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  • Indian J Community Med
  • v.35(1); 2010 Jan
  • PMC2888350
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Indian J Community Med. 2010 Jan; 35(1): 170–171.
doi:  10.4103/0970-0218.62591
PMCID: PMC2888350
PMID: 20606945

Biomedical Waste Management: A Study of Knowledge, Attitude, and Practices in a Tertiary Health Care Institution in Bijapur

MC Yadavannavar , Aditya S Berad , and PB Jagirdar

MC Yadavannavar

Department of Community Medicine, Shri B M Patil Medical College, Bijapur, Karnataka, India

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Aditya S Berad

Department of Community Medicine, Shri B M Patil Medical College, Bijapur, Karnataka, India

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PB Jagirdar

Department of Community Medicine, Shri B M Patil Medical College, Bijapur, Karnataka, India

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Department of Community Medicine, Shri B M Patil Medical College, Bijapur, Karnataka, India
Address for correspondence: Dr. Aditya S Berad, Department of Community Medicine, Shri B M Patil Medical College, Bijapur, Karnataka, India. E-mail: [email protected]
Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer
Received 2008 Jul 23; Accepted 2009 Oct 10.
Copyright © Indian Journal of Community Medicine
This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
This article has been cited by other articles in PMC.

Introduction

Health care waste refers to all the waste generated by a health care establishment. It is estimated that 10-25% of health care waste is hazardous, with the potential for creating a variety of health problems.( 1 ) Bio-medical waste (BMW) collection and proper disposal has become a significant concern for both the medical and the general community.( 2 ) Since the implementation of the Biomedical Waste Management and Handling Rules (1998),( 3 ) every concerned health personnel is expected to have proper knowledge, practice, and capacity to guide others for waste collection and management, and proper handling techniques. Bijapur district in the northern part of Karnataka State has two district hospital and Medical college hospital, including a secondary level health care service. This study was undertaken to assess the knowledge, attitude, and practices (KAP) of the employees of Bijapur liberal district education association (BLDEA’s) Shri BM Patil Medical College and Hospital, Bijapur. This cross-sectional study was carried out in the month of November 2007. A total of 334 employees were surveyed, out of which 180 were non-teaching and 154 were teaching staff. A pretested, self-administered questionnaire containing questions on KAP regarding bio-medical waste management was used. Before administering the questionnaire the purpose of the study was explained to all participating employees. For statistical analysis we calculated percentages and applied the Chi-square test. Anonymity of the participants was maintained throughout the study.

Results

The teaching staff of the hospital gave more correct responses (97.4%) to questions on BMW management than the nonteaching staff (80%). This difference was statistically significant (P < 0.01).

Similar differences were observed between teaching and non-teaching staff with respect to attitude and practices regarding BMW management (P < 0.01).

Discussion and Conclusion

The participants involved in this study were assessed knowledge, attitude, and practice of BMW management. Interestingly, this study revealed that the awareness and proper practice of BMW was very satisfactory. Our study showed that the majority of staff (teaching and non-teaching) were conscious of the measures for safe collection and final disposal of BMW; this is in contrast to the finding reported by Pandit et al.( 4 ) Since the Shri BM Patil Medical College and Hospital has its own incineration plant, all the employees of various designations are required to ensure proper collection, segregation, and transport to the final disposal point. Panditetet al.( 4 ) reported that proper hospital waste management was not being practiced. It is possible that the newer employees are being oriented regarding proper collection and transport of hospital waste. Findings similar to that in our study were observed by Rao.( 5 ) In this study a need to periodically acquaint the participants with the updated BMW management and handling rules was felt.

We recommend that strict supervision and surveillance be followed in day-to-day hospital waste management activities.

Footnotes

Source of Support: Nil

Conflict of Interest: None declared.

References

1. Safe management of waste from health care activities. Geneva: WHO; 1999.
2. Central pollution control board, Environmental standard and guidelines for management of hospital waste. New Delhi: CPCB, Ministry of Environment and Forest; 1996. Jun,
3. Government of India. Biomedical Waste (Management and Handling) Rules. 1998 Extraordinary, Part II, Section 3, Subsection (ii). The gazette of India, No. 460,27 Jul 1998.
4. Pandit NB, Mehta HK, Kartha GP, Choudhary SK. Management of bio-medical waste: Awareness and practices in a district of Gujarat. Indian J Public Health. 2005;49:245–7. [ PubMed ]
5. Rao PH. Hospital waste management—awareness and practices: A study of three states in India. Waste Manag Res. 2008;26:297–303. [ PubMed ]

Articles from Indian Journal of Community Medicine : Official Publication of Indian Association of Preventive & Social Medicine are provided here courtesy of Wolters Kluwer — Medknow Publications

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  • J Environ Health Sci Eng
  • v.12; 2014
  • PMC3996946
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J Environ Health Sci Eng. 2014; 12: 69.
Published online 2014 Apr 17. doi:  10.1186/2052-336X-12-69
PMCID: PMC3996946
PMID: 24742274

A descriptive study on evaluation of bio-medical waste management in a tertiary care public hospital of North India

Rajiv Kumar ,corresponding author#1 Anil Kumar Gupta ,#1 Arun Kumar Aggarwal ,#2 and Ashok Kumar #1

Rajiv Kumar

1Department of Hospital Administration, Post-Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, India

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Anil Kumar Gupta

1Department of Hospital Administration, Post-Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, India

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Arun Kumar Aggarwal

2School of Public Health, Post-Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, India

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Ashok Kumar

1Department of Hospital Administration, Post-Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, India

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1Department of Hospital Administration, Post-Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, India
2School of Public Health, Post-Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, India
corresponding authorCorresponding author.
#Contributed equally.
Rajiv Kumar: [email protected] ; Anil Kumar Gupta: [email protected] ; Arun Kumar Aggarwal: [email protected] ; Ashok Kumar: [email protected]
Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer
Received 2013 Aug 15; Accepted 2014 Apr 14.
Copyright © 2014 Kumar et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.
This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0 ), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly credited.
This article has been cited by other articles in PMC.

Abstract

Background

Proper management of Biomedical waste (BMW) generated in a healthcare facility is one of the most important functions of a healthcare worker (HCW) as its improper management not only poses risk to human beings and environment, but may also invite legal action against HCW as well as hospital administration. This study was carried out to evaluate quality of BMW management in 1100-bedded hospital attached to a tertiary care public institute in North India.

Methods

A checklist, including 29 parameters related to various functions to be carried out at source of generation by a HCW for BMW management was prepared by researcher and used after validation to record observations in all the 70 areas of hospital. A total of 6 visits were made to each area and mean percentage score was calculated for each area and each category of waste management.

Results

It was found that summated mean percentage score of ‘Treatment Room of Wards’, which were used exclusively by resident doctors, was significantly lower than Operation Theatres (p value: 0.033) and ‘Central Waste Collection Points of Wards’ (p value: 0.018) for the function of ‘mutilation of recyclable waste’ and it was significantly lower than all other areas (p value: 0.006 to 0.017) for the function of ‘disinfection of waste’.

Conclusion

It is concluded that more emphasis needs to be laid on ‘mutilation of recyclable waste’ and disinfection of waste’ by HCWs especially resident doctors.

Keywords: Biomedical waste, Medical waste, Environment, Waste receptacles, Segregation of waste, Mutilation of recyclable waste, Disinfection of waste

Introduction

When patient care activities are carried out in a healthcare setting, certain waste is produced which has the potential to cause harm to human beings and environment. Such waste includes soiled cotton, bandages, hypodermic needles, syringes, tubings such as intravenous sets, and urinary catheters etc. Such waste is commonly called as bio-medical waste (BMW) in India, though it is also known by various other names such as clinical waste, medical waste and health-care waste in different parts of world. Such waste constitutes merely 15 to 25% of total waste generated in a hospital, the remaining being general waste such as waste paper, wrapper of drugs, cardboard and left-over food etc [ 1 ]. The general waste is treated by local municipality in same way as house-hold waste, but special precautions and treatment modalities are required for BMW, so that it does not cause any harm to human beings and environment [ 2 ]. Though as many as 40 pathogens have been documented to be transmitted by BMW [ 3 ], its well documented propensity to cause transmission of 3 pathogens namely Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV), Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) and Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) makes it essential that due care is exercised while handling and disposing it [ 1 ].

The enacted legislations in various countries have made it mandatory for a healthcare facility to manage its waste properly. In India, the legislation governing BMW management is called as Bio-Medical Waste (Management and Handling) Rules, 1998 [ 4 ] and has been promulgated under Environment (Protection) Act, 1986 [ 5 ].

Due to propensity of BMW to transmit pathogens mentioned above and the risk of inviting adverse legal action, it is one of the top most priorities for a Hospital Administrator to put in place a framework for its proper management as well as to keep a close watch over the waste management practices being followed by Health Care Workers (HCWs) and waste handlers.

There are primarily 4 broad functions for BMW management at source of generation, viz. placement of waste receptacles or bins lined with waste bags at source of generation, segregation of waste, mutilation of recyclable waste and disinfection of waste [ 1 , 2 , 4 ].

It is highly desirable for a Hospital Administrator to know the weak points in the chain of waste management so that these could be addressed appropriately.

Keeping this in view, the present study was conducted with the aim to evaluate BMW management practices at source of generation in an1100-bedded hospital of a tertiary care referral public hospital of North India.

Methods

Ethical clearance

Ethical clearance from institute’s ethics committee and permission from Medical Superintendent to collect data from various patient care areas was taken before the study. The study was approved by ‘Thesis Review Committee’ of Post-Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research (PGIMER), Chandīgarh, India.

Study areas and number of visits

The study was conducted between December 2009 and April 2010. No sampling was done and all 70 patient care areas of 1100-bedded hospital were included in study. These areas were: Emergency Areas (12 in number), Waste Collection Points of Wards (25 in number), Treatment Rooms of Wards (11 in number), Intensive Care Units (8 in number) and Operation Theatres (14 in number).

Each area was visited on any 3 non-consecutive days in the study period. No visit was made on Sundays and on Public Holidays. Areas were visited during morning hours between 7 am to 10 am and evening hours of the same day between 2 pm and 4 pm. Thus a total of 6 visits were made to each area. The chosen timings were such when maximum BMW is generated in a patient care area as this was the time when blood samples of patients were taken and medication injections were given. Although medication injections were also given during evening hours and night hours, such time period was excluded from the study due to operational difficulties in collecting data during these timings. All observations were made by same researcher.

Study tool

Data were recorded on a researcher made checklist covering various aspects of BMW management at source of generation of waste.

Primarily, 4 broad functions are carried out at source viz. (i) placement of 4 colour-coded i.e. black, yellow, red and blue waste bins which are lined on inner side by similarly coloured waste bags; (ii) segregation of waste in such waste bags i.e. general waste like waste paper, wrapper of drugs, cardboard, left-over food etc. is to be put into black; soiled infected waste like dressing material, cotton swabs etc. is to be put into yellow; plastic waste like plastic syringes, dextrose bottles, intravenous sets, Ryle’s tubes, urinary catheters etc. is to be put into red and sharps like hypodermic needles, surgical blades, glass etc. is to be put into blue bags (iii) mutilation of recyclable waste like disposable syringes, plastic dextrose bottles, plastic tubings and hypodermic needles and (iv) disinfection of certain categories of waste notably plastics and sharps [ 1 , 2 , 4 ]. In the hospital, electrically operated needle cutters were used to mutilate hypodermic needles and nozzle (hub) of disposable syringes and scissors were used to cut the plastic tubings and 1% bleaching powder was used to disinfect plastics and sharps. Parameters related to each of the 4 main categories mentioned above were identified and a checklist was prepared (Table  1 ). Each desirable observation was assigned ‘1’ mark and each undesirable observation was assigned ‘0’ mark. There were some parameters, observations regarding which could be in part desirable and in part undesirable in a given area, such observation was assigned ‘0.5’ mark. As an example, if all of the used hypodermic needles in an area were found mutilated (desirable), it was assigned ‘1’ mark; if none of the needles was mutilated (undesirable), it was assigned ‘0’ mark and if some of the needles were mutilated and some not, such observation was assigned ‘0.5’ mark. The checklist was tested in another patient care area of institute not included in the study namely Advanced Pediatrics Centre and parameters which were not feasible to observe were deleted from checklist. In the final score-sheet, there were 16 parameters noted under category ‘condition of waste receptacles’, 4 parameters noted under category ‘segregation of waste’, 6 parameters noted under category ‘mutilation of recyclable waste’ and 3 parameters noted under category ‘disinfection of waste’. Thus a total of 29 parameters were noted in each study unit.

Table 1

Sample checklist for bio-medical waste management practices in patient care areas


Name of ward/area



Date and time of observation


S. no.ParametersObservation


S. no.ParametersObservation


YesNoYesNo
A


Condition of waste receptacles


 


 


 


 


 


 


1


Is black colored waste bin available in ward?


 


 


2


Is yellow colored waste bin available in ward?


 


 


3


Is red colored waste bin available in ward?


 


 


4


Is blue colored waste bin available in ward?


 


 


5


Has black bag been placed lining the inner side of black bin?


 


 


6


Has yellow bag been placed lining the inner side of yellow bin?


 


 


7


Has red bag been placed lining the inner side of red bin?


 


 


8


Has blue bag been placed lining the inner side of blue bin?


 


 


9


Is black bag securely fitted with the bin?


 


 


10


Is yellow bag securely fitted with the bin?


 


 


11


Is red bag securely fitted with the bin?


 


 


12


Is blue bag securely fitted with the bin?


 


 


13


Are waste bins covered?


 


 


14


If covered, is cover foot-operated?


 


 


15


Is the biohazard symbol imprinted over waste bags?


 


 


16


Are posters to guide users displayed near waste bins?


 


 


B


Segregation of waste


 


 


 


 


 


 


17


Does black bag contain only general waste?


 


 


18


Does yellow bag contain only soiled infected waste?


 


 


19


Does red bag contain only plastic waste?


 


 


20


Does blue bag contain only sharps waste?


 


 


C


Mutilation of recyclable waste


 


 


 


 


 


 


21


Are used hypodermic needles destroyed?


 


 


22


Is nozzle of used syringes destroyed?


 


 


23


Are used hypodermic needles found re-capped?


 


 


24


Are used hypodermic needles found bent?


 


 


25


Are used plastic bottles cut?


 


 


26


Are used plastic tubings cut?


 


 


D


Disinfection of plastics and sharps


 


 


 


 


 


 


27


Is disinfectant solution put into red containers?


 


 


28


Is disinfectant solution put into blue containers


 


 


29Is barrel and plunger of syringe separate before immersion into disinfectant solution?      
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Data analysis

The score obtained in 6 visits for a particular category of waste management was divided by 6 to obtain the mean score and then percentage mean score was calculated. The score of all observation units in a given area was summated and mean percentage score of the area was calculated. This was done for all categories of waste management and for all areas.

The statistical analysis was carried out using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, version 15.0 for Windows). All quantitative variables were estimated using measures of central location (mean, median) and measures of dispersion (standard deviation, standard error and 95% confidence interval). Means were compared using One-way ANOVA (analysis of variance) where there were more than two groups and unpaired t-test where there were two groups. P-value ≤ 0.05 was used as a cut point to determine significance.

