the school. They also give some statistic figures about literacy rate of Pakistan and those figures I am just copying from the article the overall literacy rate is 48.7%, with 61.7% male literacy compared to 35.2% among females (UNESCO, 2005). There are 6.6 million children out of primary school (Human Rights Commission of Pakistan, 2006). More than half the children in Pakistan drop out of school before completing the fifth grade. On average, females remain in school for 1.3 years and males for 3.8 years (Qureshi, 2003). The methodology they were used is a small scale collaborative research study in two state secondary schools, one girl’s and one boy’s. Data was collected from Questionnaires and they also conducted Focus group interviews to the people just to strengthen their information. (Jo Westbrook, Nazneen Shah, Naureen Durrani, Clare Tikly, Wazim Khan and Ma´ ire ´ad Dunne, 29,2009)

    This article has been written by "Anjum Halai" and its title is "Equality or equity: Gender awareness issues in secondary schools in Pakistan" in this article writer addresses the gender discrimination issue, this issue strongly affects the quality education in Pakistan. Writer takes this gender difference from a prospective of social justice and he explained that in Pakistan boys and girls are taking education separately in the class rooms therefore teachers and others tend to think that there are no gender differences. However beyond this there are several reasons which create this issue and affects quality education in Pakistan. Writer talked about from the prospective of secondary schooling education in Pakistan. The Education for All (EFA) goals acknowledge that gender equity is also a significant element of quality in education (UNESCO, 2003). According to the information provided in the latest UNESCO EFA Global Monitoring Report, in South and West Asia there are 57 million more children in school in 2007 than in 1999. In 2007, the net enrolment ratio is 86% (up on 74% in 1999), the gender equality indicator is 0.96 (up on 0.84 in 1999). In 2007, there were an estimated 18 million children out of school, 58% of whom were girls, an improvement on figures for 1999 when there were 39 million children out of school, 63% of who were girls (UNESCO, 2010, pp. 346-347). An issue with numerical index and measures of gender equality in education is that they do not reflect the inborn biases and inequity in classroom practice which often noticeable cultural and societal pattern of behaviors and established stereotypical gender character of women and men. According to writer this is only due to our old traditions especially in rural areas which declared girls are prohibited for getting education. We are stick to give separate environment to females and males typically at secondary school level, not only students but we give priority to have same sex teacher as well. (Anjum Halai 2010)

    This article has been written by "Anne Cockcroft, Neil Andersson , Deborah Milne , Khalid Omer , Noor Ansari , Amir Khan and Ubaid Ullah Chaudhry" and its title is "Challenging the myths about madaris in Pakistan: A national household survey of enrolment and reasons for choosing religious schools" writers discussed about Madaaris in this article, they explained there are rumors about madaaris that they are the source of terrorists. Madaris in Pakistan are now a subject of considerable international attention. A number of reports have expressed concern that at least some of these institutions promote religious extremism and terrorism (International Crisis Group, 2002; Khokhar, 2007; Singer, 2001; Stern, 2000). A recent study of 79 terrorists involved in anti-Western attacks found that very few had attended a madarsah (Bergen and Pandey, 2006), but Fair

    (2007) has suggested that terrorist groups may selectively engage better qualified people for technically demanding tasks. Reliable data about madaris in Pakistan are limited. Most reports rely on secondary data analysis, or repeat unsubstantiated estimates or claims about madaris. Some reports suggest very high levels of enrolment into madaris, and that they provide a extensive part of education in Pakistan (International Crisis Group, 2002; Singer, 2001). they said according to several authors parents send their children to the madaaris due to their poverty and failure of state education system. (Singer, 2001; Smith, 2002). There data collection methodology as follows madarsah enrolment among 53,960 representative households; 853 focus groups of parents discussed enrolment choices. In 2004, 2.6% of all children (3.8% of school-going children) aged 5-9 years attended a madarsah. Children from urban and less educated households were more likely to attend a madarsah, but there was no difference by sex of the child or household vulnerability. Along with this sample they held focus groups, discussion groups and analyze the data through computers and represent it in the form of diagrams and tables. (Anne Cockcroft, Neil Andersson , Deborah Milne , Khalid Omer , Noor Ansari , Amir Khan and Ubaid Ullah Chaudhry, 2008)

    This article has been written by "Kevin R. McClure" and its title is "Madrasas and Pakistan’s education agenda: Western media misrepresentation and policy recommendations" in this article researcher attempt to show the educational programs of madaris and Pakistan’s education which was critically observed by Western media. Author briefly describe the educational system of Pakistan according to him Pakistan have four provinces and each province has its own educational board and bureau of curriculum and schools which are located in the capital are controlled by Minister of education Pakistan. Generally, primary education refers to grades one through five; middle education, grades six through eight; and secondary education, grades nine through 10; higher secondary education contain intermediate grades 11 and 12, which leads to tertiary education, two years after which a bachelor’s degree can be earned this is the basic educational structure in Pakistan. According to Riaz (2008), three ”streams” have shouldered education provision in Pakistan since its independence from Britain in 1947: Urdu-medium public schools, English-medium private schools, and madrasas. Writer also given the definition of madrasas that are in Arabic madrasa means "school" We define madrasas as schools that teach a religious curriculum instead of one prescribed by the Pakistan Federal Ministry of Education” (Andrabi et al., 2006). Broad definitions are not incorrect, as schools that promote Islamic curricula are in South Asia generally referred to as madrasas (Riaz, 2008). But these madarees are not under Pakistani government and they developed their own syllabus although government announced that Islamic education compulsory in schools.( Kevin R. McClure 2009).

    This article has been written by "Jessica Holmes" and its title is "Measuring the determinants of school completion in Pakistan: analysis of censoring and selection bias "this article is about need of schools in Pakistan according to the survey of 1991 there are lack of schools, low enrollment rate, low educational level, high illiteracy rate and a large disparity between male and female gender. Than after this he also told that school attainment also depend on the family characteristics, means parents give how much importance to the education. Than it also depend on the income level of the family, are they afford their child’s educational expense. People who don’t have enough money to fulfill their necessities of life ,their food, their shelter, their cloths than how we expect them that they give education to their children so according to writer it’s a responsibility of state one who can’t afford his child education government need to provide him free education.( Jessica Holmes).

    This article has been written by "Babar Zaheer Butt, Kashif ur Rehman" and its title is "A study examining the student’s satisfaction in higher education" this article is about the students satisfaction in higher education in Pakistan. Satisfactions in term of teacher expertise, courses, class room facilities and learning environment. Educational department is developing day by day so rapidly all over the word is just because of globalization and digital revolution; it has created a demand for new and various disciplines in education. In current time higher education sector in Pakistan has developed outstandingly in terms of number of institutions and students enrolment due to some serious steps taken by the government. This situation demands and increases the students’ interest in higher education in Pakistan. This article examines the determinants of students’ satisfaction in higher education and their influence on level of satisfaction. From the results it is marked that students are satisfied with higher education in Pakistan. (Babar Zaheer Butt, Kashif ur Rehman 2010).

    This article has been written by "Nadeem Khan and Arshad Ali" and its title is "Improving the speaking ability in English: The students’ perspective" writer start with the words of Quaid-azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah said in Educational Conference in 1947, "During the last three or four decades, English has displaced French as the leading language of the world and the recent emergence of basic English is likely to extend its domination still further. Besides, from purely self regarding motives, we should not easily throw away a language which gives us so easy an access to all the secrets of Western Science and Culture (pp 11-12)".in this article writer want to tell the importance of English as a subject and as a language. We should learn English language because now a day’s it’s a most commonly speaking language in the world. We should learn English because our all syllabus is in English language and it’s also necessary for higher education and help us in a conversation with rest of the world. Our government should conducted classes English language, speaking skills and writing skills have been learnt and this is done at least in school level, so that we made good base to our children.

    (Nadeem Khan and Arshad Ali, 2010).

    This article has been written by "Farzana Shafique, Khalid Mahmood" and its title is "The role of educational information systems for survival in information society and the case of Pakistan" authors discussed about the role of educational information in the survival of today’s world. According to writers there are three revolutions took place: industrial revolution; agriculture revolution and the third one is informational revolution. The said informational revolution not came within one or two days there are five revolutions behind this as a base. And those were as follows a) the invention of language; b) the invention of writing and then the printing press; c) the introduction of mass media; d) the invention of computers; and e) the marriage of telecommunications and computers (Boaz, 1981). The digital revolution in information and communication technologies (ICT) has produced the stand for a global stream of information, ideas, and knowledge. This revolution has made a reflective sense on the way the world functions and has transformed it to a developing information society (Shafique & Mahmood, 2008).

