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Human Rights Day
10 December

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Mrs. Eleanor Roosevelt of the United States holding a Universal Declaration of Human Rights poster in English. Mrs. Eleanor Roosevelt of the United States holding a Universal Declaration of Human Rights poster in English.

Mrs. Eleanor Roosevelt of the United States, chair of the drafting committee, holding a Universal Declaration of Human Rights poster in English. UN Photo (1949)

“Where, after all, do universal human rights begin? In small places, close to home — so close and so small that they cannot be seen on any maps of the world. […] Unless these rights have meaning there, they have little meaning anywhere. Without concerted citizen action to uphold them close to home, we shall look in vain for progress in the larger world.” — Eleanor Roosevelt

The Universal Declaration of Human Rights turns 70

Let’s stand up for equality, justice and human dignity

Human Rights Day is observed every year on 10 December – the day the United Nations General Assembly adopted, in 1948, the Universal Declaration of Human Rights . This year, Human Rights Day kicks off a year-long campaign to mark the upcoming 70th anniversary of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, a milestone document that proclaimed the inalienable rights which everyone is inherently entitled to as a human being — regardless of race, colour, religion, sex, language, political or other opinion, national or social origin, property, birth or other status. It is the most translated document in the world, available in more than 500 languages .

Drafted by representatives of diverse legal and cultural backgrounds from all regions of the world, the Declaration sets out universal values and a common standard of achievement for all peoples and all nations. It establishes the equal dignity and worth of every person. Thanks to the Declaration, and States’ commitments to its principles, the dignity of millions has been uplifted and the foundation for a more just world has been laid. While its promise is yet to be fully realized, the very fact that it has stood the test of time is testament to the enduring universality of its perennial values of equality, justice and human dignity.

The Universal Declaration of Human Rights empowers us all. The principles enshrined in the Declaration are as relevant today as they were in 1948. We need to stand up for our own rights and those of others. We can take action in our own daily lives, to uphold the rights that protect us all and thereby promote the kinship of all human beings.  

#StandUp4HumanRights

  • The Universal Declaration of Human Rights empowers us all.
  • Human rights are relevant to all of us, every day.
  • Our shared humanity is rooted in these universal values.
  • Equality, justice and freedom prevent violence and sustain peace.
  • Whenever and wherever humanity’s values are abandoned, we all are at greater risk.
  • We need to stand up for our rights and those of others.

 

All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights

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Human Rights

Record yourself reading an article of the declaration in your own language and team up with activists, authors and world leaders for human rights.

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Universal Declaration of Human Rights cover

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Human Rights Day Essay Examples

3 total results
The History of the International Declaration of Human Rights and Freedoms

994 words
2 pages
An Introduction to the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR)

3,534 words
8 pages
A Look at International Declaration of Human Rights and Freedom

987 words
2 pages







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EEAS homepage > 404 > Human Rights Day Essay Competition!

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Human Rights Day Essay Competition!

18/11/2016 – 00:00
News stories

Human Rights day is coming up! December 10 will mark the 68th anniversary of the adoption of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. Share your thoughts with us and win a prize!


Human Rights day is coming up! December 10 will mark the 68th anniversary of the adoption of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. Share your thoughts with us and win a prize!

Submit an essay answering the following question in your own words: “Freedom of expression – why does it matter?”

The Essays should be maximum 2 single-spaced pages (1000 words +/- 200). All submissions will be reviewed by a jury from the EU delegation and embassies of EU Member States in Kigali. Winners will be notified on December 9. Prizes will be awarded the week of December 12.

Submissions can be made in English, French, or Kinyarwanda. All submissions have to be authored by the submitting individuals. Submissions are to be sent by email to  [email protected]  with the subject “Human Rights Day 2014 + submitters’ name” by December 5, 2016, 17:00. Please include your name, surname, age, telephone numbers and place of your residence alongside your submission. Only one submission per person.

Good luck!

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Villemagne, Stephanie – CUHK Business School

CUHK Business School CUHK Business School

Academic Staff Villemagne, Stephanie

Villemagne, Stephanie

Associate Dean (Graduate Programmes)
Director, MBA Programmes

Contact

Room 1420B, 14/F
Cheng Yu Tung Building
12 Chak Cheung Street
Shatin, N.T., Hong Kong

+852 3943 5435

[email protected]

Links

LinkedIn Profile

Biography

Ms. Stephanie Villemagne is the Associate Dean (Graduate Programmes) and Director of MBA programess at The Chinese University of Hong Kong (CUHK) Business School.

Ms. Villemagne joined CUHK Business School in March 2016 from her previous role as Global Director of the MBA programme at INSEAD, where she accumulated a wealth of experience in managing MBA programmes and helped establish numerous multicultural teams across multiple international campuses. She has worked in a number of international markets including France, Spain, the United States and the United Kingdom for almost 20 years, and was based in Singapore for seven years prior to joining CUHK.

Ms. Villemagne became interested in international education in her early years as a French teenager travelling to the United States in a high school’s exchange programme. She then worked in various internships and full-time positions with schools and firms which focused on international education, including seven years with CEI in London as Managing Director.

Ms. Villemagne joined INSEAD in 2005 and was in charge of the operations of the MBA programme on the French campus before moving to Singapore in 2009 to oversee and manage the growth of the programme in Asia while developing new exchange and dual degree programmes.

Ms. Villemagne has a Master of Arts degree in Applied Languages (English and Spanish) from UPV in France and UCB in Spain with a specialisation in international business as well as an Executive Master of Business Administration from INSEAD.

No. 43 Financial Times

Global MBA Rankings 2018
CUHK Business School CUHK Business School

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The Chinese University of Hong Kong

The Chinese University of Hong Kong
CUHK Business School

The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, NT, Hong Kong SAR
(852) 3943 8976 / (852) 3943 8977
Fax (852) 2603 5779
Website : www.bschool.cuhk.edu.hk/index.aspx  

Accreditations:

AACSB, AMBA
2018 Financial Times Ranking: Full-time MBA: 43rd

Map

Rate and review The Chinese University of Hong Kong

Are you a student or an alumnus/alumna? Help MBA aspirants choose their programs!

  • Full-time MBA
  • Part-time MBA
  • Executive MBA
  • Dual program

Full-time MBA

Hong Kong
1-year, full-time program

Courses are taught in English.

SpecializationChina Business, Entrepreneurship, Finance, Marketing
Credits54
Duration12-16 months
IntakeAugust

Tuition FeesHK$550,000
Application feeHKD1,200
Admission requirements
  • A recognized bachelor’s degree with honors (not lower than second class lower division or B grade) or equivalent professional qualification
  • Three years of full-time post-qualification work experience
  • English Language Proficiency Requirement
  • A satisfactory GMAT score
  • Objective Statement
  • Resume
  • Copies of degree certificate(s)
  • TOEFL/IELTS score report (if applicable)
  • Copies of Hong Kong Identity Card or Passport
  • Academic transcripts
  • Two sets of recommendations

Part-time MBA

Hong Kong
Part-time program

Courses are taught in English.

SpecializationChina Business, Entrepreneurship, Finance, Marketing
Credits48
Duration24 months
IntakeAugust
Tuition FeesHK$356,400 (HK$7,425 per unit)
Application feeHKD 800
Admission requirements
  • A recognized bachelor’s degree with honors (not lower than second class lower division or B grade) or equivalent professional qualification
  • Three years of full-time post-qualification work experience
  • English Language Proficiency Requirement1
  • A satisfactory GMAT score
  • Objective Statement
  • Resume
  • Copies of degree certificate(s)
  • TOEFL/IELTS score report (if applicable)
  • Copies of Hong Kong Identity Card or Passport
  • Academic transcripts
  • Two sets of recommendations

Executive MBA

Hong Kong
Executive MBA program
All core courses are conducted in English while a few electives are conducted in Chinese (Cantonese and Mandarin).
Courses are taught in Chinese and English .

Duration2 years
IntakeAugust
Tuition FeesHK$121,500
HK$97,500 is the full tuition for courses offered in the first term, and around HK$24,000 is the expense in the Residence Week
Admission requirements
  • Obtained a Bachelor’s degree or professional qualifications equivalent to a degree
  • English Language Proficiency Requirement
  • Have at least 7 years of post-qualification business or relevant work experience, including 5 years in a managerial position
  • Hold a responsible, senior management position

CUHK MBA/HEC Paris Dual MBA

Jouy-en-Josas (France), Hong Kong
Dual program

Tuition Fees

CUHK MBA/University of Texas at Austin Dual MBA

Austin in Texas; Hong Kong
Dual program

Tuition Fees

CUHK MBA/RSM, Erasmus University Dual MBA

Rotterdam, Hong Kong
Dual program

Tuition Fees

CUHK MBA/MIT MS in Management Studies

Hong Kong, Cambridge in Massachusetts
Dual program

Tuition Fees

CUHK MBA/Cambridge Judge Mphil in Technology Policy

Hong Kong, Cambridge in UK
Dual program

Tuition Fees

JD/MBA

Hong Kong
Dual program
Dual degree offered in partnership with the CUHK Faculty of Law.

CreditsFull-time mode: 102 units. Part-time mode: 96 units.
DurationFull-time mode: 36 (3 years)months
Part-time mode: 60 months (5 years)
Tuition FeesMBA component: HK$9,450 per unit for Full-time MBA; HK$7,425 per unit for Part-time MBA.
JD component: HK$4,630
Subject to annual adjustment
Application fee HKD1,200 for applying Full-time mode. HKD 800 for Part-time mode.
Admission requirements
  • Graduated from a recognized university and obtained a Bachelor’s degree in a non-law subject or a law degree from a non-common law jurisdiction, normally with honors no lower than Second Class
    OR
    Graduated from an Honors program of a recognized university with a Bachelor’s degree in a non-law subject or a law degree from a non-common law jurisdiction, achieving an average grade of no lower than “B” in undergraduate courses
    OR
    Completed a course of study in a tertiary educational institution and obtained professional or similar qualifications equivalent to an honors degree
  • English Language Proficiency Requirement
  • GMAT score
  • At least 3 years’ post qualification full-time work experience or recognized professional qualifications

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CUHK Business School Launches Master in Management Program to Equip Young Graduates for the Digital Age

CUHK Business School Launches Master in Management Program to Equip Young Graduates for the Digital Age

Corporate News Media-Outreach
Dec 13, 2017

HONG KONG, CHINA –  Media OutReach
 – December 13, 2017 – The Chinese University of Hong
Kong (CUHK) Business School is now accepting applications for its
new Master of Science in Management (Master in Management)
degree program. The program will help high-achieving students excel
personally and professionally in today’s dynamic marketplace. CUHK
Business School expects the first intake in August 2018 to have 50
students including 50 percent international students.

CUHK Master in Management (MiM) program is a one-year full-time
pre-experience program in Hong Kong. Specifically designed for
fresh or recent graduates of all disciplines and early-career
professionals with less than two years of work experience, CUHK MiM
equips students with the critical understanding of business, the
adaptive mindset, practical managerial knowledge and leadership
skills to succeed in the digital age. Applicants are required to
take the GMAT/GRE examinations or the CUHK MiM Admission Test in
order to apply to the postgraduate program.

In sharing the vision in launching the program, Dr. John Lai,
Co-director of MiM Program at CUHK Business School, said, “Industry
and society are changing. The world needs people who can innovate,
create, and disrupt, which is why CUHK Business School decided it’s
time to develop graduates who can think critically and are flexible
and adaptable. In all the MiM’s courses, we’re going to cover some
of the most challenging topics demanded by industry leaders in the
current marketplace.”

Not only will CUHK MiM students develop knowledge of the major
disciplines of management and business foundations, but they will
also be prepared for the fast-changing business environment with
practical and innovative courses covering cutting-edge topics such
as big data, FinTech, digital innovation, entrepreneurship, and
Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR).

Prof. Shige Makino, Professor of Department of Management and
Co-director of MiM Program at CUHK Business School, said,
“Traditionally, business schools teach subjects based on academic
disciplines including marketing, finance, accounting, etc. Now,
we’re looking at phenomena like big data, and so we’ve developed
many new courses based on phenomena. The digital economy is a
critical next-generation topic. Everything will be digitalized in
the future, and we need to prepare our students for it.”

Leveraging CUHK Business School’s extensive global alumni network
and strong collaboration with corporations in different industries,
CUHK MiM’s academically rigorous curriculum will be bolstered by
practice-oriented learning opportunities, including company visits,
distinguished speaker series, case studies, business field trips
and optional internship opportunities. Outside the classroom,
international capstone experience consisting of a two-week study
trip and in-company projects will engage and challenge students to
develop their problem solving and critical thinking skills by
applying theories they have acquired in the courses.

CUHK Business School’s Career Management Center offers a
comprehensive program of support and skill development to help MiM
students, who are at the start of their career, to set and achieve
their career goals and to ensure that their job search is as
effective as it is focused. Through coaching, counselling,
skill-building workshops, seminars and mentorship program, students
will be ready to take on business positions across different
industries such as finance, consulting, IT, marketing, FMCG and
real estate upon graduation.

More information about the Master in Management program can be
found on the  CUHK MiM website
.

About CUHK Business School

CUHK Business School comprises two schools — Accountancy and
Hotel and Tourism Management — and four departments —
Decision Sciences and Managerial Economics,
Finance, Management and Marketing. Established in Hong Kong in
1963, it is the first business school to offer BBA, MBA and
Executive MBA programs in the region. Today, the School
offers 8 undergraduate programs and 13 graduate
programs including MBA, EMBA, Master,
MSc, MPhil and Ph.D.

In the Financial Times
 Global MBA Ranking 2017, CUHK MBA is
ranked 36th. In FT
‘s 2017 EMBA ranking, CUHK
EMBA is ranked 32nd in the world. CUHK Business
School has the largest number of business alumni
(34,000+) worldwide – many of whom are key business
leaders. The School currently has about 4,400
undergraduate and postgraduate students and Professor Kalok Chan is
the Dean of CUHK Business School.

More information is available at:  http://www.bschool.cuhk.edu.hk
 or by connecting with CUHK Business School on Facebook:  http://www.facebook.com/cuhkbschool
 and LinkedIn:  https://www.linkedin.com/school/3923680/
.

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Purchase this article for republication.

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Race, Class, & Gender: An Anthology

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Featuring an accessible and diverse collection of more than 60 writings by a variety of scholars, RACE, CLASS, & GENDER demonstrates how the complex intersection of people’s race, class, and gender (and also sexuality) shapes their experiences, and who they become as individuals. Each reading addresses a timely–and often controversial–topic, such as the sub-prime mortgage crisis, health care inequality, undocumented students, and social media, thus giving readers a multidimensional perspective on a number of social issues. To provide an analytical framework for the articles, co-editors Andersen and Hill Collins begin each section with an in-depth introduction.



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    90 Interesting Persuasive Essay Topics for Writers to Observe …

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    How to Write a Persuasive Speech

    Three Parts: Preparing to Write Writing your Speech Delivering your Speech Community Q&A

    A persuasive speech is a speech intended to convince the audience to do something. Whether you want to get people to vote, stop littering, or change their minds about an important issue, persuasive speeches are an effective way to sway an audience. There are many elements that go into a successful persuasive speech. But, with some preparation and practice, you can deliver a powerful speech.

    Steps

    Part 1

    Preparing to Write

    1. Image titled Write a Persuasive Speech Step 1

      1
      Learn about your topic. It is important to know as much as you can about the topic you’ll be speaking on. If you aren’t already well-versed in the subject (e.g. because it has been assigned to you), do some research and learn as much as you can.

      • Especially if your topic is a controversial one, it’s a good idea to know the arguments on all sides of the issue. [1] Whatever argument you are making, you’ll be more persuasive if you can address the views of the opposing side.
      • Spend some time reading books or articles about your topic. You can go to the library and ask a librarian for help finding books, or just go online and find some articles. Make sure to use reliable sources, like major news organizations, or academic books or articles.
      • Opinion-oriented sources, like editorials, talk radio, or partisan cable news, can be valuable for finding out what other people think about your topic. But, don’t rely on them as your only source of information. They can be very biased. [2] If you use them at all, make sure to read a variety of viewpoints on the matter, not just one side.
    2. Image titled Write a Persuasive Speech Step 2

      2
      Know your goal. It’s important to understand exactly what it is you are trying to achieve with your speech. This way, you can tailor your content to fit your goals. [3]

      • For example, if your topic is recycling, it’s important to know a lot about recycling. But, your speech will need to reflect exactly what you hope the audience will do. Are you trying to get people to vote in favor of a citywide recycling program? Or are you trying to convince them to sort out their glass and cans and put them in a separate bin? These will be different speeches, so having the goal spelled out early will help you craft your message.
    3. Image titled Write a Persuasive Speech Step 3

      3
      Understand your audience. It is also important to understand your audience and their views and knowledge about the topic. This will also influence the content of your speech. [4]

      • An audience that knows little about your topic will need more background information and simpler language. An audience made up of experts on the topic would likely find such a simple speech boring. [5]
      • Likewise, an audience that already supports your view on a topic will be easier to persuade to take some action. You won’t need to convince them you are right, but only that they need to do something. By contrast, an audience that does not agree with you will need persuasion to even consider your point of view. [6]
      • For example, imagine you want to convince your audience to support a city-wide recycling program. If they already think recycling is important, you only need to convince them of the value of this specific program. But, if they don’t care about recycling or oppose it, you will need to first convince them that recycling is worthwhile.
    4. Image titled Write a Persuasive Speech Step 4

      4
      Choose the right persuasive approach. Depending on your topic and your audience, there are several ways you might try to convince people of your point of view. Since the days of ancient Greece, speakers have relied on three main persuasive approaches.

