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2015-03 VALIDATION OF LATE LEAF SPOT AND RUST RESISTANCE-LINKED MARKERS AND TRANSFER OF ASSOCIATED QTL TO JL 24 IN GROUNDNUT (Arachis hypogaea L.) DR. RAMESH S. BHAT ; SHARANABASAPPA YERI
2015-06 AN ECONOMIC ANALYSIS OF LIVESTOCK BASED FARMING SYSTEMS IN BELAGAVI DISTRICT OF NORTH KARNATAKA Dr. S. M. MUNDINAMANI ; SIDDAPPA PATTIHAL
2015-06 GENETIC STUDIES IN THE SEGREGATING POPULATIONS OF TOMATO (Solanum lycopersicum L.) Dr. O. SRIDEVI ; VRINDA JOSHI
2015-06 HEALTH AND HYGIENE PRACTICES OF RURAL YOUNG GIRLS OF DHARWAD AND ZIRO REGIONS Dr. CHHAYA BADIGER ; TAGE MINA
2015-06 KNOWLEDGE AND ADOPTION OF DROUGHT MITIGATING TECHNOLOGIES FOLLOWED BY FARMERS OF GADAG DISTRICT Dr. J. G. ANGADI ; VIJAYLAXMI B. SOMANATTI
2015-05 STUDIES ON COMPATIBILITY OF SELECTED AGRO-CHEMICALS IN Bt COTTON ECOSYSTEM Dr. C. P. MALLAPUR ; BONTHA RAJASEKAR
2015-07 BREAKFAST CONSUMPTION PATTERN AND ITS RELATION TO NUTRITIONAL STATUS AND COGNITIVE ABILITIES OF PRE-SCHOOL CHILDREN Dr. PUSHPA BHARATI ; AKKAVVA WADAKAPPANAVAR S.
2015-06 EVALUATION OF HYBRID MARIGOLD (Tagetes spp.) FOR GROWTH, YIELD AND QUALITY Dr. V. S. PATIL ; DEEPA V. PAWADASHETTI
2015-04 PYRAMIDING OF GENES/QTLs FOR FUSARIUM WILT AND DROUGHT RELATED TRAITS THROUGH MARKER ASSISTED BACKCROSS BREEDING IN CHICKPEA (Cicer arietinum L.) Dr. P. M. SALIMATH ; TIMMANNA P. ONTAGODI
2015-06 WEED MANAGEMENT STUDIES IN COCONUT NURSERY Dr. A. N. MOKASHI ; SOMSHEKHAR
2015-06 EFFECT OF GA3, CALCIUM AND MICRONUTRIENTS ON GROWTH, YIELD AND QUALITY OF GERBERA (Gerbera jamesonii H.) GROWN UNDER POLYHOUSE Dr. V. S. PATIL ; JYOTHI I.
2015-03 GENETICS OF YELLOW VEIN MOSAIC VIRUS RESISTANCE IN OKRA (Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench) Dr. O. SRIDEVI ; SATEESH ADIGER
2015-03 BREEDING INVESTIGATIONS FOR IMPROVING DROUGHT TOLERANCE IN MAIZE (Zea mays L.) Dr. O. SRIDEVI ; PRAVEEN KUMAR
2015-06 GENETIC ANALYSIS OF HIGH OLEIC ADVANCED BREEDING LINES IN GROUNDNUT (Arachis hypogaea L.) Dr. H. L. NADAF ; OM PRAKASH PATIDAR
2015-06 GENETIC VARIABILITY AND DIVERSITY STUDIES IN SESAME (Sesamum indicum L.) Dr. S. G. PARAMESHWARAPPA ; PRITHVIRAJ S. K.
2015-06 INVESTIGATIONS ON INTROGRESSED BACKCROSS SEGREGANTS FOR LEAF RUST RESISTANCE GENES THROUGH MARKER ASSISTED SELECTION IN BREAD WHEAT (Triticum aestivium L.) Dr. V. RUDRA NAIK ; BASAVARAJA SINDHIGERI
2015-06 CHARACTERIZATION AND COMBINING ABILITY STUDIES ON TRAITS INFLUENCING PRODUCTIVITY AND SUCKING PEST TOLERANCE IN COTTON (Gossypium hirsutum L.) Dr. MANJULA S. MARALAPPANAVAR ; USHARANI C. V.
2015-06 GENETIC ENHANCEMENT FOR DURABLE LEAF RUST RESISTANCE THROUGH MARKER ASSISTED BACKCROSS BREEDING IN BREAD WHEAT (Triticum aestivum L.) Dr. SUMA S. BIRADAR ; SNEHA G. LAKKANGOUDAR
2015-06 HETEROSIS AND COMBINING ABILITY ANALYSIS OF NEW RESTORERS DEVELOPED FOR RESISTANCE TO ALTERNARIA LEAF BLIGHT DISEASE IN SUNFLOWER (Helianthus annuus L.) Dr. H. L. NADAF ; SPOORTHI V.
2015-06 MARKER ASSISTED BREEDING FOR LEAF RUST RESISTANCE IN BREAD WHEAT (Triticum aestivium L.) FOR RAINFED ECOSYSTEM Dr. S. A. DESAI ; DEEPAK KOUJALAGI
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general statement example for essays

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Research Paper Menu

  • 1. Overview
  • 2. Finding Topic Ideas 
  • 3. Creating a Thesis Statement & Outline
  • 4. Choosing Appropriate Resources
  • 5. Using Butte College Library Resources
  • 6. Scholarly Journals
  • 7. Online Search Techniques
  • 8. Taking Notes and Documenting Sources
  • 9. Evaluation of Resources
  • 10. Citation and Plagiarism

3. Creating a Thesis Statement & Outline

I.What is a thesis statement?

A thesis statement is usually a sentence that states your argument to the reader. It usually appears in the first paragraph of an essay.

II. Why do I need to write a thesis statement for a paper?

Your thesis statement states what you will discuss in your essay. Not only does it define the scope and focus of your essay, it also tells your reader what to expect from the essay.

A thesis statement can be very helpful in constructing the outline of your essay.

Also, your instructor may require a thesis statement for your paper.

III. How do I create a thesis statement?

A thesis statement is not a statement of fact. It is an assertive statement that states your claims and that you can prove with evidence. It should be the product of research and your own critical thinking. There are different ways and different approaches to write a thesis statement. Here are some steps you can try to create a thesis statement:

1. Start out with the main topic and focus of your essay.

Example: youth gangs + prevention and intervention programs

2. Make a claim or argument in one sentence.

Example: Prevention and intervention programs can stop youth gang activities.

3. Revise the sentence by using specific terms.

Example: Early prevention programs in schools are the most effective way to prevent youth gang involvement.

4. Further revise the sentence to cover the scope of your essay and make a strong statement.

Example: Among various prevention and intervention efforts that have been made to deal with the rapid growth of youth gangs, early school-based prevention programs are the most effective way to prevent youth gang involvement.

IV. Can I revise the thesis statement in the writing process?

Sure. In fact, you should keep the thesis statement flexible and revise it as needed. In the process of researching and writing, you may find new information that falls outside the scope of your original plan and want to incorporate it into your paper. Or you probably understand your thoughts more and shift the focus of your paper. Then you will need to revise your thesis statement while you are writing the paper.

V. Why do I need to make an outline when I already have a thesis statement?

An outline is the “road map” of your essay in which you list the arguments and subtopics in a logical order. A good outline is an important element in writing a good paper. An outline helps to target your research areas, keep you within the scope without going off-track, and it can also help to keep your argument in good order when writing the essay.

VI. How do I make an outline?

You list all the major topics and subtopics with key points that support them. Put similar topics and points together and arrange them in a logical order.

Include an Introduction, a Body, and a Conclusion in your outline. You can make an outline in a list format or a chart format .

Next Chapter: 4. Choosing Appropriate Resources

3/27/18

Pen and the Pad

Pen and the Pad

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Effective Thesis Writing
Van Thompson

How to Write a Position Paper
Ginger O’Donnell

How to Write an Argumentative Essay Over Ethics
Van Thompson

How to Write a Formal Essay Introduction
Sarahlynne Davis

General Statement Vs. Thesis Statement

Van Thompson Updated February 22, 2017

Home » The Rewrite

A thesis statement is a succinct statement of the arguments you’ll be making in a paper and is a critical component of any well-written work. A general statement, by contrast, is any declarative sentence providing supporting information or transitioning to a new topic. While both sentence structures play an important role in writing, a paper without a thesis statement can end up poorly organized with no central argument.

Role in Paper

Your thesis defines the topic and focus of your paper. Even if your paper is not an argumentative paper, you’ll still need a thesis that defines your scope. For example, in a paper summarizing “Romeo and Juliet,” your thesis might briefly outline three general plot themes. Your general statements should then expand upon your thesis by giving supplemental information and commentary. In some papers, the primary thesis is in the first paragraph, and then each subsequent paragraph contains a mini-thesis. For example, the “Romeo and Juliet” paper might use one paragraph to outline each plot theme, with a mini-thesis at the beginning of the paragraph providing more information about the plot theme.

Arguments

Your thesis makes a central argument upon which your paper will focus. General statements either lead up to this argument by providing background information or support the argument by presenting and analyzing data. General statements are also an important part of a conclusion. You can use them to outline directions for future research or to address unsettled research debates, for example. Some students mistakenly make a general statement when they need to make a thesis statement. For example, “Poverty is a social problem” is a general statement that does not outline an argument. On the other hand, “School programs designed to counteract the effect of poverty can help undermine the long-lasting effects of low family income” is a compelling thesis statement.

Paper Structure

Both your thesis statement and general statements play roles in structuring your paper. Your thesis limits your focus to a single argument or two, and general statements support this argument. In a sociology paper, your thesis might argue that childhood poverty is the best predictor of adult poverty. General statements might then give facts about childhood poverty, statements about how to end poverty or information on the psychological ramifications of poverty. However, your general statements should not veer outside of the limited focus of your thesis. A paragraph full of general statements about how teen pregnancy contributes to poverty would likely confuse the focus of your paper.

Supporting the Thesis

The primary role of a general statement is to support your thesis. In the introductory paragraph, general statements can also build up to your thesis by providing relevant background. You might, for example, make the general statement that “Philosophers have long debated when it is ethical to kill someone,” then follow up with a thesis explaining when killing is ethical or how a particular philosopher attacks this ethical dilemma.

A tool to create a citation to reference this article Cite this Article

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Thompson, Van. “General Statement Vs. Thesis Statement.” , https://penandthepad.com/general-statement-vs-thesis-statement-1955.html. Accessed 06 September 2018.
Thompson, Van. (n.d.). General Statement Vs. Thesis Statement. . Retrieved from https://penandthepad.com/general-statement-vs-thesis-statement-1955.html
Thompson, Van. “General Statement Vs. Thesis Statement” accessed September 06, 2018. https://penandthepad.com/general-statement-vs-thesis-statement-1955.html

Note: Depending on which text editor you’re pasting into, you might have to add the italics to the site name.

References

  • Purdue Online Writing Lab: Tips and Examples for Writing Thesis Statements
  • Indiana University Bloomington: How to Write a Thesis Statement
  • University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign: Writing Tips — Thesis Statements
  • Santa Barbara City College: Developing a Thesis Statement
  • Louisiana Tech: Thesis Exercises — What a Thesis Is Not

About the Author

Van Thompson is an attorney and writer. A former martial arts instructor, he holds bachelor’s degrees in music and computer science from Westchester University, and a juris doctor from Georgia State University. He is the recipient of numerous writing awards, including a 2009 CALI Legal Writing Award.

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Navarasa Dance Theater is a pioneering South-Asian Contemporary Dance Theater company with a wide repertoire of classical and contemporary works inspired by Bharatanatyam and folk dance forms, martial arts (Kalarippayattu), diverse theater and music traditions, aerial dance, yoga and storytelling. We offer classes in Bharatanatyam, Kalari ppayattu martial arts, Yoga, Mohiniyattam and contemporary dance in Los Angeles, Boston and online. Our free training program, Dance For Everyone, is bringing dance to more than 150 students in India and the U.S. Navarasa is a 501(c)3 non-profit charitable organization.

Navarasa was founded as ‘Navarasa Natyalaya’ by renowned dancer and choreographer, Dr. Aparna Sindhoor and her parents Professor Balasubramanyam and Dr. Srivalli in 1991 in Mysore, India. In 1996, it was reconstituted as Navarasa Dance Theater in Boston, MA by Sindhoor and film director SM Raju. Choreographer Anil Natyaveda joined the team as a co-director in 2004. Together, they have created over fifteen full-length dance theater works and have toured extensively in North America, Europe and India. In 2013, Navarasa opened a branch in Los Angeles, CA as well.

The company has been invited to perform at venues including Lincoln Center, Asian Art Museum, Norton Simon Museum, New Haven Festival of Arts and Ideas, World Social Forum, Bates Dance Festival, East West Players, New World Theater, Teesri Duniya Theater (Canada), Amol Palekar’s Theater Festival (India), and Germany. Sindhoor and Natyaveda have choreographed for film and television, and the INDIA circus show created by Cirque du Soleil-famed Franco Dragone’ in Germany. In 2012 Navarasa performed over 25 shows at East West Players, a premium Asian American Theater in Los Angeles, CA. In 2013, Navarasa choreographers Aparna Sindhoor and Anil Natyaveda were nominated for an L.A. Stage Alliance Ovation Award for Choreography. Aparna Sindhoor and Anil Natyaveda have created works, taught and performed at various universities including University of California at Santa Barbara, Brandeis University, Boston University, Salem State College and Holy Cross College.

Navarasa and Aparna Sindhoor have received support and grants from Arts International, Ford Foundation, Chahara Foundation, Massachusetts Arts Council, Wyomissing Family Foundation, New England Foundation for the Arts (NEFA), Boston Dance Alliance and most recently, a creation award from the National Performance Network (NPN).

In addition to performing, Navarasa is an arts education organization that provides training in dance, martial arts, yoga, and performance art from the beginner to advanced level. Navarasa offers weekly classes, as well as occasional courses at universities and community arts organizations in the U.S., Canada, and India.

Navarasa’s programs of 1) Creation/Performance, 2) Teaching/Sharing, and 3) Research, are connected to the aspect of community development through the arts. Navarasa uses the arts to raise awareness and inspire action about social justice issues such as women’s rights, indigenous rights, and the impact of globalization on culture and the environment. Our goal is to promote art to people all over the world as a way of creating awareness and building community. Navarasa seeks to combine artistic excellence and social commitment to power the holistic and compassionate evolution of the human race.

Navarasa Dance Theater is available for performances, classes, lectures, creation work and touring.

You can make a tax-deductible donation to Navarasa to support our arts education programs and the creation of new work through the Donate tab above. You can also support Navarasa every time you shop online – for free! Sign up here: http://www.iGive.com/NavarasaDanceTheater

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Top 50 Most Affordable MBA Programs 2018

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Best Masters Degrees & Masters Programs 2018/2019

1-year MBA in USA

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  • 1-year MBA
  • USA

Best 1-year MBAs in USA 2018/2019

MBA

Students who earn a 1-year MBA can be equipped with the knowledge and skills necessary to achieve management positions in the business world. A Master of Business Administration program typically combines classwork with individual coaching for personal development.

MBA is a program designed for students who want to further their academic skills and apply them to actual real-life business situations. It guides students to reflect and reposition themselves in terms of choosing their future careers. Students gain a broad understanding of the key functions of a range of business areas and use these skills to contribute to strategic direction of a business.

Education in the United States is mainly provided by the public sector, with control and funding coming from three levels: state, local, and federal, in that order. The common requirements to study at a higher education level in United States will include your admissions essay (also known as the statement of purpose or personal statement), transcript of records, recommendation/reference letters, language tests

1-year Masters of Business Administration in USA

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Trine University

Master of Business Administration

Trine University
Campus

Full time
1 year
September 2018
USA
Angola

The Ketner School of Business’s Master of Business Administration “MBA” from Trine University is focused on delivering a real-world return on investment for professionals looking to develop their skills and marketability in business and finance.
[+]

Master of Business Administration

The Ketner School of Business’s Master of Business Administration “MBA” from Trine University is focused on delivering a real-world return on investment for professionals looking to develop their skills and marketability in business and finance.

Focused, values-driven, and accelerated, this one-year graduate program for adults holding a bachelor degree is defined by an intense focus on business strategy, managerial, decision making, market development and global finance.

The Experience

Competitively priced, the MBA program provides a unique experience and value that Ketner has delivered for over 120 years. Our program is global in both student population and perspective – many of our students join us from Asia and the Middle East. This provides exceptional networking opportunities for candidates looking to bring Western finance knowledge to growing markets….
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International Accelerator

Master of Business Administration

International Accelerator
Campus

Full time
Part time
1 year
September 2018
USA
Boston


+ 1 more

This extraordinary 12-month program prepares you to be an effective global business leader. Expand your cultural understanding; strengthen foreign language skills; learn to build global strategies; collaborate with students from around the world; hone professional development skills; gain real-world experience—all from the MBA program ranked among the top international business programs in the U.S.
[+]

Master Technology, International Business, and Leadership

Effective executives need global knowledge; strong technology skills; and collaborative finesse. The Chapman Graduate School of Business covers it all:

International perspective: expands and deepens your global viewpoint across countries and cultures.

Hemispheric focus: leverages our pivotal Miami location, bringing Latin America and the Caribbean within close reach.

Technological excellence: strengthens your IT prowess for more effective learning.

International MBA

Prepare to compete and succeed on a global level. The full-time, one-year International MBA (IMBA) program is one of the highest ranked programs in the country—ranked #15 by U.S.News & World Report (2016), #40 in the world by América Economía (2015), and #56 for best full-time MBA program by BusinessWeek (2014)….
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University of Central Missouri

MBA Marketing

University of Central Missouri
Online
Campus

Full time
Part time
1 year
January 2019
USA
Warrensburg


+ 2 more

Our program uses an experiential learning approach to bring real business challenges into the classroom so that you can practice the skills you need to make an impact in your organization. Harmon’s MBA curriculum includes corporate management best practices as well as practical skills including quantitative analysis, effective communication, leadership, and teamwork. Our MBA program focuses on strategic and fact-based decision making skill development. The MBA program prepares students to assume positions of leadership and responsibility. The University of Central Missouri offers an outstanding MBA program designed with your career goals in mind.
[+]

Our program uses an experiential learning approach to bring real business challenges into the classroom so that you can practice the skills you need to make an impact in your organization. Harmon’s MBA curriculum includes corporate management best practices as well as practical skills including quantitative analysis, effective communication, leadership, and teamwork. Our MBA program focuses on strategic and fact-based decision making skill development. The MBA program prepares students to assume positions of leadership and responsibility. The University of Central Missouri offers an outstanding MBA program designed with your career goals in mind.

Flexibility, affordability, and convenience make our MBA program stand out.
33 credit hours are required for UCM’s AACSB-accredited program. The program may be completed on a full time (1-year) or part-time basis to meet your needs
Approximate $15,000 total tuition and fees, making it one of the most affordable MBAs in the region! Scholarships and financial aid are available.
6 start dates throughout the year, making it one of the most flexible MBA programs in the Kansas City metro. Get started when you’re ready! Semester start dates are as follows:
January 8, 2018
March 5, 2018
May 14, 2018
June 25, 2018
August 13, 2018


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The University of Findlay

Master of Business Administration (MBA)

The University of Findlay
Online
Campus

Full time
Part time
1 year
September 2018
USA
Findlay


+ 2 more

The Master of Business Administration Program at The University of Findlay is designed to equip the student with skills that can be directly applied in the workplace.
[+]

Master of Business Administration at The University of Findlay

The Master of Business Administration at The University of Findlay is designed to equip students with critical thinking and operations management skills. They benefit from the professional experiences, knowledge, and networking of UF’s highly qualified faculty.

Program Highlights:

• Daytime, evening and completely online classes available • SAP practices built into the courses • Scholarships available for qualifying students• You can complete the program in one year (as a full-time student) • Real-world class projects that you can apply to your current job

• Corporate partnership discount• Address current and emerging issues in business• Personal and professional advising• Get a global perspective that you can use to help your company excel in a global marketplace…
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A-STATE Queretaro

Master of Business Administration

A-STATE Queretaro
Campus

Full time
1 year
July 2019
USA
Jonesboro

The MBA Program is a professional degree designed to prepare students of all educational and professional backgrounds for management positions in a variety of organizations. As such, the program stresses the development of analytical, problem-solving and decision-making competencies for the dynamic, complex global organizational and social environments.
[+]

The MBA Program is a professional degree designed to prepare students of all educational and professional backgrounds for management positions in a variety of organizations. As such, the program stresses the development of analytical, problem-solving and decision-making competencies for the dynamic, complex global organizational and social environments.

Available Emphasis Areas

The program of study includes the functional areas of business with the opportunity to obtain emphasis areas in each, as well as the option to select specialty emphasis areas. This provides students with the flexibility to tailor their MBA degrees to individual needs and goals.