    Behind all this, education is the main mean for these luminous expansions. With all this fact we are still far behind in this field. It is evident from the article prospective that existing information systems in Pakistan is designed to facilitate the educational administrators which are not healthy and well planned, and as a result we are not capable to smooth the progress of the educational administrators in practical planning and decision making. (Farzana Shafique, Khalid Mahmood 2010).

    This article has been written by "Matthew J. Nelson" and its title is "MUSLIMS, MARKETS, AND THE MEANING OF A "GOOD" EDUCATION IN PAKISTAN" in this article author try to compare religious education and the market oriented education and also reflect the type of educational demand in Pakistan. By concluding this article, we get to know that people prefer religious education over the secular. Because 98% people want the Islamic education as part of the education syllabus and most people believe it as necessary and give first priority to Islamic education. Islamic education does not mean that people who are getting education from Midrasas are always go for jihad but most of people who got trained from Midrasas, go for to manage the mosques. Our parents want to give their child religious education, they do not deny market oriented education but they prefer madarassas. So it’s a responsibility of state to take hold on that religious educational institution and allot them a very high-quality syllabus so that our children acquire not only Islamic education but also get school education. (Matthew J. Nelson, 2006).

    This article has been written by "Hafiz M. Iqbal, Shahida Sohail and Shumaila Shahzad" and its title is "Learning and study strategies used by university students in Pakistan" In this article, researcher has investigated the learning and studies strategies of the university student of Pakistan. There may be many factors which contribute to the academic success of the students like how to learn, how to manage the time, understanding and remembering. After carrying out research the results were not as much different. This is due to the open availability of libraries and internet labs where students work together to complete their assignments and it also help them to increase their knowledge. First the semester system is very good for university students because it provide students their frequent assessment and feedback. Researcher took sample of 440 students from 9 faculties of university of Punjab and those 9 faculties were as follows Arts and Humanities, Behavioral and Social Sciences, Commerce, Economics and Management Sciences, Education, Engineering and Technology, Law, Life-Sciences, and Science. Mean score of all the scales was calculated for comparison with American percentile norm. ANOVA was applied for comparison of all the faculties on LASSI scales. Later on, LSD was applied. The main purpose of the study was just to find out need for students to improve their skills to avoid serious problems succeeding in university. (Hafiz M. Iqbal, Shahida Sohail and Shumaila Shahzad, 2010).

    Methodology:

    My topic of research is problems of education in Pakistan as my area of study is descriptive in nature so I go for survey approach and it is more feasible for me as compared to any other research approach. I can go for develop questionnaires and fill these questionnaires from different big cities of Pakistan like Islamabad, Peshawar, Lahore, etc I can also send these questionnaires to the well known universities of Pakistan just to conduct research on higher education system of Pakistan. With all above mentioned methodology I can also go for focus group, interviews as well with the different households and universities students of different cities of Pakistan. Before conducting this research first of all I have to specify the population and then get sample form this population. After collecting all the data I have to came up with my own theory and also specify dependent and independent variables. In my case it is very clear that education is dependent variable while all the problems like people income, people awareness, quality syllabus, best qualified teachers, government policies regarding education and many others all are the independent variables. After doing all above procedure I have to use statistical method like ANOVA test for extracting concluding results. Then compare these results with the best providing education countries.

    Conclusion:

    In this research I had studied around 12 different research articles on the problems of education in Pakistan. The titles and authors name of these 12 articles are given under the heading of references. Now I am concluding my research as my topic is about educational problems in Pakistan first of all I am declaring some of the biggest problems regarding education which Pakistan has faced and then give their solution.

    These problems are as follows:

    The first biggest problem that I felt is the parents literacy, still now our people do not enough aware about the role of education in a society but this problem mostly exist in a rural areas of Pakistan.

    Second problem is regarding the income of people which means people do not afford the education fees of their children this problem is especially for the students who are getting their higher education but there are people who even could not afford the pre-school education as well.

    Third is about the conditions of schools, class rooms and its environment is so pathetic that it frustrating students from education. In the same we ran short of faculty and do not have well trained teacher staff. Then we have a great problem of gender discrimination and the last but not least is our educational policies we just spend 2.6% of our total budget on education.

    There is always a solution to get rid of all the problems so we have to take steps to remove our problems regarding education. First of all government should organize teams, conducting programs on TV in which they have to tell their nation about the importance of education. These things especially do in the rural areas so that people will develop a sense of responsibility and send their children to the schools. Government should give subsidy on the education industry so that people easily afford the expenses of education. Government should make sound policies on the subject of education and also the budget so that people will get education easily. By increasing in the educational budget we can make more libraries, chemical labs and engineering labs and can boost our research work as well.

    V. References

    Butt, B.Z. and Rehman, K. (2010),"A study examining the student’s satisfaction in higher education", Procedia Social and Behavioral Sciences, 2 (2010), pp. 5446-5450.

    Cockcroft,A, Andersson,N , Milne,D, Omer,K, Ansari,N, Khan,A. and Chaudhry,U.U. (2008), "Challenging The Myths About Madaris In Pakistan: A National Household Survey Of Enrolment And Reasons For Choosing Religious Schools", International Journal Of Educational Development, 29 (2009), pp. 342-349.

    Halai,A. (2010)," Equality Or Equity: Gender Awareness Issues In Secondary Schools In Pakistan", International Journal Of Educational Development, 31 (2011), pp. 44-49.

    Holmes,J. (2002)," Measuring The Determinants Of School Completion In Pakistan: Analysis Of Censoring And Selection Bias", Economics Of Education Review, 22 (2003), pp. 249-264.

    Hussain,I, Sultan,S. (2010), "Parent’s Literacy And Pre-School Education: A Study Of Practices And Problems Of Early Childhood Education In Pakistan", Procedia Social And Behavioral Sciences, 2 (2010), pp.624-628.

    Iqbal, H.M, Sohail, S. and Shahzad, S. (), "Learning and study strategies used by university students in Pakistan", Procedia Social and Behavioral Sciences, 2 (2010), pp. 4717-4721.

    Komatsu,T. (2008)," Qualitative Inquiry Into Local Education Administration In Pakistan", International Journal Of Educational Development, 29 (2009), pp. 219-226.

    Mcclure,K.R. (2009), "Madrasas and Pakistan’s Education Agenda: Western Media Misrepresentation And Policy Recommendations", International Journal Of Educational Development, 29 (2009), pp. 334-341.

    Nadeem Khan, N. and Arshad Ali, A. (2010), "Improving the speaking ability in English: The students’ perspective", Procedia Social and Behavioral Sciences, 2 (2010), pp. 3575-3579.

    Nelson, M.J. (2006), "MUSLIMS, MARKETS, AND THE MEANING OF A "GOOD" EDUCATION IN PAKISTAN", Asian Survey, Vol. 46, No. 5 (September/October 2006), pp. 699-720.

    Shafique, F. and Mahmood, K. (2010), "The role of educational information systems for survival in information society and the case of Pakistan", The International Information & Library Review, (2010) NO.42, pp.164e173.

    Westbrook,J, Shah,N, Durrani,N, Tikly,C, Khan,W. and Dunne,M.I. (2008)," Becoming A Teacher: Transitions From Training To The Classroom In The NWFP, Pakistan", International Journal Of Educational Development, 29 (2009), pp. 437-444.


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    The Educational Problems Of Pakistan Education Essay

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    This research paper is an accomplishment to find out the educational problems of Pakistan.

    The main motivation behind this the literacy rate of Pakistan. A study said that Pakistan have 48.7% literacy rate which is even less than 50%. This is because of several reasons like educational problems, corruption in education etc, that’s why I am motivated to conduct a research on educational problems.

    Table of Contents

    1. Introduction…………………………………………………………………page 3

    2. Review Of Literature…………………………………………………….page5

    3. Methodology………………………………………………………………..page 14

    4. Conclusion………..……………………………………………………………page 15

    5. References……………………………………………………………………page 16

    Problems of Education in Pakistan

    Introduction

    Education must be a cheapest and most preceding item of a nation, and it’s a best weapon of a country. Countries that are well developed in this world have very strong educational system. Underdeveloped countries are losing in this effort, especially Pakistan. In the area of education, Pakistan is lagging behind other countries of South Asia, even lower than Nepal, Bangladesh and Maldives. Our education standard is uneven, private schools follow different syllabus and public schools follow different. Our private schools doing a bit good but our public schools perform badly and deteriorating its educational standard day by day. There is a lot of corruption in the public sector like cheating in exams, fake results, fake degrees etc.

    Why I have chosen this topic? The main motivation behind this the literacy rate of Pakistan. A study said that Pakistan have 48.7% literacy rate which is even less than 50%. This is because of several reasons like educational problems, corruption in education etc, that’s why I am motivated to conduct a research on educational problems.