      • Ethos. These are appeals to the audience’s ethics or morals. [7] For example: “Recycling is the right thing to do. Wasting our limited resources steals from future generations, which is immoral.”
      • Pathos. These are appeals to the audience’s emotions. [8] For example: “Think of the animals that lose their homes every day because of trees being chopped down. If we recycled more, we could save these beautiful forests.”
      • Logos. These are appeals to the audiences logic or intellect. [9] For example: “We know that there is a limited supply of natural resources. We can make this supply last longer by recycling.”
      • You can rely on any one or some combination.
    5. Image titled Write a Persuasive Speech Step 5

      5
      Outline your main points. Once you’ve chosen the best persuasive approach for your audience, brainstorm the main points you’ll make during the speech.

      • The number of points you can make to support your position will be determined by how much time you have to speak. [10]
      • As a rule of thumb, three to four supporting points is usually a good number. [11]
      • For example, in the speech about recycling, your three main points might be: 1. Recycling saves resources, 2. Recycling reduces the amount of garbage, and 3. Recycling is cost-effective.

    Part 2

    Writing your Speech

    1. Image titled Write a Persuasive Speech Step 6

      1
      Write a strong opening. Before you can begin persuading your audience, you need to open the speech in a way that will make them want to pay attention. A strong opening has five main elements: [12]

      • An attention grabber. This could be a statement (or sometimes a visual) that gets your audience’s attention. It can be a good idea to be a little startling or dramatic at the opening of your speech. For example, you might start with information (or pictures) showing how a nearby landfill is nearly full to capacity.
      • A link to the audience. This is a means of showing that you have something in common with the audience. Show that you have a similar background or share an emotional connection of some kind. This will really depend on knowing your audience. For example, if you are a parent, speaking to other parents, you might emphasize the concern for your own children’s future. If you share a common interest or ideological position with your audience, you can emphasize that.
      • Your credentials. This is a means of showing that you are knowledgeable or an authority on the topic of the speech. Highlight the research you’ve done on your topic. If you have any personal or professional experience with the topic, be sure to emphasize that, too. In the recycling example, you might say “I’ve invested many hours studying the recycling issue and the types of programs available in other cities.”
      • Your goal. Explain to the audience what you hope the speech will accomplish. For example: “I hope by the end of my talk that you will agree that we need a city wide recycling program.”
      • A road map. Finally, tell the audience what the main points of the speech will be. For example, “I believe we must start a recycling program for these three reasons….”
    2. Image titled Write a Persuasive Speech Step 7

      2
      Offer persuasive evidence. The main body of your speech should contain the points you outlined in Part 1. It should provide the audience with several convincing reasons to support your viewpoint.

      • Arrange these points logically. Don’t jump from one point to the next, and then back again. Instead, complete an argument, then move on to another that flows logically from it. [13]
      • Use credible sources from your research to back the points you are making. Even if your point is more emotional (pathos), introducing some factual information will make your argument stronger. For example “Each year, 40,000 acres of beautiful forests are destroyed to make paper, according to a study from the American Recycling Institute.”
      • Use real life examples that the audience can relate to. Even an argument based on facts and logic (logos) should relate to the audience’s lives and interests. For example: “In these hard economic times, I know many of you are afraid that a recycling program will mean a costly increase in taxes. But, the city of Springfield started a program like this one three years ago. So far they’ve seen an increase in revenue as a result of the program. Many residents have seen a decrease in their taxes as a result.”
    3. Image titled Write a Persuasive Speech Step 8

      3
      Address the counter-argument. Although it is not strictly necessary, your argument may be stronger if one or more of your supporting points addresses the views of the opposing side. This gives you a chance to address your audience’s possible objections and make your argument stronger. [14]

      • Make sure that you describe opposing views fairly and objectively. Consider whether someone who actually holds that view would approve of the way you are describing their position. If you aren’t sure, find someone who thinks that way and ask! [15]
      • For example, you would not want to say: “opponents of recycling just don’t care if we waste our precious resources, or our money.” That’s not a fair description of their opinion.
      • Instead, you might say: “opponents of recycling are concerned that the cost might be much higher than just using new materials,” and then go on to offer an argument about why recycling might be the more cost-effective option.
    4. Image titled Write a Persuasive Speech Step 9

      4
      Conclude with a call to action. The conclusion of your speech should remind your audience of what you have told them. It should also make it clear exactly what you hope they will do next.

      • Don’t just restate, verbatim, what you’ve already said. Instead, use this as an opportunity to reinforce the way your main points support your call to action. For example: “To sum up, I’ve shown you (points a, b, and c). These three undeniable facts point to a city-wide recycling program as the most sensible and ethical step we can take in helping create a more sustainable future. Please, join me in voting ‘yes’ on this program in November.”

    Part 3

    Delivering your Speech

    1. Image titled Write a Persuasive Speech Step 10

      1
      Practice your speech. When it comes to making your speech work in real life, the most important thing you can do is practice, as much as you can.

      • Try practicing in front of a mirror, so that you can see how you are delivering the speech. This can help you notice your facial expressions and body language. These can help or hinder your ability to get your message across. [16]
      • For example, you might notice you are slouching, or that that you fidget with your collar. These actions suggest to an audience that you aren’t confident.
      • Better still, record yourself with a video camera and watch the tape afterwards. This can help you see (and hear) where your delivery needs improvement. [17] It has the benefit of providing audio, and also won’t distract you as much as a mirror when you’re speaking.
      • Once you’ve practiced on your own a few times, try giving the speech to a small group of friends or family members. Ask for their feedback on your message and delivery. [18]
    2. Image titled Write a Persuasive Speech Step 11

      2
      Dress appropriately. On the day of the speech, dress appropriately for the venue and audience you’ll be speaking to. [19]

      • Generally speaking, this will mean dressing professionally. But, the degree of formality will vary. A speech to a film club to convince them to show your film won’t require the same degree of formality as speaking to the executives of a movie distribution company. [20] For the executives, you would want to wear a suit. For the film club, that might be overdoing it.
    3. Image titled Write a Persuasive Speech Step 12

      3
      Relax. Many people find public speaking intimidating, but try to relax and be yourself as you give your speech.

      • Be friendly and make eye contact with the audience. [21]
      • Move around, where appropriate, but don’t fidget or pick at your clothes or hair. [22]
      • Don’t read the speech. It’s okay to use a few notes to keep yourself on track, but your speech should be mostly memorized. [23]
      • Roll with the punches. If you make a mistake, don’t let it derail your whole speech. This might be an opportunity to use a little humor. Then, move on. [24]
    4. Image titled Write a Persuasive Speech Step 13

      4
      Involve your audience. If there is something specific you’d like your audience to do, provide them with any resources you can to make it easier. It is difficult to motivate people to take action, but if you make it simple, they will be more likely to follow through. [25]

      • For example, if you want them to contact the mayor, demanding a recycling program, don’t just ask them to do it. Give them stamped, addressed envelopes to send a letter, or cards with the mayor’s phone number and email address. If you do this, many more people are likely to follow through.

    Community Q&A

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    • Question
      I am writing a speech about child abuse and crime. How should I begin my speech?
      wikiHow Contributor
      Community Answer

      Paint a verbal picture. Perhaps start with “Picture this. A child battered and bruised.”
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    • Question
      How can I overcome stage fright while giving a speech?
      wikiHow Contributor
      Community Answer

      The best thing to do is practice a lot so you know that you’re completely prepared. Then, when you’re giving the speech, just pretend that you’re alone and delivering your speech just like you already have a hundred times.
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    • Question
      How do I start a good persuasive speech on the topic “education and friends”?
      wikiHow Contributor
      Community Answer

      You could kick-start with “‘Education is the world’s greatest weapon,’ said Nelson Mandela.”
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    • Question
      What are the best speech starters?
      wikiHow Contributor
      Community Answer

      Go first with your topic sentence, so what you are here to do, explain, talk about, etc. Also, introduce yourself so that the audience knows who you are.
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    • Question
      How would I start a speech that is pro Safe Schools Coalition?
      wikiHow Contributor
      Community Answer

      Perhaps you could use a quote about the importance of education, or safety, or some other theme in your speech. Quotes are great openers!
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    • Question
      How do I write a speech on something I don’t know much about?
      wikiHow Contributor
      Community Answer

      Research your topic using the Internet and the library to get info for your speech.
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    • Question
      How can I write a speech persuading woman who are teenagers to support women’s sports?
      wikiHow Contributor
      Community Answer

      Mention Jessica Ennis, Alison Stoke, and Beth Tweddle — some of the greatest female athletes in the world. that could be you. Talk about their journeys to success. Explain why this next generation of young women should want to support women’s sports, even if they themselves aren’t especially interested in playing them.
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    • Question
      How would I go about doing a speech on the topic of “the best movie ever”? Do you have any advice?
      wikiHow Contributor
      Community Answer

      Research the best movies of a specific genre first. go through a few and then ask people what they think.
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    • Question
      Any tips for writing a persuasive speech about why racism should stop? I’m stuck for ideas.
      wikiHow Contributor
      Community Answer

      Racism leads to income inequality that is bad for the economy. Diversity is good for a culture because it allows for new ideas, innovations, and improvements.
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    • Question
      How do I start an election speech based on Animal Farm by George Orwell?
      wikiHow Contributor
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      Maybe introduce the book first, tell your impression of it, and then proceed to speak about your main topic or make parallels to the current culture.
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      Tips

      • Speak forward, projecting your voice toward the audience with confidence. Do not speak down toward the floor.
      • Try to cite sources for statistics and use credible, non-biased sources.
      • While researching your audience, learn what motivates them. Try to motivate them with the same ideas and values that they already hold dear.
      • Don’t be afraid to use a little appropriate humor in your speech. It can make difficult topics easier to hear about, and make you appear more likeable to the audience. [26]
      • Look around at the audience, making eye contact, especially during pauses in your speech. If you’re feeling nervous about this, pick out a single person in the audience and pretend you are speaking only to them. After a little while, pick someone else, and repeat. [27]

      Warnings

      • Don’t be pompous or arrogant during your speech. Be humble, and open to questions, suggestions, and feedback.
      • Avoid being confrontational, when possible. Don’t be sarcastic or mocking when discussing viewpoints other than your own. This can be alienating to your audience, even those who may agree with you.

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      Sources and Citations

      1. http://grammar.yourdictionary.com/style-and-usage/steps-for-writing-a-persuasive-speech.html
      2. http://fair.org/extra-online-articles/the-most-biased-name-in-news/
      3. http://totalcommunicator.com/vol2_4/beclear.html
      4. http://totalcommunicator.com/vol2_4/knowaudience.html
      5. http://totalcommunicator.com/vol2_4/knowaudience.html
      6. http://totalcommunicator.com/vol2_4/knowaudience.html
      7. http://www.doe.virginia.gov/testing/sol/standards_docs/english/2010/lesson_plans/communication/9-12/7_9-12_communictionwriting_persuasivewritingspeaking%20.pdf
      8. http://www.doe.virginia.gov/testing/sol/standards_docs/english/2010/lesson_plans/communication/9-12/7_9-12_communictionwriting_persuasivewritingspeaking%20.pdf
      9. http://www.doe.virginia.gov/testing/sol/standards_docs/english/2010/lesson_plans/communication/9-12/7_9-12_communictionwriting_persuasivewritingspeaking%20.pdf
      10. http://www.writeawriting.com/how-to-write/persuasive-speech/
      11. http://www.best-speech-topics.com/writing-a-persuasive-speech.html
      12. http://www.persuasive-speechesnow.com/persuasive-speech-OUTLINE.html
      13. http://www.srinstitute.com/speaker_opp_request.cfm
      14. http://www.shoreline.edu/doldham/101/html/what%20is%20a%20c-a.htm
      15. http://www.shoreline.edu/doldham/101/html/what%20is%20a%20c-a.htm
      16. http://www.writeawriting.com/how-to-write/persuasive-speech/
      17. http://www.forbes.com/sites/victorlipman/2012/11/12/a-quiet-persons-guide-to-effective-public-speaking/
      18. http://www.writeawriting.com/how-to-write/persuasive-speech/
      19. http://www.uccs.edu/Documents/commcenter/Dress.pdf
      20. http://www.uccs.edu/Documents/commcenter/Dress.pdf
      21. http://www.writeawriting.com/how-to-write/persuasive-speech/
      22. http://www.writeawriting.com/how-to-write/persuasive-speech/
      23. http://www.writeawriting.com/how-to-write/persuasive-speech/
      24. http://www.writeawriting.com/how-to-write/persuasive-speech/
      25. http://www.writeawriting.com/how-to-write/persuasive-speech/
      26. http://www.persuasive-speechesnow.com/persuasive-speech-OUTLINE.html
      27. http://www.forbes.com/sites/victorlipman/2012/11/12/a-quiet-persons-guide-to-effective-public-speaking/

      Show more… (24)

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      Español:  escribir un discurso convincente , Deutsch:  Eine überzeugende Rede schreiben , Русский:  написать убедительную речь , Français:  écrire un argumentaire , Italiano:  Scrivere un Discorso Persuasivo , Português:  Escrever um Discurso Persuasivo , Bahasa Indonesia:  Menulis Pidato yang Persuasif , العربية:  كتابة خطاب إقناعي , Nederlands:  Een overtuigende toespraak schrijven , 한국어:  설득력 있게 연설하는 법 , Tiếng Việt:  Viết một bài phát biểu thuyết phục

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      Oct 8, 2017

      “It gave me everything I needed, including a template, ways I can start, end, and use persuasion in a speech, and gave me details of the types of information going into it.”…” more
      Rated this article:


      PS

      Penelope Shatto

      Jul 20, 2016

      “It was very clear and had step by step help. My college instructor doesn’t even come close to as clear as this was. In fact my professor is no help at all. So thank you!!”…” more


      A

      Anonymous

      Sep 12, 2017

      “Overall, the information provided is really helpful in all aspects. I enjoyed learning these new things and it supports me greatly for my works.”…” more
      Rated this article:


      A

      Anonymous

      Dec 18, 2016

      “Your article has helped me so much. At first, I didn’t know how to persuade people, but after reading this, I finally know how to do it.”…” more


      RL

      Rhem Lee

      Aug 20, 2017

      “At first I did not know how to write and deliver a persuasive speech, but thanks to this article, now I have an idea how to do it.”…” more
      Rated this article:


      PF

      P. Francisco

      Jul 11, 2017

      “We have an oral recitation and it should be persuasive. This helped me a lot on knowing how to persuade or convince the audience.”…” more
      Rated this article:


      GK

      G. K.

      Apr 11, 2016

      “The whole article was very helpful. I feel that I will do much better if I follow these steps with my upcoming speech. Thanks!”…” more


      SM

      Shiraz Moorer

      Jun 12, 2017

      “It helped to compose my article. I had no idea how to write an introduction, and then a really shiny webpage caught my eye!”…” more
      Rated this article:


      BP

      Breanna Pursley

      Mar 29, 2017

      “This article has helped me write a persuasive speech in order to get people to vote for a special occasion in my home town.”…” more
      Rated this article:

      Kirby Teodoro

      Oct 3, 2017

      “This article is really helpful to the people especially students, who wants some idea in writing effective speeches.”…” more
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      WC

      W. C.

      Oct 6, 2017

      “I needed to write a speech for school, I did really well and it was all thanks to the instructions on this website.…” more
      Rated this article:


      RK

      Ron Kurtus

      Oct 23, 2017

      “It gave a very clear outline of how to write a persuasive speech. Also gave some good examples and food for thought.”…” more
      Rated this article:

      Adarsh Shankar

      Aug 8, 2017

      “I was trying to write an advocacy speech for my school project so this helped me get an idea of the structure. ”
      Rated this article:


      MF

      Michelle Fayne

      Feb 28

      “This article helped me remember how to stay confident and make an excellent persuasive speech. Thank you.”
      Rated this article:


      PT

      Precious Tonye

      Feb 20, 2017

      “I was persuaded by all the examples, explanation, and tips on how to write a persuasive essay.”


      A

      Anonymous

      Jul 4, 2017

      “I needed to write a speech, and so far it is really helping me cope and get through it all.”
      Rated this article:


      DW

      DeVanne Washington

      Sep 6, 2016

      “This helped me get the main points I needed to write my persuasive speech. Thanks!”


      RD

      Rhonda Drew

      Aug 29, 2016

      “Thanks so much. I needed help to write my speech for school and now it is great! ”


      NC

      Nyvein Chung

      Jun 26, 2016

      “This article helped me a lot because I couldn’t start my speech. Thanks a lot!!”

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      Easy Persuasive Speech Topics

      Easy Persuasive Speech Topics

      persuasive speech topics

      When given a task to come up with a persuasive speech , it is most often up
      to a student to pick the topic. Choosing the right topic for a persuasive
      speech is sometimes not such an easy thing to do as it may seem. The
      infinite choice often gets a student confused.

      In any case, it is always a better idea to work with a topic that is
      particularly close to you and that you have a genuine interest in, as
      opposed to just picking a random topic. Discussing something that you are
      familiar is not only more fun but also a lot easier.

      To aid the student, we have compiled this long list of topics in a broad
      range of categories. The topics in our list vary greatly in their subjects
      but are equally engaging and exciting. We have included both classic
      persuasive speech topics done by millions of students and other people
      throughout the years – such as termination of pregnancy, firearm control,
      same-sex matrimony, public smoking, etc., as well as some of the more
      original that remain relatively uninvestigated – for now.