Results

The overall mean percentage score for BMW management at source of generation of waste was 88%. Category-wise, the mean percentage score of ‘condition of receptacles’ was 87%, ‘waste segregation’ was 96%, ‘mutilation of recyclable waste’ was 88% and ‘disinfection of waste’ was 81%.

Area-wise, the mean percentage score of Emergency was 88%, Central Waste Collection Points of Wards’ was 89%, ‘Treatment Room of Wards’ was 81%, OTs was 90% and ICUs was 92% (Table  2 ).

Table 2

Mean percentage score of different categories of BMW management in different areas at source of generation of waste

Category of BMW managementEmergencyCentral waste collection area of wardsTreatment room of wardsOperation theatresIntensive care unitsOverall score of category of BMW management
Condition of waste receptacles


87%


87%


85%


87%


88%


87%


(95% CI: 86 to 88%)


(95% CI: 86 to 88%)


(95% CI: 81 to 88%),


(95% CI: 87 to 88%)


(95% CI: 86 to 90%)


(95% CI: 86 to 87%)


Waste segregation


92%


96%


96%


96%


100%


96%


(95% CI: 88 to 97%)


(95% CI: 92 to 99%)


(95% CI: 92 to 100%)


(95% CI: 92 to 100%)


(95% CI: 100 to 100%)


(95% CI: 94 to 98%)


Mutilation of recyclable waste


85%


90%


80%


92%


92%


88%


(95% CI: 82 to 88%)


(95% CI: 85 to 95%)


(95% CI: 74 to 86%)


(95% CI: 86 to 98%)


(95% CI: 85% to 99%)


(95% CI: 86 to 91%)


Disinfection of waste


86%


82%


63%


85%


88%


81%


(95% CI: 80 to 92%)


(95% CI: 75 to 90%)


(95% CI: 52 to 74%)


(95% CI: 75 to 94%)


(95% CI: 77 to 75%)


(95% CI: 77 to 85%)


Overall score of area88%


89%


81%


90%


92%


88%


(95% CI: 85 to 90%)(95% CI: 85 to 92%)(95% CI: 76 to 86%)(95% CI: 86 to 95%)(95% CI: 88 to 96%)(95% CI: 86.20 to 89.76%).
Open in a separate window

Score of each category in each area

In emergency, the mean score for ‘condition of waste receptacles’, ‘segregation of waste’, ‘mutilation of recyclable waste’ and ‘disinfection of waste’ was 87%, 92%, 85% and 86% respectively. For Central Waste Collection Points of Wards, the score for these categories was 87%, 96%, 90% and 82% respectively; for Treatment Room of wards the score was 85%, 96%, 80% and 63% respectively; for OTs, the score was 87%, 96%, 92% and 85% respectively and for ICUs, the score was 88%, 100%, 92% and 88% respectively.

Comparison of scores amongst different areas

The comparison of scores of different areas showed that score related to ‘condition of waste receptacles’ and ‘segregation of waste’ was not significantly different amongst various areas i.e. Emergency areas, Central Waste Collection Points of Wards, Treatment Room of Wards, OTs and ICUs.

However, the score regarding ‘mutilation of recyclable waste’ and ‘disinfection of waste’ was significantly different amongst various areas (Table  3 ).

Table 3

Level of significance of difference in scores of different categories of BMW management amongst different areas

S. no.CategoryLevel of significance of difference in scores amongst different areas using one-way ANOVA
1


Condition of waste receptacles


Not significant


(p value: 0.077)


2


Segregation of waste


Not significant


(p Value: 0.230)


3


Mutilation of recyclable waste


Significant


(p value: 0.016)


4Disinfection of wasteHighly Significant


(p value: 0.004)
Open in a separate window

The score regarding ‘mutilation of recyclable waste’ was found significantly different between OTs and Treatment Room of wards. The score in OTs (n: 13, mean: 92%, 95% CI: 86 to 98%) was significantly higher (p value: 0.033) than that in Treatment Room of Wards (n: 11, mean: 80%, 95% CI: 74 to 86%).

The score related to ‘disinfection of waste’ in Treatment Room of Wards (n: 11, mean: 63%, 95% CI: 52 to 75%) was significantly lower than all other areas. It was significantly lower than Emergency (n: 11, mean: 86%, 95% CI: 80 to 92%, p value: 0.016); Central Waste Collection Points of Wards (n: 25, mean: 82%, 95% CI: 75 to 90%, p value: 0.016); OTs (n: 13, mean: 85%, 95% CI: 75 to 94%, p value: 0.017) and ICUs (n: 8, mean: 88%, 95% CI: 77 to 98%, p value: 0.017).

The score of Central Waste Collection Points of Ward (n: 25, mean: 90%, 95% CI: 85 to 95%) was significantly higher (p value: 0.018) than that in Treatment Room of Ward (n: 11, mean: 80%, 95% CI: 74 to 86%) with respect to ‘mutilation of recyclable waste’. The score regarding ‘disinfection of waste’ was also significantly higher (p value: 0.006) in Central Waste Collection Points of Wards (n: 25, mean: 82%, 95% CI: 75 to 90%) as compared to that in Treatment Room of Wards (n: 11, mean: 63%, 95% CI: 52 to 75%) (Table  4 ).

Table 4

Level of significance of lower score in Treatment Room of Wards v/s other areas regarding ‘mutilation of recyclable waste’ and ‘disinfection of waste’

S. no.CategoryAreaLevel of significance using unpaired
t
-test
1


Mutilation of recyclable waste


Treatment Room of wards v/s OTs


p value: 0.033


Treatment Room of wards v/s Central Waste Collection Points of Wards


p value: 0.018


2Disinfection of wasteTreatment Room of wards v/s Emergency


p value: 0.016


Treatment Room of wards v/s Central Waste Collection Points of Wards


p value: 0.006


Treatment Room of wards v/s OTs


p value: 0.017


Treatment Room of wards v/s ICUsp value: 0.016
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Score of individual parameters

The summated mean percentage score of each of 29 observed parameters showed that it was 100% for placement of waste receptacles and 0% for ‘is cover on waste receptacle foot-operated’; for segregation of waste in various waste receptacles, it was from 84.84% to 98.93%; for destruction of used needles and nozzle of syringes, it was 91.21% and 85.73% respectively and for putting of disinfectant solution in blue and red bags, it was 78.97% and 78.68% respectively (Table  5 ).

Table 5

Score of individual parameters that constituted four broad categories of BMW management at source in all study areas in descending order

S. no.Parameter*N% age mean scoreS. no.Parameter*N% age mean score
1


Placement of black bins


420


100


2


Placement of yellow bins


420


100


3


Placement of red bins


420


100


4


Placement of blue bins


420


100


5


Imprinting of biohazard symbol over waste bags


420


100


6


Bending of needles manually


408


100


7


Placement of red bags


420


99.81


8


Are red bags securely fitted


420


99.81


9


Displaying of posters to guide users


408


99.42


10


Segregation of waste in blue bags


420


98.93


11


Segregation of waste in black bags


420


98.71


12


Placement of blue bags


420


97.79


13


Are blue bags securely fitted


420


97.79


14


Placement of black bags


420


96.91


15


Are black bags securely fitted


420


96.91


16


Are used needles re-capped


408


94.89


17


Segregation of waste in red bags


420


94.63


18


Placement of yellow bags


420


91.63


19


Are yellow bags securely fitted


420


91.63


20


Are used needles destroyed


408


91.21


21


Are nozzles of used syringes destroyed


408


85.73


22


Segregation of waste in yellow bags


420


84.84


23


Putting of disinfectant solution in blue bags


408


78.97


24


Putting of disinfectant solution in red bags


408


78.68


25


Cutting of used plastic bottles


408


73.60


26


Separation of barrel and plunger of syringes


408


71.90


27


Cutting of used tubings


408


68.33


28


Are waste bins covered


420


2.28


29If covered, are covers foot operated4200.00    
Open in a separate window

*N = number of observations.

Discussion

Segregation of waste is the most crucial step for proper management of BMW as waste segregated into various colour-coded containers is finally taken to different sites for disposal. Presence of a wrong kind of waste in a particular container will obviously nullify the efforts of appropriate disposal of waste. This implies that for proper segregation of waste, the waste bins in appropriate number, at appropriate places and with appropriate colour-code are required to be placed at the source of generation of waste.

The summated score of ‘condition of waste receptacles’ in all the patient care areas was more than 80%. Various studies have found poor condition of waste receptacles for waste disposal. In a 600-bedded super-specialty corporate hospital of a South Indian city, there were only white receptacles for all types of BMW for aesthetic reasons and since the colour of all receptacles or bins was same, following the segregation practices was difficult [ 6 ]. In studies in Irbid city of Jordan [ 7 ] and UK [ 8 ], waste bins or receptacles were found to be in poor shape.

The high score of ‘condition of waste receptacles’ in all patient care areas in present study implies that the basic infrastructure for proper segregation of waste at the source of generation of waste was well placed in hospital. However, it was found that almost all waste receptacles were open i.e. without any lid over them. Waste receptacles should preferably be covered ones having foot-operated lids [ 1 ] and so it is desirable to gradually replace the existing open type waste receptacles with the ones having foot-operated lids.

High score for ‘segregation of waste’ (96%) shows that this crucial aspect of waste management was being appropriately addressed. In a study in 1800-bedded tertiary care hospital in Mumbai [ 9 ], it was found that waste segregation was less than satisfactory in 40.3% of areas in spite of continuous monitoring and informal counselling of HCWs. In another study conducted in 1300-bedded Government College and Hospital and 50-bedded private hospital of a south Indian city [ 6 ], it was found that waste segregation was not proper. However, the number of areas where it was not proper has not been mentioned in the study. In a study in Jordan also [ 7 ], it was found that waste segregation practices were non-existent in spite of existence of a regulatory framework. In studies conducted in Egypt [ 10 ], England [ 8 ] and Ethiopia [ 11 ] also, the waste segregation practices were found to be poor. In a study in a 350-bedded polyclinic at Lucknow, India [ 12 ] and 574-bedded tertiary care Medical Institute located at Belgaum, Karnataka, India [ 13 ], the waste segregation practices were found to be good. However, the authors did not mention the exact percentage of areas where segregation practices were found good.

As segregation of BMW is the most crucial aspect of BMW management, still more focus may need to be laid in certain areas of hospital for this aspect of waste management particularly in Emergency areas as there the cumulative score (92%) was relatively less as compared to other areas of hospital, though this difference was not statistically significant. High score in ICUs may be due to relatively good staff to patient ratio whereas over-crowding of patients in Emergency and relatively less favourable staff to patient ratio may be the cause for relatively lower score in Emergency areas. As hospital does not have autoclave and instead has only 02 incinerators for terminal disposal of waste and incineration is considered a relatively poor technology from point of view of environmental safety and long term cost [ 14 ], it makes it essential that still more focus is laid on proper segregation of waste so that waste not meant for incineration like plastic material etc. could be prevented to mix into waste stream meant for incineration.

In the hospital under study, electrically operated needle cutters are used to mutilate the used needles and nozzle (hub) of used syringes and scissors are used to cut the plastic bottles and tubings. It was found that score of ‘mutilation of recyclable waste’ in Treatment Room of wards was significantly lower as compared to OTs and Central Waste Collection Points of wards. The Treatment Rooms are used only by resident doctors to perform minor procedures on admitted patients. Poor score of these areas means that they may be more concerned with direct patient care activities and may be less sensitive towards their duty of BMW management posing an avoidable risk to themselves, patients, rag-pickers, general community and environment.

Further analysis of scores of individual parameters that constituted the category ‘mutilation of recyclable waste’ showed that HCWs do not bend used needles manually; they very rarely re-cap the used needles and generally mutilate the used hypodermic needles. However, they lay less emphasis on mutilation of nozzle of used syringes. They pay even less attention to cutting of used plastic bottles and tubings.

World Health Organization (WHO) has stated that “In unregulated environment, elaborate enterprises have grown up to divert used syringes from waste stream for reprocessing and sale back into unsuspecting markets” [ 15 ]. It makes it essential to mutilate used recyclables right after use thus leaving no scope for their unauthorized re-circulation and inappropriate reuse. Providing training is considered an effective tool to increase compliance to guidelines for waste management [ 16 ] and so HCWs especially resident doctors may need to be provided training in systematic manner so that they may pay more attention to proper management of BMW.

Most of other studies have also shown poor management of sharps. In a study in Pakistan, practices of poor disposal of sharps were found as 60% of observed practitioners were found throwing syringes at open places [ 17 ]. Practices of poor disposal of sharps were also found in a province of China as 8.9 to 23.3% of HCWs were disposing off used needles and syringes in an inappropriate manner [ 18 ]. In a hospital at Indore, Madhya Pradesh, India, there were found to be good practices of mutilation of used hypodermic needles and syringes [ 19 ]. However, authors have not mentioned to what extent, the practices were followed.

Relatively lower score of category ‘disinfection of waste’ as compared to other categories of waste management indicates that this aspect of waste management is generally overlooked by HCWs. Amongst the various areas, the significantly lower score in treatment room of wards indicates that the resident doctors who use treatment room pay little attention to the disinfection of waste. This may be due to the same reason as mentioned above for ‘mutilation of recyclable waste’ i.e. they might be considering providing direct medical care to patients as their primary duty not appreciating the indirect health risks that they pose, particularly to the waste-handlers, by not disinfecting waste and so need for their training for proper waste management is again highlighted.

Various studies have mentioned that HCWs were using chlorine solution [ 6 , 13 ] or autoclave [ 19 ] to disinfect the waste, however, the authors have not mentioned the extent of compliance by HCWs. In the hospital under study, the standard practice was to use chlorine solution in the form of 1% bleaching powder solution for disinfection purposes. The finding of lower score for this category of waste management means that special focus may need to be laid on this aspect while imparting training to HCWs.

Conclusions

The present study was done to evaluate the practices of biomedical waste management amongst different patient care areas in tertiary care medical institute of North India using a checklist. It was found that more emphasis needs to be laid for ‘mutilation of recyclable waste’ and disinfection of waste’ especially in ‘Treatment Room of wards’ which are used exclusively by resident doctors. Hospital administrators may need to formulate and implement a plan for providing appropriate training to HCWs especially resident doctors so as to address the deficiencies observed in the study.

Competing interests

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

Authors’ contributions

RK designed the study, collected data and drafted the manuscript. AKG participated in design, drafting and coordination; AKA conceived the study, performed data analysis and helped in drafting the manuscript. AK participated in design and helped in drafting manuscript. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.

Acknowledgements

Help extended by Nursing Staff and Sanitary Inspectors of study areas in collection of data is gratefully acknowledged. There was, however, no funding agency involved in carrying out the study.