    I have read some articles on this topic, according to those articles still our population is not fully acknowledged about the importance of education especially in rural areas. Although there are some problems like lack of facilities, teacher training, syllabus and attitude of the people as well but the government should have enough strong plans to overcome these kinds of problems. Study reflected that the educated, working and economically sound parents were more interested towards Pre-school education. Pre-school education starts at the age of two or three up to five years and kids learn in ‘social learning environments’ (Ormrod, 1999) out of home. The preschool education actually results with personality traits and social development of the children in the school environment. Children learn more through relations with their age fellows. At early stage of life children are very sharp with their minds and they tends to do questioning and get understand things easily, that’s why early education is too essential for making them creative, artistic, social and developing communication skills. In Pakistan, formally education starts at the age of five years from grade-1. Working and economically well off parents prefer to send their children to day care centers, nursery or kindergarten schools at the age of three to five years. Private sector expands this facility in fact on commercial basis in urban areas throughout the country. While public schools, kids sit in pre-primary (Kachi Class) in multi-grade classrooms which are not equipped with appropriate facilities. Parents and kids faced problems due to lack of trained teachers and insufficient facilities in pre-school education centers. Previous studies attempting to explain the low level of educational development in Pakistan have pointed to a wide range of macro social issues from population growth and political instability to feudalism and a lack of human rights (Rahman, 2004).

    Main problems that I have found government could not pay attention and don’t have strong policies to conduct this system in better way. In government schools we don’t have proper facilities for example furniture, trained teachers, books are not available in the market, the allocation of funds for education are very low. It is only 1.5 to 2.0 percent of the total GDP; the ratio of gender discrimination is a cause which is projecting the primary school ratio of boys & girls which is 10:4 respectively. For the last few years there has been an increase in the growth of private schools. That only harms the quality of education but creates a gap among them and Poverty is also another factor that restricts the parents to send their children to public or private schools. So, they prefer to send their children to madressahs where education is totally free.

    Review of Literature

    The literature review section is deals about the summary of articles that I have read.

    This article has been written by "Mr Irshad Hussaina and Mr Sarwat Sultanb" and its title is "Parent’s literacy and pre-school education: a study of practices and problems of early childhood education in Pakistan" in this article the writers try to expose some main problems and root cause regarding pre-school education in Pakistan. They mentioned number of problems through which some of them I am describing. According to writers working parents and parents who are economically well off are more interested to give their children pre-school education that’s mean people have money problem, they can’t afford schooling fees. Along with the income problem our schools do not provide good study environment, we are lacking of class room facilities especially in government schools, our teachers are not well trained, we are not providing good syllabus to our children and make our syllabus interesting so that kids show their desire towards studies and do not waste their golden time. We should take some measures regarding all the problems because when kids at their early stage of life, they are very intelligent with their minds and they have a propensity to do inquiring and get understand things easily, that’s why early education is too essential for making them creative, artistic, social and developing communication skills. The study was descriptive in nature, so that survey approach was considered more suitable and adopted to collect the data. Sample size was 120 parents and the areas were Islamabad, Lahore, Karachi, Peshawar, Quetta and Bahawalpur Districts. Two research tools a questionnaire on five point rating (likert) scale and an interview schedule were developed. Interview schedule were used for deep understanding of the scenario. The data analyzed on the basis of qualitative and quantitative method and mean score. Results were shown in percentages in the form of tables. (Mr. Irshad Hussaina and Mr. Sarwat Sultanb Jan 5,2010)

    This article has been written by "Taro Komatsu" and its title is "Qualitative inquiry into local education administration in Pakistan" in this article the author explained that the educational development in Pakistan is very low. In year 2000 government introduce decentralization system to improve the delivery of basic education which was administering by local government body who take control on its primary responsibilities. By doing research he specifically talked about the Northwest Frontier Province of Pakistan which was found problematic in terms of effective and efficient delivery of education along with shortage of teachers. He finds out many findings which are interconnected with each other and are mainly cause educational destruction. The district education office is over loaded with work handling. Transfers of teachers to different areas are big issue, teachers want to do job in their home cities and reasons behind this were categorized in to following: inconveniences relating to travel and accommodation; cultural Constraints; and economical constraints. Local education officers seem to place high main concern on moral development as the role of public education, but not keenly request to find and satisfy the particular needs of the local area.

    The author utilized ethnographic observational techniques and semi-structured interviews; both are commonly used qualitative research methods. Research was conducted in two districts of the NWFP, Pakistan. Two districts were chosen based on comparative geographical characteristics; one is urban, and the other is rural. (Taro Komatsu 29, 2009)

    This article has been written by "Jo Westbrook, Nazneen Shah a, Naureen Durrani, Clare Tikly, Wazim Khan and Ma´ ire ´ad Dunne" and its title is "Becoming a teacher: Transitions from training to the classroom in the NWFP, Pakistan" this article is about the educational level of teachers which are teaching in schools especially in case of north west Frontier of Pakistan. Writes tried to find out capabilities of teachers, have the guts to do teaching or just they passing time and generating their income only. With respect to this they also concentrate on the conditions of schools and their class rooms. More over they bring in to light the importance of superior thought towards the social and professional perspective of the school within training program as a means to make continual improvements in the quality of classroom teaching and learning. Results initiate with the newly qualified teachers NQT’s describe the importance what they learned from their trainings and how they implement to the students. Three set of constraints were taken out from the analysis of the transition from student to teacher. Out of those three, two were related to the physical conditions of the schools and cultural context of the schools community. While the third constraint related to the professional climate and support for the newly trained teachers within the school. They also give some statistic figures about literacy rate of Pakistan and those figures I am just copying from the article the overall literacy rate is 48.7%, with 61.7% male literacy compared to 35.2% among females (UNESCO, 2005). There are 6.6 million children out of primary school (Human Rights Commission of Pakistan, 2006). More than half the children in Pakistan drop out of school before completing the fifth grade. On average, females remain in school for 1.3 years and males for 3.8 years (Qureshi, 2003). The methodology they were used is a small scale collaborative research study in two state secondary schools, one girl’s and one boy’s. Data was collected from Questionnaires and they also conducted Focus group interviews to the people just to strengthen their information. (Jo Westbrook, Nazneen Shah, Naureen Durrani, Clare Tikly, Wazim Khan and Ma´ ire ´ad Dunne, 29,2009)

    This article has been written by "Anjum Halai" and its title is "Equality or equity: Gender awareness issues in secondary schools in Pakistan" in this article writer addresses the gender discrimination issue, this issue strongly affects the quality education in Pakistan. Writer takes this gender difference from a prospective of social justice and he explained that in Pakistan boys and girls are taking education separately in the class rooms therefore teachers and others tend to think that there are no gender differences. However beyond this there are several reasons which create this issue and affects quality education in Pakistan. Writer talked about from the prospective of secondary schooling education in Pakistan. The Education for All (EFA) goals acknowledge that gender equity is also a significant element of quality in education (UNESCO, 2003). According to the information provided in the latest UNESCO EFA Global Monitoring Report, in South and West Asia there are 57 million more children in school in 2007 than in 1999. In 2007, the net enrolment ratio is 86% (up on 74% in 1999), the gender equality indicator is 0.96 (up on 0.84 in 1999). In 2007, there were an estimated 18 million children out of school, 58% of whom were girls, an improvement on figures for 1999 when there were 39 million children out of school, 63% of who were girls (UNESCO, 2010, pp. 346-347). An issue with numerical index and measures of gender equality in education is that they do not reflect the inborn biases and inequity in classroom practice which often noticeable cultural and societal pattern of behaviors and established stereotypical gender character of women and men. According to writer this is only due to our old traditions especially in rural areas which declared girls are prohibited for getting education. We are stick to give separate environment to females and males typically at secondary school level, not only students but we give priority to have same sex teacher as well. (Anjum Halai 2010)

    This article has been written by "Anne Cockcroft, Neil Andersson , Deborah Milne , Khalid Omer , Noor Ansari , Amir Khan and Ubaid Ullah Chaudhry" and its title is "Challenging the myths about madaris in Pakistan: A national household survey of enrolment and reasons for choosing religious schools" writers discussed about Madaaris in this article, they explained there are rumors about madaaris that they are the source of terrorists. Madaris in Pakistan are now a subject of considerable international attention. A number of reports have expressed concern that at least some of these institutions promote religious extremism and terrorism (International Crisis Group, 2002; Khokhar, 2007; Singer, 2001; Stern, 2000). A recent study of 79 terrorists involved in anti-Western attacks found that very few had attended a madarsah (Bergen and Pandey, 2006), but Fair