Admission Requirements
Minimum cumulative GPA of 2.75 or 3.00 on the last 60 hours of coursework completed in college
GMAT of 480 or GRE of 300
If one has a cumulative GPA of 3.25 or higher we will accept a GMAT of 450 or a GRE of 280
Demonstration of proficiency in English: College degree from English-speaking university, TOEFL Score of 550 paper, 252 computer-based, 79 IBT or IELTS of 6.0 band
Prerequisite courses in business: Business foundation courses are required of all MBA students. If these have not been completed at the undergraduate level, they will need to be completed before admission to the MBA program.
MBA 500V Survey of Accounting
MBA 501V Survey of Finance
MBA 5O2V Survey of Microeconomics
MBA 5O3V Survey of Macroeconomics
MBA 5O7V Survey of Business Law
MBA 5O8V Survey of Statistics
MBA 5O9V Survey of Operations Management


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Clarkson University Graduate School

1-Year MBA

Clarkson University Graduate School
Campus

Full time
Part time
9 – 24 months
August 2019
USA
Potsdam


+ 1 more

Get your MBA in nine months, even if you’ve never taken a business course. Clarkson’s accelerated MBA program starts in August. You graduate in May.
Or get your MBA on your schedule.
[+]

Get your MBA in nine months, even if you’ve never taken a business course.

Clarkson’s accelerated MBA program starts in August. You graduate in May.

Or get your MBA on your schedule.

In addition to our nine-month program, we also offer options that take you from your first class to graduate in one calendar year, 18 months or two years.

Clarkson also offers MBA dual degrees in Engineering, Data Analytics, and Environmental Politics and Governance.

Your degree is also a valued business credential.

By earning the Clarkson MBA, our graduates demonstrate their uncompromising work ethic. They have mastered an advanced curriculum developed with industry and have proven their ability to solve real-world problems. From corporate offices to independent startups, they are sought after because they excel. If you’re ready to lead and take on new challenges, then it’s time to make the future you want….
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Hult International Business School

One-Year MBA

Hult International Business School
Campus

Full time
1 year
August 2019
USA
Boston
San Francisco
New York
Cambridge


+ 3 more

Learn core business knowledge, develop leadership skills, specialize, and experience business culture in up to three global cities—all in one year.
[+]

Transform your mindset and your career.

The world is changing but most business schools are not. The Hult MBA is different—through learning by doing, it will equip you with the instincts of an entrepreneur, a vision that transcends borders, and a desire to challenge the status-quo.

Learn from cases and subject matter experts who bring real-life business knowledge and leadership skills into the classroom. Our award-winning curriculum is the foundation of our new approach to business education.

You cannot learn business just sitting in a classroom. Hult’s unique curriculum teaches you theory and gives you opportunities to apply your learning in the real world.

Our intense multi-month Hult Business Challenge allows you to put theory into practice by solving real companies’ issues. Our leadership program is informed by consultation with 100 of the world’s leading CEOs, and our faculty has real-world business experience….
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Cornell Tech

The Johnson Cornell Tech MBA

Cornell Tech
Campus

Full time
1 year
September 2019
USA
New York

The Johnson Cornell Tech MBA combines the rigorous foundation of an MBA from the prestigious S.C. Johnson Graduate School of Management with an experiential immersion in technology and entrepreneurship at Cornell Tech in Manhattan.
[+]

Johnson Cornell Tech MBA

Technology is transforming every aspect of business — from marketing and customer relations to product development and supply chain — fueling a competitive environment that rewards the most innovative and entrepreneurial players. The Johnson-Cornell Tech MBA provides students the leadership, management and teamwork skills for dynamic tech companies and product teams.

A Complete Johnson MBA with a Technology Focus

The Johnson-Cornell Tech MBA is conferred by the Samuel Curtis Johnson Graduate School of Management at Cornell University, one of the top 15 business schools in the country, according to U.S. News & World Report. In addition to offering you the same foundational curriculum as Johnson’s other MBA programs, the Johnson Cornell Tech MBA provides:…
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Greenville University

Master of Business Administration 1-Year

Greenville University
Campus

Full time
1 year
September 2018
USA
Greenville

The 1 Year MBA degree is based on the technical skills needed in business administration. This program is designed to equip students with practical working knowledge and skills to enter and establish a foothold or advance in their workplace.
[+]

The One-Year MBA degree is based on the technical skills needed in business administration. This program is designed to equip students with practical working knowledge and skills to enter and establish a foothold or advance in their workplace. The One-Year MBA degree focuses on one area: Business Management. This program provides students with knowledge that can be applied to a variety of real-world business situations. By conveying practical knowledge and essential skills in such areas as management, accounting, economics, finance, strategy and marketing, the One-Year MBA prepares students for the demands of contemporary business leadership in a complex and uncertain business environment….
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Babson College

One-Year MBA

Babson College
Campus

Full time
1 year
May 2019
USA
Wellesley

The Babson One-Year MBA program is designed to allow you to leverage your existing academic foundation to complete your MBA in an accelerated format.
[+]

The Babson One-Year MBA program is designed to allow you to leverage your existing academic foundation to complete your MBA in an accelerated format.

Program Details:

Complete the program in 12 months.
Offered at Babson’s Wellesley campus.
Access to the same courses, experiential learning, and academic centers as the Two-Year MBA.

One-Year MBA students take their core courses as a cohort, allowing you and your classmates to form strong bonds and lifelong connections. In addition, you will further expand your network through electives taken with Two-Year MBA and Evening MBA students.

You will also participate in Signature Learning Experiences, one-of-a-kind courses that include simulations, action-learning projects, and self-reflection, letting you hone your entrepreneurial decision-making skills in real business situations….
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Brentwood University

Online MBA | One year | up to 50% Scholarship available

Brentwood University
Online

Part time
12 months
Open Enrollment
USA
Irvine

This program is Online only (Distance Learning).

The Online MBA program at Brentwood University is designed for professionals of all experience levels, some of whom may be looking to advance in their career and others to change the business field.
[+]

Cost: $12,400 or ask for up to 50% Scholarship This program is offered fully Online (Distance Learning) only. If you are looking for a prestigious and high ranked American Universities, like Harvard or MIT, Please do NOT apply for Brentwood University. This university is NOT a good choice for you. If you are looking for a flexible and not expensive university with a high quality of education, Brentwood University may be the best choice for you. Please apply. The MBA program at Brentwood University is designed for professionals of all experience levels, some of whom may be looking to advance in their career and others to change the business field. More importantly, the MBA program at Brentwood University is a preparation for students who want to start and operate their own business….
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Mercy College

Mercy MBA

Mercy College
Online

Full time
1 year
September 2018
USA
New York
Dobbs Ferry


+ 1 more

A Mercy MBA has a lot to offer, the potential for one-year completion with unique Turbo start, GMAT optional, executive faculty. Who will you be in one year? Let’s find out…
[+]

Who will you be in one year? Let’s find out.

A Mercy MBA has a lot to offer, the potential for one-year completion with unique Turbo start, GMAT optional, executive faculty.

You can’t have fear in business, which is good – because you don’t. You trust your gut, you aren’t afraid to try new things. Aren’t afraid to see how far you can climb. You have the grit and determination that it takes to succeed in business. And this is why you need a business degree.

Earn your MBA in the heart of the business capital of the world. In just one year, you can put the country’s premier business credential in your hands.

You will learn through hands-on-experiences giving you the opportunity to work on real projects, for real clients….
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Schiller International University - Florida, Heidelberg, Madrid, Paris

Master of Business Administration (MBA) ONLINE

Schiller International University – Florida, Heidelberg, Madrid, Paris
Online

Full time
10 – 12 months
Open Enrollment
USA
Tampa

This 36-credit Master of Business Administration (MBA) program requires coursework focusing on managerial aspects of finance, accounting, marketing, and management.
[+]

Master of Business Administration (MBA)

The 36-credit Business Administration MBA program requires coursework focusing on managerial aspects of finance, accounting, marketing and management. Case studies are designed to prepare students for managerial positions in small businesses as well as large multinational companies.

Students who wish to major in International Business, Management of Information Technology, or in International Hospitality and Tourism Management must complete additional required courses in their major.

MBA graduates are desirable in today’s market. Pursuing an online MBA degree will open up doors of opportunity and provide the necessary leverage for corporate advancement to those who possess them. As the current marketplace evolves and becomes more complex, many employers are choosing to balance their need to retain good employees with their need to place candidates with advanced-level knowledge and skills in managerial positions….
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Duquesne University

Full-time MBA with a Sustainability Focus

Duquesne University
Campus

Full time
1 year
September 2018
USA
Pittsburgh

The MBA Sustainability offers unparalleled leadership preparation.
[+]

Your Future, Unfolding

In just one year, you will magnify your career prospects as you master MBA essentials, gain real-world experience, conduct fieldwork abroad and interface with C-Suite executives. As our alumni say, “What a difference a year makes!”

Ranked 1st in the United States and 8th in the world for integrating sustainability, this full-time, accelerated MBA has been consistently recognized among the “global top 25” for financial, social and environmental stewardship since 2007. The cutting-edge learning experiences embody the United Nations’ Principles for Responsible Management Education (PRME).

The MBA Sustainability offers unparalleled leadership preparation. The curriculum is anchored by rigorous coursework in all business disciplines. What’s different? The cutting-edge sustainability courses, live consulting engagements, global study trips, cross-functional integration and capstone practicum that serve as proving ground for conducting Business from a Higher Perspective. …
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Point Loma Nazarene University

Daytime MBA (1-Year)

Point Loma Nazarene University
Campus

Full time
1 year
September 2018
USA
San Diego

The 12-month PLNU Daytime MBA is for recent college graduates who want an accelerated opportunity to build the four important drivers of initial career success—business knowledge, real-world experience, personal network, and purpose.

[+]

You know business is about people, progress, and purpose. It’s about being the catalyst for change in your community, country, and the world at large. Earn the business knowledge and experience you need to start achieving your purpose in life.

The 12-month PLNU Daytime MBA is for recent college graduates who want an accelerated opportunity to build the four important drivers of initial career success—business knowledge, real-world experience, personal network, and purpose.

MENTORING NETWORK

Close interaction with PLNU’s experienced faculty and your matched mentor from the business community provides you with rich, guiding relationships as well as valuable network connections.

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  • Next »

Affordable Schools

Because high quality education can be affordable

The 10 Most Affordable Business Schools

Are there affordable business schools? Yes, not all business schools charge as much as the renowned Harvard Business School. Our list of business schools includes schools with a solid reputation in academic standards and curricula which offer affordable tuition costs for your business degree. Some schools listed offer business programs online as well as on-campus.

College Costs

The tuition amount displayed is based solely on per credit hour for one academic year (unless otherwise specified). In addition, only average tuition and fees are offered, any added costs are not included. For further information, please refer to specific schools for additional pricing and fees.

Here is our list (in alphabetical order) of the 10 most affordable business schools:

Ball State University – Muncie, IN

Ball State University Miller College of Business offers many programs, from undergraduate majors and minors to graduate degrees and certificate programs. The school received accreditation from the AACSB.

Five academic departments provide all majors offering a total of 170 majors, 88 master’s degrees, 16 doctoral degrees, and four specialist programs. Miller College of Business provides online, and distance and continuing education programs.

Additional highlights include:

* The Miller College of Business ranked eighth among Up & Coming Colleges and Universities in 2011 by U.S. News & World Report.
* The college named one of the best universities in the Midwest by The Princeton Review for nine years.
* The Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching classified the college of business as a high research university, a top honor only given to the most prestigious universities in the nation.

Tuition:
Undergraduate: In-State $8600, Out-of State $23,900
Graduate: In-State: $8000, Out-of State $20,000

Chadron State College – Chadron, NE

The Chadron State College Business Academy received accreditation from the Accreditation Council for Business Schools and Programs (ACBSP), an agency recognized by the U.S. Department of Education.

The Chadron State College Business Academy provides a four-year course rotation including on-campus and online options as well as study abroad opportunities.

The academy offers undergraduate majors in Business Administration with options in areas such as Certified Public Accountant, Agribusiness and Business Information Systems as well as a MBA program.

Tuition:
Undergraduate: In-State: $2200 per semester, Out-of State: $2200 per semester
Graduate: In-State: $2000 per semester, Out-of State: $3600 per semester

Cleveland State University – Cleveland, OH

The Monte Ahuja (formerly the James J. Nance) College of Business Administration at Cleveland State University is considered a well-respected and affordable institution. The school has received accreditation from one of the premier business professional accrediting agencies, the Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business (AACSB).

The Monte Ahuja College of Business Administration offers degrees in undergraduate, graduate, MBA and certificates in professional studies. The undergraduate department offers degrees in areas such as Accounting, Finance and Marketing. Graduate level courses include programs such as an MBA in Healthcare Administration and Computer and Information Science.
Both the undergraduate and graduate departments offer online degree programs in addition to on-campus learning.

Additional highlights include:

* The college is ranked in the top ten nationwide in performance of its Certified Public Accountant graduate students.
* 88 percent of the full-time faculty has a Ph.D., D.B.A. or other terminal business degree.
* 62 percent of graduate students work in their field of study by the time they graduate.

Tuition:
Undergraduate: In-State: $4700, Out-of State: $6300
MBA: $35,500

East Carolina University – Greenville, NC

For more than 75 years, the East Carolina University School of Business has challenged students with the necessary education and business skills to think, act, and lead in today’s business world.

The East Carolina University School of Business continually receives AACSB accreditation and offers five undergraduate departments, a minor as well as graduate, MBA and MD/MBA programs.

The college also has an online program. In 2013 its online MBA program ranked 40 out of 148 among the best nationally in online education in a listing from U.S. News & World Report.

Tuition:
Undergraduate: In-State: $3900, Out-of State: $18,000
Graduate: In-State: $4200, Out-of State: $16,500

Emporia State University – Emporia, KS

Accredited by AACSB International, Emporia State University (ESU) School of Business offers degrees in undergraduate, graduate, MBA and certificate studies. AACSB International provides accreditation.

The program has important features such as state of the art Marketing Research Lab, a newly renovated technology lab and a wide range of professional internships.

Some of the concentrations include Accounting, Business Administration, Business Education, Computer Science and Marketing. Online, hybrid and on-campus courses are also available.

Additional highlights include:

* The average faculty to student ratio is 18:1.
* Students have access to career placement services.
* Business students received over $200,000 in scholarships in 2013-2014 to business students.

Tuition:
Undergraduate: In-State: $2800, Out-of State: $8600
Graduate: In-State: $4000, Out-of State: $7000

Fayetteville State University – Fayetteville, NC

Fayetteville State University School of Business, founded in 1971 offers undergraduate, graduate and MBA degrees in areas such as Accounting, Entrepreneurship, Healthcare Management and Information Systems. The school has received accreditation from the prestigious AACSB and ranked in the 2009 Best 296 Business Schools Princeton Review edition. It also offers an online completion program in accounting and general business administration.

Tuition:
Undergraduate: In-State $6300, Out-of State $17,000
Graduate: In-State: $6700, Out-of State $17,600

Iowa State University – Ames, IA

Established in 1984, the Iowa State Business School houses 3500 students and offers high-tech laboratories and state of the art technology providing real world experience in areas such as securities trading and market research.

The Iowa State College of Business has received accreditation from the prestigious AACSB International.

Iowa State Business School offers undergraduate, certificate and MBA programs in areas such as Finance, Management and Accounting as well as a PhD program in business and technology. The school also has online programs.

Additional highlights include:

* The School of Business PhD program is among the first inter-disciplinary programs in business in the country.
* According to the U.S. News & World Report, the program is also 59th among public universities and the graduate program ranked 70th out of 448 AACSB-accredited graduate programs, and 39th among public universities.

Tuition:
Undergraduate: In-State: $4100, Out-of State: $10,400
Graduate: In-State: $ 4700, Out-of State: $10,900

University of Alabama – Tuscaloosa, AL

With only 95 students accepted into the program, the University of Alabama Manderson Graduate School of Business consistently ranks one of the top MBA programs in the nation for its return on investment. The Princeton Review ranks Manderson’s facilities as the third best in the nation and the Online Business Master’s Programs Ranked #12 in the nation by U.S. News & World Report.

The Manderson Graduate School of Business offers Masters and PhD programs as well as an MBA and Executive MBA programs. An online program is also available.

Additional highlights include:

* Manderson School of Business has more than 50 online instructors with degrees offered for undergrads and grads.
* 82 percent of the Executive MBA alumni have received promotions upon graduation.
* Forbes Magazine ranks the Manderson MBA program in the top 10 percent nationwide.
* AACSB International has provided accreditation since 1929.

Tuition:
Undergraduate and Graduate: In-State: $ 4700, Out-of State: $11,900

University of Florida – Gainesville, FL

The University of Florida, Warrington College of Business Administration (WCBA) has a student body of 6300 students and three separate schools of undergraduate and graduate business programs. These programs encompass undergraduate, specialized masters, Ph.D. and executive programs of study.

The Warrington College of Business Administration also offers online programs. The AACSB provides accreditation.

Additional highlights include:

* The Center for Entrepreneurship & Innovation (CEI), is one of the first Master of Science degree in Entrepreneurship programs.
* UF MBA’s online program ranked #3 in the nation in the 2014 U.S. News and World Report Best Online Programs edition.
* Eight of its programs appear in Eduniversal’s Best Masters Rankings 2013/2014.

Tuition:
Undergraduate: In-State: $6200, Out-of-State: $28,200
Graduate: In-State: $12,600, Out-of-State: $29,600

University of Wyoming – Laramie, WY

Founded in 1899, The University of Wyoming College of Business originally had the name the University of Wyoming School of Commerce and Industry.

The program encompasses 7 undergraduate and 8 graduate degree programs and is home to over 1300 students. It houses academic departments including Accounting; Economics and Finance as well as Management and Marketing.

The college offers an MBA, a Ph.D. in Economics and Marketing, and online programs of study. The AACSB International provides accreditation.

Additional highlights include:

* The senior class of 2013 ranked in the 95th percentile in a standardized exit exam.
* Students in the business college’s The John P. Ellbogen Entrepreneurship Competition compete for $30,000 in cash and prizes to help fund the development of their business.
* The college has a $54 million facility with state-of-the-art technology where students can manage an actual seven-figure portfolio.

Tuition:
Undergraduate: In-State: $4400, Out-of State: $14,000
Graduate: In-State: $4900, Out-of State: $12,400
MBA: In-State: $10,000, Out-of-State: $ 15,900

Our list of the most affordable business schools can help you find a degree program with an economical price. Note: this is not a list of the cheapest business degrees or cheap business schools. The list mixes quality with cost. If you get a cheap but worthless degree, we wouldn’t call that affordable in the long run.

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Home > News > Admissions >

The Top 10 Most Affordable MBA Programs In The United States

Funding an MBA is a struggle for many MBA applicants. But US business schools offer strong ROI


  • Written by Robert Klecha

  • 19 Oct 2017

  • Admissions
There are many initiatives to help ease the financial pressures of business school

There are many initiatives to help ease the financial pressures of business school

Funding an MBA is expensive and a big cause for concern. GMAC’s 2017 Prospective Students Report revealed 52% of prospective MBA students are worried about not being able to afford the cost of an MBA, and 47% are troubled by large student loans.

With the opportunities generated by an MBA, return on investment (ROI) is often used as a justification for the high price of the degree. Still, for some, the initial price-tag acts as a barrier to higher business education.

There are however, many initiatives which help ease the financial pressures. These range from a variety of scholarships offered by different business schools to novel, pay-as-you-study initiatives like that offered by Edinburgh Business School, the Graduate School of Business of Heriot-Watt University in the UK.

For those studying abroad, organizations like Prodigy Finance —a borderless, peer-to-peer lending platform—provide international, post-graduate loans.

Student Loan Hero looked at 116 of the top American business schools to identify which programs are most financially affordable, taking into account the average debt of graduates, average starting salaries, and annual tuition fees.

Big-name institutions like UC Davis (ranked 48th for affordability) and Temple University’s Fox School Of Business  (ranked 27th) feature in the top 50.

Here’s Student Loan Hero’s top 10 most affordable MBA programs in the United States:

 

What to read next:

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What Does Bain & Company Want From Its MBA Hires In 2018?

Changes To The GMAT – Here’s What You Need To Know

Comments.

Andrew Chambers

Thursday 2nd November 2017, 03.15 (UTC)

Wouldn’t UOPeople at $200 per course qualify? I am studying there. It is quite reasonable and a cross between a MOOC design and traditional online distance course (lots of peer marking and peer evaluation, plus discussion, reading, and continuous assessment…

Post a comment

Leave a comment.


Fox School of Business – Temple University


Heriot Watt Edinburgh Business School

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  4. Principali interventi di vigilanza sul gruppo Monte dei Paschi di Siena

Principali interventi di vigilanza sul gruppo Monte dei Paschi di SienaNota di approfondimento trasmessa al Ministro dell’Economia e delle Finanze, Vittorio Grilli, in relazione all’audizione del 29 gennaio 2013, tenuta dal Ministro presso le Commissioni riunite Finanze di Camera e Senato

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L’azione di vigilanza della Banca d’Italia sul Monte dei Paschi di Siena negli ultimi anni è stata continua e di intensità crescente e si è articolata sulle principali aree rilevanti della gestione: l’adeguatezza del capitale, la prudente gestione della posizione di liquidità, i rischi finanziari e in particolare il rischio di tasso di interesse, le dinamiche del consistente portafoglio titoli di Stato italiani in larga parte a lungo termine, la qualità del credito, la verifica dei modelli interni di misurazione dei rischi di credito e operativi, l’adeguatezza del management e del sistema dei controlli interni. Nelle pagine seguenti i principali interventi di vigilanza su MPS vengono brevemente descritti in ordine cronologico.