References

  • Pruss A, Cirouit E, Rushbrook P. Safe Management of Wastes From Health-Care Activities. Geneva: WHO; 1999. Definition and Characterization of Health-Care Waste; pp. 2–46.
  • Manual on Solid Waste Management, Ministry of Urban Development, Government of India. http://www.urbanindia.nic.in/publicinfo/swm/swm_manual.htm .
  • Collins CH, Kennedy DA. Microbiological hazards of occupational needle-stick and sharps injuries. J Appl Bacteriol. 1987;62:385–402. [ PubMed ]
  • Bio-medical Waste (Management and Handling) Rules, 1998, Ministry of Environment and Forests, Government of India. http://cpcb.nic.in/Bio_medical.php .
  • The Environment (Protection) Act, 1986, Ministry of Environment and Forests, Govt. of India. http://envfor.nic.in/legis/env/env1.html .
  • Rao PH. Hospital waste management system – a case study of a south Indian city. Waste Manag Res. 2009;27:313–321. doi: 10.1177/0734242X09104128. [ PubMed ] [ Cross Ref ]
  • Bdour A. Assessment of medical wastes management practice: a case study of the northern part of Jordan. Waste Manag. 2007;27(6):746–759. doi: 10.1016/j.wasman.2006.03.004. [ PubMed ] [ Cross Ref ]
  • Blenkharn JI. Standards of clinical waste management in hospitals – a second look. Public Health. 2007;121:540–545. doi: 10.1016/j.puhe.2006.12.005. [ PubMed ] [ Cross Ref ]
  • Nataraj G, Baveja S, Kuyare S, Poojary A, Mehta PK. Report: medical students for monitoring biomedical waste segregation practices – why and how? Experience from a medical college. Waste Manag Res. 2008;26:288–290. doi: 10.1177/0734242X07081481. [ PubMed ] [ Cross Ref ]
  • Talaat M, Kandeel A, El-Shoubary W, Bodenschatz C, Khairy I, Oun S. Occupational exposure to needlestick injuries and hepatitis B vaccination coverage among healthcare workers in Egypt. Am J Infect Control. 2003;31(8):469–474. doi: 10.1016/j.ajic.2003.03.003. [ PubMed ] [ Cross Ref ]
  • Debere MK, Gelaye KA, Alamdo AG, Trifa ZM. Assessment of the health care waste generation rates and its management system in hospitals of Addis Abada, Ethiopia, 2011. BMC Public Health. 2013;13:28. doi: 10.1186/1471-2458-13-28. [ PMC free article ] [ PubMed ] [ Cross Ref ]
  • Gupta S, Boojh R, Mishra A, Chandra H. Rules and management of biomedical waste at Vivekananda Polyclinic: a case study. Waste Manag. 2009;29:812–819. doi: 10.1016/j.wasman.2008.06.009. [ PubMed ] [ Cross Ref ]
  • Patil GV, Pokhrel K. Biomedical solid waste management in an Indian hospital: a case study. Waste Manag. 2005;25:592–599. doi: 10.1016/j.wasman.2004.07.011. [ PubMed ] [ Cross Ref ]
  • Ferdows A, Ferdosi M, Mehrani MJ. Incineration or autoclave? a comparative study in Isfahan hospitals waste management system (2010) Mat Soc Med. 2013;25(10):48–51. [ PMC free article ] [ PubMed ]
  • Battersby A, Feilden R, Nelson C. Sterilizable syringes: excessive risk or cost-effective option? Bull World Health Organ. 1999;77(10):812–819. [ PMC free article ] [ PubMed ]
  • Ozder A, Teker B, Eker HH, Altindis S, Kocaakman M, Karabay O. Medical waste management training for healthcare managers – a necessity? J Environ Health Res Eng. 2013;11:20. doi: 10.1186/2052-336X-11-20. [ PMC free article ] [ PubMed ] [ Cross Ref ]
  • Janjua NZ. Injection practices and sharp waste disposal by general practitioners of Murree. J Pak Med Assoc. 2003;53(3):107–111. [ PubMed ]
  • Murakami H, Kobayashi M, Zhu X. Risk of transmission of hepatitis B virus through childhood immunization in northwest China. Soc Sci Med. 2003;57(10):1821–1832. doi: 10.1016/S0277-9536(03)00065-0. [ PubMed ] [ Cross Ref ]
  • Chitnis V, Vaidya K, Chitnis DS. Biomedical waste in laboratory medicine: audit and management. Indian J Med Microbiol. 2005;23:6–13. doi: 10.4103/0255-0857.13865. [ PubMed ] [ Cross Ref ]

Articles from Journal of Environmental Health Science and Engineering are provided here courtesy of Springer

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3rd Level Quest

12 Ocak 2009 Pazartesi


Mu Online Guide – 3rd Level Quest

Stage one: You will need to travel to 3 maps for the quest items.

– 3 Flame of Death Beam Knight
-Warp to Tarkan 2 and go East till you a path with stone arches, go through that and go all the way Northeast, you can find the Death Beam Knights there. (160,225)

– 3 Horn of Hell Maine
– Warp to Aida 2 and go North, follow that road till you see the graveyard and make a left, then follow that road till the end, there will be a room with Hellmaines

– 3 Feather of Phoenix
– Found in Icarus, you will need to follow the one way direction all the way to the back of the map (around 30,235) to kill the Pheonix

-Warp back to Devin and provide him with those 9 items.

Stage two: You will be given a task to kill about 30 mobs (server will inform you when you’ve killed 10/10 out of each mob class).

Once you’ve given the task – you should find these mobs (they can be found at):

– Balram Hero (94,95)
– Death Spirit Hero (100,107)
– Soram Hero (62, 127)

Remember to kill 10 of each mob and return to Devin the NPC. Once you’ve successfully arrived to the Devin NPC, you would be given a new task, which is to kill a “Dark Elf” – locate to Refuge and kill one of these Dark elves. That’s it. Once killed, return to Devin and you should be a 3rd char.

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1st Class Quest

Cooming soon


2nd Class quest

Cooming Soon


3rd Class Quest

<—– Talk to him to start this quest

Must finish 2nd class quest (bk,sm,me) first . After that finish marlon’s quest (lvl 220)[Ring of Honor and Dark Stone]
and you need level 380 or higher to do this quest.

Also very important if u buy quest items buy only the needed items cuz quest items can no longer be sold or dropped, and they will get stucked in your inventory

talk to NPC Priest Devin in Barrack 28 81

you need to find

3x Flame of Death Beam Knight
3x Horn of Hell Miney
3x Feather of Phoenix of Darkness

you can find them in Icarus each item takes up FOUR spots not 2 so you need a min of 36 free blocks to hold all

Take them back to the Priest and you will be the upgraded version of the class

1st Class – 2nd Class – 3rd Class
Dark Knight- Blade Knight- Blade Master
Dark Wizard – Soul Master – Grand Master
Elf Muse – Elf – High Elf
Magic Gladiator – [None] – Duel Master
Dark Lord – [None] – Lord Emperor


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Regards,

SkyBluu
ZhyperMU Lead Moderator


 

Hello Zhyperians! We are here to make the ultimate challenge! The Fight of the Century! The Most epic battle our SERVER has seen in the past YEARS! Where the WARRIORS from all over the World will have the privilege to defend their continent and PROVE to all other players around the GLOBE which CONTINENT has the Strongest Challengers! This Event is for the STRONGEST FIGHTERS. Who are up to stand up for their region and represent their CONTINENT?

TEAMS :

– AMERICA
– ASIA – PACIFIC
– EUROPE
– PHILIPPINES
– SOUTH AMERICA

MECHANICS :

Each Team will have 5 members with 5 subtitutes incase of conflict of schedules.
The Fight is a Round Robin tournament. Just like Basketball league. You will Face
and had the chance to fight all the teams. Below is the fight schedules.

 

This will run for 5 days, as for the fifth day will be the championship match. Every match is Race to 5 wins in game battle. If you win the Match you have 1 point. The two teams with Highest points gained after the 4 matches will be the one who will fight for the championship. The 3rd Highest Point will be automatically 3rd Placer. In Case of Tie for the 3rd Highest Point, there will be a tie breaker match for the 3rd Place.

Rules :
– Register a Team HERE
– Registered player must be online 1 hour before his match.
– All players must be ready 10 minutes before the match and will be warp to the designated map
– If a Player is 10 minutes late in the agreed match time, He/She will be disqualified.
– If a Player is disconnected during a Match, you are given 3 minutes to reconnect
– While the last score should be continued until the team reaches highest points wins the match
– X-Shop Buff are allowed
– Muun Pets are Allowed
– Wiz Ring, Ring of Grudge nad Ring of Destruction are allowed
– Miscellaneous buff like Potion of Bless, Potion of Soul and Ale are allowed
– Fenrir Pets allowed , Only Dark Horse
– Stomp is allowed
– Teleportation Skill for SM are not allowed
– Shield for BK are not allowed
– Using Shield skill for all class are not allowed
– Line up must not Exceed 2 per Class (BK/MG/DL/SN/RF/GL/ELF)
– Pentagram are allowed
– Party Buff are allowed
– Arca Buff is not allowed
– Special Map " Varka Map’
– This will be held in Server 6
– 5 Members each team every continent with 5 subs
– Changing of Weapon while the match already started are not allowed
– Wait for both team to say "GO" before start Attacking
– If a kill is done before "GO" signal, 1st offense will be serve as "WARNING" and 2nd offense will be points given to the opponent team.

NOTE : Each team will have their captain as too represent his/her team for coordination with admin staffs.

VIDEO RULES:

– You have 48 Hours to Post the video of your match ( Championship winner only )
– The video must be at least in the "Select Server" when it started
– Video must show hidden icons, Installed apps and task Manager
– Videos must in the Final Stage
– All team member must have videos.

How to Join:
-Screenshot of a Team Before Joining with atleast 2 substitute.
-Screenshot of every Team member VOTING

Format:

Team Name & Continent:
Screenshot of the Team:
Members Names:
Your Continent:
Screenshot of Vote Counts:
Screenshot of Vote Counts after vote:

Prizes:

Champion:
Tier5 Set + T2 Penta 5 Slot of Choice ( Permanent Per Team)
2nd Placer:
Tier5 Set of Choice ( Permanent Per Team )
3rd Placer:
Tier4 Set of Choice ( Permanent Per Team )

Date Schedules :

August 21, 2018 (Tuesday)
First Match
9:00 PM GMT+8

August 22, 2018 ( Wednesday )
2nd Match
9:00 PM GMT +8

August 25, 2018 ( Saturday )
3rd Match
11:00 PM GMT+8

August 26, 2018 ( Sunday )
4th Match
9:00 PM GMT +8

August 31, 2018 (Friday)
Championship
9:00 PM GMT + 8

Regards,
Parzi

ZhyperMU GMTL

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Good news everyone specially to new players or players who wants to try ZhyperMU.
 

Players will now be able to exchange their Resets & VIP Points to Tier 2 Gear with Rings Pendant & 3rd Level Wing!

 

All Items are +15 Full Options with max Yellow Options DDI+9

 

Gear Requirement Fee: 50 Resets & 150 VIP Points

 

Just login to our website and click Rental Gear for Resets

 

Our Server Offers 10 VIP Points Every 12 Hours of Voting Meaning in 7 Days you can get 150 Points and that also means you have allowance to rent for another gear next month!

 

This Lender Gear initiative will be great boost for new players until they farm or market your own permanent gears or for Players who wants Instant PVP!

 

Please Login to Website & Click Exchange Resets for Tier 2 Gear!

Rental Gear Fee:
 

50 RESETS & 150 VIP POINTS

Exchange For Tier 2 Set of Your Choice :
 

  • Hegaton Tier 2 Set Full Options YO DDI+9 ( Blade Knight )

* 2x Ring of Wind Full Options
* 1x Pendant of Wind Full Options
* 1x Wings of Storm Full Options (3rd Lvl WIng)

 

  • Taros Tier 2 Set Full Options YO DDI+9 ( Wizard )

* 2x Ring of Ice Full Options
* 1x Pendant of Lightning Full Options
* 1x Wings of Vortex Full Options (3rd Lvl WIng)

 

  • Amis Tier 2 Set Full Options YO DDI+9 ( Magic Gladiator )

* 2x Ring of Ice Full Options
* 1x Pendant of Lightning Full Options
* 1x Wings of Doom Full Options (3rd Lvl WIng)

 

  • Princie Tier 2 Set Full Options YO DDI+9 ( Grow Lancer )

* 2x Ring of Wind Full Options
* 1x Pendant of Wind Full Options
* 1x Cloak of Transcendance Full Options (3rd Lvl WIng)

 

  • Castol Tier 2 Set Full Options YO DDI+9 ( Elf )

* 2x Ring of Wind Full Options
* 1x Pendant of Wind Full Options
* 1x Wings of Illusion Full Options (3rd Lvl WIng)

 

  • Trites Tier 2 Set Full Options YO DDI+9 ( Rage Fighter )

* 2x Ring of Fire Full Options
* 1x Pendant of Fire Full Options
* 1x Wings of Rage Full Options (3rd Lvl WIng)

 

  • Meter Tier 2 Set Full Options YO DDI+9 ( Dark Lord )

* 2x Ring of Fire Full Options
* 1x Pendant of Fire Full Options
* 1x Cape of Monarch Full Options (3rd Lvl WIng)

 

  • Nemesis Tier 2 Set Full Options YO DDI+9 ( Summoner )

* 2x Ring of Fire Full Options
* 1x Pendant of Fire Full Options
* 1x Wing of Dimension Full Options (3rd Lvl WIng)

Gear Restrictions:
 

  • Gear & Items are Valid for 30 Days Only.
  • Gear & Items Cannot be Traded.
  • Gear & Items are Bind to Account/Character ( You must take set from vault using the character that will use the set ) ( Right Click Items from Vault to take Items )
  • Gear & Items can only be moved from Main Inventory to Expanded Inventory.
  • Gear & Items cannot be replaced
  • Gear & Items cannot be modified.
  • Zhyper Network Reserves the Right to End any Rental Gear from any Player.

Voting is now active and players will now start receiving points once voted. Please be noted that you must complete the Gtop captcha verification in order to receive points!

Delay of 2 – 3 Minutes on points receiving is expected due to Gtop and Server API Handshake Time Delay.

 

Thank You,

Zhyper Network Team

Member Area

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5

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I like their free features. Best of them is free revisions. In case your writer messed up a little, you can give the paper back and they will fix it. And you don’t have to pay again. However, you will need to pay for editing, but that’s another feature I guess.

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5

1 5

I order only from here because everything about the service is easy. You can easily place an order, you can easily contact them and get information you’re interested in. It is easy to receive your paper when it’s ready too. All in all, it is all very simple.

EssaysCouncil.net

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5

1 5

What I like most about this writing service is that they are very attentive to their clients. I like the way they treat me, not like I’m a usual customer, but they try to help me as much as possible. This is why I always come to them.

EssaysCouncil.net

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5

1 5

EssaysCouncil are one of the most convenient writing services. Their website is simple, you can easily travel between pages, you can easily find what you need. If not, you can check their contact information and get in touch with them.

EssaysCouncil.net

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4

1 5

Their website says they have a few hundreds of professional writers. I don’t know if all of them are good, but my writer was very good. The essay had no mistakes, everything was excellent, and the subject was clearly explained.