    (2007) has suggested that terrorist groups may selectively engage better qualified people for technically demanding tasks. Reliable data about madaris in Pakistan are limited. Most reports rely on secondary data analysis, or repeat unsubstantiated estimates or claims about madaris. Some reports suggest very high levels of enrolment into madaris, and that they provide a extensive part of education in Pakistan (International Crisis Group, 2002; Singer, 2001). they said according to several authors parents send their children to the madaaris due to their poverty and failure of state education system. (Singer, 2001; Smith, 2002). There data collection methodology as follows madarsah enrolment among 53,960 representative households; 853 focus groups of parents discussed enrolment choices. In 2004, 2.6% of all children (3.8% of school-going children) aged 5-9 years attended a madarsah. Children from urban and less educated households were more likely to attend a madarsah, but there was no difference by sex of the child or household vulnerability. Along with this sample they held focus groups, discussion groups and analyze the data through computers and represent it in the form of diagrams and tables. (Anne Cockcroft, Neil Andersson , Deborah Milne , Khalid Omer , Noor Ansari , Amir Khan and Ubaid Ullah Chaudhry, 2008)

    This article has been written by "Kevin R. McClure" and its title is "Madrasas and Pakistan’s education agenda: Western media misrepresentation and policy recommendations" in this article researcher attempt to show the educational programs of madaris and Pakistan’s education which was critically observed by Western media. Author briefly describe the educational system of Pakistan according to him Pakistan have four provinces and each province has its own educational board and bureau of curriculum and schools which are located in the capital are controlled by Minister of education Pakistan. Generally, primary education refers to grades one through five; middle education, grades six through eight; and secondary education, grades nine through 10; higher secondary education contain intermediate grades 11 and 12, which leads to tertiary education, two years after which a bachelor’s degree can be earned this is the basic educational structure in Pakistan. According to Riaz (2008), three ”streams” have shouldered education provision in Pakistan since its independence from Britain in 1947: Urdu-medium public schools, English-medium private schools, and madrasas. Writer also given the definition of madrasas that are in Arabic madrasa means "school" We define madrasas as schools that teach a religious curriculum instead of one prescribed by the Pakistan Federal Ministry of Education” (Andrabi et al., 2006). Broad definitions are not incorrect, as schools that promote Islamic curricula are in South Asia generally referred to as madrasas (Riaz, 2008). But these madarees are not under Pakistani government and they developed their own syllabus although government announced that Islamic education compulsory in schools.( Kevin R. McClure 2009).

    This article has been written by "Jessica Holmes" and its title is "Measuring the determinants of school completion in Pakistan: analysis of censoring and selection bias "this article is about need of schools in Pakistan according to the survey of 1991 there are lack of schools, low enrollment rate, low educational level, high illiteracy rate and a large disparity between male and female gender. Than after this he also told that school attainment also depend on the family characteristics, means parents give how much importance to the education. Than it also depend on the income level of the family, are they afford their child’s educational expense. People who don’t have enough money to fulfill their necessities of life ,their food, their shelter, their cloths than how we expect them that they give education to their children so according to writer it’s a responsibility of state one who can’t afford his child education government need to provide him free education.( Jessica Holmes).

    This article has been written by "Babar Zaheer Butt, Kashif ur Rehman" and its title is "A study examining the student’s satisfaction in higher education" this article is about the students satisfaction in higher education in Pakistan. Satisfactions in term of teacher expertise, courses, class room facilities and learning environment. Educational department is developing day by day so rapidly all over the word is just because of globalization and digital revolution; it has created a demand for new and various disciplines in education. In current time higher education sector in Pakistan has developed outstandingly in terms of number of institutions and students enrolment due to some serious steps taken by the government. This situation demands and increases the students’ interest in higher education in Pakistan. This article examines the determinants of students’ satisfaction in higher education and their influence on level of satisfaction. From the results it is marked that students are satisfied with higher education in Pakistan. (Babar Zaheer Butt, Kashif ur Rehman 2010).

    This article has been written by "Nadeem Khan and Arshad Ali" and its title is "Improving the speaking ability in English: The students’ perspective" writer start with the words of Quaid-azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah said in Educational Conference in 1947, "During the last three or four decades, English has displaced French as the leading language of the world and the recent emergence of basic English is likely to extend its domination still further. Besides, from purely self regarding motives, we should not easily throw away a language which gives us so easy an access to all the secrets of Western Science and Culture (pp 11-12)".in this article writer want to tell the importance of English as a subject and as a language. We should learn English language because now a day’s it’s a most commonly speaking language in the world. We should learn English because our all syllabus is in English language and it’s also necessary for higher education and help us in a conversation with rest of the world. Our government should conducted classes English language, speaking skills and writing skills have been learnt and this is done at least in school level, so that we made good base to our children.

    (Nadeem Khan and Arshad Ali, 2010).

    This article has been written by "Farzana Shafique, Khalid Mahmood" and its title is "The role of educational information systems for survival in information society and the case of Pakistan" authors discussed about the role of educational information in the survival of today’s world. According to writers there are three revolutions took place: industrial revolution; agriculture revolution and the third one is informational revolution. The said informational revolution not came within one or two days there are five revolutions behind this as a base. And those were as follows a) the invention of language; b) the invention of writing and then the printing press; c) the introduction of mass media; d) the invention of computers; and e) the marriage of telecommunications and computers (Boaz, 1981). The digital revolution in information and communication technologies (ICT) has produced the stand for a global stream of information, ideas, and knowledge. This revolution has made a reflective sense on the way the world functions and has transformed it to a developing information society (Shafique & Mahmood, 2008).

    Behind all this, education is the main mean for these luminous expansions. With all this fact we are still far behind in this field. It is evident from the article prospective that existing information systems in Pakistan is designed to facilitate the educational administrators which are not healthy and well planned, and as a result we are not capable to smooth the progress of the educational administrators in practical planning and decision making. (Farzana Shafique, Khalid Mahmood 2010).

    This article has been written by "Matthew J. Nelson" and its title is "MUSLIMS, MARKETS, AND THE MEANING OF A "GOOD" EDUCATION IN PAKISTAN" in this article author try to compare religious education and the market oriented education and also reflect the type of educational demand in Pakistan. By concluding this article, we get to know that people prefer religious education over the secular. Because 98% people want the Islamic education as part of the education syllabus and most people believe it as necessary and give first priority to Islamic education. Islamic education does not mean that people who are getting education from Midrasas are always go for jihad but most of people who got trained from Midrasas, go for to manage the mosques. Our parents want to give their child religious education, they do not deny market oriented education but they prefer madarassas. So it’s a responsibility of state to take hold on that religious educational institution and allot them a very high-quality syllabus so that our children acquire not only Islamic education but also get school education. (Matthew J. Nelson, 2006).

    This article has been written by "Hafiz M. Iqbal, Shahida Sohail and Shumaila Shahzad" and its title is "Learning and study strategies used by university students in Pakistan" In this article, researcher has investigated the learning and studies strategies of the university student of Pakistan. There may be many factors which contribute to the academic success of the students like how to learn, how to manage the time, understanding and remembering. After carrying out research the results were not as much different. This is due to the open availability of libraries and internet labs where students work together to complete their assignments and it also help them to increase their knowledge. First the semester system is very good for university students because it provide students their frequent assessment and feedback. Researcher took sample of 440 students from 9 faculties of university of Punjab and those 9 faculties were as follows Arts and Humanities, Behavioral and Social Sciences, Commerce, Economics and Management Sciences, Education, Engineering and Technology, Law, Life-Sciences, and Science. Mean score of all the scales was calculated for comparison with American percentile norm. ANOVA was applied for comparison of all the faculties on LASSI scales. Later on, LSD was applied. The main purpose of the study was just to find out need for students to improve their skills to avoid serious problems succeeding in university. (Hafiz M. Iqbal, Shahida Sohail and Shumaila Shahzad, 2010).

    Methodology:

    My topic of research is problems of education in Pakistan as my area of study is descriptive in nature so I go for survey approach and it is more feasible for me as compared to any other research approach. I can go for develop questionnaires and fill these questionnaires from different big cities of Pakistan like Islamabad, Peshawar, Lahore, etc I can also send these questionnaires to the well known universities of Pakistan just to conduct research on higher education system of Pakistan. With all above mentioned methodology I can also go for focus group, interviews as well with the different households and universities students of different cities of Pakistan. Before conducting this research first of all I have to specify the population and then get sample form this population. After collecting all the data I have to came up with my own theory and also specify dependent and independent variables. In my case it is very clear that education is dependent variable while all the problems like people income, people awareness, quality syllabus, best qualified teachers, government policies regarding education and many others all are the independent variables. After doing all above procedure I have to use statistical method like ANOVA test for extracting concluding results. Then compare these results with the best providing education countries.