  • A gennaio del 2008 MPS presenta alla Banca d’Italia l’istanza per l’acquisizione del gruppo Antonveneta (BAV) da ABN AMRO, nell’ambito di un accordo quadro con il Banco Santander. Il costo dell’operazione ammonta a circa 9 mld (di cui 6 mld di avviamento). Per MPS è previsto un impegno di liquidità – stimato in circa 9,5 mld – volto a rimborsare (entro 12 mesi dalla conclusione del contratto) le linee di credito in precedenza concesse da AMRO a BAV. Secondo la normativa vigente, l’esborso viene valutato in relazione all’adeguatezza patrimoniale e in base alla sua sostenibilità finanziaria da parte di MPS.
  • L’istanza contiene un articolato piano di rafforzamento patrimoniale, necessario a mantenere il rispetto dei coefficienti patrimoniali. È previsto un aumento di capitale per 6 mld, di cui 5 mld riservati agli azionisti e 1 mld riservato a JP Morgan a servizio di un’emissione di titoli convertibili in azioni del Monte (cosiddetti FRESH); ulteriori 2 mld vengono raccolti attraverso l’emissione di strumenti obbligazionari.
  • A marzo del 2008 la Banca d’Italia comunica a MPS che il perfezionamento dell’operazione è subordinato alla realizzazione delle predette misure di rafforzamento patrimoniale. Con riferimento all’aumento di capitale riservato a JP Morgan e alla prevista emissione dei titoli FRESH, la Vigilanza richiede a MPS di assicurare che le relative strutture contrattuali siano coerenti con la natura di qualità primaria assegnata allo strumento e di garantire il pieno trasferimento a terzi del rischio di impresa.
  • A maggio del 2008 MPS comunica di aver completato il piano di patrimonializzazione richiesto dalla Banca d’Italia. Sulla base della documentazione fornita, la Banca d’Italia avvia un’approfondita analisi dello schema contrattuale dell’operazione FRESH, al fine di verificare l’effettiva rispondenza dell’assetto negoziale ai requisiti di vigilanza.
  • Il confronto tecnico con MPS si protrae fino a settembre del 2008, quando la Banca d’Italia rappresenta formalmente a MPS gli elementi ostativi al pieno computo nel patrimonio di qualità primaria della banca delle azioni al servizio del FRESH.
  • MPS trasmette alla Banca d’Italia una nuova struttura contrattuale dell’operazione FRESH redatta secondo le prescrizioni della stessa Banca d’Italia. Quest’ultima nell’ottobre del 2008 ne prende atto. A tale riguardo ulteriori elementi emergeranno successivamente (cfr. infra).
  • Nella seconda metà del 2009 la Vigilanza intensifica il vaglio delle condizioni di liquidità del gruppo MPS. Al principio del 2010 la banca viene convocata presso la Vigilanza in tre occasioni, a cadenza serrata, il 5 e il 30 marzo e il successivo 21 aprile 2010. Dal 3 al 7 maggio la Vigilanza si reca presso la banca per un ciclo di incontri informativi. Emerge una forte incidenza di operazioni di repo strutturati su BTP a lungo termine, che determinano l’assorbimento di elevati margini di liquidità (per effetto delle crescenti richieste di marginazione(1)), in presenza di un peggioramento delle condizioni di mercato. La situazione della banca viene giudicata di scarsa chiarezza e potenzialmente critica.
  • La normativa di vigilanza della Banca d’Italia è esigente sui presidi necessari per le attività finanziarie complesse. Le norme, emanate nel 2004, richiedono alle banche che operano nel comparto dei derivati creditizi – in cui rientrano le transazioni concluse da MPS – una capacità di valutazione giornaliera dell’andamento dei prezzi dei singoli prodotti e del complessivo profilo di rischio del portafoglio. Più in generale, stabiliscono che le banche che non sono in grado di misurare e gestire correttamente i rischi associati a strumenti finanziari complessi devono astenersi dalla negoziazione di questi strumenti.
  • Al fine di acquisire in loco ulteriori, necessari elementi conoscitivi, si dispone l’avvio immediato di una verifica ispettiva mirata alla gestione della liquidità e al comparto dei rischi finanziari del gruppo MPS.
  • Gli accertamenti ispettivi si svolgono tra l’11 maggio e il 6 agosto, e mettono in luce tensioni nella situazione di liquidità e una elevata esposizione, non esattamente misurata, a rischi di tasso. Si rileva inoltre l’irrigidimento degli investimenti in titoli pubblici, il cui valore risulta assai cospicuo (circa 25 mld). In particolare la condizione di liquidità, caratterizzata da elevata volatilità dei saldi, risente soprattutto di due operazioni di repo strutturati su titoli di Stato effettuate rispettivamente con Deutsche Bank e Nomura per un valore nominale complessivo di circa 5 miliardi di euro, con profili di rischio non adeguatamente controllati e valutati dalla struttura di MPS né compiutamente riferiti all’Organo Amministrativo.
  • Con riferimento all’attività del veicolo Santorini, dall’ispezione non emergono elementi probanti per avviare una procedura sanzionatoria o una segnalazione all’Autorità Giudiziaria. Oltre al significativo impatto sulla liquidità, viene riscontrato un problema relativo alle modalità di registrazione contabile (valutazione al costo) adottate da MPS e validate dalla società di revisione. Tali modalità destano riserve da parte della Vigilanza circa la rappresentazione in bilancio dell’operazione, che non ne rileva il fair value. Fermo restando che la Banca d’Italia non ha poteri in materia di valutazioni di bilancio, in considerazione della complessità dell’operazione e dei possibili spazi interpretativi concessi dalle regole contabili IAS, la Banca d’Italia decide nel novembre del 2011 di sottoporre la questione a specifici approfondimenti contabili in collaborazione con le altre Autorità di settore anche al fine di predisporre una nota di chiarimenti all’intero sistema bancario. Attesa la natura particolarmente complessa delle operazioni, si è aperta una discussione non ancora conclusa.
  • Nella seconda metà del 2010, stanti anche i primi riferimenti dell’accertamento ispettivo, appare evidente la necessità di procedere quanto prima ad un rafforzamento patrimoniale della banca. Una formale richiesta in tal senso viene formulata a fine agosto 2010. In successivi incontri tenuti nell’autunno 2010, viene discussa l’entità dell’aumento di capitale. In particolare, la Vigilanza chiede che l’importo dell’aumento inizialmente prospettato dalla banca sia elevato per tenere conto dell’esposizione al rischio sovrano e dell’esigenza di rafforzare la tenuta della banca in occasione degli esercizi di stress test da condurre a livello europeo.
  • Il rapporto ispettivo viene consegnato a MPS nel corso di una riunione del consiglio di amministrazione, alla presenza del collegio sindacale, il 29 ottobre 2010. In quella sede la Vigilanza tra l’altro ribadisce l’indifferibile esigenza di realizzare quanto prima un consistente aumento di capitale e di rafforzare il sistema dei controlli interni. L’aumento di capitale verrà poi effettivamente realizzato tra l’aprile e il luglio del 2011 con un incremento del patrimonio di qualità primaria di complessivi 3,2 mld, di cui 2 mld versati in contanti dai soci.
  • A fronte delle richieste di intervento e delle contestazioni, gli organi aziendali delle banche devono rispondere ai rilievi ispettivi della Banca d’Italia e comunicare a quest’ultima i provvedimenti già assunti al fine di rimuovere le carenze individuate dalla Vigilanza e quelli pianificati. In sede di risposta ai rilievi MPS indica: l’adozione di un modello organizzativo del comparto Finanza uniforme per tutto il gruppo MPS; l’assegnazione di nuovi compiti di controllo e supervisione al Comitato Finanza sulle scelte di investimento delle varie entità del gruppo (alle controllate estere viene data la precisa indicazione di sospendere qualunque attività di trading); modifiche nella funzione di risk management, al fine di migliorare la misurazione e rendere più rigoroso il controllo dei rischi finanziari. MPS dichiara che i repo strutturati in titoli di Stato trovano ratio economica nel sostegno alle strategie di carry trade e nell’intenzione di assumere profili di rischio-rendimento mitigati nell’ambito della complessiva posizione della banca. Per tali ragioni e in considerazione del rispetto dei limiti operativi in essere, le stesse non erano state sottoposte all’organo amministrativo, ma approvate in sede di Comitato Finanza e dal Direttore Generale.
  • Dopo l’ispezione del 2010 la Vigilanza rafforza ancora il vaglio sulle tre principali aree di problematicità emerse a seguito dell’ispezione:
    • Il rischio di liquidità: viene imposto un monitoraggio giornaliero dei saldi liquidi, da inviare con la stessa frequenza alla Vigilanza; vengono richiesti un rafforzamento dei processi di governo e la rilevazione interna del rischio di liquidità; viene avviato un processo di continua verifica del funding plan con il management. Tali interventi fanno emergere disfunzioni e carenze che talvolta inficiano l’affidabilità dei dati: il 22 settembre 2010, nel corso di una conference call, la Vigilanza richiede al Direttore Generale di MPS, dr. Vigni, di firmare personalmente le informazioni sulla posizione di liquidità da inviare giornalmente agli uffici della Banca d’Italia;
    • Il rischio di tasso di interesse: la Vigilanza richiede al risk management di inviare un apposito report periodico; viene inoltre chiesto di considerare lo specifico profilo di rischio di tasso della banca nelle valutazioni sull’adeguatezza patrimoniale;
    • Il rischio sovrano: l’evoluzione del portafoglio titoli di Stato viene sottoposta a costante monitoraggio. Le continue verifiche della qualità dei dati fanno emergere carenze organizzative e procedurali che formano oggetto di formale intervento dapprima nel marzo 2011; in assenza di risultati tangibili, la banca viene nuovamente interessata con lettera di intervento del maggio 2012; le risposte insoddisfacenti della banca inducono ad avviare una procedura sanzionatoria nei confronti dei precedenti responsabili aziendali;
    • Ampia è la collaborazione della Banca d’Italia con le autorità del Regno Unito (FSA), degli Stati Uniti (Federal Reserve), di Hong Kong (Hong Kong Monetary Authority) al fine di monitorare la posizione di liquidità delle filiali MPS di Londra, New York e Hong Kong.
  • Sulle specifiche materie oggetto del rapporto ispettivo, tra la fine dell’accertamento e l’inizio del successivo, si tengono sette incontri con la banca. Viene inviata agli organi sociali una specifica lettera d’intervento.
  • Dall’estate del 2011 il brusco peggioramento delle condizioni di mercato (la crisi del debito sovrano si estende all’Italia) determina un nuovo, forte indebolimento della posizione di liquidità di MPS, soprattutto a seguito dell’ampliamento dei margini da corrispondere a garanzia delle due operazioni repo sopra menzionate. La Vigilanza tramite interventi sia formali sia informali richiama i vertici della banca sull’assoluta necessità e urgenza di assumere tutte le iniziative idonee a ripristinare congrui margini di liquidità.
  • Nel settembre 2011 la Vigilanza, per valutare con precisione l’idoneità delle iniziative adottate da MPS, avvia con urgenza una seconda ispezione presso la banca. L’accertamento, iniziato a fine settembre, assicura anche – in condizioni di mercato tese – un presidio diretto sulla gestione della liquidità del gruppo MPS, essenziale al fine di monitorare la situazione in stretto raccordo con gli uffici centrali di Vigilanza.
  • L’ispezione indica, sin dalle prime fasi, che le problematiche in precedenza rilevate dalla Vigilanza non sono state di fatto superate e conferma che il gruppo MPS rimane connotato da carenze organizzative significative e da un assetto manageriale inadeguato.
  • La posizione di liquidità della banca si fa più fragile. Nell’autunno 2011 si rendono necessarie da parte della Banca d’Italia operazioni di prestito titoli al fine di consentire alla banca di ampliare il ricorso al rifinanziamento della Banca Centrale Europea.
  • Data la difficile situazione emersa a seguito della nuova ispezione, il 15 novembre 2011 il Direttorio della Banca d’Italia convoca a Roma i massimi vertici di MPS e della Fondazione al fine di metterli di fronte alle proprie responsabilità e richiede a MPS una rapida, netta discontinuità nella conduzione aziendale.
  • Successivamente MPS risolve il rapporto con il Direttore Generale, dr. Vigni. Il 12 gennaio 2012 il dr. Viola viene nominato DG. Al momento della risoluzione del rapporto al dr. Vigni viene riconosciuto un compenso di circa 4 mln. Nel luglio 2012 la Banca d’Italia, ritenendo che tale compenso non sia giustificato dalle circostanze, avvia approfondimenti specifici successivamente sfociati in una formale lettera di intervento e in una procedura sanzionatoria nei confronti degli organi di amministrazione e controllo dell’epoca, responsabili della decisione.
  • Il 19 gennaio 2012 il Governatore della Banca d’Italia invia a MPS una lettera in cui vengono ribaditi i rilievi mossi dal Direttorio nel corso dell’incontro del 15 novembre. Alla luce delle carenze e delle tensioni rilevate, viene richiesto a MPS un piano straordinario di interventi.
  • L’ispezione presso MPS si chiude il 9 marzo 2012, dopo la normalizzazione della posizione di liquidità del Gruppo conseguente, tra l’altro, alla partecipazione di MPS alle due operazioni di rifinanziamento a tre anni effettuate dalla BCE. Il rapporto ispettivo solleva pesanti rilievi, contestando alla banca le gravi carenze emerse nella gestione della liquidità. Viene avviata la procedura sanzionatoria nei confronti degli amministratori, dell’ex Direttore Generale, dei sindaci e dei componenti il Comitato Direttivo per carenze nell’organizzazione e nei controlli interni e per violazione della normativa in materia di contenimento dei rischi finanziari. Questo procedimento è in fase di conclusione.
  • Nel rapporto ispettivo vengono nuovamente esaminate le operazioni in repo strutturati menzionate in precedenza. Viene contestato a MPS di non aver sottoposto, anche a seguito dei rilievi che la Banca d’Italia aveva mosso in occasione della precedente ispezione, tali operazioni a revisione critica in termini di costi/opportunità. Vengono inoltre contestate irregolarità segnaletiche sfociate in sottostime delle esposizioni derivanti dai repo. Si trasmettono alla Consob appositi riferimenti che approfondiscono la transazione con Nomura, mettendo in luce l’operazione di ristrutturazione della nota “Alexandria” in contropartita con la stessa Nomura e approfondendo le modalità del trattamento contabile dell’operazione realizzata da MPS. Contemporaneamente, il rapporto ispettivo viene trasmesso all’Autorità Giudiziaria.
  • In occasione dell’assemblea del 27 aprile 2012 la massima parte dei membri del Consiglio di Amministrazione e del Collegio sindacale vengono sostituiti. L’avvocato Mussari non ripresenta la candidatura per il ruolo di Presidente.
  • Nel giugno del 2012 i nuovi organi aziendali approvano il nuovo business plan, contenente le iniziative di carattere straordinario richieste dalla Banca d’Italia il 19 gennaio.
  • Il piano, tra l’altro, conferma l’impegno di raggiungere – entro il 30.06.2012 – il target di capitale fissato dall’EBA (9% di core tier 1 più un buffer eccezionale e temporaneo a fronte della detenzione di titoli di Stato) con la raccomandazione del dicembre 2011, funzionale ad aumentare la fiducia dei mercati nella capacità del sistema bancario di resistere a shock avversi. La Banca Monte dei Paschi di Siena, pur in possesso di un patrimonio ampiamente superiore a quello previsto dalla normativa vigente, evidenzia al 30.9.2011 uno shortfall rispetto al target fissato nella raccomandazione EBA di 3,3 mld di euro. Lo shortfall è interamente riconducibile alla valutazione ai prezzi di mercato dei titoli di Stato italiani detenuti in portafoglio (circa 25 mld); non considerando il buffer per rischio sovrano richiesto dall’EBA (3,5 mld), il Core Tier 1 ratio della banca al 30.9.11 era pari al 9,2%. Il piano di rafforzamento patrimoniale predisposto da MPS non consente di colmare interamente lo shortfall. La Banca d’Italia pertanto chiede al Ministero dell’Economia l’adozione di una misura di backstop pubblico, così come previsto dalla decisione del Consiglio Europeo dei Capi di governo del 26 ottobre 2011. MPS ha quantificato, nel novembre 2012, l’ammontare dell’intervento nell’importo massimo previsto dalla legge, pari a 2 mld; la Banca d’Italia ha espresso parere favorevole.
  • Nei mesi seguenti vengono sostituiti gran parte dei dirigenti di alto livello con ruoli chiave.
  • Lo scorso 17 luglio 2012 MPS fornisce le controdeduzioni ai rilievi ispettivi del 2012. In via generale – avendo riguardo al complessivo contenuto delle constatazioni ispettive (fragile equilibrio finanziario, carenze organizzative e nei controlli) – MPS richiama gli obiettivi del piano industriale 2012 – 2015 allora da poco approvato, fra i quali assume centralità il riequilibrio finanziario del gruppo, e le iniziative ivi previste per il rafforzamento della posizione di liquidità e dell’assetto organizzativo e dei controlli. Con riferimento alle operazioni Deutsche Bank e Nomura, MPS comunica di aver cercato – al fine di ridurre l’assorbimento di liquidità di tali investimenti finanziari – di mitigare gli obblighi di collateralizzazione negoziando con le controparti possibili modifiche alle clausole contrattuali in materia. A fronte di talune modifiche ai contratti accordate da Deutsche Bank, le negoziazioni con Nomura sono abbandonate da MPS per i rilevanti impatti sul conto economico che esse avrebbero comportato.
  • Con lettera del 15 ottobre 2012, MPS comunica alla Vigilanza che il 10 ottobre i nuovi amministratori di MPS hanno rinvenuto un contratto con data 31 luglio 2009 tra Banca Monte dei Paschi di Siena e Nomura, attinente alla ristrutturazione del titolo Alexandria. Si tratta di un contratto “quadro”, che comprova il collegamento tra la ristrutturazione del titolo Alexandria e le operazioni di repo eseguite con Nomura e fornisce elementi circa le reali finalità delle operazioni. Il contratto non era stato esibito agli ispettori della Banca d’Italia responsabili degli accertamenti condotti sul comparto finanza di MPS nel 2010 e nel 2011. L’indisponibilità degli elementi documentali non aveva in precedenza consentito alla Vigilanza di individuare con certezza la finalità complessiva delle diverse componenti dell’operazione. Le nuove informazioni contribuiscono anche a rafforzare le riserve in precedenza avanzate sull’inquadramento dell’operazione Santorini.
  • Alla luce di questi fatti, la Banca d’Italia chiede a MPS una ricostruzione analitica e puntuale della vera architettura della complessiva operazione configurata dal documento contrattuale trasmesso. La Banca d’Italia chiede inoltre a MPS una valutazione degli effetti, presenti e futuri, che l’operazione avrà sulla situazione economica e patrimoniale sia della banca sia del gruppo, nonché sulle modalità di contabilizzazione delle predette operazioni, anche con riferimento alla correttezza della rappresentazione fornita nei bilanci pregressi.
  • Anche in questo caso, la Banca d’Italia immediatamente informa la Procura precisando che il contratto è stato celato agli ispettori di vigilanza sia nell’ispezione 2010 sia in quella del 2011.
  • Con e-mail del 28 dicembre, in attesa di fornire la risposta formale alla richiesta di informazioni avanzata dalla Banca d’Italia, MPS trasmette alla Vigilanza una bozza di informativa al Consiglio di Amministrazione contenente primi riferimenti sulle operazioni Nomura/Alexandria, Deutsche Bank/Santorini. Viene inoltre menzionata una transazione di minore impatto denominata “Nota Italia”, per la quale viene riferito di errori compiuti in sede di valutazione dell’operazione circa l’individuazione delle componenti di rischio.
  • Nella stessa e-mail viene inoltre trasmessa una trascrizione della conference call intercorsa nel luglio 2009 tra esponenti di MPS e Nomura, relativa all’operazione con quest’ultima controparte. Viene infine precisato che l’accordo quadro relativo all’operazione Alexandria non sarebbe stato trasmesso ai revisori contabili. Con diversi comunicati stampa (28 novembre 2012, 17 gennaio 2013, 22 gennaio 2013, 23 gennaio 2013) la Banca informa il mercato di avere in corso approfondimenti in merito alle richiamate operazioni strutturate poste in essere negli anni precedenti.
  • A partire dalla fine del 2011 la Banca d’Italia è stata informata dalla Procura di Siena delle indagini in corso ed è in costante contatto con i magistrati inquirenti ai quali è stata fornita ogni collaborazione e documentazione, coordinandosi anche la Consob e la Guardia di Finanza. L’azione di accertamento dell’effettiva natura delle operazioni del MPS si è quindi basata anche sugli sviluppi delle indagini penali che hanno messo in luce fatti non altrimenti riscontrabili.
  • In tale ambito anche l’effettiva rispondenza della struttura contrattuale adottata per il FRESH alle indicazioni della Banca d’Italia e le informazioni all’epoca comunicate da MPS all’Organo di Vigilanza sono oggetto di analisi da parte sia della Banca d’Italia sia delle competenti Autorità Giudiziarie, in stretta collaborazione. In relazione a tali fatti la Banca d’Italia ha avviato nel dicembre 2012 un procedimento sanzionatorio.
  • Nel complesso, la Banca MPS è stata sottoposta a un’intensa attività di vigilanza che ha consentito di individuare e interrompere comportamenti anomali a elevata rischiosità inducendo la banca a rafforzare i presidi organizzativi e di controllo. La situazione aziendale è tuttora seguita con attenzione dalla Vigilanza, in una serrata interazione con il nuovo management aziendale, impegnato nell’attuazione di un ampio piano di ristrutturazione volto a innalzare il grado di efficienza e a ripristinare adeguati livelli redditività.
  • A seguito degli interventi effettuati, la situazione di liquidità è migliorata. Il capitale è ampiamente adeguato rispetto ai vigenti limiti regolamentari; l’azione di vigilanza ha portato ad incrementare il coefficiente patrimoniale (total capital ratio) del gruppo MPS dal 9,3% di fine 2008 al 15,4% a settembre 2012 (a fronte di un minimo regolamentare dell’8%). L’intervento pubblico ora richiesto è funzionale al perseguimento dei più elevati obiettivi indicati dall’EBA nella risoluzione del dicembre 2011 e all’attuazione del piano di ristrutturazione.