EssaysCouncil.net

Published:

5

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If you have a lot of time to write an essay on your own, you’re welcome. But I am that sort of a person who prefers to save time for other activities. The essay editor makes the writing simpler as you just type or paste some text and it glues everything in one essay.

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Essay Writing Service Will Provide Professional Assistance

In case you have any question, please contact our support team, which is available 24/7. You will get all information needed as soon as possible. You can also contact a manager to sort out some issues during the writing process.

What should I do if I can’t find my subject in the list?

You can either select a subject that is close to yours or select the “Other” option and describe your subject in the “Paper details” section so that we will know what you need.

How do I know that everything is alright with my order?

As soon as you complete your payment, we start searching for an expert who will perform your order. You can contact us anytime you need and ask any questions about your order. We always inform our clients about the progress.

How do I know that my writer is really familiar with the topic?

When you attach necessary materials to your order, we send them to a writer so he or she can study them and start writing. When the paper is done, our Quality Assurance Team checks it and makes sure that all information is relevant.

What if the paper isn’t done by the deadline?

Our Support Team always tracks all orders and makes sure that you receive your papers on time. If something unexpected happens and we see that our writer needs additional time, we will contact you and do everything we can so you can receive your order as soon as possible. In any case, you are protected by the Money Back Policy

Can you guarantee a certain grade?

We can’t guarantee certain grades because it depends on many factors. On the other hand, we guarantee the highest quality of our papers, their originality, correct grammar, and punctuation.

Do you write in English only?

Yes, all our papers are written in English only, since our writers speak English. However, if you want your papers to be written in another language, please contact our support service.

Why do I need to select Advanced and Top writers? Are your regular writers bad?

All our writers are good but some of them have better experience than others. Top writers and Advanced writers work with our company for several years, and most of them receive great feedback from our customers. They can easily cope with papers of any complexity, providing content of the highest quality.

Why do I need a Plagiarism report? Will my paper be plagiarized if I don’t order it?

All our papers are original, we guarantee it. This extra just gives you a proof that you can present to your professor to confirm that your paper contains no plagiarism. This is also an official evidence for you that your paper was written from scratch.

Can I talk to a writer before I pay?

Our service works on the pre-paid basis only. Our writers get to work as soon as you complete your payment. We guarantee the highest quality of our papers and secure payments. You can contact your writer as soon as he or she is assigned, by using messages on our website.

Is it possible to make some changes in the paper after it’s approved?

We want you to receive the best papers so if you’re not fully satisfied with our service, you can always ask for a revision. However, you need to follow strict instructions. First of all, your instructions for a revision shouldn’t change your initial instructions. We won’t accept any new documents for a revision. If you have approved your order but you want to make changes, you must contact our Customer Support Service within one week. Your request will be considered by our Quality Assurance Department and if your paper meets all your initial instructions, such a request may be rejected. Check our Revision Policy for more details.

Our Writing Services

Aren’t you tired of constant failures? You work hard but the only grades you get are satisfactory? Then, we guess you need some extra support. If you continuously get bad results, you really try to do your best, but nothing is changing – check our website and get some help with the essays. We are one of the best essay writing service you can find in the realms of the Internet. We do not only have the best team, but also provide writing services on various subjects. For instance, you can get a paper done in the following subjects:

  • Math;
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  • Philosophy;
  • Law;
  • Politics;
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The full list of subjects is available in the order form. We have expert writers in all these fields of studies who hold Master’s degree or PhD. This is one of the most important requirements to the writer who wishes to become a part of our team. The degree in a particular field is essential, as the majority of tasks require thorough research and total understanding of the subject. More important is that the knowledge will help the writer to carry out research and write an essay as quickly as possible and deliver on time.

Essay Council reviews might be the best way to check what our clients think about us. That way you can see how many people trust us. We tried hard to gain reputation we have now and keep doing our best to satisfy everyone.

Essay Council provides services in:

  • Military writing

Military writing is aimed at a specific audience that is related to the army. This writing style is characterized by brief messages. Military writing uses active voice and short, unequivocal words. The whole structure of military texts is strictly standardized because functions of this type of messages are determined by a profession where they are used. All messages must be easily understandable and accessible.

Military messages are optimized for Mobile platforms used by the military staff, such as Blackberry. Good grammar and punctuation are especially important in military writing because everyone must understand such messages clearly.

  • Nursing writing

This type of writing is similar to other types of scholarly papers, following the same academic rules. Nursing writing is based on strong critical opinions and pays special attention to accurate and concise descriptions. APA style is commonly used by students who write papers on nursing, which is its distinctive feature. To master nursing writing, a writer must be acquainted with the whole field, using knowledge of its tasks and challenges.

Nursing students often need to write various papers, including scholarly reports, articles, and reviews of any kind. Another feature of papers devoted to this topic is a combination of quantitative and qualitative methods of research.

  • Business writing

Business writing includes all sorts of instructions, presentations, marketing campaigns, memos, and emails. Most often, business writers revise their papers a few times, because such papers are usually not urgent. The business writing style is characterized by the use of statistics, charts, diagrams, and other images. It also requires a writer to have well-developed writing skills, because business papers often directly affect relationships with customers as well as the system of management of the company.

The purpose of any business paper determines its tone and structure, which is a reason why business writers can use both formal and informal style.

  • Academic writing

Academic writing is used in education as well as in science. Students often see this writing style in textbooks, but it’s also common in various scientific publications and journals devoted to a specific domain of knowledge. In colleges and universities, students often need to write book reports, explications, research papers, and conference papers — these assignments are also written using the academic writing style.

A distinctive feature of academic writing is a formal tone along with an analytical method. Academic writing usually lacks clichés, abbreviations, and slang phrases of any kind, paying special attention to clear definitions and specific terms.

  • Writing for Native Students

There is a common misconception about students who order online writing help. People think that these services work with foreigners who cannot compete with native English speakers. The truth is that writing services help customers from all over the world, and the biggest share of their clients is represented by students from the USA, Australia, the UK, and Canada, who are native speakers.

Not only may native speakers have some problems with grammar, but they also don’t have enough time to complete several tasks working under conditions of strict deadlines. Thus, writing services are their only solution.

  • Writing for International Students

Many students who have English as their second language have problems competing with native speakers. They need to meet the same high standards and fulfill all difficult requirements of academic writing. They have to demonstrate well-developed writing skills, being able to use an extended vocabulary. Another difficult feature of international students’ education is grammar.

Online writing services are familiar with all sophisticated academic standards, so international students are able to get help and write papers that will be appreciated by instructors and teachers. This solution also allows international students to improve their knowledge of English as well.

  • Writing from Scratch

Writing from scratch is a crucial part of education because professors of various universities consider plagiarism the biggest problem in academic writing. Writing from scratch is related to creative writing , being focused on the originality of ideas. Papers that were written from scratch lack any plagiarized elements, thus being opposite to papers that were written using various templates. For the vast majority of modern students, writing from scratch is the only approach that guarantees good marks, however, the quality of academic papers also depends on the writer’s research skills. To write papers from scratch, students must be familiar with their field and understand its current goals.

  • Editing/Proofreading

Editing is often confused with proofreading and vice versa, but in fact, these are two different parts of the writing process. All writers need to edit and proofread their papers to make their papers clear, meaningful, and properly written in terms of grammar and punctuation. Usually, papers are edited first, and then proofreaders polish them because editing itself doesn’t guarantee the success of the final version of the paper.

Editors change the structure of the paper, being focused on the meaning of sentences. In turn, proofreaders fix grammar, spelling, and punctuation mistakes.

  • Multiple Choice Questions

Multiple choice questions are a very popular type of tests because they allow teachers to evaluate students’ knowledge fast, using modern methods of analysis. To complete a multiple choice question, students must choose a right answer (or a few correct answers) from among several available options. Another feature of multiple choice questions is that teachers are able to include questions on different topics in one test, being able to evaluate students’ progress for a long period of time.

Many multiple choice tests include an incomplete statement or a question that help students choose correct answers.

  • Problem Solving

We all need to deal with problems every day. An ability to solve problems determines our professional success and is nevertheless important in education. Thus, colleges and universities often assign problem-solving essays to help students develop this ability, as it is a crucial part of any profession. Managers and team leaders from various companies must be able to solve unexpected problems and make fast decisions based on a proper analysis of the situation.

Problem-solving essays consider some issue, trying to suggest possible solutions. The success of these papers to a large extent depends on a chosen topic.

  • Admission Help

Applying to colleges and universities, many students realize the importance of this process, searching for professional help online. There are many online writing services that provide admission help of any kind, but only the best of these services really help students achieve their long-term goals. A team of experienced experts is the best solution for every student because the latter get an opportunity to offer admission officers exactly what they are looking for.

Online admission help has a number of benefits, providing 24/7 remote support so that students don’t need to waste their time, being able to get help exactly when they need it.

Place an order now and have your paper finished on time.

The Most Affordable Prices

Apart from a wide range of services provided by our company, we can also offer quite an affordable price for them. The whole essay fee can be calculated after submission of an order or you can do it prior an order is made. This will give you a chance to manage your budget and compare our essay fees with other companies.

Essay Council reliable service will help you get through the term with no worries and difficulties. We care not only about your essay and the grade you get, but also about your personal information. The site is totally secure. All data provided by you will never be passed to third parties.

Once you decide to place an order, you will need 15-20 minutes. Firstly, you will be required to provide personal contacts. The next step is to state essay requirements (number of pages, deadline, essay format, etc.). In case you have some additional materials (a book, a research paper, previous articles on the topic) that are required to be used, please do not forget to attach them to the order before submission. In this case there will be no delay in the process of essay writing.

Discount Code: Get Some Perks

“Is Essay Council Good?” is a first question that pops up in your head when you visit our website. To prove that we are one of the best writing services we have years of experience in the field. Each year we help thousands of students who are in desperate need of help and support in their studies.

If it is not enough, you can read the comments left by our clients and notice that the number of Essay Council complaints comprise around 1%. It proves that you will get the best service and impeccable paper work.

We will be glad to help you in a dire situation as we understand that modern students are overloaded with assignments, and requirements are way too high for them. Become our client and get a discount code for further orders. Our regular customers constantly save some money for an essay. Not bad, isn’t it?

One more perk is that in some cases it is possible to get a refund. We guarantee 100% money back, check out the policy and know your rights. We want you to feel comfortable and enjoy our services.

Essay Writing

Admission (or application) essay

Admission (or application) essay is a written essay or statement drawn up by an applicant or an enrollee who is applying to some educational establishment for advanced education. Usually it should contain interesting and unique information that reveals the applicant’s personality and allows evaluating his/her character and perspective. Sometimes it is also called a personal application/statement or a statement of purpose.

Applications essay (the same as admission essay) is a written piece of work of an applicant that contains information indicative of his/her character, personality, prospective, etc. The essay is an integral part of the application process in US graduate schools, colleges and universities.

Scholarship essay

Scholarship essay is a piece of work drawn up by an applicant to get financial assistance from an educational institution for studying. The essay usually contains information on the applicant’s academic and career goals, life experience, activities in which he/she participated and the reasons for financial support.

Definition Essay

Definition Essay gives the definition of a certain word from the private view of the author. The essay should be drawn up on the basis of reliable references and sources and contain detailed, thorough, reasonable and adequate information on the word meaning and connotation.

Cause and Effect Essay

Cause and Effect Essay is concerned with the reasons (causes) of some things or events and the results (effects) of them. It can be focused mainly on one or more effects resulted from a certain cause(s) or mostly analyze the causes that lead to a certain effect(s). The essay is used as a perfect tool for representing and discussing ideas.

Narrative Essay

Narrative Essay is a piece of writing that tells a story from the personal experience of the writer and conveys his specific point of view on some event or a thing. Typically, it is written in a casual conversation style and is aimed at engaging the reader and representing the author’s perspective to him.

Compare and Contrast Essay

Compare and Contrast Essay analyzes the similarities and/or differences of two (or more) distinct subjects. Actually, the aim of the essay is to compare and contrast various relevant aspects of the subjects under consideration and then provide meaningful arguments and significant findings on the topic in the result.

Persuasive Essay

Persuasive Essay presents the writer’s perspective concerning some issue and is focused on convincing the reader to adopt a writer’s viewpoint on the topic or to act in a particular way. Basically, the text of the essay usually contains strong arguments, counterarguments and persuasive facts to prove the audience that the author’s position or idea is stronger than others.

Paper Writing

Case study paper

The case study paper is an academic paper that examines a certain subject to provide a solution to a possible problem. A subject can be a person, an event, a phenomenon, etc.

Term paper

The term paper is a research paper that describes a concept, an event, or provide an argument about some point or issue. Students write it at the end of a term.

Research paper

The research paper is based on research a student conducts to find necessary information in a certain field of study and present their own interpretation of results.

Reaction paper

The reaction paper provides a student’s analysis of a text and comment on it. In other words, it provides a student’s reaction to it. This type of academic writing requires thorough reading and research.

Course work

The course work is work assigned by teachers regularly during an educational course. Its aim is to acquire knowledge by students, develop their research skills, and show how they can apply that knowledge in practice.

Management report

The management report shows a state of specific segments of a business. It helps analyze what makes the business develop. Therefore, you can see what you should pay attention to move it forward.

Dissertation/Thesis Writing

Dissertation/Thesis – Abstract Chapter

An abstract is a short and informative section that briefly describes the entire work. It reflects the purpose of a paper, its background, and crucial points. The abstract differs from a review and it doesn’t evaluate the whole work.

Dissertation/Thesis – Methodology Chapter

This chapter focuses on the methodological features of the study. It explains how the author approached the topic and describes the whole research as a process, providing readers with necessary information on how to replicate this study.

Dissertation/Thesis – Literature Review Chapter

A literature review provides an overview of used sources. It compares different sources against each other and explains how they are related to the topic of the paper. It also explains how each source supports or opposes the author’s point.

Dissertation/Thesis – Introduction Chapter

An introduction serves three main purposes: it defines the topic of the paper, explains the need for a research in this niche, and briefly introduces the current work, focusing on the main statement or question.

Dissertation/Thesis – Discussion Chapter

This is the most important part of the study. It explains results of a research and discusses its findings, explaining how they are related to each other and to the central idea of the paper.

Dissertation/Thesis – Analysis Chapter

This is one of the most important chapters that includes data obtained during the research and the analysis of this data. The analysis must provide details necessary to support the author’s point.

Dissertation/Thesis – Conclusion Chapter

Every dissertation or thesis must have its conclusion. This section reminds readers results obtained during the research and the idea of the whole paper. It also reminds important facts from sources and provides recommendations for the future.

Review Writing

A review considers a book, a movie, a service, an article, etc. It summarizes and evaluates an already existing work without providing any new information. Reviews may also assess the value of a certain work compared to the other similar works.

Article Review

An article review sums up a certain article and evaluates it. Such reviews are often used to introduce readers to the source, presenting only the most important points of the article.

Book Review

A book review is a type of critical writing that analyzes the content of a book as well as its style, literary devices, and ideas. Book reviews are aimed to provide an opinion about the book and evaluate it.