      Here we go:

      PETS AND FAUNA

      1. Is it better to adopt a pet from an animal nursery or to buy one at
        a pet store?

        Order now

      2. Do some pets pose a danger to the community?

      3. Should the owner get rid of a pet that has done harm to someone
        else’s health?

      4. Should more kinds of animals be tamed and turned into household
        pets?

      5. Is battery farming ethical?

      6. Is factory farming too cruel to be legal?

      7. Why is adopting a kitten better than buying one?

      8. Is it a good idea to breed pets for sale?

      9. How having a pet makes our lives better?

      10. What makes a dog a perfect pet?

      11. How having a pet affects a child?

      12. How can one benefit from having a snake as a pet?

      13. Why is it better to neuter your pet?

      14. The amazing advantages of having your own horse

      15. How having a cat benefits you?

      16. Why is it important to safeguard dolphin populations?

      17. Why we should not adopt forest animals?

      18. How come some animals face the threat of extinction and what should
        we do about it?

      CARS AND TRANSPORTATION

      1. Should the familiarity with manual transmission be obligatory for
        getting a driver’s license?

      2. What courses should one take before one can get a driver’s license?

      3. How effective and safe are booster seats for kids?

      4. If one should use the phone while driving, should one at least call
        hands-free?

      5. At what age should people be allowed to drive?

      6. What makes texting while driving unsafe?

      7. How effective is it when the police chase cars?

      8. What makes cars made in Japan stand out?

      9. Why one should not drive sports cars in everyday life?

      10. Is it justified to charge people money for passing driving tests?

      11. How to optimize the street traffic to ensure the safety of bicycle
        drivers?

      ENTREPRENEURSHIP

      1. How advertising can mess with our minds?

      2. How can advertising be regulated to make it more ethical?

      3. Why should a business understand its target group(s)?

      CONSTITUTION AND GOVERNMENT

      1. Is it justified to detain people without any proper procedures if
        they are suspected of terrorism?

      2. Is burning flags a valid form of protest?

      3. Should silent prayers at schools be outlawed?

      4. How should the government control and manage the turnover of
        alcohol and other narcotic substances?

      5. Why should school students be given the right to refuse from
        prayers?

      ECONOMIC ISSUES

      1. Is it fair to tax imported goods extra?

      2. Why is it important to buy locally manufactured or grown goods?

      3. How free trade agreements affect the national employees?

      4. Can a trade deficit have a dramatic effect on home economy?

      5. Why is it possible and necessary to increase the income of workers?

      SCHOOL

      1. Why is it necessary to test and re-certify school workers for their
        pedagogical skills on a regular basis?

      2. Is it justified to offer free higher education to all applicants
        from financially challenged backgrounds?

      3. Should high schools be put in charge for the college admission
        exams?

      4. How should students caught cyberbullying be prevented or
        persecuted?

      5. Should community service become an obligatory part of the high
        school curriculum?

      6. Pros and cons of allowing school students to use their phones in
        school territory.

      7. Should only honor roll students be allowed into school sports
        teams?

      8. Why should art classes be enforced in all public schools?

      9. Does it really make studying at a study hall less effective when
        you listen to music?

      10. Why boys and girls mostly share classrooms these days and how this
        rule holds up?

      11. Should soda and sweets be present in vending machines and on the
        menu at buffets in schools?

      12. Is it justified to let gym grades affect the GPA?

      13. Is it justified to shut down schools that underperform on test
        scores?

      14. Should college admission officers run obligatory psychological
        tests on all applicants to evaluate them?

      15. Should it be made illegal to drop students out?

      16. Is it a good idea to complement the curriculum with obligatory life
        skill classes?

      17. Should state schools be run only for taxpayers money?

      18. Should we replace textbooks with laptops or tablets entirely?

      19. How important is it to support education in other countries and
        why?

      20. Is it effective to force underperforming students to repeat the
        class?

      21. Should there be quotas for minorities when it comes to college
        admission?

      22. Is it really necessary for every student to learn a foreign
        language in the USA?

      23. Should students who are on school sports teams be free from the gym
        class?

      24. Should computer science be made into a compulsory discipline?

      25. Should the college be concerned about their students’ employment
        upon graduation?

      26. Should creationism be taught at biology classes alongside evolution
        theory?

      27. Is it outdated to count the given and received amounts of education
        in hours at class?

      28. Should commercial advertisement at schools be allowed?

      29. Do students have to ask for permission to go to the restroom?

      30. Is it a good idea to add a handwriting class to the curriculum?

      31. Would it make sense to start school an hour or two later in the
        morning?

      32. Should students be allowed to leave campus for the lunch break?

      33. Why a study hall is equal if not better than a traditional class
        today?

      34. Can we justify a student who listens to music in class?

      35. Should school field trips be restricted to our country?

      36. Should there be a certain age before and after which one could not
        work as a teacher?

      37. How many foreign languages should be taught to a student?

      38. Is the implementation of new technologies at schools sufficient?

      39. Why is music education essential?

      40. Should college fraternities and sororities be expanded into high
        school?

      41. Should the students’ financial backgrounds influence the amount of
        financial aid that they earn by studying hard?

      42. Is it necessary to add home economics to the compulsory curriculum?

      43. Should more students be encouraged to choose Chinese as the foreign
        language to study?

      44. The importance of studying Spanish at schools

      45. If SAT scores don’t influence the chance for being enrolled in
        college, then why do they exist?

      46. The pros and cons of private schools as opposed to public schools

      47. Does standardized testing truly contribute to equal opportunities?

      48. Why should students be encouraged to take part in international
        exchange programs?

      49. Why are some social groups deprived of proper education and why it
        needs to be fixed?

      50. Is the PARCC test adequate and/or necessary?

      51. How should children be prepared for school before they start it?

      52. From which grade should study hall be introduced?

      53. Should everyone try and go to college?

      54. Why do the students get insufficient financial assistance?

      55. What it takes to make high school education for one student
        possible?

      56. Does the school year have enough time to fit all the curriculum?

      57. Should anime be studied at schools?

      58. Should higher education be made available for all the population?

      59. Why is homework necessary?

      60. Is the curriculum overloaded?

      61. Is it a good idea to take a year off from studying?

      62. Is the school buffet menu sufficient?

      63. Should schools owe (and provide) the housing for their teachers and
        other employees?

      64. Do we need more scholarships for minority groups?

      65. Should we give more opportunities for alternative education?

      66. Is education in prisons working?

      67. How we benefit from accelerated learning?

      68. Is education overpriced?

      69. Should private education institutions be forced to offer
        scholarships of their own?

      70. Is security at schools sufficient?

      71. How can schools attract extra funding?

      72. The ways to confront and prevent various kinds of violence at
        schools

      73. The benefits of home education

      74. Are training programs for adults adequate?

      75. How many languages should an average student learn?

      76. Should the Oxford comma be made optional?

      NATURE PROTECTION

      1. Are the existing regulations to protect the environment enough?

      2. Should garden owners be allowed to grow exotic plants?

      3. Why is it crucial to decrease the number of cars by enforcing
        public transportation?

      4. Are we using our natural resources wisely?

      5. The negative effects of pollution today

      6. How making oil from algae will improve the environment?

      7. Is hydraulic fracturing that dangerous?

      8. Disposable diapers are a threat to nature

      9. The positive effects of implementing hybrid cars

      10. How is everyone personally responsible for protecting the nature?

      11. How hazardous are oil spills to marine species?

      12. Why we need to enforce recycling

      13. The negative effects of single-use bags

      14. How harmful is palm oil?

      15. We need to preserve the environmentally sensitive regions

      16. The long-run negative effects of oil drilling

      17. Are fishing restrictions sufficient?

      18. Why is it important to protect the rare species?

      19. Alternative energy sources should be enforced more decisively

      20. The regulation to protect ocean life are insufficient

      21. How nature can benefit from reducing the use of paper?

      22. Why the reckless use of natural resources is dangerous and why they
        should be conserved

      ETHICAL ISSUES

      1. Should women plumbers be paid the same as men plumbers?

      2. Should we legalize euthanasia when doctors lack other options?

      3. Are there better alternatives to death penalty?

      4. Are stereotypes about certain social and other groups of people
        justified?

      5. Is it necessary to test products on animals and/or humans before
        launching the mass production?

      6. Should we try and influence our unborn children’s genetics?

      7. Does donating to charities that help the poor improve the situation
        with poverty?

      8. Why do women still have their genitals artificially deformed and
        why we should no longer take it

      9. Why eating meat is not unethical

      10. Why we should stop buying and wearing fur clothes

      RAISING CHILDREN

      1. Should parents be entitled to allow their underage children to
        drink alcohol and smoke?

      2. Should there be parental guidance for music video clips and music
        television?

      3. How harmful can watching R-Rated movies be for children?

      4. Does it help to restrict teenagers from playing violent video
        games?

      5. Why parents of child performers and sportspeople should be less
        pressing

      6. Why family violence is never a good idea

      7. How fairy tales help to raise a good person

      8. The potential harm of playing R-rated video games

      9. How daycare helps children to be social

      10. Why children should listen to their parents

      11. Why children should stay away from chat rooms in the Internet

      12. Why we need to raise awareness about family violence

      13. The harm we do by lying to children about Santa Claus, Easter
        Bunny, Toothfairy, etc.

      STYLE

      1. Why women should not monopolize the pink color

      FINANCE-RELATED ISSUES

      1. Why should people be banned to wear hats and sunglasses at banks?

      2. Why student loans need to be marked off in most instances

      3. Why casinos at reservations are not as good idea as they seem

      DIET

      1. Is labeling genetically modified foods really helpful?

      2. Why banning alcohol from being advertised on TV did not help?

      3. Should every kid know how to cook?

      4. Should cooking classes be added to the school curriculum?

      5. Better things to do with unsold food products than throwing them to
        the garbage

      6. Is adding sugar to food necessary?

      7. How growing our own crops can improve our health and environment

      8. Is there enough fruit and vegetables in our diet?

      9. Genetically engineered food products are the future of humanity

      10. How we underestimate peanuts

      11. The amazing effects of drinking orange juice regularly

      12. Are farmers’ markets that we have enough?

      13. Can we get rid of the disease by switching our diets to exclusively
        organic food products?

      14. Are the artificial chemicals in our food products that harmful?

      STATE CONTROL AND RESPONSIBILITY

      1. Should the Internet be controlled more strictly?

      2. Should there be state-run websites where companies would be
        obligated to write about all of their job openings?

      3. Is it the responsibility of the state to take care of the homeless?

      4. Should the schools run by religious institutions get the taxpayers’
        money?

      5. Barack Obama’s portrait on newer dollar bills

      6. How likely is Puerto Rico to be recognized as the 51st
        State?

      7. The imperfections of the US legislative system

      8. Can the state interfere with what people choose to eat and drink?

      9. How inflated is the military budget?

      10. Should the state offer aid to everyone who claims they need it?

      11. Where should we draw the line between local and federal governing?

      12. Why are railroads so ineffective in the USA?

      13. Local authorities neglect the problem of potholes

      14. Are there any valid reasons for practicing eminent domain today?

      15. Why drug-restricting regulations keep failing

      16. Why is the zoning legislation ridiculous in its core

      MEDICINE

      1. Should parents be informed if their underage daughter chooses to
        make an abortion?

      2. Should aborted fetuses be utilized for genetic research?

      3. At what age does it become healthy to use contraceptive medical
        treatment?

      4. The American healthcare system is largely flawed and needs thorough
        revision

      5. Does free distribution of condoms at schools improve the situation
        of sex-related problems among children of school age?

      6. Exercise as an easy way to avoid health problems

      7. All restaurants serving potentially allergenic ingredients in their
        meals should inform their customers thereof properly

      8. How harmful fast food really is?

      9. Why medical research would be rendered ineffective without animal
        testing

      10. How effective are seat belts to prevent lethal casualties in
        traffic accidents?

      11. How diabetes may affect your performance at work

      12. The unpleasant consequences of skipping breakfasts

      13. Is healthy fast food possible?

      14. Is sex ed at schools effective?

      15. Why we should consume as little salt as possible

      16. Do we eat too much meat?

      17. Why is the importance of good sleep underestimated?

      18. School kids need to be educated about the prevention of rape and
        other sexual misconduct

      19. How much soda can one drink without causing any damage to one’s
        health?

      20. How junk food can be improved not to be junk

      21. What happens if one works for several years without a good vacation

      22. Why is it important to pick the right toothpaste

      23. We consume too much sugar

      24. Do we need more strict regulations regarding the advertisement of
        drugs?

      25. Can we lower the percentage of suicides by legalizing euthanasia?

      26. The underused potential of electroconvulsive treatment

      27. The effective methods to withstand stress factors

      28. The negative long-term and short-term effects of steroids for farm
        animals

      29. Pros and cons of donating organs

      30. The dangers of homeopathic treatment

      31. The dangers of anti-vaccination ideology

      32. How sleepwalking can be fatal

      33. The hidden threat of vaporizers

      34. The myth of electronic cigarettes being less harmful than tobacco

      35. Why we should be skeptical about diet pills

      36. What is Red Cross day for?

      37. How donating blood benefits the society and you

      38. The underestimated importance of drinking enough water

      39. How to maintain a healthy diet without overdoing it

      40. How few people can do a CPR

      41. How you endanger others by smoking

      42. Are there any ‘easy’ tips for staying fit?

      43. Why and how should society confront mass obesity

      44. Why are healthy food products too expensive?

      45. The misused potential of gluten

      46. How little do we know about side effects of popular drugs?

      47. Do doctors get enough wages?

      48. How high heels are bad for one’s health

      49. How we endanger ourselves by using tanning beds

      50. Why prescription drugs need to be more accessible

      51. The real and mythical dangers of smoking

      52. Easy steps to keep your teeth healthy

      53. Medical studies are dramatically underfunded

      54. How to develop healthy everyday life habits

      55. How laughing improves your health

      56. Bike helmets save lives and should not be neglected

      57. How having good friends can literally save your life

      58. The deeds of the AA should be more advertised and appreciated

      59. Medical care needs to be more accessible

      60. How contraceptive treatment saves lives

      61. Infectious diseases can be prevented more effectively

      62. The health benefits of dark chocolate

      63. Why positive thinking is good for you

      64. How stomach stapling is being overused

      65. Is it safer to chew tobacco than to smoke it?

      66. Driving without seatbelts should be punished more severely

      67. Do we know enough about food additives?

      68. Until what age should mothers breastfeed their children?

      69. Is binge drinking as great of a menace as it used to be?

      70. Should teenage pregnancy be prevented?

      71. What new factors cause teenage suicide?

      72. Do we know enough about fire safety precautions?

      73. Why people should donate their organs?

      74. How to prolong your life without medical interference?

      HISTORY IN GENERAL AND IN DETAIL

      1. Did the USA drug their soldiers in Vietnam without their consent?

      2. Do we know enough about the important figures from the
        African-American history?

      3. What makes Abraham Lincoln a role model for all Presidents?

      4. Why no nation should revise their history?

      5. Why so many people believe that Neil Armstrong did not land on the
        Moon?

      CROSS-CULTURAL AND INTERNATIONAL ISSUES

      1. The USA should involve in international processes less

      2. The actual dictatorships supported by the USA government

      3. Should Catalunya be independent from Spain?

      4. How independent can a country be?

      5. Why should every nation seek to be independent in terms of energy
        sources

      6. Is nuclear disarmament moving too slowly?

      7. The USA should have never invaded Iraq

      8. Is the UN as effective as it is supposed to be?

      9. Whose responsibility is it to enforce human rights in regions where
        they are violated?

      LEGAL ISSUES

      1. How should drunk drivers be punished adequately?

      2. Should we outlaw using a cellphone while driving?

      3. Should any unauthorized use of music and films be outlawed?

      4. Should an illegal immigrant be able to pass the driving test and
        get a license?

      5. Should we outlaw driving motorbikes without helmets?

      6. Should elderly people be allowed to drive?

      7. What should be the legal age for driving?

      8. Is it dangerous to keep the possession of deadly weapons legal?

      9. Does forbidding the use of explicit vocabulary on TV in the daytime
        help its cause?

      10. Is owing exotic pets regulated well enough legally?

      11. Should one be able to sue a fast food joint if they become obese?

      12. Would it help to introduce additional taxation for unhealthy food
        products?

      13. It to rightful to outlaw public smoking?

      14. Should English remain the only universally official language of the
        USA?

      15. Why do some groups of people argue that abortion should be illegal
        and punishable?

      16. Should gambling remain legal?

      17. Do same-sex couples deserve to be granted the same rights as
        traditional ones?

      18. Should being in a moving car without a fastened seatbelt be
        punishable more severely?

      19. Is the current voting age justified or should it be lowered?

      20. Should being too loud be considered a crime?

      21. Should bullying be considered a full-scale crime?

      22. Should recycling become mandatory?

      23. Is it a good idea to legalize medicinal marijuana?

      24. At what age should people become eligible for Social Security?

      25. Was it a mistake to legalize abortions?

      26. Is the current immigration legislation wise and fair?

      27. The restriction of smoking in public places violates rights of
        citizens

      28. Should military (or navy) service be mandatory for all the US
        citizens?

      29. Why are laws against drunk driving ineffective?

      30. Why same-sex couples should be granted same rights as other couples

      31. Should it be legal for everyone to hunt

      32. Is having death penalty as a practicable punishment justified
        today?

      33. Should it be completely outlawed to employ the underage at any
        kinds of work?

      LITERARY STUDIES

      1. In what ways are books better than TV?

      2. The positive impact of the likes of Twilight and Fifty Shades of
        Gray

      3. Why is reading a good idea

      TELEVISION

      1. Why media promotes certain beauty standards and how harmful it is

      2. Do younger generations actually degrade due to the influence of the
        TV?

      3. Should the teenage-oriented media be more careful about the
        messages they send to their audiences?

      4. Has the Star Wars franchise and lore benefited after being acquired
        by Disney?

      5. Children would treat TV more critically if Photography was studied
        at schools

      6. Should age restrictions for TV shows be stricter?

      7. How comic books are useful

      8. How educational are educational TV shows?

      9. Should TV be more education-oriented?

      10. Public broadcasters are critically underfinanced

      11. Violence, nudity and coarse language on TV needs to be regulated
        more strictly

      12. The Cable TV market is too monopolized

      MUSIC

      1. How guitar music is better than synthetic

      2. Lyrics in songs should not be censored

      3. Music is the easiest and the most effective way to lighten up

      4. How music contributes both to the individual and to the society

      5. Music in MP3 format should be free as a promo material, whereas
        music in better sound quality formats should be for sale