(1) Tali contratti prevedono un meccanismo di continuo adeguamento del collaterale posto a garanzia dell’operazione al variare del prezzo del collaterale stesso.

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The SWIFT global payments innovation initiative. February, 2017


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1 The SWIFT global payments innovation initiative February, 2017

SWIFT scrl is the global provider

2 SWIFT scrl is the global provider of secure financial messaging services

3 40 years serving the global financial community 1980: First Asian countries connect to SWIFT 1986: SWIFT launches value-added services 1987: SWIFT launches securities services 2001: SWIFTNet goes live 2004: ISO introduction 2008: SWIFT launches Alliance Lite 2009: SWIFT launches Innotribe 24 years serving India s financial community 70s 80s 90s 00s 10s Now serving India s domestic financial markets 1973: Swift is born 1976: First operating centre opens 1977: SWIFT goes live first message sent 1979: North America connects to SWIFT 1992: Interbank File Transfer goes live 1994: Customer support centre opens in Hong Kong 1997: SWIFT technology centre opens in the United States 2012: SWIFT India joint venture established 2015: SWIFT India approved to provide domestic messaging services, and platform is live

The correspondent banking
Customers and regulators
service Banks rationalize
banking networks End
demanding Domestic
Regulatory intensity and
rationalization Digital
disruptive solutions

4 The correspondent banking model is under pressure Customers and regulators push for better payments service Banks rationalize their correspondent banking networks End customers increasingly demanding Domestic payments going real-time Regulatory intensity and increasing costs Network rationalization Digital innovators offer new disruptive solutions Disintermediation Enhanced value proposition GTR

5 Corporate expectations vs. cross-border bank services Uncertainty after payment initiation Predictability of the payment reaching the beneficiary account Inconsistencies between amount sent and received Fee transparency, including FX costs and deducts Cumbersome handling of exceptions and investigation Payment traceability and automation (STP) Incomplete or missing remittance information Simple reconciliation of invoices and payments GTR

6 SWIFT gpi: secure, faster, traceable & transparent cross-border payments Your bank Intermediary bank 2 Traceable End-to-end payment tracking gpi a1700db1-90b d8-6309c5c34a3d Invoice Your company SWIFTgpi Rulebook $ 1 Faster payments Same day use of funds* Beneficiary s bank Beneficiary 3 Transparent fees Deducts and FX 4 Full remittance data Unaltered reconciliation info GTR 2017 *Within the time zone of the receiving gpi member 6

7 SWIFT gpi concept Messaging technologies Accessible by any bank Still reach non-initiative banks Core transaction banks SLA rulebook Reaching any bank Tracker Directory Observer SWIFT gpi overview – December 2016 Value-added product suite

Payments tracker in the cloud (bank view)* Transparency of total fees and time One-glance status overview Unique, end-end tracking number Track path, in real-time Details of banks along

8 Payments tracker in the cloud (bank view)* Transparency of total fees and time One-glance status overview Unique, end-end tracking number Track path, in real-time Details of banks along the chain Central payments database, hosted at SWIFT Updated via MT199 or API Data consumption via GUI, via MT199 (push) or via API (pull) GTR 2017 *The gpi service may vary across banks 8

9 Objective: deliver a better customer payment experience Before Traditional correspondent banking 1. Slow, can take multiple days 2. Expensive, multiple deducts 3. Secure and compliant 4. No transparency on cost and time 5. Convenient and ubiquitous 6. Open and inclusive (global reach) After The SWIFT global payments innovation (gpi) initiative 1. Fast(er) (start with same day ) 2. Higher efficiency & less intermediaries 3. Secure and compliant 4. Transparent, with payments tracking 5. Convenient and ubiquitous 6. Open and inclusive (global reach) The objective is to first fix these key pain points GTR

10 The SWIFT global payments innovation (gpi) initiative Delivering the future of cross-border payments Proactively respond to evolving customer needs for more speed, transparency and traceability in cross-border payments New multilateral rulebook, initially focused on business-to-business payments Building on the foundation that banks provide in security, resiliency and compliance Delivering real-world innovation: building on existing platform, embrace new technologies along a strategic roadmap Global reach, collaborative industry-wide initiative, organised by SWIFT Open model, participation based on operational quality Fast Transparent Traceable Secure Resilient Compliant Real-world innovation Global reach Open model GTR

11 SWIFT gpi customer credit transfer Value proposition for corporates Key features Benefits for a corporate Faster, same day use of funds* Grow international business Transparency of fees Enhance supplier relationships End-to-end payments tracking Remittance information transferred unaltered Increase treasury efficiencies (*) within the timezone of the receiving gpi member GTR

SWIFT gpi customer credit transfer Value proposition for banks Reduce Costs Delight Customers Grow Business Increase operational efficiency in your customer claims and investigations management

12 SWIFT gpi customer credit transfer Value proposition for banks Reduce Costs Delight Customers Grow Business Increase operational efficiency in your customer claims and investigations management Ability to do cash forecasting and optimise your liquidity management Enhance customer satisfaction by offering speed and transparency in cross-border payments Build a reputation of leader in global payments innovation Retain and attract new customers Sell payments services to third parties GTR

SWIFT gpi initiative banks 1. ABN AMRO Bank 2. ABSA Bank 3. Alfa-Bank 4. Australia and New Zealand Banking Group* 5. Axis Bank 6. Banco Bilbao Vizcaya Argentaria 7. Bangkok Bank 8.
Banco Santander 16. Banco de Crédito del Peru 17. Banco do Brasil 18. Banorte 19. Banque Européenne d Investissement 20. Barclays* 21. Bidvest Bank 22. BNP Paribas* 23. Budapest Bank 24. CaixaBank 25.

13 SWIFT gpi initiative banks 1. ABN AMRO Bank 2. ABSA Bank 3. Alfa-Bank 4. Australia and New Zealand Banking Group* 5. Axis Bank 6. Banco Bilbao Vizcaya Argentaria 7. Bangkok Bank 8. Bank of America Merrill Lynch* 9. Bank of China* 10. Bank of New York Mellon* 11. Bank of Nova Scotia 12. Bank of the Philippine Islands 13. Bank of Tokyo-Mitsubishi UFJ* 14. Banco Bradesco 15. Banco Santander 16. Banco de Crédito del Peru 17. Banco do Brasil 18. Banorte 19. Banque Européenne d Investissement 20. Barclays* 21. Bidvest Bank 22. BNP Paribas* 23. Budapest Bank 24. CaixaBank 25. Canadian Imperial Bank of Commerce 26. China Construction Bank 27. China Merchants Bank 28. Citibank* 29. Commonwealth Bank of Australia 30. Commerzbank 92 initiative banks Channelling payments into 224 countries Representing 71% of all SWIFT cross-border payments 50% Europe, Middle East, Africa 31. Crédit Agricole 32. Crédit Mutuel-CIC Banques 33. Credit Suisse 34. CTBC Bank 35. Danske Bank* 36. DBS Bank* 37. Deutsche Bank 38. DNB Bank 39. Ecobank 40. E.Sun Commercial Bank 41. Erste Group Bank 42. Fifth Third Bank 43. FirstRand Bank 44. Handelsbanken 45. Helaba Landesbank Hessen- Thüringen 46. HSBC Bank Regional representation of SWIFT gpi banks 30% Asia Pacific 20% Americas 47. ICICI Bank 48. IndusInd Bank 49. Industrial and Commercial Bank of China* 50. ING Bank* 51. Intesa Sanpaolo* 52. Intl. FCStone 53. Investec 54. Itaù Unibanco 55. JPMorgan Chase Bank* 56. Kasikornbank 57. KBC Bank 58. KEB Hana Bank 59. Lloyds Bank 60. Mashreq Bank 61. Maybank 62. Mizuho Bank* 63. National Australia Bank 64. Natixis 65. Nedbank 66. Nordea Bank* 67. Oversea-Chinese Banking Corporation 68. PKO Bank Polski 69. Promsvyazbank 70. Rabobank 71. Raiffeisen Bank International 72. Resona Bank 73. Royal Bank of Canada* 74. Royal Bank of Scotland 75. Sberbank 76. Siam Commercial Bank 77. Silicon Valley Bank 78. Skandinaviska Enskilda Banken 79. Société Générale 80. SpareBank Standard Bank of South Africa 82. Standard Chartered Bank* 83. Sumitomo Mitsui Banking Corporation* 84. Swedbank 85. Tadhamon International Islamic Bank 86. TMB Bank 87. Toronto-Dominion Bank 88. UBS 89. U.S. Bank 90. UniCredit* 91. United Overseas Bank 92. Wells Fargo* GTR 2017 (*) Pilot bank 13

14 SWIFT & Trade Digitization GTR

15 How SWIFT supports Trade digitization MT798 FileAct MT7xx UCP 600 URDG 758 ISP98 MT798 FileAct Buyer MT798 MT 7xx MT798 Seller Buyer s bank(s) Seller s bank(s) Streamline the L/C, Guarantees and open account trade transactions Automate workflow of the trade life cycle to reduce cost Accelerate handling of discrepancies and settlement Move to paperless transaction processing Enhance visibility on credit lines GTR

16 Win-win benefits for corporates and banks Benefits Corporates Banks Consolidated Trade finance positions and increased visibility Single multi-bank & multi-business channel Dematerialization & standardization Re-use bank-to-bank FIN MT7xx data fields with Corporates Re-use of FileAct for any needed documents to be included in the information flows Overall cost reduction Improved straight-through processing end-to-end Improved overall transaction time Only one interface development to integrate to Bank back office (no need for vendor-specific interfaces, procedures, contracts, formats) Corporates and banks can make independent decisions on technical platforms and implementations GTR

17 Questions? Contact: GTR

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[Keeper] My Keeper guide, updated and combined





#1

Welcome to Manaas’ Keeper guide, lifted from the old forums and updated for 2018.

Contents

  1. Breed
    **Atrox
    **Nanomage
    **Opifex
    **Solitus

  1. Skills and IP distribution

  1. Equipment
    **Armour
    **Back
    **Shoulder
    **Misc and Utilities
    **Weapons

  1. Perks

1. BREED

Atrox: big fella

Advantages:

  1. Green Stam
  2. Green Strength
  3. More HP
  4. Others

STAMINA

  • Your 2he skill is 40% dependant on stamina, and having green stamina means you can increase your stamina with very minimal ips and your breed cap for stamina is higher. This means your 2he skill will be a be cheaper and higher than all the other breeds.

  • Also a lot of decent armour for keepers are stamina dependent so atroxes have an easier time equipping these armours.

  • body dev. which means you have cheaper and higher HP.

  • Brawling, a skill required for many of the best keeper weapons. It’s a great attack to have since it has a chance of stunning your opponent and does pretty decent damage as well.

  • Run speed, being faster is never bad eh

STRENGTH

  • Your 2he skill is 60% dependant on strength which means that you get cheaper and higher 2he skill. Armour again is strength dependant such as OFAB and combined mercs.

  • brawling again, for better brawls

  • runspeed again

  • sensory improvement is 20% dependent on strength, this can be useful for casting your self buffs for weapon skills, evades etc.

HP

How do you die? Your HP is reduced to 0, so having more HP means it takes longer for you to die, simple yet very effective way of extending your lifespan. Atroxes also get 4 HP for every body dev. point they raise so base HP will be a lot higher than the other breeds.

Others

Silken Legchopper gloves : 40 2he in glove slot, great for twinking on weapons earlier.
Tiny Spider Band goes in your wrist slot where not many other items can add 2he here


Disadvantages

  1. Intelligence
  2. Psychic
  3. Sense

Intelligence

  • Keepers now have melee energy as a supported weaponline and intelligence contributes to x% (need to check) to it. This means that an Atrox Keeper will have the lowest melee energy skill.

  • All your nanoskills and also computer literacy are highly dependant on int (80-100%) having dark blue int means it is very expensive in ips to keep this ability up to date, you may find you can’t cast the nano your level allows.

  • Computer literacy almost certainly will limit the quality of your ncu and therefore your ncu space as well.

  • Treatment and First Aid are also half dependant on int and this means the implants and symbiants will be slightly more difficult to equip.

Psychic

  • Keeper auras cost a lot of nanopoints and since nanopool is 70% depedant on psychic and it is dark blue for troxes then you may find you will have trouble casting your auras at the required levels without some sort of nanocost reducing buff or lend nano buff from traders and MAs.

  • Dimach is also psychic based which means you will get a lower heal out of it compared to other breeds

Sense

This will be a limiting factor in equipping symbiants as sense is required on quite a few of the support ones (brain especially)

Sense also affects a wide number of skills such as fastattack, evades, initiatives etc which are all useful to a keeper. Unfortunately as an Atrox these skills will be lower.



NANOMAGE: actually good now

Advantages

  1. Intelligence
  2. Psychic
  3. Nanopool
  4. Others

Intelligence

Green intelligence means you have a cheaper ip cost in raising your intelligence as well as having a higher breed cap. As a result you get some skills that are naturally higher such as:

Melee energy
Comp lit
nanoskills
treatment

Psychic

Main contributer to nanopool, will have an easier time getting enough max nano to cast those massive costing auras, also skills like dimach, initiatives, evades and nanoskills are dependent on this ability.

Nano

Nanomages get 4 points of max nano every nanopool point they raise which means you have to spend less ip on that dark blue skill to be able to cast your nanos. This also gives you an advantage should you decide to recast your auras while fighting to gain their effects faster.

Others

You can equip Shades of lucubration for a nice meaty 30 int/psy and also the nanomage unique sleeves: De’Valos Sleeves which add 30 to all nanoskills and also 30 ncu each (poor mans arithmetic armour)

The Expensive Kevlar Vest of Professor Jones is another great item should you need more nanoskills.

Nanomage alien tank is a solid back item.

For 201+ you get a handy absorb and solid HUD item with the Nanomage endurance booster

Tiny spider band goes in your head slot, while there are better items that buff 2he there, it’s still quite good.

Sockdolager – I mean, if you want…


Disadvantages

  1. Strength
  2. Agility
  3. HP

Str

Will hold you back if you decide to go for the 2he route. Your 2he will be lower than other breeds.
Other skills affected will be things like Brawl and runspeed

Agility

Agility is present on a lot of symbiants as well as being one of the more common ability requirements for implants. Getting in those symbiants and implants will be a little harder because of this.

HP

Nanomages only get 2 points of hp per point of body dev. so will have the lowest base hp compared to other breeds.



OPIFEX: Skinny fella, evades more than he hits

Advantages

  1. Agility
  2. Sense
  3. Other

Agility

  • Core skill that pops up in various different parts of a Keeper’s toolset: evades and inits being 2 and also our fastattack is 60% dependant on agility so you will generally find that an Opi keeper will have higher fastattack than other breeds.

  • This ability also has another advantage, you can make a lot of custom implants that are dependant on agility and since agility is so easy to buff it means you can equip a lot higher quality implants

  • Treatment is also a bit higher due to high agility

Sense

Not such an important skill for a keeper but your evades, inits, fastattack and treatment are dependant on this ability partially.

Opifexes have a cheaper and higher agi/sense so it makes sense to equip armour that requires it. Armour such as apocalypse leather / omni steel-ribbed , predator and crawler / prowler armour which adds to evades and inits, helping the opifex keeper to survive.

Other

You get some pretty interesting opifex only items to play with:

Blackpack more inits and evades
Supporting Carbonan Holster for some strength boosting
Yuan chi’s boots lovely runspeed


Disadvantages

Stamina

Stamina is such an important skill for keepers, as most armour later on the game will require it (especially OFAB) it also crops up in a lot of main keeper skills such as 2he and brawl.



SOLITUS: All-rounder

No advantages or disadvantages to speak of here, unless you count being equally good at everything as an advantage. Solitus do get a lot of nice stuff at higher levels though so don’t completely shelf this breed . For the first 100 levels however you will probably find you will be behind atrox (and maybe even opifex) a bit but not by much. At least you won’t have any troubles casting your nanos and you can put on any type of armour you wish with relative ease. IP consumption is also a little on the high side due to all abilities being blue. It’s worth it in the end though so keep slugging at it!

Interesting Solitus only items:

Tangleblade alternative to cookie cutter weapons
Average gloves buffs a multitude of things, averagely
Plaster circuit excellent for twinking on higher weapons
Modifed Aggression enhancer 6% reflect projectile not too shabby
Tiny spider band this goes on your head

2. SKILLS AND IP DISTRIBUTION

Since the 16.3 Patch, FC have introduced an automatic ip distributer that works until level 20: don’t use it, it puts ips into places that you don’t necessarily need at such a low level, these are the skills you should mainly focus on:

Abilities

  • Agility: max this every level, important implants and some armour depend on this

  • Strength: for 2he Max it, its a core keeper ability

  • Stamina: for 2he Same as above, a few implants can be made to require stamina and it is the easier skill to buff at low levels

  • Intelligence: All nanoskills, melee energy and comp lit are dependent on this so unless you don’t want to cast any nanos or have no ncu (not recommended) then you should max this skill.

  • Sense: If you are an opi then maybe you can afford this skill, but for any other breed you can easily survive without sense in the first 100 levels

  • Psychic: Nanomages may raise this if they REALLY want (since its green for them) but even then its probably one of the Keeper’s lowest priority skills in the first 100 levels.

Skills

  • Brawling: If you have a weapon with brawling, raise this just enough so you can equip it with buffs. Otherwise leave it alone until you have spare ips for more important skills

  • Dimach: Most keeper weapons have this special, now been changed to a 5minute cooldown (used to be one hour!) and heals you for an amount based on skill. 3000 heal at 1000 skill and 10500 at 2000.

  • Riposte: only raise if the weapon requires it, afaik it still does nothing right now.

  • Melee energy: max if you’re using a melee energy weapon

  • 2he: Max it if you’re using a 2he weapon.

  • Fastattack: Our main special I like to keep mine either just enough to cap the recharge or just max it if I can’t. You’re fine just raising it enough to equip a weapon though.

  • Deflect: gives you a 0-10% chance to halve incoming damage based on skill. Not worth it at lower levels so just ip enough to equip weapons.

  • Melee init: I tend to max this as most of the weapons from 1-100 have relatively slow attack speeds, having high init also means you can start going defensive while doing the same damage.

  • Nano init: Keepers don’t have “active” nanos, however sometimes you might want to recast an aura mid-fight to gain the benefits immediately. Up to you if you need this

  • Dodge-rng: I would start putting IPs into this as you near level 100 (or if you start RK mission early then put it in earlier) because you will start to want to do tokens around then and RK mobs use ranged weapons.

  • Evade Clsc: I max this as it’s our cheapest evade skill and most mobs in SL that you will meet from level 1-100 check against this.

  • Duck exp: I leave this well alone, you have more important places to put IPs in. Get some later when you’ve got tons of spare ip.

  • Nano Resist: Leave this alone, unless you are making a pvp twink. Useful later one to resist mob nukes and hostile nanos

  • Run Speed: Being able to run fast is nice, but it isn’t essential, if you have spare ips or are willing to sacrifice something else then you can put a few ips into this.

  • Computer literacy: Just because it’s dark blue doesn’t mean you have to be scared of it, very important skill for all professions so max it.

  • Bio Met: used in all our auras, only raise when you have an aura you want to cast

  • Psy Mod: Same as above, but this skill is also used in our weapon buffs.

  • Sense imp: Look above

  • Time&space: Used in our procs for extra damage, again raise only when required.

  • First Aid: its a cheap skill and has saved me a few times when soloing, I maxed mine but you can neglect it if you stay in teams a lot

  • Treatment: Arguably the most important skill in game, max at all times to equip better symbiants/implants



3. Equipment

Armour

Armour is the last thing you should worry about but it is still quite important, during your first 20 levels you can probably get away by wearing a medsuit or the starter armour: Sundance Armour After that then ACs start to matter. The mechanics of Armour Class work like this:
10 AC reduces 1 damage of the selected type
e.g. a mob hits me for 10 melee damage with 0 melee AC
If i then have 80 melee AC then it will only hit me for 2 damage.