Case Review/Analysis

Case reviews are focused on a certain case associated with somebody’s death or abuse, considering circumstances that led to negative consequences and suggesting how prevent such cases in the future.

Movie Review

Movie reviews provide readers with the most important information on a certain movie in order to understand whether the movie is worth recommending. Usually, movie reviews focus on the director’s work, cast, plot twists, etc.

Proposal Writing

Proposals are aimed to support some plan, presenting an idea to a proper audience. It must describe necessary details of the plan in a clear and concise manner. Most often, proposals are written in a persuasive style.

Research Proposal

Research proposals are aimed to explain why some problem needs a research. Another purpose of research proposals is to present possible ways of conducting a research and to describe its key elements.

Dissertation Proposal

Dissertation proposals explain what you are going to study and briefly describe how you will collect and analyze data. It defines directions of the research, describes the methodology, general objectives, and sources.

Thesis Proposal

A thesis proposal indicates the topic of the future research, explains how this research will contribute to existing knowledge, and outlines key steps of the research project. It also provides readers with a necessary theoretical background of the topic.

Report Writing

Reports are focused on a concrete issue and intended for a particular audience. Reports contain the analysis of some issue, considering its specific details and evidence, and also providing recommendations. All information should be presented in a logical order.

Management Report

Management reports provide key information about your business, including sales and financial history. Reports of this kind focus on a particular period of time and show the worth of your business.

Lab Report

Lab reports are aimed to connect the laboratory work with management and to archive certain information so that there will be no need to do the same work in the future. Lab reports also include a description of procedures.

Editing and Proofreading

These are two important stages of the writing process. Editing implies checking the general structure of the paper, logical transitions, and connections between evidence and arguments. Proofreading implies fixing grammar and punctuation mistakes.

Miscellaneous Writing

This service includes various types of papers that are not presented in other categories (Letters, Business Proposals, Newsletters, Content Development, CV Writing, Fashion Writing, Apps, Product Reviews, Technical Writing, etc.)

Annotated Bibliography

An annotated bibliography is a list of used sources (documents, books, articles, etc.) with annotations — brief descriptions and evaluations. It’s aimed to prove that the used data is relevant and accurate.

Article

Articles are written for printed publications (magazines, newspapers, journals) and electronic publications (blogs, online magazines). Articles focus on news, research, analysis, and investigation. The structure and format of articles may vary depending on chosen topics.

Statistics Project

A statistics project is a type of a short statistical study. It is aimed to answer some research question by collecting and analyzing data. Statistics projects also describe methods used to obtain statistical information.

Speech

Speeches are read in front of an audience. A speech is aimed to grab attention and persuade the audience to accept some point. To support the point, speech writers use pieces of evidence, logically connecting them with arguments.

PowerPoint Presentation

PowerPoint presentations are created using Microsoft PowerPoint program. These presentations include slides with various content (text, photos, charts, pictures). They are displayed in front of an audience, presenting some idea briefly and visually.

Multiple Choice Questions

Multiple choice tests include several possible answers to a question. The question is often related to a certain problem, and a correct answer must complete some incomplete statement that serves as a hint.

Math/Finance Problem

Papers on this topic are focused on problems that fall into such categories as financial mathematics and mathematical finance. Assignments of this type address economic problems as well as questions related to financial analytics and methods of calculation.

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How to write essay’s For Beginners & Advanced

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How to write essay’s For Beginners & Advanced

A step by step guide in writing from paragraphs to essays.

4.5
(2 ratings)

Instead of using a simple lifetime average, Udemy calculates a course’s star rating by considering a number of different factors such as the number of ratings, the age of ratings, and the likelihood of fraudulent ratings.


5 students enrolled


Created by

farah ibrahim

Last updated 7/2017


English

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How to write essay's For Beginners & Advanced


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  • How to write paragraphs and essays clearly and professionally

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Description

This course explains in detail how to write clear sentences, paragraphs and eventually different forms of essays. The course is aimed for students in high school to university level and learners who are learning English as a second language. This is a refresher course for university students. However,this course is also aimed for beginners who want to learn the basic mechanics of writing paragraph and essays. 

Who is the target audience?
  • Anyone who wants to learn writing.

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How To Write Great Essay’s For Beginners & advanced

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How To Write Great Essay’s For Beginners & Advanced PART 3

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Step by step guide in writing a paragraph


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Top Online MBAs in International Business 2018/2019

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  3. USA
United States

MBA in the United States (USA)

Of all the destinations where students can study for an MBA, the USA is without a doubt one of the most popular. And rightly so: an MBA in the USA can be rewarding, both in terms of the learning experience and also for the post-degree careers an MBA in the United States can offer. Additionally, students can get a great cultural experience by studying in the USA.

And the cultural experiences can vary widely, given the size of the country and the many possibilities for business study within. Many USA-bound MBA students choose to study in a big city, like New York City, Los Angeles, Chicago, San Francisco, or Houston, for example. Others might choose a lower-key setting, such as New Haven or Cornell.

Fortunately for potential MBA students, the United States hosts some of the world’s premier business schools, such as the Stanford Graduate School of Business, Harvard Business School, Columbia Business School, and UPenn’s Wharton School, among many others. 

An MBA in the USA can be pursued on a part-time basis, but for many international students, full-time is the way to go. The degrees offered include general MBA programs, as well as specialized courses in subjects like finance, supply chain management, marketing, accounting, operations management, information technology, business analytics, and more.

International students who do an MBA in the United States often consider the possibility of staying in the country and working for a while after graduation. Careers can be found in many industries, such as financial services, technology, and even the entertainment field. These will vary widely depending on where in the USA you’d like to work. However, if you plan on working in the USA after your MBA, make sure you understand the visa requirements.

See a list of all business schools offering MBAs in the USA below.


  • By State
  • By City
  • By Specialization
  • 100 most
    popular schools in USA

RankFull ProfileSchoolViews
Activity
1 NY NYU Stern School of Business, New York University 12374
2 NY Columbia Business School (CBS), Columbia University 7958
3 CA University of Southern California (USC) – Marshall School of Business 8327
4 CA University of California, Berkeley – Haas School of Business 6329
5 NY City University of New York (CUNY) – Baruch College – Zicklin School of Business 6964
6 CA Stanford University – Stanford Graduate School of Business (GSB) 5394
7 IL Kellogg School of Management, Northwestern University 5332
8 CA UCLA University of California, Los Angeles – Anderson School of Management 5657
9 CA California State University, Long Beach (CSULB) 4759
10 NY Cornell University – Johnson Graduate School of Management 5108
11 MA Boston University (BU) Questrom School of Business 4613
12 FL University of Florida – Warrington College of Business Administration – Hough Graduate School of Business 4533
13 NJ Rutgers Business School – Newark and New Brunswick 4142
14 CA University of California, Irvine – The Paul Merage School of Business 3978
15 TX University of Texas at Austin – McCombs School of Business 3417
16 CA Hult International Business School – San Francisco Campus 3375
17 NY Fordham University – Gabelli School of Business 3348
18 TX Texas A&M University – Mays Business School 2813
19 GA Emory University – Goizueta Business School 2758
20 MA Harvard Business School (HBS) 2608
21 IL The University of Chicago Booth School of Business 2643
22 CA Pepperdine University – Graziadio School of Business and Management 2448
23 MA Hult International Business School 2510
24 CA University of California, San Diego (UCSD) – The Rady School of Management 2621
25 PA The Wharton School of the University of Pennsylvania 2218
26 MA MIT Sloan School of Management, Massachusetts Institute of Technology 1888
27 PA University of Pittsburgh – Joseph M. Katz Graduate School of Business 2363
28 NY Pace University – Lubin School of Business 2353
29 TX Rice University – Jesse H. Jones Graduate School of Business 2101
30 NC The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill – UNC Kenan-Flagler Business School 2078
31 IN University of Notre Dame – Mendoza College of Business 1580
32 IL University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign 2244
33 CA California State University (CSU) – San Bernardino 2186
34 TX The University of Texas at Dallas – Naveen Jindal School of Management 1994
35 WA University of Washington (Seattle) – Foster School of Business 1788
36 IL University of Illinois at Chicago – Liautaud Graduate School of Business 1215
37 CA California State University – Los Angeles 1203
38 NY St. John’s University – Peter J. Tobin College of Business 1671
39 CA University of California, Davis – Graduate School of Management 1646
40 GA Georgia State University – J. Mack Robinson College of Business 1736
41 TX Southern Methodist University (SMU) – Cox School of Business 1650
42 MA F.W. Olin Graduate School of Business at Babson College 1686
43 NY University at Buffalo – School of Management 1540
44 FL Florida International University 1755
45 NC Duke University Fuqua School of Business 1523
46 MA Northeastern University – D’Amore-McKim School of Business 1581
47 MI University of Michigan – Ross School of Business 1608
48 CA San Diego State University – Fowler College of Business (SDSU) 1459
49 AZ Arizona State University (ASU) – W. P. Carey School of Business 1559
50 DC Georgetown University – McDonough School of Business 988
51 NY University of Rochester – Simon Graduate School of Business Administration 1339
52 GA University of Georgia (UGA) – Terry College of Business 1380
53 MN University of Minnesota – Carlson School of Management 1440
54 NY Hofstra University – Frank G. Zarb School of Business 1353
55 DC George Washington University – GW School of Business 855
56 CT Yale School of Management (Yale SOM) 1433
57 CA Mount Saint Mary’s University, Los Angeles 883
58 MD Johns Hopkins University – Carey Business School 1501
59 NC North Carolina State University – Poole College of Management 1324
60 MA University of Massachusetts Boston (UMass Boston) 1404
61 IL DePaul University – Kellstadt Graduate School of Business 1279
62 FL University of Central Florida – College of Business Administration 1281
63 NY Binghamton University – State University of New York (SUNY) 1196
64 CO University of Colorado Denver Business School 1229
65 FL University of South Florida (USF) 1249
66 MD University of Maryland – Robert H. Smith School of Business 1191
67 IN Kelley School of Business, Indiana University Bloomington 1116
68 NY Syracuse University – Whitman School of Management 1118
69 WA Seattle University – Albers School of Business and Economics 1051
70 GA Georgia Institute of Technology – Scheller College of Business 1081
71 VA University of Virginia (UVA) – Darden School of Business 1058
72 FL Florida State University 1078
73 IN Purdue University – Krannert School of Management 1136
74 NJ Montclair State University – Feliciano School of Business 977
75 IL Loyola University Chicago – Quinlan School of Business 1055
76 TX University of Houston – C. T. Bauer College of Business 1060
77 FL University of Miami School of Business 1116
78 CA University of San Diego (USD) School of Business Administration 957
79 OK University of Oklahoma – Michael F. Price College of Business 1029
80 OH Ohio University – College of Business 987
81 MI Michigan State University – Eli Broad Graduate School of Management 995
82 MA University of Massachusetts Amherst – Isenberg School of Management 1070
83 PA Temple University – Fox School of Business and Management 976
84 GA Kennesaw State University – Michael J. Coles College of Business 915
85 NC UNC Charlotte – Belk College of Business 1007
86 TX University of Texas at San Antonio – College of Business 867
87 WI University of Wisconsin, Madison – Wisconsin School of Business 1026
88 TN The University of Tennessee at Knoxville – Haslam College of Business 1002
89 PA Tepper School of Business, Carnegie Mellon University (CMU) 878
90 FL The University of Tampa – John H. Sykes College of Business 947
91 OH Ohio State University – Fisher College of Business 863
92 TX Baylor University – Hankamer School of Business 847
93 MI Wayne State University 862
94 UT Brigham Young University (BYU) – Marriott School of Management 884
95 MA Boston College – Carroll School of Management 849
96 MN University of St. Thomas – Opus College of Business 828
97 MA Suffolk University – Sawyer Business School 897
98 CA California State University – Fullerton 779
99 TX Texas Christian University – Neeley School of Business 765
100 MD University of Baltimore / Towson University 891
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      International Business Degree Guide

      A Guide To Earning Your International Business Degree

      International Business Degree Guide

      15 Best MBA in International Business Degree Programs

      mba Thinking globally is a treasured skill in today’s competitive, interconnected economy. More U.S. organizations are expanding their operations beyond borders. As a result, the number of MBA programs for international business has exploded. International business degrees allow graduate students to develop their leadership skills specifically for foreign markets. International MBA holders unlock in-demand jobs like import/export agent, translator, customs manager, foreign policy advisor, international marketing director, and management consultant. According to PayScale, this MBA specialty reaps average salaries from $58,723 to $187,500!

      To begin the selection process of creating the 15 Best MBA in International Business Programs, we surveyed the 761 business schools accredited by the elite AACSB International for excellent education. We then narrowed down to universities with main campuses in the United States. We consulted the U.S. News and World Report rankings to better judge each business school’s reputation. Selected colleges had to rank within the survey’s Top 100 for Graduate Business Education. We also researched every high-ranking university to determine whether MBA specializations in international business were offered. Programs must offer study abroad opportunities for global experience. Average graduate tuition costs were gathered from the NCES’ College Navigator tool . Additionally, other factors included class size, faculty productivity, financial aid, curriculum, and engaging student projects.

      Global gross domestic product (GDP) is expected to rise from $73.99 trillion to $91.37 trillion by 2020. International opportunities for business leaders will also grow into emerging markets like Thailand, Peru, Turkey, and Czech Republic. Corporations are increasingly hiring graduates with international business backgrounds to spearhead multinational operations. Take your career to liftoff by pursuing one of these 15 Best MBA in International Business Degree Programs:

      1. University of South Carolina

      uscibdg
      Classified for “very high research activity,” the University of South Carolina is a public, sea-grant institution located in Columbia, South Carolina, serving over 33,500 students from around the world. The AACSB-accredited Darla Moore School of Business is lauded for America’s #1 International Business Education by the US News and World Report. The two-year International MBA offers specializations in Finance, Global Supply Chain, Marketing, and Strategic Management. IMBA students complete a language immersion experience and corporate internship with companies like Nissan or Adidas.

      Tuition: $12,384 (in-state) or $26,532 (out-of-state)

      Learn more about the University of South Carolina’s MBA in International Business Degree Programs here.

      2. University of California – Berkeley

      berke
      Endowed for $4 billion, the University of California-Berkeley is a flagship public, land-grant research institution in the Bay Area educating more than 38,200 students. The U.S. News and World Report recognizes Berkeley for as the seventh Best Business School Nationally. The Haas School of Business has AACSB accreditation for a Full-Time MBA in Global Management. The 51-unit degree involves traveling abroad in the acclaimed International Business Development Program. MBA students also participate in the Global Social Venture Competition.

      Tuition: $11,220 (in-state) or $26,322 (out-of-state)

      Learn more about the University of California – Berkeley’s MBA in International Business Degree Programs here.

      3. New York University

      nyu
      Located in Manhattan’s Greenwich Village, New York University is a prestigious private, non-sectarian research institution educating over 57,200 scholars. Ranked 30th globally, NYU is recognized for America’s ninth best international business education. The Stern School of Business offers an AACSB-accredited, two-year MBA with 20 specializations, including Global Business. International treks are available with 53 exchange partners from London to Hong Kong. MBA students also gain experiential learning with Stern Consulting Corps (SCC).