      POLITICAL ISSUES

      1. Why is it dangerous to allow political parties to accept financial
        donations from large corporations?

      2. The importance of every vote

      3. Politicians should at least be fined for using personal abuse
        rhetoric

      4. Why Bernie Sanders lost the primaries

      LIFE SKILLS

      1. Survival basics that everybody needs to know

      2. Few simple rules of camping for everyone

      3. How being clean affects your personal and professional life and
        wellbeing

      PSYCHOLOGY AND SOCIAL STUDIES

      1. How much is intelligence pre-determined genetically?

      2. To what extent does our environment influence who we are

      3. Can a “shrink” be trusted?

      4. What is the purpose of love in our lives?

      5. How much does your feeling of happiness depend on your financial
        state of affairs?

      PERSONAL ISSUES

      1. Are long-distance relationships possible via online means?

      2. Are words of love gender-biased?

      3. It is possible to maintain a relationship being far away from one
        another

      4. How to know the person for real before marrying?

      RELIGION AND SPIRITUAL ISSUES

      1. Should religion studies be included in the curriculum of public
        schools?

      2. Can students from religious backgrounds make their prayers at
        schools?

      3. Why most religions are not ready to allow women be priests

      4. Why are religious conflicts the fiercest?

      5. Why every religion claims to be peaceful?

      6. Why fundamentalist movements arise

      7. How we decide whether a certain cult is dangerous

      8. Why it is important to allow people practicing their religion or
        lack thereof

      SELF-IMPROVEMENT

      1. How to confront stress and depression using art

      2. Zeal is the most important factor in mastering anything

      3. Why we should not overthink our lives

      4. Is there any ‘simple’ time management advice for everyone?

      5. How to benefit from stressful situations

      6. How your looks influences your success

      7. Why personal development is never enough

      8. Confidence is crucial to any undertaking

      9. Being persistent will help you achieve any results

      EVERYDAY LIFE

      1. Should obese people be forced to pay for two seats at public
        transport or entertainment venues?

      2. Would it be effective to restrict the number of children in an
        American family to a certain number?

      3. Is it justified to obligate residents to clear their adjacent
        sidewalks from snow?

      4. Will we get rid of drunk driving if we appoint a responsible police
        officer to every pub?

      5. Is it justified to present senior citizens with free use of public
        transportation?

      6. Is it a good idea to make a certain period of community service
        compulsory for every US citizen?

      7. Should we join the rest of the world and adopt the metric system?

      8. How should we deal with people who refuse to stand up for the
        pledge?

      9. Is it the responsibility of a good municipal government to arrange
        free Wi-Fi spots all over the city?

      10. What makes urban life better than the countryside one?

      11. Why it is important to stay open-minded at all times

      12. Should an education worker give up on a “hard” kid in favor of the
        rest of the class?

      13. Internet connection should be free of charge for everyone

      14. Paparazzi and stalkers violate privacy of other people too often

      15. Human life has improved a great deal in past 100 years

      16. Why stereotypes exist?

      17. Why raising awareness about feminism and gender studies is crucial

      18. Is it ethical to aim marketing campaigns to underage audiences?

      19. Should convicts be able to practice their right to vote?

      20. How justified is Social Darwinism?

      21. Why are jails so overcrowded with convicts in the US?

      22. Are the currently running campaigns against poverty effective?

      23. Is it possible to prolong weekends by one day without compromising
        working efficiency?

      24. Are imposed gender roles a thing of the past?

      25. The implications of traditional “trick or treat” custom

      26. Should the state provide homes to lonely senior citizens for free?

      27. Why are public restrooms so messy and what should be done about it?

      28. Are genetically modified food products really that harmful?

      29. Bullying is a destructive social factor

      30. Society imposes downright dangerous beauty standards

      31. Being polite will get you everywhere

      32. Why buying at Walmart should be avoided

      33. How to bring good to your community right now

      34. Lack of fair-priced residences is a serious problem

      35. The holidays are too short for no good reason

      36. What makes propaganda a hazardous weapon?

      37. How excessive wealth corrupts people

      38. Why elderly people need the opportunity to use public
        transportation for free?

      39. How public transportation system can be improved

      40. Why everyone should contribute to the community

      41. Why should all the homeless be assisted with finding homes

      42. Cyberbullying is a serious threat

      43. What you achieve by supporting charities

      44. People can and should retire at an older age than they used to

      45. Censorship is suffocating the emerging information society

      46. Foster parenthood should be more advertised and encouraged

      47. The real reasons for equality

      48. How can we help children with single parents

      49. How to tame corruption at a country level

      50. Why it is important to buy local goods

      51. Security alarms are a simple thing that can improve our lives
        drastically

      52. The importance of alternative penitentiary options

      53. Lawsuits are becoming a circus and profanate the very legislative
        system

      54. Poverty cannot be dealt with unless we invest more resources into
        the social system

      55. Working hours in pubs need to be reconsidered

      56. Police should be the last place to come across corruption

      57. The society should show more support to non-working single parents

      58. Female workers still usually have to work at lower wages than their
        male colleagues, and it is a big problem

      59. Cosmetic surgery is abused as a result of poor regulation

      60. Senior citizens today need more care than ever

      61. Why some companies still maintain the infamous tradition of racial
        profiling

      62. How can we enforce more respect to people’s privacy

      63. Why the struggle for women equality advances so slowly

      64. Why relations between various ethnic groups still leave much to be
        desired

      65. Mass media are biased and subjective

      SPORTS

      1. Should support crew such as marching bands and mascots be regarded
        as sportspeople?

      2. Is bike sharing more than just a fresh trend?

      3. Should college team players be treated as professional sportspeople
        and be rewarded financially?

      4. Are school teams overfinanced?

      5. Why are women sports less interesting to the media?

      6. Why drug tests for professional sportspeople are still not a must?

      7. Is it fair that sportspeople earn such tremendous amounts of money?

      8. Sports is about pushing yourself to the edge, and not about
        defeating others

      9. Is it justified to reflect ethnical-cultural details in team names
        and other attributes?

      10. Are cheerleaders as good sportspeople as others?

      11. Why even the most professional team would have no chance with a
        name like Yellowfaces?

      12. Why sports get so much attention?

      13. Gym classes should be more focused on practical physical skills
        like swimming

      14. Why professional sports should remain privately financed?

      15. Are the existing safety precautions for athletes sufficient?

      16. Physical training is overrated

      Sure, with such a huge variety of topics to choose from, picking just one
      may be a challenge. As we already mentioned, the trick is to pick a subject
      that appeals to you personally. This is one of the surest ways to approach
      any academic paper because it’s going to be way more interesting to
      research the subject and because writing the actual paper will quite a lot
      of fun!

      Still, figuring out the best topic for your essay is not your only concern
      as a student. The next step would be crafting a compelling thesis
      statement. As a rule, essay writers present their thesis at the end of the
      introductory paragraph. Further on, you will base your paper on this
      statement, so choose wisely.

      >
      The best tip on constructing a great thesis statement would be to choose
      something that is not too obvious. This way, you will have a chance to hook
      your reader and make him/her interested in what you have to say on the
      topic.

      The number of body paragraphs will mostly depend on the length of your
      paper. Normally, having three major arguments to prove your point is enough
      for a convincing paper. This, in its turn, will give you three body
      paragraphs, each starting with its own point. Make sure to use logical
      transitions between the paragraphs, though – do not just skip from one
      issue to another.

      The last (and usually, the fifth) paragraph of your paper is the
      conclusion. Here, it is very important to restate your thesis statement.
      But remember – you should not do it word for word. The main point of a
      quality conclusion is to summarise everything you have written and prove
      your thesis statement either right (this is the most common approach) or
      wrong (it may sometimes happen in argumentative papers).

      All in all, you can see that writing a persuasive essay is no brain
      surgery. Still, it would be hard to argue that the process requires quite a
      bit of time and concentration. Plus, if you are assigned a persuasive paper
      in one of the minor subjects, it may often be challenging to take some time
      off the subjects you’re majoring in. Fortunately for you, there is always a
      way out. In this particular case, custom writing is the perfect solution
      that saves time and effort.

      Our company has already helped thousands of overworked students from all
      over the world with their academic assignments. We deal with a vast variety
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      – each paper is assigned to a qualified expert in the area, which is why
      all custom papers written here meet the high educational writing standards,
      as well as student’s particular requirements.

      Get a priсe quote & procced with the order

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      Grademiners.com Blog /50 Best Persuasive Speech  Essay Topics: Ideas and Writing Tips

      Blog

      50 Best Persuasive Speech  Essay Topics: Ideas and Writing Tips

      December 18, 2017 | GradeMiners

      4348

      A persuasive essay is aimed at convincing the reader to agree with a chosen idea and to motivate them to adopt your point of view. In fact, working on this assignment , you should prove that one idea is more legitimate than another by using a series of logical arguments.

      A persuasive essay seems to have a lot in common with an argumentative essay. But crafting the last one you should create a discussion to showcase that your point of view is valid. At the same time, writing a persuasive essay, you have to present all reasons why your opinion can be considered as the only correct one. No doubt, whether you’re taking a stand against junk food at school or trying to convince a professor to accept your late paper, the ability to create a compelling persuasive essay is necessary to help you get your point across clearly.

      Every student knows that in most cases you get a particular topic assigned. But sometimes you can be asked to select one yourself. Freedom of choice is great. On the other hand, it can turn into a daunting task, especially when you’re not sure whether or not your choice is good. To help you with this challenge, we’ve created a list of winning persuasive essay topics.

      How to choose a great topic for your persuasive essay

      The first thing you have to realize looking for a perfect topic is that your opinion is what matters the most. When it comes to a persuasive essay, don’t try to please your teacher by choosing something that would be interesting just for them. When you’re allowed to write about anything you want, never rely on someone’s thoughts about the topic you like as a pivotal criterion for your decision.

      Finding the topic of your interest will help you work harder on your project and show your style in the best way possible. Besides, it’ll give you the added motivation to persuade the reader and choose appropriate evidence, facts, and details to achieve this goal.

      Here are some useful tips to help you choose the right topic:

      • Begin with a brainstorm. Discuss some topic ideas with your friends or other students. The primary goal of brainstorming is to generate a variety of unique ideas everyone can use. Doing so, you’ll certainly find your perfect essay title easily and faster.
      • Write down your thoughts and ideas. Take notes concerning all potential topics you can consider. After that prioritize them and meditate which one is the best for your paper.
      • Narrow the chosen topic. A broad subject always seems easier to write about as you can find a lot of materials about it. Still, you should make your topic more specific. Why? The answer is simple: if you want to persuade the reader to adopt your opinion, your essay has to be clear and precise.
      • Conduct a research. Your paper should be supported with proven facts and details, as you have to present different reasons why your point of view is correct. Therefore, you have to find enough substantial evidence for the particular topic.
      • Follow your passion. Never miss a chance to discuss something you genuinely like or feel passionate about. Learn more about your interests and show your in-depth knowledge of the subject.

      Always keep in mind that a perfect persuasive essay should be persuasive. The bottom line is that you’re not going to compose another informative paper. It really has to be persuasive. Take into consideration our suggestions on persuasive essay topics.

      Easy persuasive essay topics

      • Does social media create isolation?
      • Should citizens be allowed to keep exotic pets?
      • Does the school day start too early?
      • Should soda be sold to children in restaurants?
      • Should breastfeeding be allowed in public places?
      • Are we too dependent on technology?
      • Should parents go to jail if their children do something illegal?
      • Is professional football too dangerous for players?
      • Are athletes overpaid?
      • Should a relaxed dress code be allowed in the workplace?

      Controversial essay topics

      • Is hunting good if it brings in money for the local businesses?
      • Should single parents be allowed to adopt?
      • Is climate change is more political than scientific?
      • Should euthanasia be allowed?
      • Do the ways of solving Israeli-Palestinian conflict exist?
      • Is sex orientation determined in childhood?
      • Is capital punishment a crime?
      • Should both parents be certified in order to have children?
      • Does religious freedom exist for most people all over the world?
      • Does genetics determine human behavior?

      The best essay topics for college

      • Is online education just as good as classroom learning?
      • Does smartphone use lower levels of concentration and focus?
      • Should girls be allowed on the wrestling and football teams?
      • Should you marry a person with the same educational level as you?
      • Is working while in college something everyone ought to do?
      • Should universities require every student to learn a foreign language?
      • Are private schools better than public schools?
      • Does homeschooling prepare students for college?
      • Do grades measure how smart you are?
      • Should people read more books?

      Master’s degree essay topics

      • Are there such things as good and evil?
      • Does happiness comes from helping others?
      • Should our country have free health care?
      • Do magazine advertisements send unhealthy signals to young women?
      • Should we pay for Internet access?
      • Should smokers pay a healthy tax?
      • Should people with terminal illnesses have the right to doctor assisted suicides?
      • Should the driving age be raised to twenty-one?
      • Do celebrities do good role models for kids?
      • How does violence on TV affect people?

      Still can’t choose a topic? We can help.

      If after reading a list of really great topics, you still can’t choose one to write about, feel free to ask GradeMiners for assistance. Our qualified academic experts will help you find a perfect persuasive essay topic according to all your requirements and write a custom-tailored model answer.

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      Resume QA: Writing Cover Letters; Transitioning from the Military

      By Leave a Comment

      Q. Do recruiters and hiring managers actually read cover letters and emails? What about thank you notes after the interview?

      A. The answer to your first question is that recruiters and hiring managers may or may not read a cover letter or email—so “maybe.” If the cover letter or email is short, powerful, professional, and targeted, then you should assume it will be read. If it is confusing and generic, it will not be read, or even worse it will count against you.

      Should you include a cover letter with your resume? The answer to that question is an unqualified yes. If only one recruiter or hiring manager expects a cover letter or email, then it was worth the time and effort to craft one.

      As for thank you letters, they also cannot hurt—if they are short, powerful, professional, and tailored to the actual experience and information you received at the interview.

      By the way, “professional” includes correct grammar, spelling, and punctuation, as well as clear and correct contact information for both you and the person you are writing to.

      Q. I’m ex-military, looking for a job with a civilian company. How do I make civilians understand everything I did in the military? They seem to get easily confused when I talk about my career, and I’m not sure that any of my experience relates to a corporate job.

      A. The military world is filled with jargon and arcane terms that the civilian world has never mastered. The job of your resume is to clarify those terms. This is the same advice I give to civilians who are in high tech careers: spell out acronyms, keep the jargon as minimal as possible, and mention skills in terms of what you accomplished with those skills.

      For someone with a military background, that last piece of advice might mean concentrating on your accomplishments in leadership, cost savings, team motivation, training, negotiation, communications, and project management—all valuable assets in the civilian world. A focus on results will make it easier for you to bridge the military-to-civilian gap. A security clearance, overseas experience, and advancement in your military career are all pluses that the civilian world can easily understand.

      Robin’s Resumes® has decades of experience helping military personnel transition in civilian jobs. Please contact us today .

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      Cengage > Blog Home > Students’ Goals After College Graduation

      Students’ Goals After College Graduation

      • Tami Strang


      • Posted in: Achievement and Outcomes , Learning Outcomes

      Students goals after college graduation

      Whether students are enrolling in their first college courses, putting maximum effort into their upper-division coursework, or nearing the end of their educational paths, they’re keeping an eye on their goals. This focus—their reason for attending college in the first place—can spark their motivation even on the days they’re struggling with assignments or stressed by their responsibilities.

      But what are those goals? And how does college help them achieve those goals? In our Spring 2015 Student Engagement Insights survey, we asked over 3,000 college students about their goals and how they think college will enable them to get where they want to go.

      To begin, let’s look at college students’ responses to the question: What are your goals after college?

      What are your goals after college?

       

      Going by these results, it’s clear that most students attend college to improve their chances of obtaining a fulfilling career that lets them pay the bills. Among the choices listed on the survey, a good or better job ranked the highest, netting 80% of the student vote. Nearly two-thirds (62%) hope that their college achievements will result in a high-paying job (or, one that pays better than their current job). These results align with students’ answers to a question we previously covered at the Engaging Minds blog: “Was getting a good job your primary reason for attending college?”  73% of students said that yes, this was true for them.

      Many students also told us that they have plans for continuing their formal education. More than half (56%) indicated that they’re hoping to pursue an additional degree after they complete their current program. Whether this means they’ll be working towards a bachelor’s degree after earning an associate degree, or they want to attend graduate school after completing their undergrad studies, a good percentage of students have additional educational goals beyond their current college experience.

      Five additional post-college goals, as named by college students

      As noted above, ten percent of our surveyed students noted that they had additional goals after graduation (aside from those named above). We observed trends among their responses, and we’ve summarized them below:

      1. Pursue additional career-focused training, schooling, or certification. As we observed earlier, more than half of our survey respondents want to pursue another degree. But in addition, many students said that, once they finish college, they hope to pursue “certification paths,” a “cosmetology/beautician license,” “additional technical certificates,” “law school,” “medical school,” and other programs that prepare them to practice in fields that require licenses or advanced education.

      2. Start a business. Several of the students we surveyed said that they plan to take an entrepreneurial route after graduation. For these students, the knowledge and skills attained during college will apply to the work they’ll put into building their own companies, services, practices, and firms.

      3. Achieve personal satisfaction. For other students, the goals are less tangible (but by no means less important). Students listed “happiness,” “greater and broader experience,” “travel,” “work/life balance,” “pride,” “more knowledge,” and “personal completeness/wholeness” among their post-college goals. Others look forward to “doing what [they] want to do,” or a “job where I can grow but still be true to my beliefs,” while still others want to “retire” and “rest on [their] satisfaction of going to school at an elderly age.”

      4. Serve and support others. We were encouraged by the students who wanted to use what they’d learned in college for the purpose of “helping others in need” and “pass[ing] knowledge on to others.” Many mentioned that they want to join a national or global aid effort, whether by working for a non-profit or NGO, joining the Peace Corps, or “provid[ing] aid for children and individuals with disabilities in war-torn countries.” Others stuck a bit closer to home, naming such activities as “mentoring,” “start[ing] a family,” “utilizing my newly gained knowledge to help others in my community,” or “passing on knowledge about… my experience in my specific school and helping whoever I can will attend that school in the future.”