Level based armour choices:

1+

Newcomer’s armour is great honestly, it’s got decent AC and adds ncu and first aid AND max health. Plus you can add patches to it to make them sided and look even cooler.
Miy’s tank – drops from various mobs including cyborgs, medusas, entvines, etc

60+

Crawler Armour – made with items from crypt of home
Prowler Armour – crawler armour from crypt of home upgraded
Tier 1 – Elysium/Scheol catacombs
Apoc / Omni-steel – apoc recipe // omni steel recipe
Predator Armour – predator bosses in Elysium
OFAB non upgraded is now not NODROP
Alien Armour

150+

Clan knight’s / Omni Knight’s – Inferno temple bosses
Reactive / Proactive – Swamp hags YESDROP NOW
Tier 2 – Adonis/Penumbra Catacombs
Living Dragonflesh – Tarasque
Goddess armour – Dark ruins

200+

Bellum Badonis various Inferno Dyna bosses
Tier 3 omni / clan Glyphs drop in Pandemonium

216+

Enhanced dustbrigade drops from the dustbrigade instances “Inside the Machine” and “The Outpost”
(Awakened) Beast Armour drops from beast, items to upgrade drop in Pyramid of Home
Dustbrigade operative from “dust it off” daily given by the Arbiter



Back armour

A little low in choice for the first 100 levels but here are a few options:

Vagabond Cloak : Adds 35 aad and -35 concealment, easy drop from vagabonds in subway

Exarch Robe Drops off any “Exarch” mob in totw

Guardian Tank Armour : Very rare drop from “Guardian of Tomorrow” in ToTW. Get it if you want but far from essential, exarch robe is better in many ways.

Alien Tank Armour : Parts to make this are obtained in sector 10

Large Sparkle Plate any accessories shop in a Fair Trade

Neleb’s Nano-Master Robe bit unconventional but actually has solid ACs and can also let you cast your buffs earlier

Infantry chest cover sided monsters in Shadowlands. Named mobs will drop it more often.

100+

Cloak of the reanimated ■■■ fantastic bits of armour though you’ll need some help farming the parts. The gladiator and Jester ones being the most interesting for us keepers. Find out how to get these here

Ancient container old school newbie back armour, not great but not bad

Modified Notucomm tradeskill process here . Great bit of evades

Robust Backpack Tarasque drop, very expensive.

Dustbrigade air filtration system bought with freelancer points from the Arbiter’s office

200+

Notum tank armour from Mercenaries, little bit outdated but still decent.

OFAB Solid bit of gear bought for 30k Victory points or from another player

Dustbrigade operative covering from the “dust it off” daily given by the Arbiter

(Awakened) Burden of competence drops from the beast and upgrade from the Pyramid of Home

SSC Bastion (gauntlet)



Shoulderpads

1+

Newbie shoulderpads these can be bought in Arete and they are side locked. Neutrals can wear both. Right clicking them cycles them between +5 aao, aad or -1% nanocost

Withered Flesh drops off multiple named mobs in ToTW.

Barrow strength drops off multiple named mobs in ToTW.

Nball Extremely nice if you’re going down the melee energy route, drops from Torrith the Ancient from qls 80-150 and also during some special events up to ql 200

Whistle-box only useful qls drop during halloween from uncle pumpkinheads

50+

Sided shoulderpads short quest to get some pretty decent shoulders

Virral Triumvirate Egg guide on how to make here

125+

(Imbued) Globe of clarity drops from Tarasque the the uprade from Administrator De Valos

Globe of sufferance another less popular drop from Tara

MotR big brother to Barrow Strength, drops from bosses on the third floor of Inner Sanctum

Corrupted Flesh Same deal but for withered flesh

Intelligent Titan plasteel often overlooked but some ACs and melee init isn’t bad. Dyna drops

150+

Vanya/Cama pearl of right brain drops from Vanya/Cama in Penumbra temples – left shoulder only

185+

Icy shoulderpads line base parts obtainable from Alapaa, upgrade to superior drops from DB1 instance into the machine.

201+

SSC Bastion (Gauntlet) right

SSC Bastion (Gauntlet) left

OFAB



Misc and Utilities

NCU is such an important part of a keeper, your auras will require lots of ncu and at the moment, self-buffing myself at level 220 requires almost 600 ncu. Max intelligence, max comp lit, and then with a few buffs and comp lit implants see what the highest ql ncu you can fit in are.

Utilities are just the little extras that can make all the difference. For the first 100 levels there are only a few that are worth mentioning.

The melee fighter manuals that drop off SL mobs adds 1-4 2he/me/brawl/fastattack/dimach depending on which guide you get, you aren’t going to get anything better at this level so you might as well use them.

For hud1, a garden or sanctuary key should sit in there for the majority of the time (sanct preferably) as they add treatment and in the case of sanct keys: ncu and inits, very important.

For hud 2 you can grab a Sided earring: Clan or omni

If you are neut you can wear both but I recommend you use only one and use a sanct key in hud 1 and a either a Lost Eden HUD:

LE HUD3

or crit increaser in hud 3 such as:

Viral targeting subunit drops from alien generals from city raids
Targeting scope-Vision Enhancer rare mission chest loot

or for a more defensive approach:

Eremite Macro Sensor as it has a 1 crit decrease which means mobs/players have 1 less % chance of critting you. This sounds pathetic but it is surprisingly effective in pvm.



Weapons

Not many choices for melee energy in the early levels unfortunately unless you’re a nanomage. Fair Trade shops however now sell the -000 weapons which do include the following:

E-Blade

These can be found at qls from 1-300 so this can work until you get some of the better ME weapons.

You MAY also find Kyr energy hammers or Energy Swords while running your alien dailies as well. These are slightly better than the E-blades but not significantly.

This also applies to 2HE but there are far better options below:

1+

Kyr Sword drops from aliens in Arete up to about ql 13

Subway wolf drop from various mobs in the subway

Guard of the Gentleman available in shops in SL and drops from sided SL mobs. Great until about ql 40

Sword of Sir Tristram same method to obtain as above, average speed and damage throughout all qls

25+

Energy Scythe drops off various named mobs in ToTW

Frost Scythe drops from legionnaires in ToTW

Stygian Desolator drop from Aztur in ToTW

Zweihander dyna drop, mixed weapon skills between 2he and ME

Sockdolagar dyna drop NANOMAGE ONLY

Odum blade drops from alien generals from city raids up to ql 300. Mixed weapon skills but good damage.

Sword of Greek Hero drops from catacomb bosses as well as Lord of the Void. ql 1-300. Not great

60+

Panther recently and rightfully had keeper added to the tag. Fantastic weapon all the way into your late tl4

Corpse Cutter dyna drop

Tangleblade dyna drop CLAN SOLITUS ONLY

Sword of the Illuminated Drops from Mooching Dryad in Adonis. Very rare

Sword staff \ Naginata sided weapons that drop from opposing sided mobs. Slow but with good damage. Sword staff is especially interesting as it’s one of the only melee weapons with a 5m range. These can be further upgraded (sword staff loses it’s range when you do) with specials and eventually turn spirits

Duplex sword / Maiden Naginata turn spirit upgrades for the above weapons.

Bio-energy shield made with a Viral weapon upgrade and an Energy shield rolled from RK mission.

125+

Frost-Bound Reaper drops from third floor bosses in Inner Sanctum. This one sure brings back memories :’)

Abyssal Desecrator Drops from Hezak in Inner Sanctum

Permafrost another drop from Hezak, arguably better than the Abyssal Desecrator

Excalibur drops from Tuq’usk in Inferno -upgradable to ql 300

Edge of Tarasque drops from Tarasque -upgradable to ql 300

Sword of lord X not sure where these drop. Rumours say from RK team bosses.

130+

Blade of Khione Penumbra Xan quest. Note that you will need to do the progression quest if you’re not level 160 to get to Penumbra.

151+

Special Edition Kyr Sword drops in sec7

Special Edition Kyr Energy Rapier drops in sec7

200+




Beginner question on classes





#2

Thank you for porting and updating this! I’ve been a fan of your guide for a long time. My keeper was built with this is a framework, though obviously I dropped the keeper off a cliff a few times…

I’ve used Large Sparkle-Plate as a fill in after level 60 or so. It has AC holes and no major h4xx stats, but does one thing great: 100 Body Dev for something you pay a few measly hundred thousand creds for in ICC’s Accessories shop (IIRC; it’s one of the terminals next to the GMI ones) with less comp lit required than a six slot belt.







#3

Wow, never knew this even existed! I think the 100 nanopool is arguably even more important haha







#4

Goes to show how much I’m still not thinking like a keeper player. :stuck_out_tongue:







#5

What advice do you have about endgame weapons? Really trying to figure out where to go







#6

Been in China for past week so sorry about the long wait for reply :D. The easiest weapon for endgame is probably pride of xan. Usually weapons are left rotting on beast and you can even get the corrupted version fairly easily from the pyramid of home.

The weapon upgrades usually go for free as well.

If you’re melee energy then dusk/dawn are your default choices and are pretty easy to obtain







#7

What if you happen to be gimpy, not be able to enter Pande, and have little access to a raid? … asking for a friend…

Also, maybe it would help to have links to some equipment builds?







#8

I think only auno has equipment build things now and they’re missing a lot of items. Other weapon options would be a kyr sword 112, that’s buyable and relatively cheap now. Or you could go ofab, farm from BS







#9

Keeper dimach is now 5min constant recharge, not 1h as your guide says. Its way more useful than once in a hour panic button now.

And for 201+ NM keepers, 5k extra absord from Dreadloch Endurance Booster – Nanomage Edition







#10

Cheers will edit that in, can finally complete it now aoitems is back up as well :smiley:







#11

Dimach heal reduction only applies to Dimach skill between 2001 & 3000. Heal used to scale from 10501 to 30000, now it scales from 10501 to 15000. Upping a Dimach more than just enough to equip a weapon, can give an benefit depending of an play style and free ip’s

Dimach Heal
250 748
500 1499
1000 3000
1500 6747







#12

I’ll keep the description more neutral then. Personally I don’t think any heal on a 5min cd is worth much but it can be useful to others.







#13

Really lovely guide btw, i love it :slight_smile: . I love keepers too. 5 keepers on 2 paid acc’s :stuck_out_tongue: Didnt want to sound too negative about your writings, I just want to make excellent guide to even better :wink:

If you would add to armour part about ofab sleeves & chest having really good 2he buff for all level ranges?

Keep up with good work







#14

Does anyone know where to get the sword of lord mordeth or sir Galahad?







#15

I’ve not personally seen these swords ingame but research has told me that they come from RK mission bosses







#16

Both the name and the patch number (15.0.1) strongly suggest shadowlands and not RK missions.
Auno comments suggest it drops from Lord Galahad/Lord Mordeth.




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[Keeper] My Keeper guide, updated and combined





#1

Welcome to Manaas’ Keeper guide, lifted from the old forums and updated for 2018.

Contents

  1. Breed
    **Atrox
    **Nanomage
    **Opifex
    **Solitus

  1. Skills and IP distribution

  1. Equipment
    **Armour
    **Back
    **Shoulder
    **Misc and Utilities
    **Weapons

  1. Perks

1. BREED

Atrox: big fella

Advantages:

  1. Green Stam
  2. Green Strength
  3. More HP
  4. Others

STAMINA

  • Your 2he skill is 40% dependant on stamina, and having green stamina means you can increase your stamina with very minimal ips and your breed cap for stamina is higher. This means your 2he skill will be a be cheaper and higher than all the other breeds.

  • Also a lot of decent armour for keepers are stamina dependent so atroxes have an easier time equipping these armours.

  • body dev. which means you have cheaper and higher HP.

  • Brawling, a skill required for many of the best keeper weapons. It’s a great attack to have since it has a chance of stunning your opponent and does pretty decent damage as well.

  • Run speed, being faster is never bad eh

STRENGTH

  • Your 2he skill is 60% dependant on strength which means that you get cheaper and higher 2he skill. Armour again is strength dependant such as OFAB and combined mercs.

  • brawling again, for better brawls

  • runspeed again

  • sensory improvement is 20% dependent on strength, this can be useful for casting your self buffs for weapon skills, evades etc.

HP

How do you die? Your HP is reduced to 0, so having more HP means it takes longer for you to die, simple yet very effective way of extending your lifespan. Atroxes also get 4 HP for every body dev. point they raise so base HP will be a lot higher than the other breeds.

Others

Silken Legchopper gloves : 40 2he in glove slot, great for twinking on weapons earlier.
Tiny Spider Band goes in your wrist slot where not many other items can add 2he here


Disadvantages

  1. Intelligence
  2. Psychic
  3. Sense

Intelligence

  • Keepers now have melee energy as a supported weaponline and intelligence contributes to x% (need to check) to it. This means that an Atrox Keeper will have the lowest melee energy skill.

  • All your nanoskills and also computer literacy are highly dependant on int (80-100%) having dark blue int means it is very expensive in ips to keep this ability up to date, you may find you can’t cast the nano your level allows.

  • Computer literacy almost certainly will limit the quality of your ncu and therefore your ncu space as well.

  • Treatment and First Aid are also half dependant on int and this means the implants and symbiants will be slightly more difficult to equip.

Psychic

  • Keeper auras cost a lot of nanopoints and since nanopool is 70% depedant on psychic and it is dark blue for troxes then you may find you will have trouble casting your auras at the required levels without some sort of nanocost reducing buff or lend nano buff from traders and MAs.

  • Dimach is also psychic based which means you will get a lower heal out of it compared to other breeds

Sense

This will be a limiting factor in equipping symbiants as sense is required on quite a few of the support ones (brain especially)

Sense also affects a wide number of skills such as fastattack, evades, initiatives etc which are all useful to a keeper. Unfortunately as an Atrox these skills will be lower.



NANOMAGE: actually good now

Advantages

  1. Intelligence
  2. Psychic
  3. Nanopool
  4. Others

Intelligence

Green intelligence means you have a cheaper ip cost in raising your intelligence as well as having a higher breed cap. As a result you get some skills that are naturally higher such as:

Melee energy
Comp lit
nanoskills
treatment

Psychic

Main contributer to nanopool, will have an easier time getting enough max nano to cast those massive costing auras, also skills like dimach, initiatives, evades and nanoskills are dependent on this ability.

Nano

Nanomages get 4 points of max nano every nanopool point they raise which means you have to spend less ip on that dark blue skill to be able to cast your nanos. This also gives you an advantage should you decide to recast your auras while fighting to gain their effects faster.

Others

You can equip Shades of lucubration for a nice meaty 30 int/psy and also the nanomage unique sleeves: De’Valos Sleeves which add 30 to all nanoskills and also 30 ncu each (poor mans arithmetic armour)

The Expensive Kevlar Vest of Professor Jones is another great item should you need more nanoskills.

Nanomage alien tank is a solid back item.

For 201+ you get a handy absorb and solid HUD item with the Nanomage endurance booster

Tiny spider band goes in your head slot, while there are better items that buff 2he there, it’s still quite good.

Sockdolager – I mean, if you want…


Disadvantages

  1. Strength
  2. Agility
  3. HP

Str

Will hold you back if you decide to go for the 2he route. Your 2he will be lower than other breeds.
Other skills affected will be things like Brawl and runspeed

Agility

Agility is present on a lot of symbiants as well as being one of the more common ability requirements for implants. Getting in those symbiants and implants will be a little harder because of this.

HP

Nanomages only get 2 points of hp per point of body dev. so will have the lowest base hp compared to other breeds.



OPIFEX: Skinny fella, evades more than he hits

Advantages

  1. Agility
  2. Sense
  3. Other

Agility

  • Core skill that pops up in various different parts of a Keeper’s toolset: evades and inits being 2 and also our fastattack is 60% dependant on agility so you will generally find that an Opi keeper will have higher fastattack than other breeds.

  • This ability also has another advantage, you can make a lot of custom implants that are dependant on agility and since agility is so easy to buff it means you can equip a lot higher quality implants

  • Treatment is also a bit higher due to high agility

Sense

Not such an important skill for a keeper but your evades, inits, fastattack and treatment are dependant on this ability partially.

Opifexes have a cheaper and higher agi/sense so it makes sense to equip armour that requires it. Armour such as apocalypse leather / omni steel-ribbed , predator and crawler / prowler armour which adds to evades and inits, helping the opifex keeper to survive.

Other

You get some pretty interesting opifex only items to play with:

Blackpack more inits and evades
Supporting Carbonan Holster for some strength boosting
Yuan chi’s boots lovely runspeed


Disadvantages

Stamina

Stamina is such an important skill for keepers, as most armour later on the game will require it (especially OFAB) it also crops up in a lot of main keeper skills such as 2he and brawl.



SOLITUS: All-rounder

No advantages or disadvantages to speak of here, unless you count being equally good at everything as an advantage. Solitus do get a lot of nice stuff at higher levels though so don’t completely shelf this breed . For the first 100 levels however you will probably find you will be behind atrox (and maybe even opifex) a bit but not by much. At least you won’t have any troubles casting your nanos and you can put on any type of armour you wish with relative ease. IP consumption is also a little on the high side due to all abilities being blue. It’s worth it in the end though so keep slugging at it!

Interesting Solitus only items:

Tangleblade alternative to cookie cutter weapons
Average gloves buffs a multitude of things, averagely
Plaster circuit excellent for twinking on higher weapons
Modifed Aggression enhancer 6% reflect projectile not too shabby
Tiny spider band this goes on your head

2. SKILLS AND IP DISTRIBUTION

Since the 16.3 Patch, FC have introduced an automatic ip distributer that works until level 20: don’t use it, it puts ips into places that you don’t necessarily need at such a low level, these are the skills you should mainly focus on:

Abilities

  • Agility: max this every level, important implants and some armour depend on this

  • Strength: for 2he Max it, its a core keeper ability

  • Stamina: for 2he Same as above, a few implants can be made to require stamina and it is the easier skill to buff at low levels

  • Intelligence: All nanoskills, melee energy and comp lit are dependent on this so unless you don’t want to cast any nanos or have no ncu (not recommended) then you should max this skill.

  • Sense: If you are an opi then maybe you can afford this skill, but for any other breed you can easily survive without sense in the first 100 levels

  • Psychic: Nanomages may raise this if they REALLY want (since its green for them) but even then its probably one of the Keeper’s lowest priority skills in the first 100 levels.

Skills

  • Brawling: If you have a weapon with brawling, raise this just enough so you can equip it with buffs. Otherwise leave it alone until you have spare ips for more important skills

  • Dimach: Most keeper weapons have this special, now been changed to a 5minute cooldown (used to be one hour!) and heals you for an amount based on skill. 3000 heal at 1000 skill and 10500 at 2000.

  • Riposte: only raise if the weapon requires it, afaik it still does nothing right now.

  • Melee energy: max if you’re using a melee energy weapon

  • 2he: Max it if you’re using a 2he weapon.

  • Fastattack: Our main special I like to keep mine either just enough to cap the recharge or just max it if I can’t. You’re fine just raising it enough to equip a weapon though.

  • Deflect: gives you a 0-10% chance to halve incoming damage based on skill. Not worth it at lower levels so just ip enough to equip weapons.

  • Melee init: I tend to max this as most of the weapons from 1-100 have relatively slow attack speeds, having high init also means you can start going defensive while doing the same damage.

  • Nano init: Keepers don’t have “active” nanos, however sometimes you might want to recast an aura mid-fight to gain the benefits immediately. Up to you if you need this

  • Dodge-rng: I would start putting IPs into this as you near level 100 (or if you start RK mission early then put it in earlier) because you will start to want to do tokens around then and RK mobs use ranged weapons.

  • Evade Clsc: I max this as it’s our cheapest evade skill and most mobs in SL that you will meet from level 1-100 check against this.

  • Duck exp: I leave this well alone, you have more important places to put IPs in. Get some later when you’ve got tons of spare ip.

  • Nano Resist: Leave this alone, unless you are making a pvp twink. Useful later one to resist mob nukes and hostile nanos

  • Run Speed: Being able to run fast is nice, but it isn’t essential, if you have spare ips or are willing to sacrifice something else then you can put a few ips into this.

  • Computer literacy: Just because it’s dark blue doesn’t mean you have to be scared of it, very important skill for all professions so max it.

  • Bio Met: used in all our auras, only raise when you have an aura you want to cast

  • Psy Mod: Same as above, but this skill is also used in our weapon buffs.

  • Sense imp: Look above

  • Time&space: Used in our procs for extra damage, again raise only when required.

  • First Aid: its a cheap skill and has saved me a few times when soloing, I maxed mine but you can neglect it if you stay in teams a lot

  • Treatment: Arguably the most important skill in game, max at all times to equip better symbiants/implants



3. Equipment

Armour

Armour is the last thing you should worry about but it is still quite important, during your first 20 levels you can probably get away by wearing a medsuit or the starter armour: Sundance Armour After that then ACs start to matter. The mechanics of Armour Class work like this:
10 AC reduces 1 damage of the selected type
e.g. a mob hits me for 10 melee damage with 0 melee AC
If i then have 80 melee AC then it will only hit me for 2 damage.