    Conclusion:

    In this research I had studied around 12 different research articles on the problems of education in Pakistan. The titles and authors name of these 12 articles are given under the heading of references. Now I am concluding my research as my topic is about educational problems in Pakistan first of all I am declaring some of the biggest problems regarding education which Pakistan has faced and then give their solution.

    These problems are as follows:

    The first biggest problem that I felt is the parents literacy, still now our people do not enough aware about the role of education in a society but this problem mostly exist in a rural areas of Pakistan.

    Second problem is regarding the income of people which means people do not afford the education fees of their children this problem is especially for the students who are getting their higher education but there are people who even could not afford the pre-school education as well.

    Third is about the conditions of schools, class rooms and its environment is so pathetic that it frustrating students from education. In the same we ran short of faculty and do not have well trained teacher staff. Then we have a great problem of gender discrimination and the last but not least is our educational policies we just spend 2.6% of our total budget on education.

    There is always a solution to get rid of all the problems so we have to take steps to remove our problems regarding education. First of all government should organize teams, conducting programs on TV in which they have to tell their nation about the importance of education. These things especially do in the rural areas so that people will develop a sense of responsibility and send their children to the schools. Government should give subsidy on the education industry so that people easily afford the expenses of education. Government should make sound policies on the subject of education and also the budget so that people will get education easily. By increasing in the educational budget we can make more libraries, chemical labs and engineering labs and can boost our research work as well.

    V. References

    Butt, B.Z. and Rehman, K. (2010),"A study examining the student’s satisfaction in higher education", Procedia Social and Behavioral Sciences, 2 (2010), pp. 5446-5450.

    Cockcroft,A, Andersson,N , Milne,D, Omer,K, Ansari,N, Khan,A. and Chaudhry,U.U. (2008), "Challenging The Myths About Madaris In Pakistan: A National Household Survey Of Enrolment And Reasons For Choosing Religious Schools", International Journal Of Educational Development, 29 (2009), pp. 342-349.

    Halai,A. (2010)," Equality Or Equity: Gender Awareness Issues In Secondary Schools In Pakistan", International Journal Of Educational Development, 31 (2011), pp. 44-49.

    Holmes,J. (2002)," Measuring The Determinants Of School Completion In Pakistan: Analysis Of Censoring And Selection Bias", Economics Of Education Review, 22 (2003), pp. 249-264.

    Hussain,I, Sultan,S. (2010), "Parent’s Literacy And Pre-School Education: A Study Of Practices And Problems Of Early Childhood Education In Pakistan", Procedia Social And Behavioral Sciences, 2 (2010), pp.624-628.

    Iqbal, H.M, Sohail, S. and Shahzad, S. (), "Learning and study strategies used by university students in Pakistan", Procedia Social and Behavioral Sciences, 2 (2010), pp. 4717-4721.

    Komatsu,T. (2008)," Qualitative Inquiry Into Local Education Administration In Pakistan", International Journal Of Educational Development, 29 (2009), pp. 219-226.

    Mcclure,K.R. (2009), "Madrasas and Pakistan’s Education Agenda: Western Media Misrepresentation And Policy Recommendations", International Journal Of Educational Development, 29 (2009), pp. 334-341.

    Nadeem Khan, N. and Arshad Ali, A. (2010), "Improving the speaking ability in English: The students’ perspective", Procedia Social and Behavioral Sciences, 2 (2010), pp. 3575-3579.

    Nelson, M.J. (2006), "MUSLIMS, MARKETS, AND THE MEANING OF A "GOOD" EDUCATION IN PAKISTAN", Asian Survey, Vol. 46, No. 5 (September/October 2006), pp. 699-720.

    Shafique, F. and Mahmood, K. (2010), "The role of educational information systems for survival in information society and the case of Pakistan", The International Information & Library Review, (2010) NO.42, pp.164e173.

    Westbrook,J, Shah,N, Durrani,N, Tikly,C, Khan,W. and Dunne,M.I. (2008)," Becoming A Teacher: Transitions From Training To The Classroom In The NWFP, Pakistan", International Journal Of Educational Development, 29 (2009), pp. 437-444.


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    Essay on Branding The Five Senses

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    Essay on Branding The Five Senses

    By Lauren Bradshaw

    September 22, 2011

    Example Essays

    Introduction
    The five senses are the physiological capability that provides inputs for perception in organisms. These senses and their theory, classification and operation are overlapping the variety of studied topics in diversified fields. The branding of the five senses has experienced a wide variety of changes since 1960 thorough explanation of various theories. The branding has affected the branding management which is an essential component in today marketing (Thomas, Hutt & Michael, 2004, 16).

    Seeing
    Seeing or vision refers to the eyes ability to detect and focus of the light visibility on retinas photoreceptors. The branding of an eye has experienced a wide range of theories since 1960 on which various terms have been associated with it. Generally, it generates electrical nerve impulses for varying brightness, colors and hues whereby the rods and cones are involved in the color and light sensitivity of the brand. In 1985 seeing was branded as a process whereby an eye actively participates in visionary acts sending the message to brain for review. The branding of hearing was most prominent in 1991 when Ramachandran Vilayanur, a professor of University of California, San Diego in neuroscience points out that hearing is a good rule of thumb in our sunlight world. There was some disagreement on this sense as to whether this constitutes to other planets as it collaborates with the other one, two or three senses. Neuroanatomists have come up with various perceptions on the theories that have taken place in defining the hearing concept and its influence from the brain. A drink company took its gin and repackaged it in a transparent glass for the consumers to see the rich combination of its ingredients (Lindstrom & Martin, 2007, 49). The move to repackage was later followed by big portfolio of advertisement which highly focused on the colorful flavors as well as aromas to convey the sense of smell.

    Hearing
    Hearing is the sense of sound perception also called audition which is hearing is all about vibration. Hearing has experienced a considerable occasional branding over the past 50 years with the most prominent occasion in early 1988 when a discovery on mechanoreceptors was further elaborated. The mechanoreceptors generally convert the motion into electrical nerve pulses in the inner ear. The branding of the hearing occurred consequently in 1990 and 2002 when the sound propagation was further elaborated in alignment to the vibration. This was branded as the mechanical sense. Hearing was also branded with the deafness as the inability to hear (Rius, Puig, & Parramón, 1985, 38).

    Taste
    Taste is among the most traditionally branded among the five senses which refers to capacity of flavor detection of substances such as poisons, food, etc. Taste has been branded on several occasions since 1950 whereby everyone posses his or her own taste of anything. The major focus was on 2007 when the neuromarketing branded taste as everyone’s flavor. It is a sense that allows the cognitive ability to differentiate one product from the other among the wide range of similar or different commodities (Dwyer, Robert & Tanner, 2003, 57).

    Smell
    Smell is another member of the five senses, initially branded as an olfaction. In 1975, it was branded as a chemical sense whereby various organs of the body react whenever this sense occurs. In 2009, the study of this sense was extended to hundreds of olfactory receptors each requisition to a meticulous molecular feature (Clegg, 2011, 23).

    Touch
    Touch is an important part of organism as it creates is a perception in the body from activation of neural receptors. Branding of the touch has been defined by various scientists and medical experts in exerting more meaning to the sense of touch. The touch sense was once branded as tactician in 1989 by one spectacular application of Robert Knight neurotesting. Over the last 50 years, the branding of touch was most prominent in 2009 when it was branded as mechanoreceptor. Itching was branded to the touch sense in 1991 which was caused by the allergies and insect bites (Michael, Earl Dwight & Pitt 2010, 14).

    Effects of Sense branding on Brand Management
    The branding of the five senses has greatly affected the brand management whereby consideration has to take place in every branding concept of any product or service. Basically people sense some of the stimuli confronted in the day to day lives which suggests that thinking of like sorting machine. Essentially people tends to attend to a variety of stimulations sorting through out for their relevancy and deciding their actions. This creates a lot of brand experiences possibly traversed in a fundamentally unconscious and inattentive way. In the brand management theory, there is an accumulation of brand experiences in human brains whereby constantly shifting of the shape is experienced in relation to each brand. The marketers in brand management initiates the intervention into this landscape in efforts of controlling and managing the brand shape that is taking place in the minds of the people. A wide range of ethical dilemmas of branding the senses has occurred on the implementation of regulations protecting consumers. The conscious and unconsciousness in the branding has taken effect in various occasions whereby the senses fully of particularly satisfies the consumers expectation on particular branding of the sense.

    The ethical dilemmas questions occur due to the renewed interests of the marketers in a sense branding idea that a high percentage human brain is unconsciously buried. The brand management theory underpins the natural interests in the branding methods whereby the quantities and the qualitative factors derivatives are highly invoked. This creates a question about the ethical nature of the true motivations that triggers the purchase of the brands. The truth of the matter is the sense branding is just impressionistic and unreliable to the brand itself.