      5. Secure a better financial outlook. In addition to the 62% who say they have a goal of a high-paying (or higher-paying) job, several students commented that their goal is to “become financially independent.” One student put a date to the goal, writing of a desire to experience “financial freedom in two years after I graduate.”

      Students name the top way college enables them to reach their goals

      In this same survey, over three thousand students named the key way that they believe college will enable them to achieve these goals.
      Students Share the Top Way that College Will Help them Achieve their Goals

      Nearly half (49%) of the students stated that the degree itself will help them get to where they want to go, whereas nearly one quarter (23%) said that the subject knowledge will be the key to reaching and achieving their goals. Clearly, the majority of students believe that their academic achievements will be the key to achieving their post-college goals.

      Other factors proved to be a priority to fewer college students. A much smaller percentage (14%) said that building contacts and  networking  were the most valuable part of their college experience. And, only 12% said that critical-thinking skills were the key factor in helping them reach their goals. However, this doesn’t mean they devalue critical thinking; in a previous survey from Fall 2014, 99% of students agreed that critical thinking is an important skill, and 92% believe what they learn in class sharpens their critical thinking skills for the “real world.”

      Truth be told, most students have many goals in mind when they decide to enter college. Likewise, they undoubtedly recognize that multiple factors will help them achieve their personal and professional goals. But, by knowing and understanding their key goals and priorities, we can be better prepared to help them succeed in those areas that matter the most to them.

      Want to help your students achieve their academic goals, as well as their goals after college graduation? Review the tips in the blog posts below, and share your own suggestions in the comments.

      The GPS Strategy for Achieving Goals

      Tips for Students: Prioritizing Time to Achieve Your Goals

      Tips for Students: Defining Your Values and Goals

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      3 thoughts on “Students’ Goals After College Graduation

      1. Spot on with this write-up, I truly feel this web site needs far more attention. I’ll probably be returning to see more, thanks for the information!

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      How to Conquer the Admissions Essay

      Image
      Estela Laureano, at a Long Island Writing Project workshop, honing her college-essay writing skills.CreditCreditYana Paskova for The New York Times

      By Rachel Toor

      阅读简体中文版 閱讀繁體中文版

      Picture this before you plop yourself down in front of your computer to compose your college application essay: A winter-lit room is crammed with admissions professionals and harried faculty members who sit around a big table covered with files. The admissions people, often young and underpaid, buzz with enthusiasm; the professors frequently pause to take off their glasses and rub their eyes.

      These exhausted folks, hopped up from eating too many cookies and brownies, have been sitting in committee meetings for days after spending a couple of months reading applications, most of which look pretty similar: baseball = life, or debate = life, or “I went to a developing country and discovered poor people can be happy.”

      They wade through long lists of candidates, state by state, region by region. The best applications and the weakest don’t come to committee. It’s the gigantic stack in the middle that warrants discussion.

      The truth is, most essays are typical. Many are boring. Some are just plain bad. But occasionally one will make an admissions officer tear down the hallway to find a colleague to whom she can say, “You have to read what this Math Olympiad girl said about ‘Hamlet.’ ” Your goal is to write an essay that makes someone fall in love with you.

      Once you commit the time and emotional energy to get your butt in the chair to write, you face a daunting task — figuring out what to write about. If you’re stuck, you’re in good company. With so much freedom, this is a challenge for most students.

      Here’s a tip: Choose a topic you really want to write about. If the subject doesn’t matter to you, it won’t matter to the reader. Write about whatever keeps you up at night. That might be cars, or coffee. It might be your favorite book or the Pythagorean theorem. It might be why you don’t believe in evolution or how you think kale must have hired a PR firm to get people to eat it.

      A good topic will be complex. In school, you were probably encouraged to write papers that took a side. That’s fine in academic work when you’re being asked to argue in support of a position, but in a personal essay, you want to express more nuanced thinking and explore your own clashing emotions. In an essay, conflict is good.

      For example, “I love my mom. She’s my best friend. We share clothes and watch ‘The Real Housewives’ of three different cities together” does not make for a good essay. “I love my mom even though she makes me clean my room, hates my guinea pig and is crazy about disgusting food like kale” could lead somewhere

      While the personal essay has to be personal, a reader can learn a lot about you from whatever you choose to focus on and how you describe it. One of my favorites from when I worked in admissions at Duke University started out, “My car and I are a lot alike.” The writer then described a car that smelled like wet dog and went from 0 to 60 in, well, it never quite got to 60.

      Another guy wrote about making kimchi with his mom. They would go into the garage and talk, really talk: “Once my mom said to me in a thick Korean accent, ‘Every time you have sex, I want you to make sure and use a condo.’ I instantly burst into laughter and said, ‘Mom, that could get kind of expensive!’ ” A girl wrote about her feminist mother’s decision to get breast implants.

      A car, kimchi, Mom’s upsizing — the writers used these objects as vehicles to get at what they had come to say. They allowed the writer to explore the real subject: This is who I am.

      Don’t brag about your achievements. Instead, look at times you’ve struggled or, even better, failed. Failure is essayistic gold. Figure out what you’ve learned. Write about that. Be honest and say the hardest things you can. And remember those exhausted admissions officers sitting around a table in the winter. Jolt them out of their sugar coma and give them something to be excited about.

      10 Things Students Should Avoid

      REPEATING THE PROMPT Admissions officers know what’s on their applications. Don’t begin, “A time that I failed was when I tried to beat up my little brother and I realized he was bigger than me.” You can start right in: “As I pulled my arm back to throw a punch, it struck me: My brother had gotten big. Bigger than me.”

      LEAVE WEBSTER’S OUT OF IT Unless you’re using a word like “prink” (primp) or “demotic” (popular) or “couloir” (deep gorge), you can assume your reader knows the definition of the words you’ve written. You’re better off not starting your essay with “According to Webster’s Dictionary . . . .”

      THE EPIGRAPH Many essays start with a quote from another writer. When you have a limited amount of space, you don’t want to give precious real estate to someone else’s words.

      YOU ARE THERE! When writing about past events, the present tense doesn’t allow for reflection. All you can do is tell the story. This happens, then this happens, then this happens. Some beginning writers think the present tense makes for more exciting reading. You’ll see this is a fallacy if you pay attention to how many suspenseful novels are written in past tense.

      SOUND EFFECTS Ouch! Thwack! Whiz! Whooooosh! Pow! Are you thinking of comic books? Certainly, good writing can benefit from a little onomatopoeia. Clunk is a good one. Or fizz. But once you start adding exclamation points, you’re wading into troubled waters. Do not start your essay with a bang!

      ACTIVE BODY PARTS One way to make your reader giggle is to give body parts their own agency. When you write a line like “His hands threw up,” the reader might get a visual image of hands barfing. “My eyes fell to the floor.” Ick.

      CLICHÉS THINK YOUR THOUGHTS FOR YOU Here’s one: There is nothing new under the sun. We steal phrases and ideas all the time. George Orwell’s advice: “Never use a metaphor, simile, or other figure of speech which you are used to seeing in print.”

      TO BE OR NOT TO BE Get rid of “to be” verbs. Replace “was” in “The essay was written by a student; it was amazing and delightful” and you’ll get: “The student’s essay amazed and delighted me.” We’ve moved from a static description to a sprightlier one and cut the word count almost in half.

      WORD PACKAGES Some phrases — free gift, personal beliefs, final outcome, very unique — come in a package we don’t bother to unpack. They’re redundant.

      RULES TO IGNORE In English class, you may have to follow a list of rules your teacher says are necessary for good grammar: Don’t use contractions. No sentence fragments. It’s imperative to always avoid split infinitives. Ending on a preposition is the sort of English up with which teachers will not put. And don’t begin a sentence with a conjunction like “and” or “but” or “because.” Pick up a good book. You’ll see that the best authors ignore these fussy, fusty rules.

      Rachel Toor is a creative writing professor at Eastern Washington University in Spokane. This essay is adapted from her new book, “Write Your Way In: Crafting an Unforgettable College Admissions Essay.”

      A version of this article appears in print on , on Page 11 of Education Life with the headline: Conquering the Admissions Essay. Order Reprints | Today’s Paper | Subscribe

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      How to write Goals Essay

      99 percent of the Universities abroad when asking for admissions essays would ask you about your goals in life. This could be a combined long answer question or two (maybe three) short answer questions. Irrespective of how they would phrase the question, they would ask you about both your short term and long term goals. Hence, it is very important to know how to write your goals essays.

       

      Before we start on how to attend to these kind of essays, it is important to understand what we mean by long term and short term goals. Essentially, short term goals are your aspirations/ goals or career plans immediately after your graduation from the MBA Program you are applying to. This would mean your current career path and how you wish to modify your life after completing your MBA. This would necessarily mean what you intend to achieve within the next 3 to 5 years. Remember, being a CEO of a major Fortune 500 company is not a short term goal.

       

      Remember, short term does not mean within the next one year. Most of the students do this common mistake while writing their goals essays. Hence, unless and until specified, short term goals refer to your career goals upon completion of the MBA program

       

      Long term, on the other hand refers to what you aspire to achieve in the next 5 to 10 years. Often student mistake long term goals to career aspirations beyond the one year. That is not the case. Neither does long term refer to your retirement plans. It is, simply put, your career aspirations. For instance, setting up your own business, becoming the Lead Partner in a Top Consultancy or being a Top Executive in a Multi-national, all qualify for long term goals.

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      Things to remember when writing your goals essays

       

      Quantify the years:

      When writing your goals, being clear about the years you wish to put into a certain job/ role is always a good thing. Being clear about your goals – be it short or long term, means a better clarity of thought process and adds value to your goals essay.

       

      Provide better distinction between short and long term goals:

      If the questions are separate, then it is fairly simple. However, in case there is only one question regarding your short and long term goals, it is important to clearly distinguish between the two. Ideally they should be divided into separate paragraphs all together and in the chronological order of short term followed by long term goals.

       

      Don’t provide information which has not been sought:

      If the question refers only to your short term goals – limit the answer to just that. Students often keep talking about what all they want to do and end up giving too much information, which is bad.

       

      Either/Or are not a good strategy:

      The worst thing you can do while attempting a goals essays is give more than one goal. Never suggest (until and unless specifically asked) what you would do in case one goal does not materialize. Being in two minds does not bode well. Whether you reach that desired effect or not is a thing of future, but your goals essay should be focussed.

       

      Always write why and how:

      Simply saying that you wish to be an entrepreneur is not enough. While many questions do ask you why, you must attempt to answer both why and how in your goals essays. Tell the admission committee what you wish to do, why you want to do it or you think it would be the best thing for you and how you plan to achieve the same.

       

      To conclude, a goals essay is very much like a statement of purpose – albeit with a definitive question and a stricter word limit. Focus on answering the questions and you cannot go wrong. 

       

      Also Read

      • Importance of Vocabulary in your Admission Essay
      • Importance of Grammar in your Admission essays
      • Word Limit and Essays: How important are they

       

      Related Links

      • Admissions Essays: What they are?
      • How to write a Leadership Essay
      • How to write a Career Progression Essay

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      Rutgers Business School

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      Rutgers MBA ranked No. 1 in the Northeast for job placement by Bloomberg Businessweek

      Rutgers Full-Time MBA receives high scores in annual Best Graduate Business Schools survey


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      Rutgers Business School

      Mar 08, 2018, 01:35 EST

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      NEWARK, N.J., March 8, 2018 /PRNewswire-USNewswire/ — Rutgers Business School was recognized for its exceptional job placement for  Full-Time MBA  students ranking No. 1 in the Northeast U.S. in Bloomberg Businessweek’s " Best Graduate Business Schools of 2017  " survey. Overall, Rutgers placed No. 2 in the nation in job placement.

      Thinking about getting an MBA? Rutgers Business School's Full-Time MBA program was recognized as No. 1 in the Northeast U.S. for job placement in Bloomberg Businessweek's 2017 survey of best graduate business schools.
      Thinking about getting an MBA? Rutgers Business School’s Full-Time MBA program was recognized as No. 1 in the Northeast U.S. for job placement in Bloomberg Businessweek’s 2017 survey of best graduate business schools.

      Rutgers MBA graduates averaged $154,700 in annual compensation 6-8 years into their careers providing an 82 percent return-on-investment (ROI) since graduation, ranking Rutgers Business School No. 1 for return-on-investment (ROI) among Big Ten business schools.  Rutgers MBA  ranked No. 15 in ROI overall out of 85 business schools included in the survey.

      Learn more about the Rutgers Full-Time MBA Program at a Graduate Admissions Open House  on Saturday, March 10, at Rutgers Business School on the Livingston Campus.

      Bloomberg Businessweek invented business school rankings in 1988 and has shifted their methodology over the years to focus on how well the MBA programs prepare graduates for job success.

      Andy Heller, who graduated from the Rutgers MBA program in 2011, said that he benefited from professors putting him in situations where a team-oriented approach was essential to achieving the end goal. "That kind of experience has helped me each and every day since graduation," said Heller, now senior associate director, payor and health system marketing at Boehringer Ingelheim.

      "Having diverse perspectives on our team ensured that our solutions would be differentiated, yet relevant and impactful," he said, noting that this was crucial to his success in the corporate world.

      Rutgers MBA job placement was 96.3 percent in 2017, with about a third of the graduating class going to work at health care and pharmaceutical companies, and almost 20 percent heading to technology firms.

      Rutgers Business School also solidified its reputation as the No. 1 Public MBA program in the New York City Metropolitan area, No. 24 among public business schools in the U.S. and No. 50 overall, up two places from 2016.

      Dean Vera, director of the MBA Office of Career Management, said the largest industries in New Jersey like biopharma and life sciences, healthcare, financial services and technology were demanding top talent from Rutgers to become the future business leaders.

      "Our strong specializations in finance, marketing and supply chain management, make our students very attractive to employers," Vera said. [ Watch: Dean Vera describes the secret sauce to being ranked No. 1 in job placement.  ]

      Heller remembers the Office of Career Management fondly. "The career management office never turns the lights out," he said. "They are always working to ensure students are placed in the right role for them. They are second to none."

      New Jersey has a wealth of high-paying job opportunities as shown in a report by the New Jersey Department of Labor and Workforce Development that identified key industry clusters ( see report  ), areas Rutgers has been recognized as strengths. The Rutgers MBA program has been consistently ranked as one of the top 10 business schools in the world in supply chain management, healthcare, pharma, biotech, and operations management ( Find-MBA, 2018  ).

      SOURCE Rutgers Business School

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      Argumentative Thesis Statement

      Examples of thesis statement for an Argumentative essay

      Due to the peculiarities of any argumentative essay, its thesis statement may be considered one of its vital parts. A proper and correctly built thesis statement can make the reader strongly interested in the author’s arguments presented in it. Correspondingly, the thesis statement of any argumentative essay should be very clear and present not only the argument of the author of the essay but also the reasons this argument is true. Therefore the argument itself needs to be as narrowed as possible being related to the topic of the essay. Another important element of the argumentative essay thesis statements is that it needs to be as objective as possible revealing the academic approach of the author. In other words the argumentative essay thesis statement presents the main arguments the author uses to support this notion the author is focused on. All the words need to be thoroughly chosen and used.

      Good Examples of argumentative thesis statement

      Abortion and social responsibility.
      Thesis statement: The decision to make an abortion is the personal choice and responsibility of the woman.

       Death penalty and the society.
      Thesis statement: No one has the right to take away the life of any person.

       Education and its impact on the future of a man.
      Thesis statement: Education is the key to a successful future.

      Gay marriage and family values.
      Thesis statement: Gay marriage should be considered to be normal as it proclaims the institution of marriage.

      Euthanasia. Who has the right to decide?
      Thesis statement: Though sometimes euthanasia may seem the only correct solution it creates a double-standard for the moral values of the society.

       

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      The Negative Effects of Television The television negative effect facts that are well known to every single parent, but are ignored by them in order to put the responsibility for bringing up kids and showing them examples through interaction on the shoulders of somebody else.

       

      Technology and development Technology provides the opportunity to combine resources that have once been impossible to combine crating the products that are in high demand and solve the problems of modern people.

       

      Marriage in Hollywood The more the decision is weighted the bigger is the probability of a happy matrimony. Of course, there have always been exceptions; nevertheless marriage is definitely not something to joke with.

       

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      Personal Diet and Activity Plan The problem of healthy human nutrition is a vital question nowadays, because due to the contemporary lifestyle some people have a completely physically passive life and consume for more than they need to keep the correct balance in their organism.

       

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      World Hunger No matter how wealthy is the First World the problem of hunger and death in “underdeveloped” countries is not to be forgotten.

       

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      A thesis statement is one sentence that expresses the main idea of a research paper or essay. It makes a claim, directly answering a question. A thesis statement must be very specific, indicating statements that are about to be made in your paper and supported by specific evidence. Generally, your thesis statement can be the last line of the first paragraph in your research paper or essay.

      It’s worth reiterating that a good thesis statement is specific. If you find yourself using general words like “good,” then you’re not digging deep enough. For example, “European travel is a good way to spend your summer,” is not specific enough. Why is European travel good? Further examine the heart of your topic and focus on very specific areas of European travel that you can realistically cover and support with solid evidence. “Solo European travel requires independence which, in the end, bolsters personal confidence.” Now, you can hone in your research on solo travel through Europe, the need for independence, and its positive effect on personal confidence.

      Finding Your Point of View

      A good thesis statement is developed from the point of view of the reader. Be very careful you’re not developing a topic that is of interest to you alone. This is a harsh yet necessary question to ask yourself: will my readers have any reason to care about what I’m writing? In the example above, readers might be interested in European travel but will they be interested in solo travel, and greater independence and confidence? Hopefully the answer is yes; just make sure you examine all viewpoints before investing your valuable time in a well-written piece.

      A thesis statement is powerful on two fronts. First, it allows the reader to get excited about what, specifically, is coming their way. Second, it stands as the point of reference for your entire paper. Think of it as a loving mother steering her children away from danger. Essay writers run the risk of getting off track and wandering into thickly-wooded forests of needless tangents. (This is also why a well-planned outline is essential.) However, a strong thesis statement will help keep you in check; have you wandered off topic?