Level based armour choices:

1+

Newcomer’s armour is great honestly, it’s got decent AC and adds ncu and first aid AND max health. Plus you can add patches to it to make them sided and look even cooler.
Miy’s tank – drops from various mobs including cyborgs, medusas, entvines, etc

60+

Crawler Armour – made with items from crypt of home
Prowler Armour – crawler armour from crypt of home upgraded
Tier 1 – Elysium/Scheol catacombs
Apoc / Omni-steel – apoc recipe // omni steel recipe
Predator Armour – predator bosses in Elysium
OFAB non upgraded is now not NODROP
Alien Armour

150+

Clan knight’s / Omni Knight’s – Inferno temple bosses
Reactive / Proactive – Swamp hags YESDROP NOW
Tier 2 – Adonis/Penumbra Catacombs
Living Dragonflesh – Tarasque
Goddess armour – Dark ruins

200+

Bellum Badonis various Inferno Dyna bosses
Tier 3 omni / clan Glyphs drop in Pandemonium

216+

Enhanced dustbrigade drops from the dustbrigade instances “Inside the Machine” and “The Outpost”
(Awakened) Beast Armour drops from beast, items to upgrade drop in Pyramid of Home
Dustbrigade operative from “dust it off” daily given by the Arbiter



Back armour

A little low in choice for the first 100 levels but here are a few options:

Vagabond Cloak : Adds 35 aad and -35 concealment, easy drop from vagabonds in subway

Exarch Robe Drops off any “Exarch” mob in totw

Guardian Tank Armour : Very rare drop from “Guardian of Tomorrow” in ToTW. Get it if you want but far from essential, exarch robe is better in many ways.

Alien Tank Armour : Parts to make this are obtained in sector 10

Large Sparkle Plate any accessories shop in a Fair Trade

Neleb’s Nano-Master Robe bit unconventional but actually has solid ACs and can also let you cast your buffs earlier

Infantry chest cover sided monsters in Shadowlands. Named mobs will drop it more often.

100+

Cloak of the reanimated ■■■ fantastic bits of armour though you’ll need some help farming the parts. The gladiator and Jester ones being the most interesting for us keepers. Find out how to get these here

Ancient container old school newbie back armour, not great but not bad

Modified Notucomm tradeskill process here . Great bit of evades

Robust Backpack Tarasque drop, very expensive.

Dustbrigade air filtration system bought with freelancer points from the Arbiter’s office

200+

Notum tank armour from Mercenaries, little bit outdated but still decent.

OFAB Solid bit of gear bought for 30k Victory points or from another player

Dustbrigade operative covering from the “dust it off” daily given by the Arbiter

(Awakened) Burden of competence drops from the beast and upgrade from the Pyramid of Home

SSC Bastion (gauntlet)



Shoulderpads

1+

Newbie shoulderpads these can be bought in Arete and they are side locked. Neutrals can wear both. Right clicking them cycles them between +5 aao, aad or -1% nanocost

Withered Flesh drops off multiple named mobs in ToTW.

Barrow strength drops off multiple named mobs in ToTW.

Nball Extremely nice if you’re going down the melee energy route, drops from Torrith the Ancient from qls 80-150 and also during some special events up to ql 200

Whistle-box only useful qls drop during halloween from uncle pumpkinheads

50+

Sided shoulderpads short quest to get some pretty decent shoulders

Virral Triumvirate Egg guide on how to make here

125+

(Imbued) Globe of clarity drops from Tarasque the the uprade from Administrator De Valos

Globe of sufferance another less popular drop from Tara

MotR big brother to Barrow Strength, drops from bosses on the third floor of Inner Sanctum

Corrupted Flesh Same deal but for withered flesh

Intelligent Titan plasteel often overlooked but some ACs and melee init isn’t bad. Dyna drops

150+

Vanya/Cama pearl of right brain drops from Vanya/Cama in Penumbra temples – left shoulder only

185+

Icy shoulderpads line base parts obtainable from Alapaa, upgrade to superior drops from DB1 instance into the machine.

201+

SSC Bastion (Gauntlet) right

SSC Bastion (Gauntlet) left

OFAB



Misc and Utilities

NCU is such an important part of a keeper, your auras will require lots of ncu and at the moment, self-buffing myself at level 220 requires almost 600 ncu. Max intelligence, max comp lit, and then with a few buffs and comp lit implants see what the highest ql ncu you can fit in are.

Utilities are just the little extras that can make all the difference. For the first 100 levels there are only a few that are worth mentioning.

The melee fighter manuals that drop off SL mobs adds 1-4 2he/me/brawl/fastattack/dimach depending on which guide you get, you aren’t going to get anything better at this level so you might as well use them.

For hud1, a garden or sanctuary key should sit in there for the majority of the time (sanct preferably) as they add treatment and in the case of sanct keys: ncu and inits, very important.

For hud 2 you can grab a Sided earring: Clan or omni

If you are neut you can wear both but I recommend you use only one and use a sanct key in hud 1 and a either a Lost Eden HUD:

LE HUD3

or crit increaser in hud 3 such as:

Viral targeting subunit drops from alien generals from city raids
Targeting scope-Vision Enhancer rare mission chest loot

or for a more defensive approach:

Eremite Macro Sensor as it has a 1 crit decrease which means mobs/players have 1 less % chance of critting you. This sounds pathetic but it is surprisingly effective in pvm.



Weapons

Not many choices for melee energy in the early levels unfortunately unless you’re a nanomage. Fair Trade shops however now sell the -000 weapons which do include the following:

E-Blade

These can be found at qls from 1-300 so this can work until you get some of the better ME weapons.

You MAY also find Kyr energy hammers or Energy Swords while running your alien dailies as well. These are slightly better than the E-blades but not significantly.

This also applies to 2HE but there are far better options below:

1+

Kyr Sword drops from aliens in Arete up to about ql 13

Subway wolf drop from various mobs in the subway

Guard of the Gentleman available in shops in SL and drops from sided SL mobs. Great until about ql 40

Sword of Sir Tristram same method to obtain as above, average speed and damage throughout all qls

25+

Energy Scythe drops off various named mobs in ToTW

Frost Scythe drops from legionnaires in ToTW

Stygian Desolator drop from Aztur in ToTW

Zweihander dyna drop, mixed weapon skills between 2he and ME

Sockdolagar dyna drop NANOMAGE ONLY

Odum blade drops from alien generals from city raids up to ql 300. Mixed weapon skills but good damage.

Sword of Greek Hero drops from catacomb bosses as well as Lord of the Void. ql 1-300. Not great

60+

Panther recently and rightfully had keeper added to the tag. Fantastic weapon all the way into your late tl4

Corpse Cutter dyna drop

Tangleblade dyna drop CLAN SOLITUS ONLY

Sword of the Illuminated Drops from Mooching Dryad in Adonis. Very rare

Sword staff \ Naginata sided weapons that drop from opposing sided mobs. Slow but with good damage. Sword staff is especially interesting as it’s one of the only melee weapons with a 5m range. These can be further upgraded (sword staff loses it’s range when you do) with specials and eventually turn spirits

Duplex sword / Maiden Naginata turn spirit upgrades for the above weapons.

Bio-energy shield made with a Viral weapon upgrade and an Energy shield rolled from RK mission.

125+

Frost-Bound Reaper drops from third floor bosses in Inner Sanctum. This one sure brings back memories :’)

Abyssal Desecrator Drops from Hezak in Inner Sanctum

Permafrost another drop from Hezak, arguably better than the Abyssal Desecrator

Excalibur drops from Tuq’usk in Inferno -upgradable to ql 300

Edge of Tarasque drops from Tarasque -upgradable to ql 300

Sword of lord X not sure where these drop. Rumours say from RK team bosses.

130+

Blade of Khione Penumbra Xan quest. Note that you will need to do the progression quest if you’re not level 160 to get to Penumbra.

151+

Special Edition Kyr Sword drops in sec7

Special Edition Kyr Energy Rapier drops in sec7

200+




Beginner question on classes





#2

Thank you for porting and updating this! I’ve been a fan of your guide for a long time. My keeper was built with this is a framework, though obviously I dropped the keeper off a cliff a few times…

I’ve used Large Sparkle-Plate as a fill in after level 60 or so. It has AC holes and no major h4xx stats, but does one thing great: 100 Body Dev for something you pay a few measly hundred thousand creds for in ICC’s Accessories shop (IIRC; it’s one of the terminals next to the GMI ones) with less comp lit required than a six slot belt.







#3

Wow, never knew this even existed! I think the 100 nanopool is arguably even more important haha







#4

Goes to show how much I’m still not thinking like a keeper player. :stuck_out_tongue:







#5

What advice do you have about endgame weapons? Really trying to figure out where to go







#6

Been in China for past week so sorry about the long wait for reply :D. The easiest weapon for endgame is probably pride of xan. Usually weapons are left rotting on beast and you can even get the corrupted version fairly easily from the pyramid of home.

The weapon upgrades usually go for free as well.

If you’re melee energy then dusk/dawn are your default choices and are pretty easy to obtain







#7

What if you happen to be gimpy, not be able to enter Pande, and have little access to a raid? … asking for a friend…

Also, maybe it would help to have links to some equipment builds?







#8

I think only auno has equipment build things now and they’re missing a lot of items. Other weapon options would be a kyr sword 112, that’s buyable and relatively cheap now. Or you could go ofab, farm from BS







#9

Keeper dimach is now 5min constant recharge, not 1h as your guide says. Its way more useful than once in a hour panic button now.

And for 201+ NM keepers, 5k extra absord from Dreadloch Endurance Booster – Nanomage Edition







#10

Cheers will edit that in, can finally complete it now aoitems is back up as well :smiley:







#11

Dimach heal reduction only applies to Dimach skill between 2001 & 3000. Heal used to scale from 10501 to 30000, now it scales from 10501 to 15000. Upping a Dimach more than just enough to equip a weapon, can give an benefit depending of an play style and free ip’s

Dimach Heal
250 748
500 1499
1000 3000
1500 6747







#12

I’ll keep the description more neutral then. Personally I don’t think any heal on a 5min cd is worth much but it can be useful to others.







#13

Really lovely guide btw, i love it :slight_smile: . I love keepers too. 5 keepers on 2 paid acc’s :stuck_out_tongue: Didnt want to sound too negative about your writings, I just want to make excellent guide to even better :wink:

If you would add to armour part about ofab sleeves & chest having really good 2he buff for all level ranges?

Keep up with good work







#14

Does anyone know where to get the sword of lord mordeth or sir Galahad?







#15

I’ve not personally seen these swords ingame but research has told me that they come from RK mission bosses







#16

Both the name and the patch number (15.0.1) strongly suggest shadowlands and not RK missions.
Auno comments suggest it drops from Lord Galahad/Lord Mordeth.




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Anarchy Online

Anarchy Online, also widely known as AO, is a classic free to play science fiction MMORPG from Funcom which has been running for over 15 years. Released in the summer of 2001, the game was the first in the genre to include a science-fiction setting, dynamic quests, instancing, free trials, and in-game advertising. The game centers around the exploration of the planet Rubi-Ka, and the conflict between the various factions for the precious material Notum.  Explore a sci-fi universe with a more realistic approach, AO online provides a believable progression of man kind in to the future. Fight in the universe as one of fourteen different classes and grow in eighty three different skills, experience instanced and static dungeons and best of all in-game customer service like you have never experienced before, even with a greeter to help you through your first steps!

Anarchy Online Key Features

Character Customization – Enjoy unparalleled character customization, including 80 character skills, hundreds of special attacks, thousands of items and a wide range of clothes, weapons and armour. No other online game delivers more character customization and depth. Choose your playing style and select one of 14 different professions. Soldier, Agent, Bureaucrat, Meta-Phycisist, Nano Technician, Doctor, Shade, Engineer, Trader, Adventurer, Fixer, Keeper, Enforcer or Martial Artist… you choose!

Go Where You Wish – Explore an epic and believable sci-fi universe with an involving and deep backstory, and experience fast-paced gameplay with action and intensity. Fight thousands of exciting monsters in a fantastic player versus monster/environment gameworld, or challenge human opponents to conquer land in large PvP areas. Travel in style with futuristic flying vehicles available to all professions, and access all areas efficiently and fast.

Dynamic World, Great Community – Express yourself through voice, emotes or chat in a fantastic social environment with clubs, bars, organization cities, player apartments, social clothes and much more. Immerse yourself in a world with a fantastic musical score and unique art direction, and join a friendly, large and established player community.

 

 

Related: Anarchy Online , Fantasy , MMORPG , Sci-Fi

System requirements

  • CPU:Pentium II 450Mhz
  • RAM:256MN
  • HDD:1GB
  • Video:3D card with 32MB RAM

Read more about Anarchy Online

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Game details

Anarchy Online

Genre: Sci-Fi
Type: MMORPG
Status: Live
Fee: Free to play
Platform: PC
Developer: Funcom GmbH
Publisher: Funcom GmbH
Area: Global
Release Date:
June 27, 2001


Staff Rating: 6.5/10.0

User Rating: 8.0/10

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Comments


  • Church Burner

    never heard of the game and im in my 40s

    VA:F [1.9.22_1171]
    0

  • maniaque37

    so sad the game is dead. was my favorite racing game.

    VA:F [1.9.22_1171]
    0

  • zyzolol

    Game is not even worth $10.

    -The game is still very poorly Optimized.

    -Dated and Generic Graphics.

    -Much of the skills are Forced and Useless.

    -Heavily gated re-released years old content.

    -FULL with Cheaters/BOTS, people who cheated their ways to wealth.

    -Game rewards No brain grind more so Than playerskill.

    -No real matchmaking, No Elo – Nothing.

    -[SCHEDULED] PvP … in 2018 … HAhaAhAHhAAHhaAhAHAaHA – OMEGALUL.

    -PvP in general is Mediocre and VERY VERY limited.

    -Combat is stiff, Repetitive and Boring and lacks depth.

    -Your typical RNG, RNG and then some more RNG game.

    -Inexperienced MMO developer.

    -Little to No quality control.

    -VERY High chance of going Pay2Win in the future.

    -Milking $$$ from the remaining noobs with forced choices.

    -Pretty much a Pokémon GO CASHGRAB MMO.

    -Very small and a dying population.

    Go play latest WoW BFA, FFXIV, GW2, Monster Hunter World – FK it pretty much anything is better than Korean MMOs that are known for their Pay2Win model and Low Quality.

    VA:F [1.9.22_1171]
    0

  • Loyalty Royalty

    why is shut down…. awww man.

    VA:F [1.9.22_1171]
    0

  • Lit

    S h u t
    D o w n

    VA:F [1.9.22_1171]
    0

  • Christine Haley

    Is this game playable and working, have a 8 year old that wants to play it

    VA:F [1.9.22_1171]
    0

    • Lit

      No.

      VA:F [1.9.22_1171]
      0

  • maniaque37

    game has been shut down for a while. i was in the top players and played until the end almost but when i saw they were to shut down i stopped playing. was a cool game.

    VA:F [1.9.22_1171]
    0

    • Lit

      What was your name?

      VA:F [1.9.22_1171]
      0

  • Cadavremignon

    How do I enter the game?

    VA:F [1.9.22_1171]
    0

  • EmeraldAnime

    Hi how do i install this game im a noob xD

    VA:F [1.9.22_1171]
    0

  • Julian Pereira

    Hi there guys. do try out a new mobile game called BangBang shooters. Similiar elements to Gunbound but better . More fun to try out too. Give it a try.

    VA:F [1.9.22_1171]
    0

  • Yukihime

    may I ask why it been shut down. sorry I just enter the vanguard world so I don’t know.

    VA:F [1.9.22_1171]
    0

  • Bokettaya Firass

    the game is back but it no more difficult but still fun
    69dragon oath

    VA:F [1.9.22_1171]
    0

  • Annecy Change

    Now Aeria games/gamigo have full ownership of the game. Taking over the development. Things are finally looking bright for S4 League.

    VA:F [1.9.22_1171]
    0

  • arxch2

    i played desert blitz in 2009 and for silly reason me and my friend got banned. we enterchangingly logged in mine and his accounts ..thus banned and i quit. i missed the game… i happen to check the game today how its been going. sad to know the game has been shut down.

    VA:F [1.9.22_1171]
    0

  • Saeed777

    hi how me play this game i installed it but wont play lol

    VA:F [1.9.22_1171]
    +1

    • QBcrusher

      Do you have more information about the game not working? I’d be happy to help you get it running.

      VA:F [1.9.22_1171]
      0

  • David

    I played this game in my young teens, loving games like NFS U2 and also loving mmos this game made both possible. I remember loving playing it and have no idea why I stopped, maybe it became a grind game, maybe I discovered battlefield 2, guild wars or even the outdoors.
    Still I would want to play it in 2018, I remember driving around in it using WASD and kicking ass, with my “Xbox emulated” DS3 controller I may have been able to get that edge back, if the game were still around in English speaking locales; though I’m not as good as videogames as I used to be; if I had been born 10 years earlier pro gaming would have been a thing and not a joke but I digress. I remember playing this, getting school friends to play this so they should bring it back for the next generation who are good at twitch vidya!
    And maybe for me to see how it’s changed in twelve+ years…

    VA:F [1.9.22_1171]
    0

  • ChessHottie

    I hope you bring this back. I used to be an everyday player. When it ended I was devastated. It was the best game ever until they made Clash Of Clans. Now, i prefer your older version. I remember the names; Hypnotism: moonblood, firestorm… Etc. We had our trolls. Few in specific known as Zealous, Neko, booger, but its been very long I barely remember. There were good people I spoke to that i missed. Known as Ghost, skittles, bitemeharder, sky, to all those conversations all gone to waste. If anything, please update your game again. It has been many years and its been on my mind. Im sure others do as well. But its gone. And so is everyone else. Rip Thirst Of Knight

    VA:F [1.9.22_1171]
    0

    • Jesse Harasym

      Its still being hosted. The game has not died yet.

      VA:F [1.9.22_1171]
      0

      • alfi andi

        realy.?
        will back..?

        VA:F [1.9.22_1171]
        0

        • Baron Howard

          Free penguin dot xyz

          VA:F [1.9.22_1171]
          0

        • Colin Poole

          Heck yeah the official server never shut down, my character is 264 years old hahaha! There is also a new server that makes it feels like a totally different game! There is news on their Reddit thread and Discord channel and all that.

          VA:F [1.9.22_1171]
          0

      • neo

        Is this still true now? 2018-06-19

        VA:F [1.9.22_1171]
        0

      • SenZaNurY

        Where’s the link? ,V

        VA:F [1.9.22_1171]
        0

  • diamondteardrops

    I played this game when I was 13 years old lmao. 4 days ago I got on my 18s. Damn.
    I wanted to play that game again and see how it is now but I just discovered that they shut down the game. What the heck omg. So saaad.

    VA:F [1.9.22_1171]
    0

    • Jesse Harasym

      Its not shut down.

      VA:F [1.9.22_1171]
      0

      • Iphirys GL

        This game going now is Toy Heroes Online

        VA:F [1.9.22_1171]
        0

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Pinfold V, Sweet D, Porter I, et al. Improving community health networks for people with severe mental illness: a case study investigation. Southampton (UK): NIHR Journals Library; 2015 Feb. (Health Services and Delivery Research, No. 3.5.)

Cover of Improving community health networks for people with severe mental illness: a case study investigation

Improving community health networks for people with severe mental illness: a case study investigation.

Show details

Health Services and Delivery Research, No. 3.5.
Pinfold V, Sweet D, Porter I, et al.
Southampton (UK): NIHR Journals Library ; 2015 Feb.
  • Contents
< Prev Next >

Chapter 9Conclusion

The CHN study collected and analysed large amounts of data from individuals, practitioners and organisation leads. In this chapter we summarise our key findings and present implications for commissioners, services and practitioners alongside suggestions for further research.