    Branding the sense occurs in different levels and differs from one country to another across the globe. There diversification in cultures creates the difference in branding the senses between countries while the different cultural practices differs from one culture to another. The level of branding the sense is highly dependent on the perception of that particular brand in certain country or culture. Some cultures values some senses more than others creating more emphasis upon them. In some countries, the values and practices are aligned to some of the five senses therefore the branding is reflected on how much the sense valued is. Essentially social and religious beliefs also determine the branding of the sense which differs from country to country and culture to cultures. Branding the sense of sight in the African culture is highly valued as it is among the most important aspect of the human being. The branding value is aligned to the level of the overall capability whereby many perceives particular senses as more fundamental than others. The drinks producers have built a wide variety of sensory cues into communicating the brand to the consumers

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    Unit/ISP page���� EDCI 402��� Teaching and Assessment main page

     

    Brooke Schufreider

    UNIT: THE FIVE SENSES

     

    ����������� Children learn everything through the
    five senses, so it is very essential for children to learn how they comprehend
    information.This unit will explain each
    of the five senses in detail and give children a chance to explore their
    knowledge using their five senses.They
    will be using their eyes, hands, ears, nose, and mouth to gain knowledge of the
    world around them.

    ����������� This unit is geared towards
    kindergarten children but could be manipulated to work with younger or older
    children.The lessons incorporated in
    this three week unit will have the children exploring the world through their
    five senses.It is important for
    children to be aware of the world around them and this unit will help them gain
    an appreciation for their five senses.

    Unit Learning Goals

           
    The learner will develop an appreciation
    for their five senses.

           
    The learner will develop and
    understanding of the five senses.

           
    The learner will learn vocabulary of
    each of the five senses.

           
    The learner will know the differences
    between the five senses.

           
    The learner will read and write
    information about the five senses.

           
    The learner will create a story about
    the five senses.

    Instructional Overview

    The unit will begin with the story My
    Five Senses
    by Aliki to open the discussion about the five senses.I will read the story to the children to give
    them a general idea of what the five senses include.We will focus on each sense individually
    before bringing them all together.The
    first two days we will focus on the concept of sight.I will first have the children explain to me
    what they feel sight is and then I will explain it in depth.I will explain how the eyes are the location
    at which sight occurs and that we use our eyes to learn things such as colors,
    sizes, and shapes of objects.The first
    lesson plan incorporating the sense of sight �Jumbo Objects� has the children
    get into groups to try to determine which tools help show more detail.The children will work together to come up
    with the solution to the question, �Which tool helps to see more detail?� This
    lesson will be indirect instruction because I want to see what the children can
    come up with by themselves before giving them any hinted advice.At the end of the activity we will come back
    together and discuss our findings.We
    will work together cooperatively to figure out how much detail each object
    depicts and which tool showed more detail.
    Another lesson �What Do You See� will also be used to focus on sight as
    a way of gaining knowledge of the world around us.This lesson will have myself, as the teacher,
    showing pictures of different objects to the children and the children will use
    their eyes to figure out what the object is.
    The lesson will start off with indirect instruction because the children
    are using their knowledge to come up with the right answer.After all pictures are shown cooperative
    learning will take place because the children will talk with me to go over each
    picture again to determine the right answer.
    Through talking with each other, the children will comprehend the concept
    of sight.

    The next two days will be focused on
    the concept of touch.Again I will have
    the children first tell me what they feel touch is and then I will explain
    touch in more depth.I will explain how
    our skin is the location of the sense of touch which we use to determine the
    roughness, smoothness, hardness, softness, or different shapes of objects.I will explain how we use touch to determine
    different textures of objects by how they feel to the human touch.The first lesson plan dealing with touch
    �Hidden Textures� will help the children distinguish between different types of
    textures that different objects pertain.
    This lesson will also involve indirect instruction because the children
    are working together in groups to determine the right texture.I, as the teacher, will be standing back
    observing the children as they explore the different textures on their
    own.When the children complete the
    task, we will use cooperative learning by meeting together to discuss results
    and talk together to learn about the concept of touch.Another lesson �Feeling Different Objects�
    will have the children feeling different objects and comprehending what they
    feel like.The children will actually
    see the objects to touch and feel to understand what the different objects feel
    like.This lesson, however, will be
    direct instruction with me in the front of the class telling the children what
    certain objects feel like.I will
    reinforce the textures the children experimented with previously in �Hidden
    Textures.�I will choose an object and
    have the children look at it and feel it.
    I will describe what the object feels like and continue that pattern
    with the rest of the objects.After
    explaining each object and it�s texture, I will quiz the children by holding up
    one of the objects and asking them to tell me what the texture of that object
    is.This quiz and talking with the
    children will determine how the children comprehended the concept of touch.

    The next two days will be focused on
    the concept of hearing and as usual I have the children tell me what they feel
    hearing is.I will then explain in
    detail that the ears are the location of hearing and we use our ears to
    determine high and low pitches of objects. The first lesson plan will be
    �What�s This Pitch� which I will initiate and the children will directly and
    indirectly be taught.I will lead the
    activity while the children independently work by themselves to come up with
    the correct answer.At the end of the
    lesson, I will talk with the children and together we will discuss the
    results.Another lesson �What Did You
    Say� will be used to focus on children using their ears only to comprehend
    information.The children will whisper
    different sentences in other children�s ears like the game telephone and the
    children will have to really listen to determine what is being told to
    them.This lesson will reinforce the
    importance of the ability to hear.This
    lesson will incorporate cooperative learning because the children will need to
    work together to succeed.I will choose
    the sentences that the children will share with their other classmates.This lesson will be direct instruction,
    however, the children will work together as I walk around and observe them
    working together.Through talking with
    the children, I will get a basic understanding of how the children grasped the
    concept of hearing.

    The next sense that the children will
    learn about is the concept of smell, and I will ask the children what they feel
    smell is.I will then explain to them
    how the nose is the location of the sense of smell which we use to learn about
    odors of substances.Odors can be
    strong, weak, pleasant, unpleasant or a combination of the four.The lesson �What�s This Odor� will involve
    the children working in pairs to determine the odors of the substances in front
    of them.This will be small group work
    and indirect instruction because again I want to see what the children come up
    with themselves.At the end of the
    activity we will come back together as a group and work cooperatively to come
    up with the correct answers. Also the children will work with me to come up
    with another chart of different objects and things that have different odors.

    Lastly, we will focus on the concept
    of taste where I will have the children explain to me what they feel taste
    is.I will then explain to them in
    detail how the tongue is the location of the sense of taste which we use to
    learn about flavors of things.I will
    mention how there are four types of taste which include salty, sweet, sour, and
    bitter.The lesson �Ohhhhh, What�s This
    Taste� will have the children working independently as the I explain each
    different type of taste and connect it with a food that has that same
    taste.This lesson will be direct
    instruction with me instructing the children and the children working by
    themselves. At the end of the activity the children and I will come up with a
    list of different foods that fall under each different type of taste.Using personal communication, questions will
    be asked to determine why children picked certain foods to fall under the four
    types of taste.

    The last week will involve the
    children putting all their five senses together by understanding each sense and
    putting them all in a story.One lesson
    that incorporates all of the five senses is the act of popping popcorn.I will show the children how to pop popcorn
    and show them how you can use all your five senses with this fun activity.The children can use their eyes to see the
    popcorn kernel change to form itself into white fluffy popcorn.The children can use their ears to hear the
    popcorn changing from kernel to popcorn.
    They can use their noses to smell the popcorn especially if you get the
    butter kind.Also, if you happen to burn
    the popcorn the children can also smell that burnt smell.The children can use their hands to feel the
    popcorn kernels before you pop them and then when the popcorn is finished
    popping they can feel the white pieces of popcorn.Lastly after witnessing the transformation of
    popcorn kernels turning into popcorn, the children can use their taste buds in
    their tongues to taste the popcorn.This
    one activity alone manages to involve all the five senses.A few other activities include the children
    writing a paragraph about which sense they liked best and why.Also, the children will be asked to write a
    story that incorporates all of the five senses including pictures to make it
    more visually appealing.I will also
    reread the story My Five Senses by Aliki to bring all the information
    about the five senses together.Now that
    the children have gained more knowledge from the two weeks of lesson plans,
    they might be able to relate to the story a bit more because they know what the
    information really means about the different senses the body uses to gather
    information.

    As you can see I have developed a plan
    that consists of different types of instruction where I have the children
    working with their peers to learn on their own while also including some time
    where I am directly teaching the children the material.I have some lessons where the children work in
    pairs and other lessons where they work with more then two people so they have
    different experiences. Also individual work is planned in this unit to make
    those who are shy feel comfortable as well.
    I like the idea of cooperative learning so I have included that as well
    in my unit because I feel it is important to work together to gain knowledge.