      Thesis Statement Examples: Bad vs. Good

      Bad: Everyone should exercise.

      Why should I? What’s in it for me?

      Good: Americans should add exercise to their daily morning routine because it not only keeps their bodies at a healthy weight but also reduces the risk of high blood pressure.

      Here, we’ve made several specifications i.e. Americans (not everyone), the morning routine (not the evening), weight maintenance, and high blood pressure prevention. Your research actually becomes easier when you have very specific objectives.

      Bad: High levels of alcohol consumption are bad for you.

      This is too broad. What are the specific detriments of alcohol consumption that you would like to discuss?

      Good: High levels of alcohol consumption have detrimental effects on your personal health, such as weight gain, heart disease, and liver complications.

      Notice we got very specific in our reasons why. In your thesis statement, you don’t need to state every single detriment you’re going to lay out (in fact, you shouldn’t as it will risk becoming a run-on sentence) but you can point to the main areas you will explore.

      Bad: Reading can develop a child’s analytical mind.

      Words like “can,” aren’t strong enough. This thesis statement begs the question of how? If you’re about to write several paragraphs (or pages) about a topic make sure you can confidently defend every point you make.

      Good: Reading develops a child’s mind by fostering comprehension skills, increasing vocabulary, and exposing them to new worlds they might not otherwise encounter.

      Now, we’ve not just stated that reading is good, we’ve provided a sampling of all the benefits we’re about to bring to light in our paper.

      Bad: All retirees should relocate to Florida.

      Your research paper or essay will need to delve into numerous supporting claims. This broad thesis statement runs the risk of allowing you to go off on several tangents.

      Good: Retirees should relocate to Florida, where 75% of Americans choose to settle, because you will afford yourself the opportunity to develop a wide array of friendships.

      From here, you can introduce a paragraph on the importance of friendship and then cite studies or testimonials describing how people can discover these important new relationships.

      Bad: The Internet has improved the lives of many.

      Again, while readers may agree with this and your statement may be true, how has the Internet improved people’s lives? Also, you should run your thesis statement past the “What’s in it for me” test. Why should readers care?

      Good: The Internet serves as a means of expediently connecting people all across the globe, fostering new friendships and an exchange of ideas that wouldn’t have occurred prior to its inception.

      While the Internet offers a plethora of benefits, we’re choosing to hone in on its ability to foster new friendships and exchange ideas. We’d also have to prove how this couldn’t have happened prior to the Internet’s inception – and that is good. The tighter your focus, the better your paper.

      Bad: Organ donors should be financially compensated.

      Why? What happens to them that causes you to take this stance?

      Good: Given the grueling surgery and lifelong changes they endure, kidney donors should be financially compensated for their act of self-sacrifice.

      There are many forms of living organ donation. As with any good thesis, you want to get as specific as possible. Now, our stance is clear and the reader will understand that we’re about to describe the grueling process of kidney donation as well as any forthcoming lifestyle changes.

      Always Be Specific

      When searching for a new home, realtors will tell you there are three important factors: location, location, and location. When developing your one-sentence thesis statement, it is important for you to be: specific, specific, specific. Write your thesis statement once and then rewrite it again with greater specificity. Also, make sure your audience will want to learn these new facts and possibly embrace these new opinions. Now, you have a compass for your entire paper, keeping you safely on course.

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      Thesis Statement Examples

      A thesis statement is one sentence that expresses the main idea of a research paper or essay. It makes a claim, directly answering a question. A thesis statement must be very specific, indicating statements that are about to be made in your paper and supported by specific evidence. Generally, your thesis statement can be the last line of the first paragraph in your research paper or essay.








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      Introduction To Eating Disorders

      Michael W. Adamowicz, LICSW

      We live in an image conscious culture, which urges all of us (especially women) to improve our appearance. The messages sent by magazines, t.v., and other media include “buy certain clothes and products; straighten and whiten your teeth; get rid of your wrinkles; and most commonly, LOSE WEIGHT and you will be happy, admired, and loved.” The recent and recurrent debate concerning the unhealthy, stick thin models used in the fashion industry is a perfect example of how strongly entrenched our notion of “thinness equals happiness” has become.

      Although many of us would benefit from eating a bit less and exercising more in order improve our health and fitness, simply watching what you eat is NOT an eating disorder. Eating Disorders are potentially life-threatening illnesses which are simultaneously psychological and physical in nature. They are characterized by a range of abnormal and harmful eating behaviors which are accompanied and motivated by unhealthy beliefs, perceptions and expectations concerning eating, weight, and body shape. As a general characterization, individuals with eating disorders tend to have difficulty accepting and feeling good about themselves. They tend to think of themselves as “fat” and “ugly” because of their body size and shape, even when this self-judgment is objectively inaccurate and false. Identifying and defining themselves according to their perceived “fatness”, eating disordered people tend to conclude that they are unacceptable and undesirable, and as a result, feel quite insecure and inadequate, especially about their bodies. For them, controlling their eating behaviors is the logical pathway in their quest for thinness.

      The current article is designed to provide you with more information about the nature of eating disorders, their causes, potential treatments, and strategies for prevention. This information can be helpful in determining whether you or someone you love has an eating disorder. Before we begin, though, we want to stress two important points:

      First, if you (or someone you love) have an eating disorder, YOU ARE NOT ALONE! Between 5 and 10 million Americans have anorexia or bulimia and another 25 million suffer with binge eating disorder. Hopefully, knowing that other people have experienced what you are going through, and have gotten better with treatment, will provide you with some sense of hope.

      Second, don’t rely on your “willpower” to get over this condition. As mentioned previously, an eating disorder is a serious, potentially life-threatening disease. Between 6% and 20% of eating disordered individuals will literally die as a result of their disease. Seek PROFESSIONAL help for yourself or someone you love as soon as possible if you suspect there is a problem.

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      • Two Case Studies of Anorexia Nervosa Essay

      Two Case Studies of Anorexia Nervosa Essay

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      Anorexia nervosa is (AN) eating disorder that makes those afflicted attempt and succeed at losing weight until they reach a state of malnourishment for their body size, age and height. Patients with anorexia nervosa have an acute fear of gaining even the slightest weight despite being exceptionally underweight. People who suffer from this disorder use various methods such as over-exercising or over-dieting to avoid gaining any more weight (A.D.A.M., 2013). This disorder has implications regarding one’s security, psychological, emotional, and most importantly, physical health. It can lead to death if too extreme because the patient lacks the intake of necessary nutrients to function. Two case studies describe individuals who try overcoming

      …show more content…

      Their case study provides a brief background of eating disorders and details regarding its prevalence followed by a case of a 28-year-old woman named Victoria who has a history of AN, and who seeks counseling for fear of impending relapse. Victoria receives 10 narrative therapy sessions where she conveys the characteristics of her non-eating disorder, which she calls “A-Rex”. Throughout therapy, Victoria makes significant improvement. Although A-Rex still bothers Victoria once in a while, she continues to make therapeutic progress. Both of these case studies share similar and differing strengths and weaknesses in their research design. The first patient’s life and well-being improve after therapy where she releases her deep underlying feelings. The steps of the case formulation reveal factors that are associated with anorexia (such as a lack of appreciation and attention from her parents which has dampened her self-esteem) (Dolhanty & Greenberg, 2009). By acknowledging these issues, contributing factors, and fighting against critical thoughts, she is able to recognize, rationalize, and battle against her psychological struggles. One of the strengths of Dolhanty and Greenberg’s case study is its inclusion of highly detailed descriptions; participant reactions, sounds and facial expressions which are noted qualitatively. Similarly Scott et al. (2013)’s patient, Victoria also reveals

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      Anorexia Nervosa

      • ” onclick=”window.open(this.href,’win2′,’status=no,toolbar=no,scrollbars=yes,titlebar=no,menubar=no,resizable=yes,width=640,height=480,directories=no,location=no’); return false;” rel=”nofollow”>Print
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      Anorexia Nervosa

      What is Anorexia Nervosa?

      Anorexia Nervosa is a psychological illness with devastating physical consequences. Anorexia Nervosa is characterised by low body weight and body image distortion with an obsessive fear of gaining weight which manifests itself through depriving the body of food. It often coincides with increased levels of exercise. There are two main sub-types of anorexia:

      Restricting type:  this is the most commonly known type of Anorexia Nervosa whereby a person severely restricts their food intake.  Restriction may take many forms (e.g. maintaining very low calorie count; restricting types of food eaten; eating only one meal a day) and may follow obsessive and rigid rules (e.g. only eating food of one colour).

      Binge-eating or purging type:  less recognised; a person restricts their intake as above, but also during some bouts of restriction the person has regularly engaged in binge-eating OR purging behaviour (e.g. self induced vomiting, over-exercise, misuse of laxatives, diuretics or enemas).

      Who gets Anorexia Nervosa?

      Anorexia Nervosa usually develops during adolescence and generally has an earlier age of onset than Bulimia Nervosa and Binge Eating Disorder (the latter are often developed during late adolescence or early adulthood). However like all eating disorders, anorexia can develop at any age or stage of life for both males and females. It is a myth that only adolescent girls experience anorexia. 

      There is no single cause of anorexia but there are risk factors that increase the likelihood of anorexia developing. These can be cultural, biological or psychological.

      Read more:

      • General risk factors
      • Dieting
      • Body image
      • Self-esteem
      • Perfectionism

      Warning Signs of Anorexia Nervosa

      • Preoccupation with body shape, weight and/or appearance
      • Intense fear of gaining weight
      • Preoccupation with food or food related activities
      • Negative or distorted body image; perceiving self to be fat when at a healthy weight/underweight
      • Low self-esteem (guilt, self-criticism, worthlessness)
      • Rigid thinking (‘black and white’, ‘good and bad’ foods)
      • Feeling out of control
      • Mood swings
      • Anxiety or depression
      • Heightened anxiety around meal times
      • Heightened sensitivity to comments or criticism about body shape/weight/appearance/eating/exercise habits
      • Suicidal or self-harm thoughts or behaviours
      • Constant or repetitive dieting/restrictive or rigid eating patterns
      • Excessive or compulsive exercise 
      • Changes in clothing style
      • Impaired school or work performance
      • Obsessive rituals around food 
      • Changes in food preferences
      • Frequent avoidance of eating meals / excuses not to eat
      • Social withdrawal / avoidance of social situations involving food
      • Repetitive or obsessive body-checking behaviours
      • Deceptive or secretive behaviour around food

      Physical Signs and Effects of Anorexia Nervosa

      The physical effects of anorexia

      Recovery and Treatment

      Anorexia is the most fatal of all psychiatric illnesses. Extreme food restriction can lead to starvation, malnutrition and a dangerously low body weight – all of which are synonymous with a host of health problems. Anorexia has the highest mortality rate of any psychiatric disorder.

      However, complete recovery from anorexia is possible; early treatment leads to the greatest success. If you are worried about yourself or someone you know, contact your GP or EDV on 1300 550 235 or This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

      Resources:

      Anorexia fact sheet (NEDC)

      Books about anorexia

      Books about eating disorder recovery


      Last revision date: Wednesday, 09 August 2017 14:22

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      Suicide

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      For other uses, see Suicide (disambiguation) .

      Suicide
      Edouard Manet - Le Suicidé.jpg
      The Suicide by Édouard Manet 1877–1881
      Specialty Psychiatry
      Usual onset>70 and 15–30 years old [1]
      Causes Hanging , pesticide poisoning , firearms [2] [3]
      Risk factors Depression , bipolar disorder , schizophrenia , personality disorders , alcoholism , substance abuse [2] [4]
      PreventionLimiting access to methods of suicide, treating mental disorders and substance abuse, proper media reporting of suicide, improving economic conditions [2]
      Deaths828,000 / 1.5% (2015) [5]

      Suicide is the act of intentionally causing one’s own death . [6] Depression , bipolar disorder , schizophrenia , personality disorders , and substance abuse — including alcoholism and the use of benzodiazepines — are risk factors. [2] [4] [7] Some suicides are impulsive acts due to stress such as from financial difficulties , troubles with relationships , or bullying . [2] [8] Those who have previously attempted suicide are at a higher risk for future attempts. [2] Suicide prevention efforts include limiting access to methods of suicide — such as firearms , drugs, and poisons; treating mental disorders and substance misuse; proper media reporting of suicide; and improving economic conditions. [2] Even though crisis hotlines are common, there is little evidence for their effectiveness. [9]

      The most commonly used method of suicide varies between countries, and is partly related to the availability of effective means. [10] Common methods of suicide include hanging , pesticide poisoning , and firearms . [2] [3] Suicides resulted in 828,000 global deaths in 2015, an increase from 712,000 deaths in 1990. [5] [11] This makes suicide the 10th leading cause of death worldwide. [4] [12]

      Approximately 0.5-1.4% of people die by suicide, roughly 12 per 100,000 individuals per year. [12] [13] Three quarters of suicides globally occur in the developing world . [2] Rates of completed suicides are generally higher in men than in women, ranging from 1.5 times as much in the developing world to 3.5 times in the developed world . [1] Suicide is generally most common among those over the age of 70; however, in certain countries, those aged between 15 and 30 are at the highest risk. [1] Europe had the highest rates of suicide by region in 2015. [14] There are an estimated 10 to 20 million non-fatal attempted suicides every year. [15] Non-fatal suicide attempts may lead to injury and long-term disabilities. [13] In the Western world, attempts are more common in young people and in females. [13]

      Views on suicide have been influenced by broad existential themes such as religion, honor , and the meaning of life . [16] [17] The Abrahamic religions traditionally consider suicide as an offense towards God , due to the belief in the sanctity of life . [18] During the samurai era in Japan, a form of suicide known as seppuku (harakiri) was respected as a means of making up for failure or as a form of protest. [19] Sati , a practice outlawed by the British Raj , expected the Indian widow to kill herself on her husband’s funeral fire , either willingly or under pressure from her family and society. [20] Suicide and attempted suicide, while previously illegal, are no longer so in most Western countries. [21] It remains a criminal offense in many countries . [22] In the 20th and 21st centuries, suicide has been used on rare occasions as a form of protest, and kamikaze and suicide bombings have been used as a military or terrorist tactic. [23]

      Contents

      • 1 Definitions
      • 2 Risk factors
        • 2.1 Mental illness
        • 2.2 Previous attempts and self-harm
        • 2.3 Substance misuse
        • 2.4 Childhood trauma
        • 2.5 Problem gambling
        • 2.6 Medical conditions
        • 2.7 Psychosocial states
        • 2.8 Media
        • 2.9 Rational
      • 3 Methods
      • 4 Pathophysiology
      • 5 Prevention
        • 5.1 Screening
        • 5.2 Mental illness
      • 6 Epidemiology
        • 6.1 Sex and gender
        • 6.2 Age
      • 7 History
      • 8 Social and culture
        • 8.1 Legislation
        • 8.2 Religious views
        • 8.3 Philosophy
        • 8.4 Advocacy
        • 8.5 Locations
        • 8.6 Notable cases
      • 9 Other species
      • 10 References
      • 11 Further reading
      • 12 External links

      Definitions

      Main article: Suicide terminology

      Suicide, from Latin suicidium, is “the act of taking one’s own life”. [6] [24] Attempted suicide or non-fatal suicidal behavior is self-injury with the desire to end one’s life that does not result in death. [25] Assisted suicide is when one individual helps another bring about their own death indirectly via providing either advice or the means to the end. [26] This is in contrast to euthanasia , where another person takes a more active role in bringing about a person’s death. [26] Suicidal ideation is thoughts of ending one’s life but not taking any active efforts to do so. [25] In a murder-suicide (or homicide-suicide), the individual aims at taking the life of others at the same time. A special case of this is extended suicide, where the murder is motivated by seeing the murdered persons as an extension of their self. [27]

      The normal verb in scholarly research and journalism for the act of suicide is commit. [28] [29] Some advocacy groups recommend saying completed suicide, took his/her own life, died by suicide, or killed him/herself instead of committed suicide. [30] [31] [32] [33] Opponents of commit argue that it implies that suicide is criminal, sinful, or morally wrong. [34]

      Risk factors

      The precipitating circumstances for suicide from 16 American states in 2008 [35]

      Factors that affect the risk of suicide include mental disorders, drug misuse, psychological states , cultural, family and social situations, and genetics. [36] Mental disorders and substance misuse frequently co-exist. [37] Other risk factors include having previously attempted suicide, [13] the ready availability of a means to take one’s life, a family history of suicide, or the presence of traumatic brain injury . [38] For example, suicide rates have been found to be greater in households with firearms than those without them. [39]

      Socio-economic problems such as unemployment, poverty, homelessness , and discrimination may trigger suicidal thoughts. [40] [41] About 15–40% of people leave a suicide note . [42] War veterans have a higher risk of suicide due in part to higher rates of mental illness such as post traumatic stress disorder and physical health problems related to war . [43] Genetics appears to account for between 38% and 55% of suicidal behaviors. [44]

      Mental illness

      A picture of a woman with depression who was suicidal

      Mental illness is often present at the time of suicide with estimates ranging from 27% to more than 90%. [45] [13] [46] In Asia, rates of mental disorders appear to be lower than in Western countries. [1] Of those who have been admitted to a psychiatric unit , their lifetime risk of completed suicide is about 8.6%. [13] Half of all people who die by suicide may have major depressive disorder ; having this or one of the other mood disorders such as bipolar disorder increases the risk of suicide 20-fold. [47] Other conditions implicated include schizophrenia (14%), personality disorders (8%), [48] [49] bipolar disorder , [47] obsessive compulsive disorder , [50] and posttraumatic stress disorder . [13]

      Others estimate that about half of people who complete suicide could be diagnosed with a personality disorder with borderline personality disorder being the most common. [51] About 5% of people with schizophrenia die of suicide. [52] Eating disorders are another high risk condition. [53]