      Tuition: $38,592

      Learn more about New York University’s MBA in International Business Degree Programs here.

      4. University of Chicago

      uchic 564
      Established in 1890, the University of Chicago is a private, non-denominational research institution enrolling around 15,300 students in the nation’s third most populous city. According to the USNWR, UChicago boasts the #2 Best Graduate Business School. Featuring AACSB approval, the Booth School of Business has a Full-Time MBA with International Business Concentration. This 20-course program includes completing a Leadership Effectiveness and Development (LEAD) workshop. MBAs also spend one term abroad at 33 partner schools.

      Tuition: $51,624

      Learn more about the University of Chicago’s MBA in International Business Degree Programs here.

      5. University of Michigan – Ann Arbor

      umi
      As a founding AAU member, the University of Michigan-Ann Arbor is a public, sea-grant and space-grant research institution in Washtenaw County serving over 43,000. The U.S. News distinguishes UMich for the country’s 12th Top Business School. The AACSB-accredited Ross School of Business confers a 16-month Global MBA in International Business. Students spend four weeks each in Korea, Japan, and China. The program culminates with the renowned Multidisciplinary Action Projects (MAP).

      Tuition: $20,638 (in-state) or $41,688 (out-of-state)

      Learn more about the University of Michigan’s MBA in International Business Degree Programs here.

      6. University of Washington – Seattle

      wash
      Enrolling more than 45,200, the University of Washington – Seattle is a flagship public, co-educational research institution rooted in the country’s 11th largest economy. UW is acclaimed for having the United States’ 27th best graduate business school. Holding AACSB accreditation, the Foster School of Business awards a Full-Time MBA with an International Business Focus. Students select from 17 exchange programs from Singapore to Denmark. MBAs also engage with world leaders in the Global Business Forum.

      Tuition: $15,207 (in-state) or $27,255 (out-of-state)

      Learn more about the University of Washington – Seattle’s MBA in International Business Degree Programs here.

      7. University of Texas at Dallas

      utdallas
      Based in the DFW’s “Telecom Corridor,” the University of Texas at Dallas enlightens over 24,500 students as a public, state-funded RU/VH research institution. The Naveen Jindal School of Management is crowned America’s 37th Best Business School by the US News and World Report. Full-Time MBA students can supplement their 16-month, AACSB-accredited curriculum with the International Management Concentration. Students benefit from the Power of Two Mentoring program and foreign study trips to 16 countries.

      Tuition: $11,940 (in-state) or $22,282 (out-of-state)

      Learn more about the University of Texas at Dallas’ MBA in International Business Degree Programs here.

      8. University of Cincinnati

      unnicin
      As Ohio’s second largest public, space grant research institution, the University of Cincinnati in Uptown enrolls around 44,250 students. According to the US News and World Report, Cincy has America’s 63rd Best Business School and 30th Best Online Graduate Business Programs. The Lindner College of Business holds AACSB approval for an MBA with International Business Certificate. This 16-month program includes studying abroad in Prague, Chile, China, or Barcelona. MBA students access internship opportunities through the GoingGlobal database.

      Tuition: $12,790 (in-state) or $24,532 (out-of-state)

      Learn more about the University of Cincinnati’s MBA in International Business Degree Programs here.

      9. Tulane University

      tulane
      Founded in 1834, Tulane University is a private, non-sectarian research institution endowed for $1.2 billion to serve 13,400 students in New Orleans, Louisiana. The U.S. News recognizes Tulane for the 68th best graduate business school nationally. Backed by the AACSB, the Freeman School of Business has a 61-credit MBA with an International Business Specialization. The four-semester program includes a Global Leadership Module for traveling to Europe, Latin America, and Asia. Tulane MBAs achieve an average salary of $90,833.

      Tuition: $47,658

      Learn more about Tulane University’s MBA in International Business Degree Programs here.

      10. DePaul University

      depaul
      Rooted in Vincentian values, DePaul University is a private, Roman Catholic institution located in Chicago’s Lincoln Park to educate over 23,500 students. DePaul is honored by the US World and News Report for America’s 79th best business education. The Kellstadt Graduate School of Business confers a Full-Time or Weekend Cohort MBA with 20 concentrations, including International Business. This 36-credit program includes international trips every winter, spring, and summer break. There’s also a dual MBA with the partnering American University of Paris.

      Tuition: $17,904

      Learn more about DePaul University’s MBA in International Business Degree Programs here.

      11. University of Utah

      utah
      Producing 22 Rhodes Scholars, the University of Utah is a flagship public, space-grant research institution situated in Salt Lake City with around 31,600 learners. The U.S. News ranked Utah’s David Eccles School of Business 79th Nationwide. Within the 62-credit Full-Time MBA program, there’s an International Business focus. MBA students can spend a semester at Waseda University or take short-term international trips. Students also manage the $18-million Sorenson Global Impact Investing Center.

      Tuition: $6,230 (in-state) or $21,991 (out-of-state)

      Learn more about the University of Utah’s MBA In International Business Degree Programs here.

      12. University at Buffalo

      ubuff
      Within the SUNY system, the University of Buffalo is a public, sea-grant RU/VH research institution teaching over 29,900 students in western New York. The UB School of Management is America’s 81st Best Business School according to the U.S. News. With AACSB approval, the Full-Time MBA grants an International Management Concentration. The two-year program prepares students with LeaderCore Certification. MBAs are placed in paid corporate internships in countries like Argentina, Malaysia, and England.

      Tuition: $10,870 (in-state) or $22,210 (out-of-state)

      Learn more about the University at Buffalo’s MBA in International Business Degree Programs here.

      13. Pepperdine University

      pepperdine
      Affiliated with the Churches of Christ, Pepperdine University is a private, non-profit Christian research institution of 7,600 students that’s overlooking the Pacific from Malibu. The U.S. News and World Report named Pepperdine 83rd for Best Business Education. The AACSB-accredited Graziadio School of Business offers Full-Time and Part-Time MBA tracks for Global Business. Within the 52-credit curriculum, students delve into international capital markets. MBA majors will spend one trimester studying abroad at one of 35 partnering business schools.

      Tuition: $30,200

      Learn more about Pepperdine University’s MBA in International Business Degree Programs here.

      14. CUNY Baruch College

      baruch
      Standing in Manhattan’s Gramercy Park, CUNY Baruch College is a public, constituent research institution serving over 16,900 students. The AACSB-accredited Zincklin School of Business is renowned for America’s 66th best part-time MBA. Since 1947, the MBA in International Business has equipped leaders for global markets. This 57-credit program allows for studying abroad in 39 nations from Norway to Egypt. Internships are available through the Weissman Center for International Business.

      Tuition: $10,130 (in-state) or $18,720 (out-of-state)

      Learn more about CUNY Baruch College’s MBA in International Business Degree Programs here.

      15. Seton Hall University

      seton
      As the country’s oldest private, diocesan Catholic institution, Seton Hall University educates around 10,300 students from South Orange, New Jersey. The U.S. News recognized SHU for the 102nd Best Part-Time MBA Program. Featuring AACSB accreditation, the Stillman School of Business offers a 42-credit MBA in International Business. Students benefit from exchange programs with the Shanghai Institute, University of Macau, and University of Westminster. There’s also a Joint MBA/M.A. in Diplomacy and International Relations.

      Tuition: $20,430

      Learn more about Seton Hall Uniersity’s MBA in International Business Degrees here.

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      Human Rights Day

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      Mrs. Eleanor Roosevelt of the United States holding a Universal Declaration of Human Rights poster in English. Mrs. Eleanor Roosevelt of the United States holding a Universal Declaration of Human Rights poster in English.

      Mrs. Eleanor Roosevelt of the United States, chair of the drafting committee, holding a Universal Declaration of Human Rights poster in English. UN Photo (1949)

      “Where, after all, do universal human rights begin? In small places, close to home — so close and so small that they cannot be seen on any maps of the world. […] Unless these rights have meaning there, they have little meaning anywhere. Without concerted citizen action to uphold them close to home, we shall look in vain for progress in the larger world.” — Eleanor Roosevelt

      The Universal Declaration of Human Rights turns 70

      Let’s stand up for equality, justice and human dignity

      Human Rights Day is observed every year on 10 December – the day the United Nations General Assembly adopted, in 1948, the Universal Declaration of Human Rights . This year, Human Rights Day kicks off a year-long campaign to mark the upcoming 70th anniversary of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, a milestone document that proclaimed the inalienable rights which everyone is inherently entitled to as a human being — regardless of race, colour, religion, sex, language, political or other opinion, national or social origin, property, birth or other status. It is the most translated document in the world, available in more than 500 languages .

      Drafted by representatives of diverse legal and cultural backgrounds from all regions of the world, the Declaration sets out universal values and a common standard of achievement for all peoples and all nations. It establishes the equal dignity and worth of every person. Thanks to the Declaration, and States’ commitments to its principles, the dignity of millions has been uplifted and the foundation for a more just world has been laid. While its promise is yet to be fully realized, the very fact that it has stood the test of time is testament to the enduring universality of its perennial values of equality, justice and human dignity.

      The Universal Declaration of Human Rights empowers us all. The principles enshrined in the Declaration are as relevant today as they were in 1948. We need to stand up for our own rights and those of others. We can take action in our own daily lives, to uphold the rights that protect us all and thereby promote the kinship of all human beings.  

      #StandUp4HumanRights

      • The Universal Declaration of Human Rights empowers us all.
      • Human rights are relevant to all of us, every day.
      • Our shared humanity is rooted in these universal values.
      • Equality, justice and freedom prevent violence and sustain peace.
      • Whenever and wherever humanity’s values are abandoned, we all are at greater risk.
      • We need to stand up for our rights and those of others.

       

      All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights

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      Human Rights Day Essay Examples

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      The History of the International Declaration of Human Rights and Freedoms

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      An Introduction to the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR)

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      Human Rights Day Essay Competition!

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      Human Rights day is coming up! December 10 will mark the 68th anniversary of the adoption of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. Share your thoughts with us and win a prize!


      Human Rights day is coming up! December 10 will mark the 68th anniversary of the adoption of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. Share your thoughts with us and win a prize!

      Submit an essay answering the following question in your own words: “Freedom of expression – why does it matter?”

      The Essays should be maximum 2 single-spaced pages (1000 words +/- 200). All submissions will be reviewed by a jury from the EU delegation and embassies of EU Member States in Kigali. Winners will be notified on December 9. Prizes will be awarded the week of December 12.

      Submissions can be made in English, French, or Kinyarwanda. All submissions have to be authored by the submitting individuals. Submissions are to be sent by email to  [email protected]  with the subject “Human Rights Day 2014 + submitters’ name” by December 5, 2016, 17:00. Please include your name, surname, age, telephone numbers and place of your residence alongside your submission. Only one submission per person.

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      Villemagne, Stephanie – CUHK Business School

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      CUHK Business School CUHK Business School

      Academic Staff Villemagne, Stephanie

      Villemagne, Stephanie

      Associate Dean (Graduate Programmes)
      Director, MBA Programmes

      Contact

      Room 1420B, 14/F
      Cheng Yu Tung Building
      12 Chak Cheung Street
      Shatin, N.T., Hong Kong

      +852 3943 5435

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      Ms. Stephanie Villemagne is the Associate Dean (Graduate Programmes) and Director of MBA programess at The Chinese University of Hong Kong (CUHK) Business School.

      Ms. Villemagne joined CUHK Business School in March 2016 from her previous role as Global Director of the MBA programme at INSEAD, where she accumulated a wealth of experience in managing MBA programmes and helped establish numerous multicultural teams across multiple international campuses. She has worked in a number of international markets including France, Spain, the United States and the United Kingdom for almost 20 years, and was based in Singapore for seven years prior to joining CUHK.

      Ms. Villemagne became interested in international education in her early years as a French teenager travelling to the United States in a high school’s exchange programme. She then worked in various internships and full-time positions with schools and firms which focused on international education, including seven years with CEI in London as Managing Director.

      Ms. Villemagne joined INSEAD in 2005 and was in charge of the operations of the MBA programme on the French campus before moving to Singapore in 2009 to oversee and manage the growth of the programme in Asia while developing new exchange and dual degree programmes.

      Ms. Villemagne has a Master of Arts degree in Applied Languages (English and Spanish) from UPV in France and UCB in Spain with a specialisation in international business as well as an Executive Master of Business Administration from INSEAD.

      No. 43 Financial Times

      Global MBA Rankings 2018
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      The Chinese University of Hong Kong

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      CUHK Business School

      The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, NT, Hong Kong SAR
      (852) 3943 8976 / (852) 3943 8977
      Fax (852) 2603 5779
      Website : www.bschool.cuhk.edu.hk/index.aspx  

      Accreditations:

      AACSB, AMBA
      2018 Financial Times Ranking: Full-time MBA: 43rd

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      • Full-time MBA
      • Part-time MBA
      • Executive MBA
      • Dual program

      Full-time MBA

      Hong Kong
      1-year, full-time program

      Courses are taught in English.

      SpecializationChina Business, Entrepreneurship, Finance, Marketing
      Credits54
      Duration12-16 months
      IntakeAugust

      Tuition FeesHK$550,000
      Application feeHKD1,200
      Admission requirements
      • A recognized bachelor’s degree with honors (not lower than second class lower division or B grade) or equivalent professional qualification
      • Three years of full-time post-qualification work experience
      • English Language Proficiency Requirement
      • A satisfactory GMAT score
      • Objective Statement
      • Resume
      • Copies of degree certificate(s)
      • TOEFL/IELTS score report (if applicable)
      • Copies of Hong Kong Identity Card or Passport
      • Academic transcripts
      • Two sets of recommendations

      Part-time MBA

      Hong Kong
      Part-time program

      Courses are taught in English.

      SpecializationChina Business, Entrepreneurship, Finance, Marketing
      Credits48
      Duration24 months
      IntakeAugust
      Tuition FeesHK$356,400 (HK$7,425 per unit)
      Application feeHKD 800
      Admission requirements
      • A recognized bachelor’s degree with honors (not lower than second class lower division or B grade) or equivalent professional qualification
      • Three years of full-time post-qualification work experience
      • English Language Proficiency Requirement1
      • A satisfactory GMAT score
      • Objective Statement
      • Resume
      • Copies of degree certificate(s)
      • TOEFL/IELTS score report (if applicable)
      • Copies of Hong Kong Identity Card or Passport
      • Academic transcripts
      • Two sets of recommendations

      Executive MBA

      Hong Kong
      Executive MBA program
      All core courses are conducted in English while a few electives are conducted in Chinese (Cantonese and Mandarin).
      Courses are taught in Chinese and English .