    Assessment Overview

    A unit is not complete without a way
    to assess the children to figure out what they gained from the knowledge you
    brought before them.The children in my
    class will be assessed in many ways to determine their understanding of the
    five senses.I will be using personal
    communication daily to determine what the children comprehended that day.I will be asking the children questions about
    the previous days knowledge to keep the information building and connecting
    together.�� I will be using personal
    communication as a primary way of assessment because young children learn as
    they go and speaking to children helps to determine what they know.

    Many of my lesson plans include
    informal assessments by asking children questions about the activity to see
    what they learned from it.Speaking with
    young children is a good way of assessing what a child knows and comprehends
    from a particular activity.Some other
    forms of informal assessment in my unit include the children writing paragraphs
    about the different senses to tell me which is their favorite and why.These paragraphs fall under the essay
    category of assessment which is used to have the children write about what they
    know.A couple of the lessons involve
    creating charts which is another way to informally assess children in a group
    to see what they come up with.The children
    will work together with me to put all the information they learned together in
    one form to create a concrete mental picture of the knowledge gained during
    that particular lesson.I will also
    informally assess the children by continuously walking around the classroom and
    observing the children as they work together and try to gain knowledge with
    each other.Standing back and observing
    children is a good way to figure out where children are at because you can see
    them in action and how they work.One of
    my lessons involves a worksheet with selected response to see if they can
    mentally distinguish between the different pitches of the musical instruments
    played during that particular hearing lesson.
    I have a few lessons that involve me quizzing the children to see what
    they gained from that lesson.I will
    quiz the children by asking them questions to see how they grasped the
    information that I was teaching them.

    At the end of the unit the children
    will be quizzed on the different senses which will have to be matched to their
    source.The children will have to name
    the five senses and which part of the body is linked with that particular
    sense.Also, the story incorporating the
    five senses will also be used as a way to assess what the children comprehended
    from this unit.On the last day of this
    unit I will ask the children how they feel about the five senses.I will ask them if they feel they understand
    each of the five senses because I want to know how the children feel about this
    lesson.It is important for children to
    really understand how they learn and everything is learned from the five senses
    so I need to make sure I reach all the children in my classroom.

    All the information gained from the
    assessment will be used as my tool to determine how well I was able to teach
    the concept of the five senses.The
    information will tell me what the children learned and what I need to work
    on.The information will be used as a
    tool of how the children are grasping the knowledge in my classroom.

    Authentic/Performance
    Assessment Instrument

    ����������� At the end of the unit the children will
    be tested on their knowledge of the five senses.They will be asked to name the five senses
    along with their source.They will also
    be asked to write a story including all the five senses.Through talking with the children and having
    them write a story, I can assess what the children gained from this unit.Attached is my authentic/performance
    assessment instrument which will be used to assess what the children
    comprehended about the five senses.I
    will document children in three categories including: Content Knowledge, Levels
    of Writing, and Quality of Pictures.
    Each category has four levels at which a child can fall under.The components in each block are specific
    enough for the children and parents to understand why they fall under the block
    they do.Children will receive feedback
    on what they need to work on in order to improve and reach the next level.

     

     

     

    AUTHENTIC

    PERFORMANCE

    ASSESSMENT

    INSTRUMENT

     

     

     

     

     

    CONTENT KNOWLEDGE

    LEVEL OF WRITING

    QUALITY OF PICTURES

     

     

     

     

    Level
    4-"Perfect"

    Child names all the five
    senses.

    Child has 5 or less
    spelling

    Child draws pictures
    neatly.

     

    Child connects all the
    five

    errors.

    Child draws pictures using
    4 or more

     

    senses with their correct
    source.

    Child writes their story
    using

    colors.

     

    Child connects all the
    five

    complete sentences.

    The pictures relate to the
    story.

     

    senses to the world around

    Child has 2 or less
    punctuation

     

     

    them.

    errors.

     

     

     

    Child includes all the
    five

     

     

     

    senses in their story.

     

     

     

     

     

    Level 3-"Almost

    Child names four of the
    five

    Child has 6-10 spelling
    errors.

    Child draws pictures
    neatly.

    Perfect"

    senses.

    Child writes their story
    using

    Child draws pictures using
    3 colors

     

    Child connects four senses
    to

    complete sentences.

    The pictures relate to the
    story.

     

    their correct source.

    Child has 3-5 punctuation
    errors.

     

     

    Child connects four senses
    to

    Child includes all the
    five senses

     

     

    the world around them.

    in their story.

     

     

     

     

     

    Level 2-"On Your

    Child names three of the
    five

    Child has 11-13 spelling
    errors.

    Child draws pictures using
    2 colors.

    Way"

    senses.

    Child has 6-8 punctuation
    errors.

     

     

    Child connects three
    senses to

    Child includes three or
    four

     

     

    their correct source.

    senses in their story.

     

     

    Child connects three
    senses

     

     

     

    to the world around them.

     

     

     

     

     

     

    Level 1-"Good

    Child names one or two of
    the

    Child has 14 or more
    spelling

    Child draws pictures using
    1 color.

    Start"

    five senses.

    errors.

     

     

    Child connects one or two

    Child has 9 or more
    punctuation

     

     

    senses to their source.

    errors.

     

     

    Child connects one or two

    Child includes one or two

     

     

    senses to the world around

    senses in their story.

     

     

    them.

     

     

     

     

     

     

    Level 0-"Stuck

    Child names nothing.

    No story.

    No pictures.

    In The Gate"

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

    Lesson Plan #1

     

    JUMBO OBJECTS

    Grade Level:Kindergarten

    Unit: The Five Senses

    Time: 30 Minutes

    Subject Area: Science and Math

     

    Goal: The children will understand the concept of sight.

     

    Objectives:

    The children will
    distinguish that a microscope shows more detail then a magnify glass. (Bloom�s
    Comprehension)

    The children will discover
    the difference between eye sight, using a magnify glass, and using a
    microscope.(Bloom�s Application)

    The children will identify
    the different tools used to visualize objects that show more detail. (Bloom�s
    Knowledge)

     

    Standards:

    1.2 Count, recognize,
    represent, name, and order a number of objects (up to 30).

    2.1 Use concrete objects to
    determine the answers to addition and subtraction problems (for two numbers
    that are each less than 10).

    4a Observe common objects by
    using the five senses.

    4d. Compare and sort common
    objects by one physical attribute (e.g., color, shape, texture, size, weight).

    4e. Communicate observations
    orally and through drawings.

     

    Materials:

    Magnify glass, microscope,
    rock, shell, piece of hair, pencils, paper, objects from each child, chart for
    assessment (example included in lesson plan), stickers.

    *Other objects may be
    used.It is up to the teacher which
    objects the children will experiment with.

     

    Procedure:

    -Children will get in groups of 3 or
    4

    -Each group will look at each item
    with no tool, with a magnify glass, and with a microscope.

    -Each group will decide which method
    they feel shows the most detail.

    -Each group will write down on a
    piece of paper which tool they feel shows the most detail.

    -After experimentation is complete,
    the children will sit down on the rug to discuss their findings.

    -The teacher will have a graph made
    that is labeled No Tool, Microscope, Magnify glass.

    -The teacher will get a basic
    understanding of what the children comprehended.

    -The teacher will ask each group
    which method they felt showed the most detail.

    -The teacher will put a sticker
    under the column they choose.

    -When the graph is complete, the
    teacher and students will count how many stickers are in each column.

    -That number will be written at the
    bottom of the column.

    -Then the students and teacher will
    create a math equation using those numbers.

     

    Assessment:

    The teacher will do an informal
    assessment to determine what the children comprehended by asking children
    questions.Using personal communication
    the teacher will talk to the children to see what they know.The teacher will also walk around and observe
    children working in groups along with experimenting with microscopes and
    magnify glasses.

     

    Extension Activities:

    Each procedure (No Tools, Magnify
    Glass, Microscope) will be explained.
    Each child will go home and bring something back to school that has lots
    of detail.They will need to use their
    eyes for this one.Each student will
    write down 10 details about that object which could include: color, shape,
    size, patterns, or any other type of detail.

     

     

     

     

     

     

    Assessment Chart

     

     

     

     

    NO TOOL

    MICROSCOPE

    MAGNIFYING GLASS

     

     

     

    Lesson Plan #2

     

    HIDDEN TEXTURES

    Grade Level: Kindergarten

    Unit: The Five Senses

    Time: 40 Minutes

    Subject Area: Science and Math

     

    Goal:The children will
    understand the concept of touch.