      In approximately 80% of completed suicides, the individual has seen a physician within the year before their death, [54] including 45% within the prior month. [55] Approximately 25–40% of those who completed suicide had contact with mental health services in the prior year. [45] [54] Antidepressants of the SSRI type appear to increase the risk of suicide in children but do not change the risk in adults. [56]

      Previous attempts and self-harm

      A previous history of suicide attempts is the most accurate predictor of completed suicide. [13] Approximately 20% of suicides have had a previous attempt, and of those who have attempted suicide, 1% complete suicide within a year [13] and more than 5% die by suicide within 10 years. [53] Acts of self-harm are not usually suicide attempts and most who self-harm are not at high risk of suicide. [57] Some who self-harm, however, do still end their life by suicide, and risk for self-harm and suicide may overlap. [57]

      Substance misuse

      “The Drunkard’s Progress”, 1846 demonstrating how alcoholism can lead to poverty, crime, and eventually suicide

      Substance misuse is the second most common risk factor for suicide after major depression and bipolar disorder . [58] Both chronic substance misuse as well as acute intoxication are associated. [37] [59] When combined with personal grief, such as bereavement , the risk is further increased. [59] Substance misuse is also associated with mental health disorders. [37]

      Most people are under the influence of sedative-hypnotic drugs (such as alcohol or benzodiazepines) when they die by suicide [60] with alcoholism present in between 15% and 61% of cases. [37] Use of prescribed benzodiazepines is asscociated with an increased rate of attempted and completed suicide. The prosuicidal effects of benzodiazepines are suspected to be due to a psychiatric disturbance caused by side effects or withdrawal symptoms. [7] Countries that have higher rates of alcohol use and a greater density of bars generally also have higher rates of suicide. [61] About 2.2–3.4% of those who have been treated for alcoholism at some point in their life die by suicide. [61] Alcoholics who attempt suicide are usually male, older, and have tried to take their own lives in the past. [37] Between 3 and 35% of deaths among those who use heroin are due to suicide (approximately fourteenfold greater than those who do not use). [62] In adolescents who misuse alcohol, neurological and psychological dysfunctions may contribute to the increased risk of suicide. [63]

      The misuse of cocaine and methamphetamine has a high correlation with suicide. [37] [64] In those who use cocaine the risk is greatest during the withdrawal phase. [65] Those who used inhalants are also at significant risk with around 20% attempting suicide at some point and more than 65% considering it. [37] Smoking cigarettes is associated with risk of suicide. [66] There is little evidence as to why this association exists; however, it has been hypothesized that those who are predisposed to smoking are also predisposed to suicide, that smoking causes health problems which subsequently make people want to end their life, and that smoking affects brain chemistry causing a propensity for suicide. [66] Cannabis , however, does not appear to independently increase the risk. [37]

      Childhood trauma

      Childhood trauma is a risk factor for suicidality. [67] Some may take their own lives to escape bullying or prejudice . [68] A history of childhood sexual abuse [69] and time spent in foster care are also risk factors. [70] Sexual abuse is believed to contribute to approximately 20% of the overall risk. [44]

      Problem gambling

      Problem gambling is associated with increased suicidal ideation and attempts compared to the general population. [71] Between 12 and 24% pathological gamblers attempt suicide. [72] The rate of suicide among their spouses is three times greater than that of the general population. [72] Other factors that increase the risk in problem gamblers include mental illness, alcohol and drug misuse. [73]

      Medical conditions

      There is an association between suicidality and physical health problems such as [53] chronic pain , [74] traumatic brain injury , [75] cancer, [76] kidney failure (requiring hemodialysis ), HIV , and systemic lupus erythematosus . [53] The diagnosis of cancer approximately doubles the subsequent risk of suicide. [76] The prevalence of increased suicidality persisted after adjusting for depressive illness and alcohol abuse. In people with more than one medical condition the risk was particularly high. In Japan, health problems are listed as the primary justification for suicide. [77]

      Sleep disturbances such as insomnia [78] and sleep apnea are risk factors for depression and suicide. In some instances the sleep disturbances may be a risk factor independent of depression. [79] A number of other medical conditions may present with symptoms similar to mood disorders, including hypothyroidism , Alzheimer’s , brain tumors , systemic lupus erythematosus, and adverse effects from a number of medications (such as beta blockers and steroids ). [13]

      Psychosocial states

      A number of psychological states increase the risk of suicide including: hopelessness, loss of pleasure in life , depression and anxiousness. [47] A poor ability to solve problems, the loss of abilities one used to have, and poor impulse control also play a role. [47] [80] In older adults the perception of being a burden to others is important. [81] Suicide in which the reason is that the person feels that they are not part of society is known as egoistic suicide . [82] Rates of suicide appear to decrease around Christmas. [83] One study however found the risk may be greater for males on their birthday. [84]

      Recent life stresses such as a loss of a family member or friend, loss of a job, or social isolation (such as living alone) increase the risk. [47] Those who have never married are also at greater risk. [13] Being religious may reduce one’s risk of suicide. [85] This has been attributed to the negative stance many religions take against suicide and to the greater connectedness religion may give. [85] Muslims , among religious people, appear to have a lower rate of suicide; however the data supporting this is not strong. [22] There does not appear to be a difference in rates of attempted suicide rates. [22] Young women in the Middle East may have higher rates. [86]

      An evolutionary explanation for suicide is that it may improve inclusive fitness . This may occur if the person dying by suicide cannot have more children and takes resources away from relatives by staying alive. An objection is that deaths by healthy adolescents likely does not increase inclusive fitness. Adaptation to a very different ancestral environment may be maladaptive in the current one. [80] [87]

      Poverty is associated with the risk of suicide. [88] Increasing relative poverty compared to those around a person increases suicide risk. [89] Over 200,000 farmers in India have died by suicide since 1997, partly due to issues of debt . [90] In China suicide is three times as likely in rural regions as urban ones, partly, it is believed, due to financial difficulties in this area of the country. [91]

      Media

      In Goethe ‘s The Sorrows of Young Werther , the title character kills himself due to a love triangle involving Charlotte (pictured at his grave). Some admirers of the story were triggered into copycat suicide , known as the Werther effect.

      The media, which includes the Internet, plays an important role. [36] How it depicts suicide may have a negative effect, with high-volume, prominent, repetitive coverage glorifying or romanticizing suicide having the most impact. [92] When detailed descriptions of how to kill oneself by a specific means are portrayed, this method of suicide may increase in the population as a whole. [10]

      This trigger of suicide contagion or copycat suicide is known as the Werther effect, named after the protagonist in Goethe ‘s The Sorrows of Young Werther who killed himself and then was emulated by many admirers of the book. [93] This risk is greater in adolescents who may romanticize death. [94] It appears that while news media has a significant effect; that of the entertainment media is equivocal. [95] [96] Additionally it is unclear if searching for information about suicide on the Internet relates to the risk of suicide. [97] The opposite of the Werther effect is the proposed Papageno effect, in which coverage of effective coping mechanisms may have a protective effect. The term is based upon a character in Mozart ‘s opera The Magic Flute , who (fearing the loss of a loved one) had planned to kill himself until his friends helped him out. [93] When media follows recommended reporting guidelines the risk of suicides can be decreased. [92] Getting buy-in from industry, however, can be difficult, especially in the long term. [92]

      Rational

      Rational suicide is the reasoned taking of one’s own life, [98] although others consider suicide as never rational. [98] The act of taking one’s life for the benefit of others is known as altruistic suicide . [99] An example of this is an elder ending his or her life to leave greater amounts of food for the younger people in the community. [99] Suicide in some Inuit cultures has been seen as an act of respect, courage, or wisdom. [100]

      A suicide attack is a political or religious action where an attacker carries out violence against others which they understand will result in their own death. [101] Some suicide bombers are motivated by a desire to obtain martyrdoms or are religiously motivated. [43] Kamikaze missions were carried out as a duty to a higher cause or moral obligation. [100] Murder–suicide is an act of homicide followed within a week by suicide of the person who carried out the act. [102]

      Mass suicides are often performed under social pressure where members give up autonomy to a leader. [103] Mass suicides can take place with as few as two people, often referred to as a suicide pact . [104]

      In extenuating situations where continuing to live would be intolerable, some people use suicide as a means of escape. [105] [106] Some inmates in Nazi concentration camps are known to have killed themselves by deliberately touching the electrified fences. [107]

      Methods

      Case fatality rate by suicide method in the United States [39]

      Main article: Suicide methods

      The leading method of suicide varies among countries. The leading methods in different regions include hanging , pesticide poisoning , and firearms . [3] These differences are believed to be in part due to availability of the different methods. [10] A review of 56 countries found that hanging was the most common method in most of the countries, [108] accounting for 53% of the male suicides and 39% of the female suicides. [109]

      Worldwide, 30% of suicides are estimated to occur from pesticide poisoning, most of which occur in the developing world. [2] The use of this method varies markedly from 4% in Europe to more than 50% in the Pacific region. [110] It is also common in Latin America due to easy access within the farming populations. [10] In many countries, drug overdoses account for approximately 60% of suicides among women and 30% among men. [111] Many are unplanned and occur during an acute period of ambivalence. [10] The death rate varies by method: firearms 80–90%, drowning 65–80%, hanging 60–85%, car exhaust 40–60%, jumping 35–60%, charcoal burning 40–50%, pesticides 6–75%, and medication overdose 1.5–4%. [10] The most common attempted methods of suicide differ from the most common successful methods; up to 85% of attempts are via drug overdose in the developed world. [53]

      In China, the consumption of pesticides is the most common method. [112] In Japan, self-disembowelment known as seppuku (or hara-kiri) still occurs; [112] however, hanging and jumping are the most common. [113] Jumping to one’s death is common in both Hong Kong and Singapore at 50% and 80% respectively. [10] In Switzerland, firearms are the most frequent suicide method in young males, however this method has decreased relatively since guns have become less common. [114] [115] In the United States, 57% of suicides involve the use of firearms, with this method being somewhat more common in men than women. [13] The next most common cause was hanging in males and self-poisoning in females. [13] Together, hanging and poisoning constituted about 40% of U.S. suicides (as of 2005). [116]

      Pathophysiology

      There is no known unifying underlying pathophysiology for either suicide or depression. [13] It is however believed to result from an interplay of behavioral, socio-environmental and psychiatric factors. [10]

      Low levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) are both directly associated with suicide [117] and indirectly associated through its role in major depression, posttraumatic stress disorder, schizophrenia and obsessive–compulsive disorder . [118] Post-mortem studies have found reduced levels of BDNF in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex , in those with and without psychiatric conditions. [119] Serotonin , a brain neurotransmitter , is believed to be low in those who die by suicide. This is partly based on evidence of increased levels of 5-HT2A receptors found after death. [120] Other evidence includes reduced levels of a breakdown product of serotonin, 5-Hydroxyindoleacetic acid , in the cerebral spinal fluid . [121] Direct evidence is however hard to gather. [120] Epigenetics , the study of changes in genetic expression in response to environmental factors which do not alter the underlying DNA , is also believed to play a role in determining suicide risk. [122]

      Prevention

      Main article: Suicide prevention

      As a suicide prevention initiative, this sign promotes a special telephone available on the Golden Gate Bridge that connects to a crisis hotline .

      Suicide prevention is a term used for the collective efforts to reduce the incidence of suicide through preventative measures. Reducing access to certain methods, such as firearms or toxins can reduce risk. [10] [123] Other measures include reducing access to charcoal (for burning) and barriers on bridges and subway platforms. [10] [124] Treatment of drug and alcohol addiction, depression, and those who have attempted suicide in the past may also be effective. [123] Some have proposed reducing access to alcohol as a preventative strategy (such as reducing the number of bars). [37] Although crisis hotlines are common there is little evidence to support or refute their effectiveness. [9] [125] In young adults who have recently thought about suicide, cognitive behavioral therapy appears to improve outcomes. [126] Economic development through its ability to reduce poverty may be able to decrease suicide rates. [88] Efforts to increase social connection, especially in elderly males, may be effective. [127] The World Suicide Prevention Day is observed annually on September 10 with the support of the International Association for Suicide Prevention and the World Health Organization . [128] Prevention of childhood trauma provides may provide an opportunity for suicide prevention. [67]

      Screening

      There is little data on the effects of screening the general population on the ultimate rate of suicide. [129] [130] Screening those who come to the emergency departments with injuries from self harm have been shown to help identify suicide ideation and suicide intention. Psychometric tests such as the Beck Depression Inventory or the Geriatric Depression Scale for older people are being used. [131] As there is a high rate of people who test positive via these tools that are not at risk of suicide, there are concerns that screening may significantly increase mental health care resource utilization. [132] Assessing those at high risk however is recommended. [13] Asking about suicidality does not appear to increase the risk. [13]

      Mental illness

      See also: Antidepressants and suicide risk

      In those with mental health problems a number of treatments may reduce the risk of suicide. Those who are actively suicidal may be admitted to psychiatric care either voluntarily or involuntarily. [13] Possessions that may be used to harm oneself are typically removed. [53] Some clinicians get patients to sign suicide prevention contracts where they agree to not harm themselves if released. [13] Evidence however does not support a significant effect from this practice. [13] If a person is at low risk, outpatient mental health treatment may be arranged. [53] Short-term hospitalization has not been found to be more effective than community care for improving outcomes in those with borderline personality disorder who are chronically suicidal. [133] [134]

      There is tentative evidence that psychotherapy , specifically, dialectical behaviour therapy reduces suicidality in adolescents [135] as well as in those with borderline personality disorder . [136] It may also be useful in decreasing suicide attempts in adults at high risk. [137] Evidence however has not found a decrease in completed suicides. [135]

      There is controversy around the benefit-versus-harm of antidepressants . [36] In young persons, some antidepressants, such as SSRIs , appear to increase the risk of suicidality from 25 per 1000 to 40 per 1000. [138] In older persons, however, they might decrease the risk. [13] Lithium appears effective at lowering the risk in those with bipolar disorder and unipolar depression to nearly the same levels as the general population. [139] [140] Clozapine may decrease the thoughts of suicide in some people with schizophrenia. [141] In the United States, health professionals are legally required to take reasonable steps to try to prevent suicide. [142] [143]

      Epidemiology

      Main article: Epidemiology of suicide

      Deaths per million persons from self-inflicted injuries in 2012.

        3-23
        24-32
        33-49
        50-61
        62-76
        77-95
        96-121
        122-146
        147-193
        194-395

      Approximately 0.5% to 1.4% of people die by suicide, a mortality rate of 11.6 per 100,000 persons per year. [12] [13] Suicide resulted in 842,000 deaths in 2013 up from 712,000 deaths in 1990. [11] Rates of suicide have increased by 60% from the 1960s to 2012, [123] with these increases seen primarily in the developing world . [4] Globally, as of 2008 [update] /2009, suicide is the tenth leading cause of death. [4] For every suicide that results in death there are between 10 and 40 attempted suicides. [13]

      Suicide rates differ significantly between countries and over time. [12] As a percentage of deaths in 2008 it was: Africa 0.5%, South-East Asia 1.9%, Americas 1.2% and Europe 1.4%. [12] Rates per 100,000 were: Australia 8.6, Canada 11.1, China 12.7, India 23.2, United Kingdom 7.6, United States 11.4 and South Korea 28.9. [144] [145] It was ranked as the 10th leading cause of death in the United States in 2009 at about 36,000 cases a year, [146] with about 650,000 people seen in emergency departments yearly due to attempting suicide. [13] The country’s rate among men in their 50s rose by nearly half in the decade 1999–2010. [147] Lithuania , Japan and Hungary have the highest rates. [12] Around 75% of suicides occur in the developing world. [2] The countries with the greatest absolute numbers of suicides are China and India , accounting for over half the total. [12] In China, suicide is the 5th leading cause of death. [148]

      Sex and gender

      Main article: Gender differences in suicide
      Suicide rate per 100,000 males (left) and female (right) (data from 1978–2008).


        no data
        < 1
        1–5
        5–5.8


        5.8–8.5
        8.5–12
        12–19
        19–22.5


        22.5–26
        26–29.5
        29.5–33
        33–36.5


        >36.5

      Globally as of 2012 [update] , death by suicide occurs about 1.8 times more often in males than females. [12] [149] In the Western world, males die three to four times more often by means of suicide than do females. [12] This difference is even more pronounced in those over the age of 65, with tenfold more males than females dying by suicide. [150] Suicide attempts and self-harm are between two and four times more frequent among females. [13] [151] [152] Researchers have attributed the difference between attempted and completed suicides among the sexes to males using more lethal means to end their lives. [150] [153] [154] However, separating intentional suicide attempts from non-suicidal self-harm is not currently done in the United States when gathering statistics at the national level. [155]

      China has one of the highest female suicide rates in the world and is the only country where it is higher than that of men (ratio of 0.9). [12] [148] In the Eastern Mediterranean , suicide rates are nearly equivalent between males and females. [12] The highest rate of female suicide is found in South Korea at 22 per 100,000, with high rates in South-East Asia and the Western Pacific generally. [12]

      Due in part to social stigmatisation and the resulting depression , people whose gender identity does not align with their assigned sex are at a high risk of suicide. [156]

      A number of reviews have found an increased risk of suicide among transgender, lesbian, gay, and bisexual people. [157] [158] Among transgender persons rates of attempted suicide are about 40% compared to a general population rate of 5%. [159] [160]

      Age

      In many countries the rate of suicide is highest in the middle-aged [161] or elderly. [10] The absolute number of suicides however is greatest in those between 15 and 29 years old due to the number of people in this age group. [12] In the United States it is greatest in Caucasian men older than 80 years, even though younger people more frequently attempt suicide. [13] It is the second most common cause of death in adolescents [36] and in young males is second only to accidental death. [161] In young males in the developed world it is the cause of nearly 30% of mortality. [161] In the developing world rates are similar, but it makes up a smaller proportion of overall deaths due to higher rates of death from other types of trauma . [161] In South-East Asia, in contrast to other areas of the world, deaths from suicide occur at a greater rate in young females than elderly females. [12]

      History

      Main article: History of suicide

      The Death of Seneca (1684), painting by Luca Giordano , depicting the suicide of Seneca the Younger in Ancient Rome

      In ancient Athens , a person who committed suicide without the approval of the state was denied the honors of a normal burial. The person would be buried alone, on the outskirts of the city, without a headstone or marker. [162] However, it was deemed to be an acceptable method to deal with military defeat. [163] In Ancient Rome, while suicide was initially permitted, it was later deemed a crime against the state due to its economic costs. [164] Aristotle condemned all forms of suicide while Plato was ambivalent. [165] In Rome some reasons for suicide included volunteering death in a gladiator combat, guilt over murdering someone, to save the life of another, as a result of mourning, from shame from being raped, and as an escape from intolerable situations like physical suffering, military defeat, or criminal pursuit. [165]

      Suicide came to be regarded as a sin in Christian Europe and was condemned at the Council of Arles (452) as the work of the Devil. In the Middle Ages , the Church had drawn-out discussions as to when the desire for martyrdom was suicidal, as in the case of martyrs of Córdoba . Despite these disputes and occasional official rulings, Catholic doctrine was not entirely settled on the subject of suicide until the later 17th century. A criminal ordinance issued by Louis XIV of France in 1670 was extremely severe, even for the times: the dead person’s body was drawn through the streets, face down, and then hung or thrown on a garbage heap. Additionally, all of the person’s property was confiscated. [166] [167]

      Attitudes towards suicide slowly began to shift during the Renaissance . John Donne ‘s work Biathanatos , contained one of the first modern defences of suicide, bringing proof from the conduct of Biblical figures, such as Jesus , Samson and Saul , and presenting arguments on grounds of reason and nature to sanction suicide in certain circumstances. [168]

      The secularization of society that began during The Enlightenment questioned traditional religious attitudes toward suicide and brought a more modern perspective to the issue. David Hume denied that suicide was a crime as it affected no one and was potentially to the advantage of the individual. In his 1777 Essays on Suicide and the Immortality of the Soul he rhetorically asked, “Why should I prolong a miserable existence, because of some frivolous advantage which the public may perhaps receive from me?” [168] A shift in public opinion at large can also be discerned; The Times in 1786 initiated a spirited debate on the motion “Is suicide an act of courage?”. [169]

      By the 19th-century, the act of suicide had shifted from being viewed as caused by sin to being caused by insanity in Europe. [167] Although suicide remained illegal during this period, it increasingly became the target of satirical comments, such as the Gilbert and Sullivan comic opera The Mikado that satirized the idea of executing someone who had already killed himself.