      Duration2 years
      IntakeAugust
      Tuition FeesHK$121,500
      HK$97,500 is the full tuition for courses offered in the first term, and around HK$24,000 is the expense in the Residence Week
      Admission requirements
      • Obtained a Bachelor’s degree or professional qualifications equivalent to a degree
      • English Language Proficiency Requirement
      • Have at least 7 years of post-qualification business or relevant work experience, including 5 years in a managerial position
      • Hold a responsible, senior management position

      CUHK MBA/HEC Paris Dual MBA

      Jouy-en-Josas (France), Hong Kong
      Dual program

      Tuition Fees

      CUHK MBA/University of Texas at Austin Dual MBA

      Austin in Texas; Hong Kong
      Dual program

      Tuition Fees

      CUHK MBA/RSM, Erasmus University Dual MBA

      Rotterdam, Hong Kong
      Dual program

      Tuition Fees

      CUHK MBA/MIT MS in Management Studies

      Hong Kong, Cambridge in Massachusetts
      Dual program

      Tuition Fees

      CUHK MBA/Cambridge Judge Mphil in Technology Policy

      Hong Kong, Cambridge in UK
      Dual program

      Tuition Fees

      JD/MBA

      Hong Kong
      Dual program
      Dual degree offered in partnership with the CUHK Faculty of Law.

      CreditsFull-time mode: 102 units. Part-time mode: 96 units.
      DurationFull-time mode: 36 (3 years)months
      Part-time mode: 60 months (5 years)
      Tuition FeesMBA component: HK$9,450 per unit for Full-time MBA; HK$7,425 per unit for Part-time MBA.
      JD component: HK$4,630
      Subject to annual adjustment
      Application fee HKD1,200 for applying Full-time mode. HKD 800 for Part-time mode.
      Admission requirements
      • Graduated from a recognized university and obtained a Bachelor’s degree in a non-law subject or a law degree from a non-common law jurisdiction, normally with honors no lower than Second Class
        OR
        Graduated from an Honors program of a recognized university with a Bachelor’s degree in a non-law subject or a law degree from a non-common law jurisdiction, achieving an average grade of no lower than “B” in undergraduate courses
        OR
        Completed a course of study in a tertiary educational institution and obtained professional or similar qualifications equivalent to an honors degree
      • English Language Proficiency Requirement
      • GMAT score
      • At least 3 years’ post qualification full-time work experience or recognized professional qualifications

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      CUHK Business School Launches Master in Management Program to Equip Young Graduates for the Digital Age

      CUHK Business School Launches Master in Management Program to Equip Young Graduates for the Digital Age

      Corporate News Media-Outreach
      Dec 13, 2017

      HONG KONG, CHINA –  Media OutReach
       – December 13, 2017 – The Chinese University of Hong
      Kong (CUHK) Business School is now accepting applications for its
      new Master of Science in Management (Master in Management)
      degree program. The program will help high-achieving students excel
      personally and professionally in today’s dynamic marketplace. CUHK
      Business School expects the first intake in August 2018 to have 50
      students including 50 percent international students.

      CUHK Master in Management (MiM) program is a one-year full-time
      pre-experience program in Hong Kong. Specifically designed for
      fresh or recent graduates of all disciplines and early-career
      professionals with less than two years of work experience, CUHK MiM
      equips students with the critical understanding of business, the
      adaptive mindset, practical managerial knowledge and leadership
      skills to succeed in the digital age. Applicants are required to
      take the GMAT/GRE examinations or the CUHK MiM Admission Test in
      order to apply to the postgraduate program.

      In sharing the vision in launching the program, Dr. John Lai,
      Co-director of MiM Program at CUHK Business School, said, “Industry
      and society are changing. The world needs people who can innovate,
      create, and disrupt, which is why CUHK Business School decided it’s
      time to develop graduates who can think critically and are flexible
      and adaptable. In all the MiM’s courses, we’re going to cover some
      of the most challenging topics demanded by industry leaders in the
      current marketplace.”

      Not only will CUHK MiM students develop knowledge of the major
      disciplines of management and business foundations, but they will
      also be prepared for the fast-changing business environment with
      practical and innovative courses covering cutting-edge topics such
      as big data, FinTech, digital innovation, entrepreneurship, and
      Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR).

      Prof. Shige Makino, Professor of Department of Management and
      Co-director of MiM Program at CUHK Business School, said,
      “Traditionally, business schools teach subjects based on academic
      disciplines including marketing, finance, accounting, etc. Now,
      we’re looking at phenomena like big data, and so we’ve developed
      many new courses based on phenomena. The digital economy is a
      critical next-generation topic. Everything will be digitalized in
      the future, and we need to prepare our students for it.”

      Leveraging CUHK Business School’s extensive global alumni network
      and strong collaboration with corporations in different industries,
      CUHK MiM’s academically rigorous curriculum will be bolstered by
      practice-oriented learning opportunities, including company visits,
      distinguished speaker series, case studies, business field trips
      and optional internship opportunities. Outside the classroom,
      international capstone experience consisting of a two-week study
      trip and in-company projects will engage and challenge students to
      develop their problem solving and critical thinking skills by
      applying theories they have acquired in the courses.

      CUHK Business School’s Career Management Center offers a
      comprehensive program of support and skill development to help MiM
      students, who are at the start of their career, to set and achieve
      their career goals and to ensure that their job search is as
      effective as it is focused. Through coaching, counselling,
      skill-building workshops, seminars and mentorship program, students
      will be ready to take on business positions across different
      industries such as finance, consulting, IT, marketing, FMCG and
      real estate upon graduation.

      More information about the Master in Management program can be
      found on the  CUHK MiM website
      .

      About CUHK Business School

      CUHK Business School comprises two schools — Accountancy and
      Hotel and Tourism Management — and four departments —
      Decision Sciences and Managerial Economics,
      Finance, Management and Marketing. Established in Hong Kong in
      1963, it is the first business school to offer BBA, MBA and
      Executive MBA programs in the region. Today, the School
      offers 8 undergraduate programs and 13 graduate
      programs including MBA, EMBA, Master,
      MSc, MPhil and Ph.D.

      In the Financial Times
       Global MBA Ranking 2017, CUHK MBA is
      ranked 36th. In FT
      ‘s 2017 EMBA ranking, CUHK
      EMBA is ranked 32nd in the world. CUHK Business
      School has the largest number of business alumni
      (34,000+) worldwide – many of whom are key business
      leaders. The School currently has about 4,400
      undergraduate and postgraduate students and Professor Kalok Chan is
      the Dean of CUHK Business School.

      More information is available at:  http://www.bschool.cuhk.edu.hk
       or by connecting with CUHK Business School on Facebook:  http://www.facebook.com/cuhkbschool
       and LinkedIn:  https://www.linkedin.com/school/3923680/
      .

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      Purchase this article for republication.

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        90 Interesting Persuasive Essay Topics for Writers to Observe …

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        Reader Approved

        How to Write a Persuasive Speech

        Three Parts: Preparing to Write Writing your Speech Delivering your Speech Community Q&A

        A persuasive speech is a speech intended to convince the audience to do something. Whether you want to get people to vote, stop littering, or change their minds about an important issue, persuasive speeches are an effective way to sway an audience. There are many elements that go into a successful persuasive speech. But, with some preparation and practice, you can deliver a powerful speech.

        Steps

        Part 1

        Preparing to Write

        1. Image titled Write a Persuasive Speech Step 1

          1
          Learn about your topic. It is important to know as much as you can about the topic you’ll be speaking on. If you aren’t already well-versed in the subject (e.g. because it has been assigned to you), do some research and learn as much as you can.

          • Especially if your topic is a controversial one, it’s a good idea to know the arguments on all sides of the issue. [1] Whatever argument you are making, you’ll be more persuasive if you can address the views of the opposing side.
          • Spend some time reading books or articles about your topic. You can go to the library and ask a librarian for help finding books, or just go online and find some articles. Make sure to use reliable sources, like major news organizations, or academic books or articles.
          • Opinion-oriented sources, like editorials, talk radio, or partisan cable news, can be valuable for finding out what other people think about your topic. But, don’t rely on them as your only source of information. They can be very biased. [2] If you use them at all, make sure to read a variety of viewpoints on the matter, not just one side.
        2. Image titled Write a Persuasive Speech Step 2

          2
          Know your goal. It’s important to understand exactly what it is you are trying to achieve with your speech. This way, you can tailor your content to fit your goals. [3]

          • For example, if your topic is recycling, it’s important to know a lot about recycling. But, your speech will need to reflect exactly what you hope the audience will do. Are you trying to get people to vote in favor of a citywide recycling program? Or are you trying to convince them to sort out their glass and cans and put them in a separate bin? These will be different speeches, so having the goal spelled out early will help you craft your message.
        3. Image titled Write a Persuasive Speech Step 3

          3
          Understand your audience. It is also important to understand your audience and their views and knowledge about the topic. This will also influence the content of your speech. [4]

          • An audience that knows little about your topic will need more background information and simpler language. An audience made up of experts on the topic would likely find such a simple speech boring. [5]
          • Likewise, an audience that already supports your view on a topic will be easier to persuade to take some action. You won’t need to convince them you are right, but only that they need to do something. By contrast, an audience that does not agree with you will need persuasion to even consider your point of view. [6]
          • For example, imagine you want to convince your audience to support a city-wide recycling program. If they already think recycling is important, you only need to convince them of the value of this specific program. But, if they don’t care about recycling or oppose it, you will need to first convince them that recycling is worthwhile.
        4. Image titled Write a Persuasive Speech Step 4

          4
          Choose the right persuasive approach. Depending on your topic and your audience, there are several ways you might try to convince people of your point of view. Since the days of ancient Greece, speakers have relied on three main persuasive approaches.

          • Ethos. These are appeals to the audience’s ethics or morals. [7] For example: “Recycling is the right thing to do. Wasting our limited resources steals from future generations, which is immoral.”
          • Pathos. These are appeals to the audience’s emotions. [8] For example: “Think of the animals that lose their homes every day because of trees being chopped down. If we recycled more, we could save these beautiful forests.”
          • Logos. These are appeals to the audiences logic or intellect. [9] For example: “We know that there is a limited supply of natural resources. We can make this supply last longer by recycling.”
          • You can rely on any one or some combination.
        5. Image titled Write a Persuasive Speech Step 5

          5
          Outline your main points. Once you’ve chosen the best persuasive approach for your audience, brainstorm the main points you’ll make during the speech.

          • The number of points you can make to support your position will be determined by how much time you have to speak. [10]
          • As a rule of thumb, three to four supporting points is usually a good number. [11]
          • For example, in the speech about recycling, your three main points might be: 1. Recycling saves resources, 2. Recycling reduces the amount of garbage, and 3. Recycling is cost-effective.

        Part 2

        Writing your Speech

        1. Image titled Write a Persuasive Speech Step 6

          1
          Write a strong opening. Before you can begin persuading your audience, you need to open the speech in a way that will make them want to pay attention. A strong opening has five main elements: [12]

          • An attention grabber. This could be a statement (or sometimes a visual) that gets your audience’s attention. It can be a good idea to be a little startling or dramatic at the opening of your speech. For example, you might start with information (or pictures) showing how a nearby landfill is nearly full to capacity.
          • A link to the audience. This is a means of showing that you have something in common with the audience. Show that you have a similar background or share an emotional connection of some kind. This will really depend on knowing your audience. For example, if you are a parent, speaking to other parents, you might emphasize the concern for your own children’s future. If you share a common interest or ideological position with your audience, you can emphasize that.
          • Your credentials. This is a means of showing that you are knowledgeable or an authority on the topic of the speech. Highlight the research you’ve done on your topic. If you have any personal or professional experience with the topic, be sure to emphasize that, too. In the recycling example, you might say “I’ve invested many hours studying the recycling issue and the types of programs available in other cities.”
          • Your goal. Explain to the audience what you hope the speech will accomplish. For example: “I hope by the end of my talk that you will agree that we need a city wide recycling program.”
          • A road map. Finally, tell the audience what the main points of the speech will be. For example, “I believe we must start a recycling program for these three reasons….”
        2. Image titled Write a Persuasive Speech Step 7

          2
          Offer persuasive evidence. The main body of your speech should contain the points you outlined in Part 1. It should provide the audience with several convincing reasons to support your viewpoint.

          • Arrange these points logically. Don’t jump from one point to the next, and then back again. Instead, complete an argument, then move on to another that flows logically from it. [13]
          • Use credible sources from your research to back the points you are making. Even if your point is more emotional (pathos), introducing some factual information will make your argument stronger. For example “Each year, 40,000 acres of beautiful forests are destroyed to make paper, according to a study from the American Recycling Institute.”
          • Use real life examples that the audience can relate to. Even an argument based on facts and logic (logos) should relate to the audience’s lives and interests. For example: “In these hard economic times, I know many of you are afraid that a recycling program will mean a costly increase in taxes. But, the city of Springfield started a program like this one three years ago. So far they’ve seen an increase in revenue as a result of the program. Many residents have seen a decrease in their taxes as a result.”
        3. Image titled Write a Persuasive Speech Step 8

          3
          Address the counter-argument. Although it is not strictly necessary, your argument may be stronger if one or more of your supporting points addresses the views of the opposing side. This gives you a chance to address your audience’s possible objections and make your argument stronger. [14]

          • Make sure that you describe opposing views fairly and objectively. Consider whether someone who actually holds that view would approve of the way you are describing their position. If you aren’t sure, find someone who thinks that way and ask! [15]
          • For example, you would not want to say: “opponents of recycling just don’t care if we waste our precious resources, or our money.” That’s not a fair description of their opinion.
          • Instead, you might say: “opponents of recycling are concerned that the cost might be much higher than just using new materials,” and then go on to offer an argument about why recycling might be the more cost-effective option.
        4. Image titled Write a Persuasive Speech Step 9

          4
          Conclude with a call to action. The conclusion of your speech should remind your audience of what you have told them. It should also make it clear exactly what you hope they will do next.

          • Don’t just restate, verbatim, what you’ve already said. Instead, use this as an opportunity to reinforce the way your main points support your call to action. For example: “To sum up, I’ve shown you (points a, b, and c). These three undeniable facts point to a city-wide recycling program as the most sensible and ethical step we can take in helping create a more sustainable future. Please, join me in voting ‘yes’ on this program in November.”

        Part 3

        Delivering your Speech

        1. Image titled Write a Persuasive Speech Step 10

          1
          Practice your speech. When it comes to making your speech work in real life, the most important thing you can do is practice, as much as you can.

          • Try practicing in front of a mirror, so that you can see how you are delivering the speech. This can help you notice your facial expressions and body language. These can help or hinder your ability to get your message across. [16]
          • For example, you might notice you are slouching, or that that you fidget with your collar. These actions suggest to an audience that you aren’t confident.
          • Better still, record yourself with a video camera and watch the tape afterwards. This can help you see (and hear) where your delivery needs improvement. [17] It has the benefit of providing audio, and also won’t distract you as much as a mirror when you’re speaking.
          • Once you’ve practiced on your own a few times, try giving the speech to a small group of friends or family members. Ask for their feedback on your message and delivery. [18]
        2. Image titled Write a Persuasive Speech Step 11

          2
          Dress appropriately. On the day of the speech, dress appropriately for the venue and audience you’ll be speaking to. [19]

          • Generally speaking, this will mean dressing professionally. But, the degree of formality will vary. A speech to a film club to convince them to show your film won’t require the same degree of formality as speaking to the executives of a movie distribution company. [20] For the executives, you would want to wear a suit. For the film club, that might be overdoing it.
        3. Image titled Write a Persuasive Speech Step 12

          3
          Relax. Many people find public speaking intimidating, but try to relax and be yourself as you give your speech.