     

    Objectives:

    The children will
    distinguish that objects have different types of textures. (Bloom�s
    Comprehension)

    The children will
    differentiate between the five different types of textures. (Bloom�s Analysis)

    The children will match the
    number to the appropriate box with the right texture. (Bloom�s Knowledge)

     

    Standards:

    1.2 Count, recognize,
    represent, name, and order a number of objects (up to 30).

    4a Observe common objects by
    using the five senses.

    4d. Compare and sort common
    objects by one physical attribute (e.g., color, shape, texture, size, weight).

    4e. Communicate observations
    orally and through drawings.

     

    Materials:

    Five empty boxes with a hole
    in the top, cotton balls (soft), sand paper (rough), marbles (smooth), wet
    sponges (squishy), bricks (hard), paper, pencils, chart for assessment (example
    enclosed with lesson plan), stickers.

    *Other objects may be used as long as they are
    different textures.

     

    Procedure:

    -Children will get in groups
    of 3 or 4.

    -Each group will be given a
    handout with a list of the different textures.

    -Each group will walk to
    each of the five numbered stations.

    -Each child will put a hand
    in each of the boxes to feel what is inside.

    -Each group will determine which
    station is each texture by writing a number next to each label on their
    handout.

    -When everyone has had a
    turn to touch each of the five stations, the teacher and students will me on
    the rug to discuss results.

    -The teacher will meet with
    the children to determine what they came up with.

    -Using the assessment chart
    the teacher will document each groups results.

    -The chart will have a
    column for each of the five textures.

    -The teacher will ask each
    group to number the textures.

    – The teacher will then go
    over the chart and explain the correct answers.

     

     

    Assessment:

    The teacher will use the
    assessment chart along with personal communication to determine how the
    children comprehended the idea of touch.
    The teacher will ask the children questions to assess how much they
    understood from the lesson.The teacher
    should also walk around and observe the children during the activity.From the extension activity the paragraph
    which falls under the essay assessment will be used to see how they grasped the
    concept of texture.



    Extension Activities:

    Each object and texture will
    be explained in detail.Each child will
    choose their favorite texture and bring an item from home that matches that
    same texture.Each child will write a
    paragraph explaining why they like that particular texture best.

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

    ASSESSMENT CHART

     

     

     

     

     

     

    SOFT

    ROUGH

    SMOOTH

    SQUISHY

    HARD

     

     

     

     

     

    Lesson Plan #3

     

    WHAT�S THIS PITCH?

    Grade Level: Kindergarten

    Unit: The Five Senses

    Time: 30 Minutes

    Subject Area: Music and Math

     

    Goal:The
    children will understand the concept of hearing.

     

    Objectives:

    The children will
    distinguish that different objects produce different sounds. (Bloom�s
    Comprehension)

    The children will identify
    the musical instruments that have high pitches along with those that have low
    pitches. (Bloom�s Knowledge)

    The children will compare
    the two pitches from hearing the different musical instruments. (Bloom�s
    Evaluation)

     

    Standards:

    1.2Identify and describe basic elements of music.

    4a Observe common objects by
    using the five senses.

    4e. Communicate observations
    orally and through drawings.

     

    Materials:

    Different musical
    instruments (ex. Flute, Recorder, Piano, Drum, Cymbals, Musical Triangle,
    Maraca, Tambourine), empty water bottle, 3 water bottles with different water
    levels, whistle, paper, pencils, low and high pitch worksheet.

     

    Procedure:

    -The teacher will explain
    the concept of both high pitch and low pitch.

    -The teacher will then play
    each instrument separately.

    -The children will determine
    if instruments are low pitched or high pitched by marking their worksheets with
    either an L or an H next to each instrument on their worksheet.

    -When everyone is done
    completing the worksheet, the class will come back together and the teacher and
    students will go over worksheets talking about each instrument.

    -The teacher will ask how
    many of the instruments were low pitched and how many of them were high
    pitched.

     

    Assessment:

    The worksheet and classroom
    discussion will be used to determine whether children understand the concept of
    high pitch and low pitch.Selected
    response will be used to identify if the children can choose the low pitched
    instruments and the high pitched instruments.
    Also, personal communication will be used by the teacher talking with
    the children to see how they perceived the concept of sound.The teacher should also keep an eye on the
    children as he or she is playing the instruments to see what the children mark
    down on their worksheets.From the
    extension activity the paragraph which falls under the essay assessment will be
    used to see how they grasped high pitch and low pitch.

     

    Extension Activities:

    Each child
    will go home and choose an object that makes noise to bring to class to
    share.They will write a paragraph
    describing that object including the pitch the object makes.They will determine whether the object makes
    a high sound or low sound.The
    paragraphs will be read separately by the teacher.

     

     

     

     

    Lesson Plan #4

     

    WHAT�S THIS ODOR?

    Grade Level: Kindergarten

    Unit: The Five Senses

    Time: 30 Minutes

    Subject Area: Science

     

    Goal:The
    children will understand the concept of smell.

     

    Objectives:

    The children will distinguish
    that different objects have different smells. (Bloom�s Comprehension)

    The children will identify
    the different odors based on what they smell. (Bloom�s Knowledge)

    The children will
    differentiate between the different scents and odors. (Bloom�s Analysis)

     

    Standards:

    4a Observe common objects by
    using the five senses.

    4e. Communicate observations
    orally and through drawings.

     

    Materials:
    bowls/containers for ingredients,
    vinegar (strong/unpleasant), perfume (strong/pleasant/unpleasant), air
    freshener (pleasant), flowers (pleasant/unpleasant), bleach
    (strong/unpleasant), chart for assessment (example enclosed with lesson plan),
    markers.

    *Other ingredients may be used as long as they have
    different odors to experiment with.



    Procedure:

    -The teacher will divide
    class into partners.

    -The teacher will place
    already prepared ingredients in front of each set of partners.

    -Teacher will put up chart
    with labels: Strong, Weak, Pleasant, Unpleasant.

    -The teacher will choose an
    ingredient for the students to smell.

    -Each pair will determine
    which odor(s) each ingredient falls under.

    -The teacher will ask each
    pair for their response.

    -The teacher will write that
    ingredient under each type of odor it falls under.

    -The teacher will do the
    same thing with the rest of the ingredients.

    -The children will smell all
    ingredients and decide the proper odors.

    -At the end, the teacher and
    children will talk about the chart.

     

    Assessment:

    The chart with the odor
    labels with the teachers assistance will help determine how much the children
    understand about odors.Through personal
    communication, the teacher will ask questions to see what the children learned
    about odors and the sense of smell.The
    teacher and children will make another chart discussing other objects that have
    odors and the types of odors they possess.

     

    Extension Activities:

    The children will go home
    and document any unique smells they happen to smell.They will write down what type of odor the
    smell is.The children will also
    document what they feel is making that particular odor or smell.

     

     

     

     

     

    ASSESSMENT CHART

     

     

     

     

    STRONG

    WEAK

    PLEASANT

    UNPLEASANT

     

     

     

     

    Lesson Plan #5

     

    OHHHHH, WHAT�S THIS TASTE?

    Grade Level: Kindergarten

    Unit: The Five Senses

    Time: 30 Minutes

    Subject Area: Science and Math

    Goal:The
    children will understand the concept of taste.

     

    Objectives:

    The children will
    distinguish that different foods have different types of taste. (Bloom�s
    Comprehension)

    The children will categorize
    the different foods under their type of taste. (Bloom�s Synthesis)

    The children will match the
    type of taste with their food source. (Bloom�s Knowledge)

     

    Standards:

    1.1 Identify, sort, and
    classify objects by attribute and identify objects that do not belong to a
    particular group (e.g., all these balls are green, those are red).

    4a Observe common objects by
    using the five senses.

     

    Materials:

    Different assortment of
    foods, Salt/Salty popcorn (Salty), Sugar/Watermelon (Sweet), Lemon (Sour),
    Grapefruit (Bitter), Chart for foods.

    *There are many other
    options as long as you involve all four types of tastes.

     

    Procedure:

    -The teacher will introduce
    the different types of taste to the class.

    -The teacher will link the
    information about the taste types with actual food.

    -The teacher will then
    introduce different foods that have different tastes.

    -The teacher will choose a
    food and have the children taste it.

    -The teacher will then
    explain what taste it is.

    -The teacher will follow
    this same pattern for as many foods he/she has to share with the class.

     

    Assessment:

    After learning about the
    different types of taste, the students and teacher will make a list of other
    foods that fall under each category.
    Using personal communication, the teacher and children will discuss
    different foods that fall under each type of taste.Questions will be asked to see why children
    picked certain foods for each category.

     

    Extension Activities:

    The children will go home
    and bring back to school one of their favorite foods and the class will then
    classify which types of taste each of the foods fall under.