      By 1879, English law began to distinguish between suicide and homicide , although suicide still resulted in forfeiture of estate. [170] In 1882, the deceased were permitted daylight burial in England [171] and by the middle of the 20th century, suicide had become legal in much of the western world . The term suicide first emerged shortly before 1700 to replace expressions on self-death which were often characterized as a form of self-murder in the West. [165]

      Social and culture

      Legislation

      Main article: Suicide legislation

      A tantō knife prepared for seppuku ( abdomen -cutting)

      Samurai about to perform seppuku

      In most Western countries, suicide is no longer a crime. [21] It was, however, in most Western European countries from the Middle Ages until at least the 1800s. [170] It remains a criminal offense in most Muslim-majority nations. [22]

      In Australia suicide is not a crime. [172] It however is a crime to counsel, incite , or aid and abet another in attempting to die by suicide, and the law explicitly allows any person to use “such force as may reasonably be necessary” to prevent another from taking their own life. [173] The Northern Territory of Australia briefly had legal physician-assisted suicide from 1996 to 1997. [174]

      No country in Europe currently considers suicide or attempted suicide to be a crime. [175] England and Wales decriminalized suicide via the Suicide Act 1961 and the Republic of Ireland in 1993. [175] The word “commit” was used in reference to its being illegal, however many organisations have stopped it because of the negative connotation. [176] [177]

      In India, suicide used to be illegal and surviving family could face legal difficulties. [178] The Indian government repealed this law in 2014. [179] In Germany, active euthanasia is illegal and anyone present during suicide may be prosecuted for failure to render aid in an emergency. [180] Switzerland has taken steps to legalize assisted suicide for the chronically mentally ill. The high court in Lausanne , Switzerland, in a 2006 ruling, granted an anonymous individual with longstanding psychiatric difficulties the right to end his own life. [181]

      In the United States, suicide is not illegal but may be associated with penalties for those who attempt it. [175] Physician-assisted suicide is legal in the state of Washington for people with terminal diseases. [182] In Oregon , people with terminal diseases may request medications to help end their life. [183]

      Canadians who have attempted suicide may be barred from entering the US. US laws allow border guards to deny access to people who have a mental illness, including those with previous suicide attempts. [184] [185]

      Religious views

      Main article: Religious views on suicide

      A Hindu widow burning herself with her husband’s corpse, 1820s

      In most forms of Christianity , suicide is considered a sin , based mainly on the writings of influential Christian thinkers of the Middle Ages , such as St. Augustine and St. Thomas Aquinas , but suicide was not considered a sin under the Byzantine Christian code of Justinian , for instance. [186] [187] In Catholic doctrine, the argument is based on the commandment “Thou shalt not kill” (made applicable under the New Covenant by Jesus in Matthew 19:18 ), as well as the idea that life is a gift given by God which should not be spurned, and that suicide is against the “natural order” and thus interferes with God’s master plan for the world. [188] However, it is believed that mental illness or grave fear of suffering diminishes the responsibility of the one completing suicide. [189]

      Judaism focuses on the importance of valuing this life, and as such, suicide is tantamount to denying God’s goodness in the world. Despite this, under extreme circumstances when there has seemed no choice but to either be killed or forced to betray their religion, Jews have committed individual suicide or mass suicide (see Masada , First French persecution of the Jews , and York Castle for examples) and as a grim reminder there is even a prayer in the Jewish liturgy for “when the knife is at the throat”, for those dying “to sanctify God’s Name” (see Martyrdom ). These acts have received mixed responses by Jewish authorities, regarded by some as examples of heroic martyrdom, while others state that it was wrong for them to take their own lives in anticipation of martyrdom. [190]

      Islamic religious views are against suicide. [22] The Quran forbids it by stating “do not kill or destroy yourself”. [191] The hadiths also state individual suicide to be unlawful and a sin. [22] Stigma is often associated with suicide in Islamic countries. [191]

      In Hinduism , suicide is generally frowned upon and is considered equally sinful as murdering another in contemporary Hindu society. Hindu Scriptures state that one who dies by suicide will become part of the spirit world, wandering earth until the time one would have otherwise died, had one not taken one’s own life. [192] However, Hinduism accepts a man’s right to end one’s life through the non-violent practice of fasting to death, termed Prayopavesa . [193] But Prayopavesa is strictly restricted to people who have no desire or ambition left, and no responsibilities remaining in this life. [193] Jainism has a similar practice named Santhara . Sati , or self-immolation by widows, was prevalent in Hindu society during the Middle Ages. [194]

      Philosophy

      Main article: Philosophy of suicide

      A number of questions are raised within the philosophy of suicide, included what constitutes suicide, whether or not suicide can be a rational choice, and the moral permissibility of suicide. [195] Arguments as to acceptability of suicide in moral or social terms range from the position that the act is inherently immoral and unacceptable under any circumstances to a regard for suicide as a sacrosanct right of anyone who believes they have rationally and conscientiously come to the decision to end their own lives, even if they are young and healthy.

      Opponents to suicide include Christian philosophers such as Augustine of Hippo , Thomas Aquinas , [195] Immanuel Kant [196] and, arguably, John Stuart Mill – Mill’s focus on the importance of liberty and autonomy meant that he rejected choices which would prevent a person from making future autonomous decisions. [197] Others view suicide as a legitimate matter of personal choice. Supporters of this position maintain that no one should be forced to suffer against their will, particularly from conditions such as incurable disease, mental illness, and old age, with no possibility of improvement. They reject the belief that suicide is always irrational, arguing instead that it can be a valid last resort for those enduring major pain or trauma. [198] A stronger stance would argue that people should be allowed to autonomously choose to die regardless of whether they are suffering. Notable supporters of this school of thought include Scottish empiricist David Hume [195] and American bioethicist Jacob Appel . [181] [199]

      Advocacy

      See also: Advocacy of suicide

      In this painting by Alexandre-Gabriel Decamps , the palette, pistol, and note lying on the floor suggest that the event has just taken place; an artist has taken his own life. [200]

      Advocacy of suicide has occurred in many cultures and subcultures . The Japanese military during World War II encouraged and glorified kamikaze attacks, which were suicide attacks by military aviators from the Empire of Japan against Allied naval vessels in the closing stages of the Pacific theater of World War II. Japanese society as a whole has been described as “suicide tolerant” [201] (see Suicide in Japan ).

      Internet searches for information on suicide return webpages that 10-30% of the time encourage or facilitate suicide attempts. There is some concern that such sites may push those predisposed over the edge. Some people form suicide pacts online, either with pre-existing friends or people they have recently encountered in chat rooms or message boards . The Internet, however, may also help prevent suicide by providing a social group for those who are isolated. [202]

      Locations

      See also: List of suicide sites

      Some landmarks have become known for high levels of suicide attempts. [203] These include San Francisco’s Golden Gate Bridge , Japan’s Aokigahara Forest , [204] England’s Beachy Head [203] and Toronto ‘s Bloor Street Viaduct . [205]

      As of 2010 [update] , the Golden Gate Bridge has had more than 1,300 die by suicide by jumping since its construction in 1937. [206] Many locations where suicide is common have constructed barriers to prevent it; [207] this includes the Luminous Veil in Toronto, [205] the Eiffel Tower in Paris, the West Gate Bridge in Melbourne and Empire State Building in New York City . [207] They appear to be generally effective. [208]

      Notable cases

      Japanese general Hideki Tojo , receiving life-saving treatment immediately after attempted suicide, 1945

      Main article: List of suicides

      An example of mass suicide is the 1978 Jonestown killings/suicide in which 909 members of the Peoples Temple , an American religious group led by Jim Jones , ended their lives by drinking grape Flavor Aid laced with cyanide and various prescription drugs. [209] [210] [211] Thousands of Japanese civilians took their own lives in the last days of the Battle of Saipan in 1944, some jumping from “Suicide Cliff” and “Banzai Cliff”. [212]

      The 1981 hunger strikes , led by Bobby Sands , resulted in 10 deaths. The cause of death was recorded by the coroner as “starvation, self-imposed” rather than suicide; this was modified to simply “starvation” on the death certificates after protest from the dead strikers’ families. [213] During World War II, Erwin Rommel was found to have foreknowledge of the July 20 plot on Hitler’s life; he was threatened with public trial , execution and reprisals on his family unless he took his own life. [214]

      Other species

      Main article: Animal suicide

      As suicide requires a willful attempt to die, some feel it therefore cannot be said to occur in non-human animals. [163] Suicidal behavior has been observed in salmonella seeking to overcome competing bacteria by triggering an immune system response against them. [215] Suicidal defenses by workers are also noted in the Brazilian ant Forelius pusillus , where a small group of ants leaves the security of the nest after sealing the entrance from the outside each evening. [216]

      Pea aphids , when threatened by a ladybug , can explode themselves, scattering and protecting their brethren and sometimes even killing the ladybug. [217] Some species of termites have soldiers that explode, covering their enemies with sticky goo. [218] [219]

      There have been anecdotal reports of dogs, horses and dolphins killing themselves. [220] There, however, has been little scientific study of animal suicide. [221] Animal suicide is usually put down to romantic human interpretation and is not generally thought to be intentional. Some of the reasons animals are thought to unintentionally kill themselves include: psychological stress , infection by certain parasites or fungi , or disruption of a long-held social tie, such as the ending of a long association with an owner and thus not accepting food from another individual. [222]

      References

      1. ^ a b c d Preventing suicide: a global imperative. WHO. 2014. pp. 7, 20, 40. ISBN   9789241564779 . 
      2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k “Suicide Fact sheet N°398” . WHO. April 2016. Archived from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 3 March 2016. 
      3. ^ a b c Ajdacic-Gross V, Weiss MG, Ring M, Hepp U, Bopp M, Gutzwiller F, Rössler W (September 2008). “Methods of suicide: international suicide patterns derived from the WHO mortality database” . Bulletin of the World Health Organization. 86 (9): 726–32. doi : 10.2471/BLT.07.043489 . PMC   2649482  Freely accessible. PMID   18797649 . 
      4. ^ a b c d e Hawton K, van Heeringen K (April 2009). “Suicide”. Lancet. 373 (9672): 1372–81. doi : 10.1016/S0140-6736(09)60372-X . PMID   19376453 . 
      5. ^ a b GBD 2015 Mortality and Causes of Death Collaborators (October 2016). “Global, regional, and national life expectancy, all-cause mortality, and cause-specific mortality for 249 causes of death, 1980-2015: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015” . Lancet. 388 (10053): 1459–1544. doi : 10.1016/S0140-6736(16)31012-1 . PMC   5388903  Freely accessible. PMID   27733281 . 
      6. ^ a b Stedman’s Medical Dictionary (28th ed.). Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. 2006. ISBN   978-0-7817-3390-8 . 
      7. ^ a b Dodds TJ (March 2017). “Prescribed Benzodiazepines and Suicide Risk: A Review of the Literature”. The Primary Care Companion for CNS Disorders. 19 (2). doi : 10.4088/PCC.16r02037 . PMID   28257172 . 
      8. ^ Bottino SM, Bottino CM, Regina CG, Correia AV, Ribeiro WS (March 2015). “Cyberbullying and adolescent mental health: systematic review”. Cadernos De Saude Publica. 31 (3): 463–75. doi : 10.1590/0102-311×00036114 . PMID   25859714 . 
      9. ^ a b Sakinofsky I (June 2007). “The current evidence base for the clinical care of suicidal patients: strengths and weaknesses”. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry. Revue Canadienne De Psychiatrie. 52 (6 Suppl 1): 7S–20S. PMID   17824349 . 
      10. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Yip PS, Caine E, Yousuf S, Chang SS, Wu KC, Chen YY (June 2012). “Means restriction for suicide prevention”. Lancet. 379 (9834): 2393–9. doi : 10.1016/S0140-6736(12)60521-2 . PMID   22726520 . 
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      Further reading

      Library resources about
      Suicide


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      • Gambotto, Antonella (2004). The Eclipse: A Memoir of Suicide . Australia: Broken Ankle Books. ISBN   0-9751075-1-8 . 
      • Goeschel C (2009). Suicide in Nazi Germany . Oxford University Press. ISBN   0-19-953256-7 . 

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          Cause and Effect Essay on Alcoholism

          By Lauren Bradshaw

          September 16, 2014

          Example Essays

          Like smoking, alcoholism has become a major health concern in many societies. The percentage of alcoholics has increasing significantly in a number of industrialized countries, making it a matter of national concern. Alcoholism-related deaths have increased dramatically in these countries.

          Additionally, the consumption of stump-liquor, or the making and drinking of illegal alcohol, continues to result in blindness and even death.

          Local and state governments have tried to address the problem partly through establishing laws concerning when alcohol can be sold or publically consumed. The approach taken to fight alcoholism differs depending on local and state government policies. For example, some countries prohibit drinking until one has attained a certain age of maturity. Despite such attempts to reduce incidents of alcoholism, it still continues to be a problem, especially among young people.

          Alcohol is one of the drugs that are deemed to cause serious problems among the younger generation. The motivators for consuming alcoholism are hard to generalize, since different cultures have different beliefs concerning the consumption of alcohol. However, it is agreed that like smoking, alcoholism is greatly influenced by peer pressure. Upon reaching a certain age, a person finds himself/herself in the company of friends whose preferred mode of relaxing is consuming alcoholic drinks. Unless one has strong principles, it is usually hard to resist the temptation and pressure to take that first drink of alcohol. Gradually, the person gives in, and alcohol consumption becomes a regular habit. Secondly, alcoholism is caused by the misperception that it is good for temporal relief from the harsh realities of life. Every alcoholic will insist that life feels good after one has had a drink. This misperception has spread even to enlightened individual. As a result, an elite group of alcoholics who relieve their stress by drinking has emerged. Thirdly, some cultures openly embrace drinking alcohol as the reward for a successful feat.

          Due to these issues and other causes, alcoholism has greatly hindered the realization of personal goals. It also affects employers of people who wreck their health due to excessive alcoholic consumption. In addition, it has negatively impacted families and is a popularly cited reason for domestic violence. The general nature of alcoholics is that they always want to be right, and anyone who opposes their views risks facing their wrath, which is mostly manifested through physical abuse. Another effect of alcoholism is that it lowers a person’s dignity. This is because most drunken persons rarely know what they are doing. This is why it is easy to find a drunken person uttering abusive words in front of his/her children. It is the responsibility of governments to step in by launching campaigns to educate citizens against the consumption of illegally brewed alcohol and of excessive drinking in general, as well as underage drinking.

          Tips on cause and effect essay writing:
          A quality cause and effect essay is one that begins with a captivating introduction. Although the instructions clearly indicate that an essay should outline the causes and impacts of a given issue, one cannot simply begin discussing the causes without first familiarizing the reader with the topic being discussed. For example, a good cause and effect essay on alcoholism should begin with an overview of alcoholism. Where possible, the assertions in the essay should be supported by accurate statistical information. In this case, a helpful tip would be to provide statistical evidence of government funds spent on alcoholism-reduction campaigns.

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                          COLLEGE ADMISSION ESSAY College Admission Essay     Defining Characteristics of Chicago’s “Personality”

          The article by Sweeney and Gorner entitled “Teen Parol
          -ee Charged with Killing Chicago Cop, Former Cha Officer", "The Devil in the White City" by Larson, Larson describes Chicago by writing about the streets angling past gambling houses, bordellos, and bars, where vice thrived together with the indulgence of the officials.

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