Summary of main findings

This summary follows the order in which data appeared in the report. We start with individual personal networks, findings from interviews with organisation leaders and practitioners and insights from two case studies. We have found:

  • Three types of personal networks of people with SMI were generated by k-cluster analysis, which we carried out in order to understand heterogeneity within, and similarities between, people in our sample in terms of network characteristics: diverse and active; family and stable; formal and sparse. These incorporated dimensions of people, place and activity, an approach that was broader than measuring social ties alone.
  • Only a few factors in our data set explained variance in network type, and the significant factors found could potentially be altered: living alone or not; housing status; formal education; and long-term sickness or disability. These are hard factors to change but deserve attention. Network type differed significantly by diagnosis but, when it was controlled for other factors, diagnosis did not explain variance; though participants with a schizophrenia/psychosis diagnosis had significantly fewer social ties than other diagnostic groups, 42% of this group had diverse and active network types.
  • There were some key observations about network types:
    • Diverse and active networks had higher numbers of people, place and activity connections. Those with these networks had the highest proportion of new connections and the highest network satisfaction. Qualitative analysis found active management of connections, resources and network opportunities but that big was not always better. Diversity and variety could be associated with enhanced personal well-being and more durable networks, but for some people connectedness caused stress and distress. Manageable routines were important and stigma featured prominently; as networks diversified, the potential for mental health discrimination increased.
    • Family and stable networks had the highest access to social capital and health resources, but lower levels of activity and place connection than diverse and active networks. Participants with these networks spent most of their time at home but tended to live with others. Qualitative analysis found high levels of social support and building blocks for wellness and recovery through family connections; however, such support could restrict access to social capital and well-being resources. Reciprocal relationships were highly valued.
    • Formal and sparse networks were significantly smaller with lower access to social capital and health resources, poorer functioning and well-being. They were the least active, having fewer friends, family and wider contacts, and practitioner contacts were more dominant. Qualitative analysis found mental illness featured most strongly in these networks framing decisions and experiences. We found agency in some of these networks, despite limited resources, and potential building blocks for recovery; others needed help identifying potential opportunities. Sparse networks were sometimes considered beneficial for supporting individual well-being. Strength was also gained from identities developed away from diagnostic labels and there were signs of resilience and determination to move on from mental illness. These networks also revealed the resentment that some people feel when relying on practitioners to support mental health and well-being.
  • Role of practitioners within current networks of people with SMI varied. We found more than one in five participants named a practitioner within their inner circle of emotional closeness and they formed a portion of social contacts in all network types: formal and sparse networks 33%; diverse and active networks 20%; family and stable networks 12%. Practitioners tended to complement rather than replace informal network contacts, and had a role too in larger networks, but did not replace social or health capital where this was missing from informal ties. This was consistent with practitioner accounts that their role was not to provide social support but to encourage clients towards ‘taking control’ (IDSW59, occupational therapist) to build networks and recovery: ‘we will very much walk alongside someone, you know, I haven’t got the magical key for someone to recover – it’s what their recovery means to them’ (IDSW67, team leader).
  • We investigated social capital among the study population. The mean social capital score was 14.2, which was higher overall than other studies of mental health social capital, but lower than the general population, and there was variation across network type and between study sites. In the schizophrenia/psychosis group it was 11.6, in the bipolar group 16.6. We found social capital and health resources to be provided primarily by close informal ties such as family and friends and less so from wider and practitioner contacts overall, although they were more prominent in networks lacking informal social support. Importantly, those who lacked family and friends had lower resources overall. We noted that connections to activities including employment and place were important providing gateways to social ties.
  • The social networks in our study population had a mean of 19.9 contacts, ranging from 5 to 64 contacts. However, formal and sparse networks had only 12.4 contacts on average. Our data suggest it was the type of relationship (close relationships) rather than the number which was most important for resource exchange.
  • The qualitative interviews helped us to explore heterogeneity within the study population. We found individual agency across all network types and surface tensions, including relationships with practitioners or families; dealing with the impact of stigma; and employment and financial frustrations. The value of connectedness, countering the risk of isolation and loneliness, within personal networks for supporting recovery was evident, shaping identity, providing meaning to life and sense of belonging, gaining access to new resources, structuring routines and helping individuals ‘move on’ in their recovery journey.
  • Managing a personal network was a complex interplay of personal and external factors. Evidence showed how relationships, places and activities in networks could be used to build new network connections, and withdrawal was also a strategy. Identities were closely bound to activities and roles. Participants acknowledged their own responsibility to develop their networks – ‘it is down to me’ (Eleanor, SUSW38); ‘It’s all down to me’ (Neil, SUSW26) – and it was also evident that practitioners have an important role in assisting the process.
  • Networks in London showed more bridging capital properties, with higher numbers of wider contacts and access to more diverse relationships and place types. These networks had fewer family contacts and lower social capital.
  • Networks in the SW showed more features of bonding capital, with close family and friend ties and dense interconnected lives. Challenges for practitioners lay in working with individuals who had networks where family ties were negative or absent.
  • Service providers were keen to promote a recovery-focused approach but we found a distance between recovery policy and practice. In particular, the social aspects of supporting SMI get overlooked in the health-care system. In a demanding and changing context, strategic multiagency collaboration was seen as crucial; however, we found limited organisational partnerships or collaborations.
  • Health-care and third-sector practitioners, including GPs and psychiatrists, recognised social factors were important in recovery but reported system-level barriers (workload, administrative bureaucracy, limited contact time with clients) in addressing these issues. Skilled care co-ordinators acknowledged the importance of network development, and many reported they used to do more in past roles, but currently did not believe they had enough time to focus sufficiently on ‘the social’.
  • We suggest the CHN approach provides a useful ‘way in’ to working with people with SMI to develop personal networks, emphasising meaningful people, places and activities. Using a person-centred networking approach is supportive of recovery-focused practice in that it helps to identify varying levels of agency in people with SMI, from limited engagement to active evaluative and future-forming strategies, as well as addressing barriers to change.

Discussion

The CHN study argues that network development should be seen as an integral part of recovery for people with SMI, through encouraging increased connections and engagement in meaningful activities. 8 Working within an individual’s personal network could help services to emphasise a person-centred and strength-focused approach that the recovery approach advocates. 41 , 42 The importance of employment for people with SMI 245 was supported in our data, with those in employment having increased social capital. Those working tended to have diverse and active networks, and this included people with schizophrenia/psychosis. Research has found that people with SMI, and particularly schizophrenia, tend to have low rates of employment. 12 Our data showed that any activities leading towards work (volunteering, education, part-time or full-time work), which meant people were not categorised as long-term sick or disabled, were beneficial for building diverse networks which helped build social capital.

We found evidence that social networks for this population were larger, more diverse and more socially integrated today than those found in the TAPS study following deinstitutionalisation policies of community care in the 1990s. 3 5 However, many of our participants remained isolated in formal and sparse networks with low activity levels and our population overall had lower perceived social support than in the general population. 245 There is a serious concern that selection bias, likely to have occurred as part of our low recruitment rates, might mean that the population we studied was more connected than an average population of individuals with SMI.

Mapping the structure of networks has allowed us to understand how social capital and health resources were accessed. We found networks with both bonding 117 and bridging 118 capital. It seemed that a mixture of each was healthiest; our diverse and active, and family and stable networks had some elements of both. Our social capital scores were slightly higher than other SMI populations 198 but lower than the general population. 123 Lower access to resources may be a vulnerability factor for mental ill-health, or a result of social withdrawal due to mental illness, or the relationship may work in both directions; 123 our study cannot draw any conclusions on the direction of observed relationships. However, access to resources was important for the provision of support and had wider benefits, such as helping people attain goals such as gaining employment through informal contacts. 246 Our data suggested more needed to be done to help individuals build their social capital.

The qualitative insights we present highlight the importance of understanding the meaning of network characteristics 51 and show how networks were often managed through agency of individuals and others, 80 which also applied to networks we have described as formal and sparse. The level of agency that people could draw on varied, underlining the heterogeneity of this population. Networks were actively managed in terms of segregation of components, removal of negative ties and mental health disclosure, the latter linking to the impact of mental health stigma. 32 , 227 Network configuration also seemed to reflect what was coherent and manageable for the individual. 47 Understanding why networks are the way they were, without an assumption that they need to stay that way, may not always reveal new information for the practitioner but visual network mapping may offer new ways of conversing and understanding the meaning of connections, to plan goals holistically. We suggest the systematic collation of network data would provide a useful framework for planning interventions and setting person-centred outcomes.

Our population has poorer well-being 202 and functioning 201 than the general population, while our limited data on hospitalisation for physical health issues reflects the poor physical health of this population, and the need for greater attention on the part of services to improve it. 58 We heard varying views from participants about antipsychotic medication: it kept mental health symptoms stable and allowed networks to be (re)built; conversely the side effects of medication could make maintaining active networks difficult. The breadth of physical activities and interests found in our activity data suggests how this might be achieved: supporting individuals to increase engagement in activities of interest to them, as well as identifying local community spaces where these activities can be engaged in, while addressing potential barriers, facilitates greater social contact and connectedness, and enhances personal well-being.

Finally, we believe our study’s approach and findings support current government mental health policy and the No Health without Mental Health strategy. 30 , 40 Our data were closely aligned to the objective in this strategy that people with mental illness should have a ‘greater ability to manage their own lives, stronger social relationships, a greater sense of purpose, the skills they need for living and working, improved chances in education, better employment rates and a suitable and stable place to live’ (p. 21). 30 A modified CHN approach offers potential insights into how to meet these policy aims, addressing inequalities in mental health, physical health, stigma, social inclusion and quality of life for people with SMI.

Research limitations

This study has several strengths but there have been many challenges. In terms of strengths, it has worked innovatively with lived experience researchers to synthesise research findings. It has adapted a standard SNA framework and created multiple layers of data to explore connections and interactions: people, places and activities. In doing so it has applied SNA principles to multiple aspects of people’s lives. However, the data set was limited by a number of important factors that need to be considered when interpreting the data.

First, in relation to the networking methodology, the data were limited to the source questions used to elicit information from participants. Studies which map people’s social networks lack a consistent methodology; the questions used to ties identify, and boundaries around what constitutes a network, vary greatly, making comparison of studies findings problematic. We had to create our own bespoke data collection process for network mapping, and set boundaries round the networks under investigation. We undertook extensive piloting in an attempt to reduce cognitive load and recall error but, as with all network-mapping studies, our data were limited by the memory and perception of the participant on the day of interview. The use of place and activity (who did you see there? who did you do that with?) provides additional prompts for recall that many other network-mapping studies do not have. We were interested in the network only from the perspective of the person with SMI. It was the connections that were important to them that we wanted to map, followed up in depth to understand why. No verification of data from third parties was undertaken; this was not a limitation but a point of method and approach in this study grounded in the views of people with SMI.

Second, we worked in two contrasting regions in an attempt to understand heterogeneity but cannot generalise these findings to other areas. If this study were undertaken in different regions of England it is possible other network types would emerge; we can ground our findings only in the two study site locations and within the population we recruited. The LEE group point out in Appendix 1 that they have based their reflections on available data and would like to see how far the approach based on network types can aid recovery-orientated practice in a more applied study moving towards the development of an intervention.

Third, the bias in our data was from several sources but particularly recruitment sample bias. We were not working with a randomly sampled study population. In each site we recruited only from practices agreeing to participate, and overall response rates of individuals with SMI were poor: 23.65% in the SW and 15.01% in London. These figures are likely to be lower than the actual response rate because, despite attempts to keep detailed recruitment records with surgeries and CMHTs, we do not know how many people were actually invited (received or presented with an invitation) to take part and therefore how many declined to participate. We struggled with a number of London GP surgeries in particular, whose capacity to support the research process was severely limited, resulting in inaccurate screening, poor follow-up of non-responding participants and poor record-keeping hindering an accurate response rate calculation. These difficulties have also been reported by other studies. 247 In the SW a disproportionate number of older and middle-aged men with bipolar disorder participated and to compensate we approached secondary care teams to identify a younger population, including people with schizophrenia. We attempted to find population-level data to assess how representative our data were compared with people with SMI registered with primary care services, using indicators such as age, gender, ethnicity and diagnosis, but these data were not collated at a borough or county level. We do believe we have oversampled people with bipolar disorder in the SW based on a comparison of our data with another national study. 15 It reported, from data collected in 64 GP surgeries of people with SMI, that 56% were diagnosed with schizophrenia and 38% with bipolar disorder; in our study we had 51% of people in the SW with bipolar disorder but only 36% in London. We compared our respondents with this sample identified in a primary care notes review study and found a higher proportion of non-white participants (provided by the London respondents), similar gender proportions, a higher length of contact with services (20.1 years compared with 17.3 years) and a larger proportion of people living alone (50% in this study compared with 33.3%) but similar proportions with a partner or married. We found more people within employment: 29.3% in our sample compared with 12.6%.

Interview bias was addressed by careful co-ordination between the study’s two researchers. Both network mapping and network interview transcripts were shared in the first phases of each module to assist quality control and consistency. This ‘checking in’ happened across the study, supervisors listened to transcripts to pick up on inconsistencies in qualitative interviews and the PPI group also reviewed transcripts and provided feedback.

We undertook a cross-sectional descriptive pilot study and gained insights into changes over time from the qualitative analysis, but we cannot make any causal inferences. We acknowledge that causation will be complex and bidirectional. The descriptions we have brought to the surface through network types, however, provide a platform for other research in this area to explore further.

We were also limited by lack of data on clinical features of our population such as current symptomology of mental illness. We had to use proxy indicators of severity such as time since last inpatient admission. In future studies we would recommend including a formal clinical measure of mental health functioning, as this may explain additional variance in the regression models presented. Finally, it is worth noting, the bespoke scale we created – the HRG – did not prove to be useful in explaining variation in access to health capital across the sample population. It will require further development work if it is to be used to measure health as opposed to social capital.

Reflections on patient and public involvement

The study involved a PPI group at various stages of the research process. In the final reporting stage we used reflections from people’s own experience of recovery specifically as a ‘way in’ to the project data. The value of these contributions included scientific and non-scientific perspectives. This suggests that, while the distinction between different kinds of informed deliberator is a good place to start in PPI coproduction, 192 there was also a third space of interaction opened up between different kinds of knowledge which may mutually enrich each other. The collaboration with the LEE group was important for delivering a reflexive review that remained connected to the study data yet still added value through powerful insights from lived experience. Conversations with the least scientifically informed also yielded key insights that shaped the interpretation. This may suggest that the ethical contribution of PPI as knowledge coproduction was more complex than some commentators suggest, 193 requiring both perspectives rather than an either/or approach to the range of ways in which lived experience expertise can inform the public practice of science.

Our conclusions

From our qualitative data analysis, we see potential for people with SMI to become even more active managers of their own networks regardless of current network type; the building blocks of hope that the lived experience researchers first identified are found across the data set. The health and social care system currently did not deliver multiagency integrated networking solutions to support SMI and recovery. We also found competing tensions in policy agendas shaping provision of mental health services; primary and secondary care were not using the same approach to the management of SMI. The network types we have produced could be a very useful way of viewing the lives of people with SMI; understanding the dynamics of an individual’s connections with people activities and places, alongside diagnosis, provides a more person-centred approach to plan treatment and care.

Commissioner, organisation and practitioner level

The health and social care system for people with SMI is undergoing rapid change. Such change offers up opportunities to develop new solutions for how services support recovery but there are risks if there is no clear planning on how changes to community resources might impact on vulnerable groups. In such periods of flux, understanding the resources that individuals have and where they come from is of value, particularly if these are fragile and reliant on services. Offering values-based leadership to people with SMI is a very important role for both organisations and the practitioners who work within them; creating joint mental health strategies to guide these practices across current service silos is vital. We found evidence for a strong vision for delivering recovery-focused services in secondary mental health care and the third sector, but not in primary care. There was a lack of strategy across the service silos.

Practitioners understand and value aspects of social recovery from SMI but many, particularly GPs, and also community mental health practitioners, did not believe they had the time in their job role to focus on ‘the social’. Service systems appeared to thwart the agency of practitioners and created obstacles to person-centred outcome-focused care, even within the third sector, whose practitioners wanted to work in this way far more but found it was not currently feasible within available commissioning arrangements. This identified lack of focus on social recovery was a barrier to working using a networking approach. This study suggests that an alignment between the recovery approach and a networking model using the CHN method could be useful in the delivery of mental health care, although more work is required to adapt a research process into a clinical intervention. This constitutes an area that newly formed bodies such as Public Health England, local health and well-being boards and CCGs may all be interested in: mapping community assets and the potential within individuals to become more active managers in their recovery journey.

Individual network level

A striking issue emerging in our work was how heterogeneous people with SMI were and the implications for working with people to manage their health problems. Yet network types were found which reflected connectedness patterns that could guide the work of practitioners. We found connections to people, places and activities to be an important aspect of individual’s lives which impacted on access to resources used to support well-being, and were not related to diagnosis. Individual agency in developing and maintaining networks was uncovered but most people required some support, even if this support was received reluctantly. Many with SMI were living out the majority of their lives away from mental health services and away from other people using services. However, a minority had significant proportions of their social network formed by mental health-related contacts.

Identifying the building blocks of individual agency that can be enhanced or nurtured with the help of others was a vital aspect of recovery, particularly where individuals lacked belief in both themselves and inner resources. The change agent might be within a person, drawing on their interests, identity and goals. Change agents might also be found in family, friend, wider contact or practitioner relationship groups.

Developing the personal networks of individual’s with SMI was not identified as an organisational priority alongside management of medication and symptoms. While this remains the case it seems unlikely that this population will be able to build personal networks that make use of the full potential of inner and external resources. We note that there was potential in all networks to develop.

Network theory

This pilot study attempted to combine applied SNA to identify form and structure in networks, with qualitative data collection based on a hybrid approach of two traditions. It has merged qualitative SNA, unpicking meaning in network structures, and narrative research, exploring meaning in people’s lives, using the emotional closeness map as a ‘way in’ to the conversations that explored connectedness, well-being and recovery. Our network mapping was guided by SNA theory, 24 as it offered a framework to measure connections (or a lack of connections) using name-generating and name-interpreting procedures. 76 The benefits of the approach were that networks provide a top-down view, generated by the individual, of their current social world and meaningful activities. Once mapped, these networks were reflected on and we found this perspective helped conversations about how resources in the wider community impact on, or were used to support, both mental and physical health. This approach allows for consideration of what connections are important to individuals as well as what is missing; the latter provides a springboard to goal-planning. Including place and activity dimensions to create a multidimensional network, although time-consuming, added to the explanatory potential of network types. We found that many participants reported the mapping interview procedure useful in terms of their own thinking and understanding about their networks, and at follow-up interviews some had already begun to make changes. This framework has therapeutic potential, is a whole-person rather than illness-focused approach and could help both individuals and practitioners to consider new opportunities, or steps toward these, that improve well-being, promote recovery and increase access to resources.

The analysis we undertook also took a person-centred focus for understanding the lives of people with SMI, as recommended in the recovery literature, 74 through drawing out what was important to people and understanding why in terms of impact on well-being. The qualitative follow-up interviews were particularly helpful in understanding the dynamics of networks, how things change over time and the role of self or others in shaping ‘form’ or ‘content’, and why.

Aside from the individual’s perspective, the structure and composition of networks that this approach provides gives insights for practitioners into stage of recovery for an individual. 9 This can help identify areas of potential to address through goal-setting: isolation or lack of diversity, lack of family or friends can all be identified. The dimension of activity offers an insight into the individual’s identity beyond mental health. Through identifying what is meaningful and important to each person, interventions to build new connections can be targeted. Place is an important dimension because it situates the individual’s network inside the context of their local area; networks are constrained by and enabled by environment (social, cultural, economic). Both opportunities, such as local groups related to an individual’s interests, and barriers, such as transport, antisocial neighbours and safety, can be identified through consideration of place networks. People, place and activity networks interact. A framework can help both the individual and practitioners to build new connections that improve well-being, promote recovery and increase access to resources.

Implications for commissioners, services and practitioners

In line with National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) guidance the report does not make policy and practice recommendations. The study was an exploratory pilot and as such can only offer preliminary evidence for commissioners, services and practitioners about the CHN approach to understand personal networks and implications for practice. However, the study did provide evidence about the social dimension in recovery and its importance alongside NICE guidelines for schizophrenia and bipolar disorder addressing medication use, psychological therapies and service experience. The following potential steps are noted:

  • Developing the CHN methodology as a tool to support recovery. This study suggests an alignment between recovery-focused practice and a networking model using the CHN approach could be useful in the delivery of mental health care. Important elements of personal networks were recognised within recovery frameworks, and practitioners draw on aspects of this work in current practices, particularly meaningful activities and social networks. The lack of a framework and emphasis on this work could be addressed by adopting the CHN model, although more work is required to adapt a research process into a clinical intervention. There are few practical resources guiding practitioners in how to build recovery programmes; insights from a CHN approach could help structure person-centred planning and help them reflect on the challenges of doing so.
  • The need for improved organisational collaborations. Several service silos were in operation: secondary mental health care, local authorities, voluntary services, including mainstream community resources, and primary care. We found there was a significant community resource knowledge gap; many practitioners rely on their own interests and personal connections to build a personal knowledge bank of community opportunities that they use to support clients. A system that can encourage interorganisational information sharing, and ideally practitioner and service use feedback on the value of local community resources, is recommended. It was acknowledged that keeping such a system updated was a major challenge
  • Supporting people with SMI to make active use of network resources. People with SMI should be empowered to make even more active use of the resources in their networks. These resources include relationships with friends and families; other health-care facilities; and non-health resources in the community, which may be free but have other barriers. Local authorities and health services can make resources more accessible and practitioners need to see enhancing personal networks as a means to mobilising resources to achieve recovery.
  • A mediating role for practitioners in sustaining and developing networks. Meaning and direction must come from people with SMI themselves, many of whom may become independent, but practitioners have a vital connection-building role in terms of helping to develop both flexible, balanced routines and achieving new roles. In part this role is showing that networks and the resources within them matter to recovery, alongside medication and psychological therapies. Support can include encouragement to develop previously valued and potentially beneficial network elements: activities, social interactions and places. For those with formal and sparse networks, practitioners were a key resource, sometimes the only resource, and helping them to reduce barriers to network development may be critical. Practitioner network roles have to take into account appropriate responsibilities for network development. For example, the consultant psychiatrist could be the leader and champion for network interventions but support workers and care co-ordinators deliver these supports.
  • We acknowledge the risk that we were perpetuating silo working but we have listed recommendations under service elements. We suggest some specific tasks.
    • Primary care: An important hub in the networks of people with SMI was, and will increasingly be, primary care. GPs need a greater understanding of the value of personal networks in recovery, particularly for those who have been discharged from secondary care; they also need to develop closer working relationships with third-sector providers.
    • Secondary mental health care: Skilled care co-ordinators acknowledge the importance of network development, but need to be required to make it a key part of their role. Efforts to embed recovery-focused practices can draw on network enhancement strategies, and creating shared care processes with primary care and the third sector will become fundamental in the management of SMI.
    • Mental health third-sector services: Currently they support network development working alongside people with SMI, linking, facilitating, empowering and encouraging, but often in isolation from other services. They could develop these models further and include peer elements, and are likely to be able to be more efficient if more closely linked to primary and secondary care.
    • Local authorities: Social services provide crucial support to people with SMI including housing, employment and welfare support. These services tended to operate separately from health systems, and staff related how mental health was not really on their agenda and thus specific services or supports for this group were not a priority. Their impact on networks can be significant, as employment, stable housing and welfare support were crucial resources. In addition, local authorities have new responsibilities for well-being through directors of public health. The creation of a mental health intelligence network is an ideal focus for well-being outcome data, including resources data on social capital and social networks.
    • Commissioning: A crucial gap in practice was the lack of any overarching framework for the provision of services to people with SMI following a recovery approach. Social outcomes of care were largely absent in the current NHS outcomes framework, which applies only to secondary care. Building a set of social outcome indicators for SMI and including network indicators that operate across the service silos would incentivise joint working and promote social inclusion. One new model worth exploring is for primary care and third-sector providers to be jointly commissioned to provide care for those individuals with SMI at lower risk or predominantly requiring a recovery approach. Payment or incentive systems would need to be developed; existing direct payments or emerging PBR tariffs could be utilised.

Recommendations for research

  1. This study has begun to explore the role of agency within networks of people with SMI and how agency was impacted by network structure. We recommend further research be carried out to understand agency within personal networks. This is both to understand the role of agency in networks and how it is affected by network structures as well as to understand how it varies for different groups of people with SMI such as Afro-Caribbean men on discharge from hospital, mothers with bipolar disorder and single men aged over 45. Such an understanding would help build an evidence base for how best to support network development and the role of self, practitioners and others in this process. We learnt that practitioners are hard pressed to do one-to-one social intervention-type work with clients, because of capacity constraints; thus, identifying key skills to create further self-sufficiency and resilience within people with SMI so they can access informal resources to support recovery would be central in this further research.
  2. For research in this area to be most effective, and comparable, it is recommended that a standardised tool be developed to collect network data in enough detail to provide insight to resource access, identity and recovery. Our study tool needs refinement because of the length of time required to collect data. More data on social media use should be collected.
  3. We have begun to find differences in networks comparing people from BME and ‘white other’ communities with the white British population. The qualitative data collected should be reanalysed to look specifically at meaning in networks by ethnicity, and follow-up research should be carried out to understand how a networking approach might support initiatives to improve services and support networks for people from BME communities.
  4. We recommend research be undertaken to develop the CHN-mapping technique as a formulation and therapeutic intervention. We believe there is potential for this to be used in primary care, secondary care and shared care models of mental health provision. Research could also look at which practitioners are best placed to deliver CHN mapping, including peer support workers within this assessment. It could also look at the qualities of friendship within networks that best support recovery.
  5. In particular we suggest that network mapping be evaluated as a strategy for managing transitions in care at key discharge points in the recovery pathway (inpatient unit, secondary care discharge) against treatment as usual. This is particularly relevant in a policy context of increased assertive discharge to primary care services for people with SMI. Such a tool could provide the basis for ongoing care shared between general practice and the third sector in the absence of secondary services input.
Copyright © Queen’s Printer and Controller of HMSO 2015. This work was produced by Pinfold et al. under the terms of a commissioning contract issued by the Secretary of State for Health. This issue may be freely reproduced for the purposes of private research and study and extracts (or indeed, the full report) may be included in professional journals provided that suitable acknowledgement is made and the reproduction is not associated with any form of advertising. Applications for commercial reproduction should be addressed to: NIHR Journals Library, National Institute for Health Research, Evaluation, Trials and Studies Coordinating Centre, Alpha House, University of Southampton Science Park, Southampton SO16 7NS, UK.

Included under terms of UK Non-commercial Government License .

Bookshelf ID: NBK276530
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    Pinfold V, Sweet D, Porter I, et al. Improving community health networks for people with severe mental illness: a case study investigation. Southampton (UK): NIHR Journals Library; 2015 Feb. (Health Services and Delivery Research, No. 3.5.) Chapter 9, Conclusion.
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Leadership : theory and practice

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Leadership : theory and practice

Author: Peter Guy Northouse
Publisher:Los Angeles, CA : SAGE, 2010.
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  Print book : English : 5th [rev.] ed View all editions and formats
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Now with new coverage of authentic leadership and servant leadership, the Fifth Edition of Peter Northouse’s Leadership remains the market-leading survey text for leadership courses across
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Document Type:Book
All Authors / Contributors: Peter Guy Northouse


ISBN:9781412974882 1412974887
OCLC Number:455169639
Notes:1st ed.: 1997.
Description:XVI, 435 p. : ill. ; 23 cm
Contents:Preface Special Features Audience Acknowledgments Chapter 1. Introduction Leadership Defined Ways of Conceptualizing Leadership Definition and Components Leadership Described Trait Versus Process Leadership Assigned Versus Emergent Leadership Leadership and Power Leadership and Coercion Leadership and Management Plan of the Book Summary Chapter 2. Trait Approach Description Intelligence Self-Confidence Determination Integrity Sociability Five-Factor Personality Model and Leadership Emotional Intelligence How Does the Trait Approach Work? Strengths Criticisms Application Case Studies Case 2.1: Choosing a New Director of Research Case 2.2: A Remarkable Turnaround Case 2.3: Recruiting for the Bank Leadership Instrument Leadership Trait Questionnaire (LTQ) Scoring Interpretation Summary Chapter 3. Skills Approach Description Three-Skill Approach Technical Skill Human Skill Conceptual Skill Summary of the Three-Skill Approach Skills Model Competencies Problem-Solving Skills Social Judgment Skills Knowledge Individual Attributes General Cognitive Ability Crystallized Cognitive Ability Motivation Personality Leadership Outcomes Effective Problem Solving Performance Career Experiences Environmental Influences Summary of the Skills Model How Does the Skills Approach Work? Strengths Criticisms Application Case Studies Case 3.1: A Strained Research Team Case 3.2: A Shift for Lieutenant Colonel Adams Case 3.3: Andy’s Recipe Leadership Instrument Skills Inventory Scoring Scoring Interpretation Summary Chapter 4. Style Approach Description The Ohio State Studies The University of Michigan Studies Blake and Mouton’s Managerial (Leadership) Grid Authority-Compliance (9,1) Country Club Management (1,9) Impoverished Management (1,1) Middle-of-the-Road Management (5,5) Team Management (9,9) Paternalism/Maternalism Opportunism How Does the Style Approach Work? Strengths Criticisms Application Case Studies Case 4.1: A Drill Sergeant at First Case 4.2: Eating Lunch Standing Up Case 4.3: Enhancing the Department’s Culture Leadership Instrument Style Questionnaire Scoring Scoring Interpretation Summary Chapter 5. Situational Approach Description Leadership Styles Development Levels How Does the Situational Approach Work? Strengths Criticisms Application Case Studies Case 5.1: What Style Do I Use? Case 5.2: Why Aren’t They Listening? Case 5.3: Getting the Message Across Leadership Instrument Situational Leadership: A Brief Questionnaire Scoring Interpretation Summary 6. Contingency Theory Description Leadership Styles Situational Variables How Does Contingency Theory Work? Strengths Criticisms Application Case Studies Case 6.1: No Control Over the Student Council Case 6.2: Giving Him a Hard Time Case 6.3: What’s the Best Leader Match? Leadership Instrument Least Preferred Coworker (LPC) Measure Scoring Interpretation Summary Chapter 7. Path–Goal Theory Description Leader Behaviors Directive Leadership Supportive Leadership Participative Leadership Achievement-Oriented Leadership Subordinate Characteristics Task Characteristics How Does Path–Goal Theory Work? Strengths Criticisms Application Case Studies Case 7.1: Three Shifts, Three Supervisors Case 7.2: Direction for Some, Support for Others Case 7.3: Marathon Runners at Different Levels Leadership Instrument Path–Goal Leadership Questionnaire Scoring Scoring Interpretation Summary Chapter 8. Leader–Member Exchange Theory Description Early Studies Later Studies Leadership Making How Does LMX Theory Work? Strengths Criticisms Application Case Studies Case 8.1: His Team Gets the Best Assignments Case 8.2: Working Hard at Being Fair Case 8.3: Taking On Additional Responsibilities Leadership Instrument LMX 7 Questionnaire Scoring Interpretation Summary Chapter 9. Transformational Leadership Description Transformational Leadership Defined Transformational Leadership and Charisma A Model of Transformational Leadership Transformational Leadership Factors Idealized Influence Inspirational Motivation Intellectual Stimulation Individualized Consideration Transactional Leadership Factors Contingent Reward Management-by-Exception Nonleadership Factor Laissez-Faire Other Transformational Perspectives Bennis and Nanus Kouzes and Posner Model the Way Inspire a Shared Vision Challenge the Process Enable Others to Act Encourage the Heart How Does the Transformational Approach Work? Strengths Criticisms Application Case Studies Case 9.1: The Vision Failed Case 9.2: Students Dig It Case 9.3: Her Vision Was a Model Research Center Case 9.3: Her Vision Was a Model Research Center Leadership Instrument Sample Items From the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ) Form 5X-Short Summary Chapter 10. Authentic Leadership Description Authentic Leadership Defined Intapersonal Definition Developmental Definition Interpersonal Definition Approaches to Authentic Leadership Practical Approaches Robert Terry’s Authentic Leadership Approach Bill George’s Authentic Leadership Approach Theoretical Approach Background to the Theoretical Approach Components of Authentic Leadership Factors that Influence Authentic Leadership How Does Authentic Leadership Work? Strengths Criticisms Application Case Studies Case 10.1: Am I Really a Leader? Case 10.2: Moving Mountains for Education and Peace Case 10.3: The Reluctant First Lady Leadership Instrument Authentic Leadership Self Assessment Questionnaire Summary Chapter 11. Team Leadership – Susan E. Kogler Hill Description Team Leadership Model Leadership Decisions Leadership Decision 1: Should I Monitor the Team or Take Action? Leadership Decision 2: Should I Intervene to Meet Task or Relational Needs? Leadership Decision 3: Should I Intervene Internally or Externally? Leadership Actions Internal Task Leadership Actions Internal Relational Leadership Actions External Environmental Leadership Actions Team Effectiveness Clear, Elevating Goal Results-Driven Structure Competent Team Members Unified Commitment Collaborative Climate Standards of Excellence External Support and Recognition Principled Leadership How Does the Team Leadership Model Work? Strengths Criticisms Application Case Studies Case 11.1: Can This Virtual Team Work? Case 11.2: They Dominated the Conversation Case 11.3: Starts With a Bang, Ends With a Whimper Leadership Instrument Team Excellence and Collaborative Team Leader Questionnaire Scoring Interpretation Summary Chapter 12. Psychodynamic Approach – Ernest L. Stech Description Background Eric Berne and Transactional Analysis Sigmund Freud and Personality Types Carl Jung and Personality Types Functions and Preferences Types and Leadership Sixteen Types and Leadership Dealing With Followers How Does the Psychodynamic Approach Work? Strengths Criticisms Case Studies Case 12.1: Not the Type Who Sees the Big Picture Case 12.2: Staff Meeting Problems Case 12.3: Unexpected Reactions Leadership Instrument Psychodynamic Approach Survey Scoring Scoring Interpretation Summary Chapter 13. Women and Leadership – Crystal L. Hoyt Description Gender and Leadership Styles Gender and Leadership Effectiveness The Glass Ceiling Evidence of the Glass Ceiling Motives for Removing the Barriers Explaining the Glass Ceiling Human Capital Differences Gender Differences Prejudice Breaking the Glass Ceiling Strengths Criticisms Application Case Studies Case 13.1: The Glass Ceiling Case 13.2: Lack of Inclusion and Credibility Case 13.3: Pregnancy as a Barrier to Job Status Leadership Instrument The Gender–Leader Implicit Association Test Scoring Summary Chapter 14. Culture and Leadership Description Culture Defined Related Concepts Ethnocentrism Prejudice Dimensions of Culture Uncertainty Avoidance Power Distance Institutional Collectivism In-Group Collectivism Gender Egalitarianism Assertiveness Future Orientation Performance Orientation Humane Orientation Clusters of World Cultures Characteristics of Clusters Anglo Confucian Asia Eastern Europe Germanic Europe Latin America Latin Europe Middle East Nordic Europe Southern Asia Sub-Saharan Africa Leadership Behavior and Culture Clusters Eastern Europe Leadership Profile Latin America Leadership Profile Latin Europe Leadership Profile Confucian Asia Leadership Profile Nordic Europe Leadership Profile Anglo Leadership Profile Sub-Saharan Africa Leadership Profile Southern Asia Leadership Profile Germanic Europe Leadership Profile Middle East Leadership Profile Universally Desirable and Undesirable Leadership Attributes Strengths Criticisms Application Case Studies Case 14.1: A Challenging Workplace Case 14.2: A Special Kind of Financing Case 14.3: Whose Hispanic Center Is It? Leadership Instrument Dimensions of Culture Questionnaire Scoring Scoring Interpretation Summary Chapter 15. Leadership Ethics Description Ethics Defined Ethical Theories Centrality of Ethics to Leadership Heifetz’s Perspective on Ethical Leadership Burns’s Perspective on Ethical Leadership Greenleaf’s Perspective on Ethical Leadership Principles of Ethical Leadership Ethical Leaders Respect Others Ethical Leaders Serve Others Ethical Leaders Are Just Ethical Leaders Are Honest Ethical Leaders Build Community Strengths Criticisms Application Case Studies Case 15.1: A Struggling Company With Not Enough Cash Case 15.2: How Safe Is Safe? Case 15.3: Reexamining a Proposal Leadership Instrument Perceived Leader Integrity Scale (PLIS) Scoring Scoring Interpretation Summary Name Index Subject Index About the Author About the Contributors
Responsibility:Peter G. Northouse.

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Publisher Synopsis

User-friendly theory for students and teachers. Well-structured, clear, and crisp. — Bryan Ginter 20100312 “It is an excellent primer on the history and fundamental notions of leadership. I am particularly impressed with the presentation of many different types of leadership, the newest forms of leadership, and the case studies.” — Derrick B. Barbee 20110210 “A ‘must have’ comprehensive presentation of leadership theories from historical to contemporary views. An invaluable resource for students and scholars.” — Bonnie M. Beyer An affordable text with good coverage of leadership theory and concepts. — James Dittmar 20100319 Great baseline leadership theories from which to explore more recent research and context-specific discussions of theories. Good case studies for students to work through. — Beth Birmingham 20100319 Northhouse explains the various leadership theories in understandable bite-size concepts and provides examples to support the explanations. The students actually enjoy the lessons. The study of leadership can be a difficult concept to explain. By theorizing about observed phenomena, we can make predictions that can be tested in the real world as well as in more controlled settings. Northhouse provides this procedure. — Daniel Simone 20100319 I liked the summary of leadership theory it provides. It is very good overview that is easy to read and understand. There is nothing like this specifically related to higher education. — Linda Kuk 20100319 The Northouse text offers relevant material pertaining to leadership which can be utilized by any discipline. The case studies at the end of each chapter are priceless. — Patsy Cornelius 20100319 Great survey text of leadership theory, with leadership inventories connected to each theory presented. — Keith Fulthorp 20100321 The Northouse book presents a comprehensive view of leadership and the theories associated with leadership behavior. This is an outstanding text to use with a graduate-level leadership course. — Edward L. Bouie, Jr. 20100325
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  • Home
  • Project #1
  • This I Believe
  • Case Studies
    • Chapter 2 Cases
    • Chapter 3 Cases
    • Chapter 4 Cases
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    • Chapter 12 Assessment

Matt Scheers Leadership Portfolio
Spring 2013

Chapter 12 Cases

Case 12.1: Can This Virtual Team Work?

 

  1. Which of the eight characteristics (Table 12.1) of team excellence are lacking in this team?

 

The most clearly-missing characteristic of team excellence that is lacking in this team is collaborative climate. It seems that they are working against each other more than collaborating, and I believe this is because they are not used to or have been directed to collaborate as much as necessary.

 

  1. Based on this analysis of team effectiveness, should Jim intervene at this time, or should he just keep monitoring the team? If you think he should take action, at what level should he intervene (internal or external)? If internal, should his actions be task or relational?

 

I think Jim needs to intervene at this point. The group is beginning to become unproductive and there are early signs of conflict arising. If he steps in, he needs to use Internal Relational actions.

 

  1. What specific leadership functions should Jim implement to improve the team? Why?

 

Within Internal Relational actions, Jim specifically needs to focus on coaching interpersonal skills, collaboration skills, and he needs to work towards satisfying individual member needs.

 

 

Case 12.2: They Dominated the Conversation

 

  1. How would you assess the effectiveness of this team?

 

I would assess this team as very ineffective. They have many communication and authoritative issues at play that will only continue to hinder the patients’ feeling of value and create conflict between the team members.

 

  1. In monitoring this team, at what level and function do you see the most serious problems? Internal task? Internal relational? External?

 

I would assess that there are the most serious problems in Internal Relational. There are very obvious signs of lack of conflict management, collaborations and interpersonal communication.

 

  1. Would you take action to improve team functioning? If so, how would you intervene? Why?

 

I would intervene by talking individually to each team member and getting a consensus of the issues at hand. I would then reiterate the roles of each team member in the patients under care, and make sure that everyone is being respected when performing their job.

 

  1. What specific leadership skill or skills would you use to improve group functioning?

 

If this team simply worked on collaborating as equals when making decisions, they would experience much less conflict, team members will begin to think more optimistically about the situation and they would eventually be able to work together rather than with resentment towards each other.

 

 

Case 12.3: Starts With a Bang, End With a Whimper

 

  1. Which characteristics of excellence were lacking in this task force?

 

The characteristics of excellence that were lacking in this task force are clear, elevating goal, results-driven structure, and external support and recognition. These characteristics can be imperative to the success of a project like this one.

 

  1. Which characteristics of excellence were evident in this task force?

 

It was very evident that the task force was made up of competent members from around the university and academia. Additionally, the team displayed a unified commitment at the beginning of the project while upholding a standard of excellence.

 

  1. How would you assess Kim as a leader?

 

I would assess that Kim is less of a leader and more of a manager. She seems to be capable of delegation, but does not seem to have the drive or follow-through that I believe a leader should have. She should have been held accountable for the due date of the report, and instead it was ignored.

 

  1. What actions would you take (internally or externally) if you were the leader of this task force?

 

I would make sure to take Internal Relational action if I were the team leader of this task force. These team members need to continue to collaborate effectively. Additionally, the team members need to build commitment in this team regardless of the time taken from their regular jobs, and they need to have their individual needs satisfied by Kim.

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    11
    Dec 2017

    Study Planner and Timetable


    by |

    posted in: Study Tips
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    Online study planner.


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    A weekly study timetable is essential to be an organised university or college student, particularly when you are a busy online learner.

    We suggest you use the timetable template above (or similar) to help organise your week.

    • You can fill in the timetable in Microsoft Word or just with a pen or pencil.
    • Tip: It’s best to start with fixed commitments.

    But there’s more to study planning than a timetable.

    • A complete study plan also contains goals and strategies to make your study efforts work.
    • The extra elements are essential for studying online.
    • Distance education students learn independently and benefit from strategies to stay motivated.

    What is an online study plan?

    An online study plan is a structured schedule for students. It details study times and contains learning goals.

    University students should create a schedule where certain days and times are allocated to online study and nothing else. Developing a study plan not only helps you to be organised, but it also makes you accountable for learning outcomes.

    As an online student, a study plan is vital. You need to have the  discipline and persistence  to do your studies. External students don’t get energy from face-to-face interactions with teachers and peers.

    How do I plan my studies?

    The aim in study planning is to create a tool to help you navigate your course efficiently. The plan is personal to you and must reflect your study methods and lifestyle.

    To create a study plan, a good starting point is to reflect on how your time is spent and prioritise what is important. Online study time needs to fit into your schedule. But you should aim to study when you are well rested and mentally alert.

    A habit that most outstanding students get into is to establish some sort of study goal before or at the beginning of each study session. Having a goal boosts motivation, makes you accountable and ensures you keep making progress.

    Being realistic about what you can accomplish is also important. For example, allocating very large chunks of time to online study might end up having a demoralising effect. Study plans need balance. There should be rewards (e.g. free time) after you achieve study goals.

    Steps to create a study plan

    1. Assess your current schedule. A good starting point is to assess how you currently spend your time. This will help identify how much time is available for study. You might also find activities that waste time and can be cut.
    2. Construct a timetable. To prepare a timetable, start by blocking out times where there are commitments. Then you can start allocating time for important things, including your course. To succeed at online study, you need to set aside a good number of hours for each course. Your timetable needs to leave room for extra study (in case you need it) and, of course, time for yourself.
    3. Set study goals. You can do this formally or just spend some time thinking about it. Good students set long term and short term goals. A longer term goal (for a course) might be to complete all readings and exercises before entering the exam period. A short term goal might be to work solidly for the next hour before you take a break.
    4. Establish good habits. A study plan works best if it is followed consistently. It helps to start well early on and build great habits. These help carry you through during any periods when you might be busy, tired or just down on motivation.


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