          • Be friendly and make eye contact with the audience. [21]
          • Move around, where appropriate, but don’t fidget or pick at your clothes or hair. [22]
          • Don’t read the speech. It’s okay to use a few notes to keep yourself on track, but your speech should be mostly memorized. [23]
          • Roll with the punches. If you make a mistake, don’t let it derail your whole speech. This might be an opportunity to use a little humor. Then, move on. [24]
        4. Image titled Write a Persuasive Speech Step 13

          4
          Involve your audience. If there is something specific you’d like your audience to do, provide them with any resources you can to make it easier. It is difficult to motivate people to take action, but if you make it simple, they will be more likely to follow through. [25]

          • For example, if you want them to contact the mayor, demanding a recycling program, don’t just ask them to do it. Give them stamped, addressed envelopes to send a letter, or cards with the mayor’s phone number and email address. If you do this, many more people are likely to follow through.

        Community Q&A

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        • Question
          I am writing a speech about child abuse and crime. How should I begin my speech?
          wikiHow Contributor
          Community Answer

          Paint a verbal picture. Perhaps start with “Picture this. A child battered and bruised.”
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        • Question
          How can I overcome stage fright while giving a speech?
          wikiHow Contributor
          Community Answer

          The best thing to do is practice a lot so you know that you’re completely prepared. Then, when you’re giving the speech, just pretend that you’re alone and delivering your speech just like you already have a hundred times.
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        • Question
          How do I start a good persuasive speech on the topic “education and friends”?
          wikiHow Contributor
          Community Answer

          You could kick-start with “‘Education is the world’s greatest weapon,’ said Nelson Mandela.”
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        • Question
          What are the best speech starters?
          wikiHow Contributor
          Community Answer

          Go first with your topic sentence, so what you are here to do, explain, talk about, etc. Also, introduce yourself so that the audience knows who you are.
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        • Question
          How would I start a speech that is pro Safe Schools Coalition?
          wikiHow Contributor
          Community Answer

          Perhaps you could use a quote about the importance of education, or safety, or some other theme in your speech. Quotes are great openers!
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        • Question
          How do I write a speech on something I don’t know much about?
          wikiHow Contributor
          Community Answer

          Research your topic using the Internet and the library to get info for your speech.
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        • Question
          How can I write a speech persuading woman who are teenagers to support women’s sports?
          wikiHow Contributor
          Community Answer

          Mention Jessica Ennis, Alison Stoke, and Beth Tweddle — some of the greatest female athletes in the world. that could be you. Talk about their journeys to success. Explain why this next generation of young women should want to support women’s sports, even if they themselves aren’t especially interested in playing them.
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        • Question
          How would I go about doing a speech on the topic of “the best movie ever”? Do you have any advice?
          wikiHow Contributor
          Community Answer

          Research the best movies of a specific genre first. go through a few and then ask people what they think.
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        • Question
          Any tips for writing a persuasive speech about why racism should stop? I’m stuck for ideas.
          wikiHow Contributor
          Community Answer

          Racism leads to income inequality that is bad for the economy. Diversity is good for a culture because it allows for new ideas, innovations, and improvements.
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        • Question
          How do I start an election speech based on Animal Farm by George Orwell?
          wikiHow Contributor
          Community Answer

          Maybe introduce the book first, tell your impression of it, and then proceed to speak about your main topic or make parallels to the current culture.
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          Tips

          • Speak forward, projecting your voice toward the audience with confidence. Do not speak down toward the floor.
          • Try to cite sources for statistics and use credible, non-biased sources.
          • While researching your audience, learn what motivates them. Try to motivate them with the same ideas and values that they already hold dear.
          • Don’t be afraid to use a little appropriate humor in your speech. It can make difficult topics easier to hear about, and make you appear more likeable to the audience. [26]
          • Look around at the audience, making eye contact, especially during pauses in your speech. If you’re feeling nervous about this, pick out a single person in the audience and pretend you are speaking only to them. After a little while, pick someone else, and repeat. [27]

          Warnings

          • Don’t be pompous or arrogant during your speech. Be humble, and open to questions, suggestions, and feedback.
          • Avoid being confrontational, when possible. Don’t be sarcastic or mocking when discussing viewpoints other than your own. This can be alienating to your audience, even those who may agree with you.

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          Sources and Citations

          1. http://grammar.yourdictionary.com/style-and-usage/steps-for-writing-a-persuasive-speech.html
          2. http://fair.org/extra-online-articles/the-most-biased-name-in-news/
          3. http://totalcommunicator.com/vol2_4/beclear.html
          4. http://totalcommunicator.com/vol2_4/knowaudience.html
          5. http://totalcommunicator.com/vol2_4/knowaudience.html
          6. http://totalcommunicator.com/vol2_4/knowaudience.html
          7. http://www.doe.virginia.gov/testing/sol/standards_docs/english/2010/lesson_plans/communication/9-12/7_9-12_communictionwriting_persuasivewritingspeaking%20.pdf
          8. http://www.doe.virginia.gov/testing/sol/standards_docs/english/2010/lesson_plans/communication/9-12/7_9-12_communictionwriting_persuasivewritingspeaking%20.pdf
          9. http://www.doe.virginia.gov/testing/sol/standards_docs/english/2010/lesson_plans/communication/9-12/7_9-12_communictionwriting_persuasivewritingspeaking%20.pdf
          10. http://www.writeawriting.com/how-to-write/persuasive-speech/
          11. http://www.best-speech-topics.com/writing-a-persuasive-speech.html
          12. http://www.persuasive-speechesnow.com/persuasive-speech-OUTLINE.html
          13. http://www.srinstitute.com/speaker_opp_request.cfm
          14. http://www.shoreline.edu/doldham/101/html/what%20is%20a%20c-a.htm
          15. http://www.shoreline.edu/doldham/101/html/what%20is%20a%20c-a.htm
          16. http://www.writeawriting.com/how-to-write/persuasive-speech/
          17. http://www.forbes.com/sites/victorlipman/2012/11/12/a-quiet-persons-guide-to-effective-public-speaking/
          18. http://www.writeawriting.com/how-to-write/persuasive-speech/
          19. http://www.uccs.edu/Documents/commcenter/Dress.pdf
          20. http://www.uccs.edu/Documents/commcenter/Dress.pdf
          21. http://www.writeawriting.com/how-to-write/persuasive-speech/
          22. http://www.writeawriting.com/how-to-write/persuasive-speech/
          23. http://www.writeawriting.com/how-to-write/persuasive-speech/
          24. http://www.writeawriting.com/how-to-write/persuasive-speech/
          25. http://www.writeawriting.com/how-to-write/persuasive-speech/
          26. http://www.persuasive-speechesnow.com/persuasive-speech-OUTLINE.html
          27. http://www.forbes.com/sites/victorlipman/2012/11/12/a-quiet-persons-guide-to-effective-public-speaking/

          Show more… (24)

          Article Info

          Categories: Speechwriting

          In other languages:

          Español:  escribir un discurso convincente , Deutsch:  Eine überzeugende Rede schreiben , Русский:  написать убедительную речь , Français:  écrire un argumentaire , Italiano:  Scrivere un Discorso Persuasivo , Português:  Escrever um Discurso Persuasivo , Bahasa Indonesia:  Menulis Pidato yang Persuasif , العربية:  كتابة خطاب إقناعي , Nederlands:  Een overtuigende toespraak schrijven , 한국어:  설득력 있게 연설하는 법 , Tiếng Việt:  Viết một bài phát biểu thuyết phục

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          Develop Persuasive Speech Topics

          How to

          Develop Persuasive Speech Topics

          Write an Informative Speech

          How to

          Write an Informative Speech

          Write a Demonstrative Speech

          How to

          Write a Demonstrative Speech

          Be Confident

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          Easy Persuasive Speech Topics

          Easy Persuasive Speech Topics

          persuasive speech topics

          When given a task to come up with a persuasive speech , it is most often up
          to a student to pick the topic. Choosing the right topic for a persuasive
          speech is sometimes not such an easy thing to do as it may seem. The
          infinite choice often gets a student confused.

          In any case, it is always a better idea to work with a topic that is
          particularly close to you and that you have a genuine interest in, as
          opposed to just picking a random topic. Discussing something that you are
          familiar is not only more fun but also a lot easier.

          To aid the student, we have compiled this long list of topics in a broad
          range of categories. The topics in our list vary greatly in their subjects
          but are equally engaging and exciting. We have included both classic
          persuasive speech topics done by millions of students and other people
          throughout the years – such as termination of pregnancy, firearm control,
          same-sex matrimony, public smoking, etc., as well as some of the more
          original that remain relatively uninvestigated – for now.

          Here we go:

          PETS AND FAUNA

          1. Is it better to adopt a pet from an animal nursery or to buy one at
            a pet store?

            Order now

          2. Do some pets pose a danger to the community?

          3. Should the owner get rid of a pet that has done harm to someone
            else’s health?

          4. Should more kinds of animals be tamed and turned into household
            pets?

          5. Is battery farming ethical?

          6. Is factory farming too cruel to be legal?

          7. Why is adopting a kitten better than buying one?

          8. Is it a good idea to breed pets for sale?

          9. How having a pet makes our lives better?

          10. What makes a dog a perfect pet?

          11. How having a pet affects a child?

          12. How can one benefit from having a snake as a pet?

          13. Why is it better to neuter your pet?

          14. The amazing advantages of having your own horse

          15. How having a cat benefits you?

          16. Why is it important to safeguard dolphin populations?

          17. Why we should not adopt forest animals?

          18. How come some animals face the threat of extinction and what should
            we do about it?

          CARS AND TRANSPORTATION

          1. Should the familiarity with manual transmission be obligatory for
            getting a driver’s license?

          2. What courses should one take before one can get a driver’s license?

          3. How effective and safe are booster seats for kids?

          4. If one should use the phone while driving, should one at least call
            hands-free?

          5. At what age should people be allowed to drive?

          6. What makes texting while driving unsafe?

          7. How effective is it when the police chase cars?

          8. What makes cars made in Japan stand out?

          9. Why one should not drive sports cars in everyday life?

          10. Is it justified to charge people money for passing driving tests?

          11. How to optimize the street traffic to ensure the safety of bicycle
            drivers?

          ENTREPRENEURSHIP

          1. How advertising can mess with our minds?

          2. How can advertising be regulated to make it more ethical?

          3. Why should a business understand its target group(s)?

          CONSTITUTION AND GOVERNMENT

          1. Is it justified to detain people without any proper procedures if
            they are suspected of terrorism?

          2. Is burning flags a valid form of protest?

          3. Should silent prayers at schools be outlawed?

          4. How should the government control and manage the turnover of
            alcohol and other narcotic substances?

          5. Why should school students be given the right to refuse from
            prayers?

          ECONOMIC ISSUES

          1. Is it fair to tax imported goods extra?

          2. Why is it important to buy locally manufactured or grown goods?

          3. How free trade agreements affect the national employees?

          4. Can a trade deficit have a dramatic effect on home economy?

          5. Why is it possible and necessary to increase the income of workers?

          SCHOOL

          1. Why is it necessary to test and re-certify school workers for their
            pedagogical skills on a regular basis?

          2. Is it justified to offer free higher education to all applicants
            from financially challenged backgrounds?

          3. Should high schools be put in charge for the college admission
            exams?

          4. How should students caught cyberbullying be prevented or
            persecuted?

          5. Should community service become an obligatory part of the high
            school curriculum?

          6. Pros and cons of allowing school students to use their phones in
            school territory.

          7. Should only honor roll students be allowed into school sports
            teams?

          8. Why should art classes be enforced in all public schools?

          9. Does it really make studying at a study hall less effective when
            you listen to music?

          10. Why boys and girls mostly share classrooms these days and how this
            rule holds up?

          11. Should soda and sweets be present in vending machines and on the
            menu at buffets in schools?

          12. Is it justified to let gym grades affect the GPA?

          13. Is it justified to shut down schools that underperform on test
            scores?

          14. Should college admission officers run obligatory psychological
            tests on all applicants to evaluate them?

          15. Should it be made illegal to drop students out?

          16. Is it a good idea to complement the curriculum with obligatory life
            skill classes?

          17. Should state schools be run only for taxpayers money?

          18. Should we replace textbooks with laptops or tablets entirely?

          19. How important is it to support education in other countries and
            why?

          20. Is it effective to force underperforming students to repeat the
            class?

          21. Should there be quotas for minorities when it comes to college
            admission?

          22. Is it really necessary for every student to learn a foreign
            language in the USA?

          23. Should students who are on school sports teams be free from the gym
            class?

          24. Should computer science be made into a compulsory discipline?

          25. Should the college be concerned about their students’ employment
            upon graduation?

          26. Should creationism be taught at biology classes alongside evolution
            theory?

          27. Is it outdated to count the given and received amounts of education
            in hours at class?

          28. Should commercial advertisement at schools be allowed?

          29. Do students have to ask for permission to go to the restroom?

          30. Is it a good idea to add a handwriting class to the curriculum?

          31. Would it make sense to start school an hour or two later in the
            morning?

          32. Should students be allowed to leave campus for the lunch break?

          33. Why a study hall is equal if not better than a traditional class
            today?

          34. Can we justify a student who listens to music in class?

          35. Should school field trips be restricted to our country?

          36. Should there be a certain age before and after which one could not
            work as a teacher?

          37. How many foreign languages should be taught to a student?

          38. Is the implementation of new technologies at schools sufficient?

          39. Why is music education essential?

          40. Should college fraternities and sororities be expanded into high
            school?

          41. Should the students’ financial backgrounds influence the amount of
            financial aid that they earn by studying hard?

          42. Is it necessary to add home economics to the compulsory curriculum?

          43. Should more students be encouraged to choose Chinese as the foreign
            language to study?

          44. The importance of studying Spanish at schools

          45. If SAT scores don’t influence the chance for being enrolled in
            college, then why do they exist?

          46. The pros and cons of private schools as opposed to public schools

          47. Does standardized testing truly contribute to equal opportunities?

          48. Why should students be encouraged to take part in international
            exchange programs?

          49. Why are some social groups deprived of proper education and why it
            needs to be fixed?

          50. Is the PARCC test adequate and/or necessary?

          51. How should children be prepared for school before they start it?

          52. From which grade should study hall be introduced?

          53. Should everyone try and go to college?

          54. Why do the students get insufficient financial assistance?

          55. What it takes to make high school education for one student
            possible?

          56. Does the school year have enough time to fit all the curriculum?

          57. Should anime be studied at schools?

          58. Should higher education be made available for all the population?

          59. Why is homework necessary?

          60. Is the curriculum overloaded?

          61. Is it a good idea to take a year off from studying?

          62. Is the school buffet menu sufficient?

          63. Should schools owe (and provide) the housing for their teachers and
            other employees?

          64. Do we need more scholarships for minority groups?

          65. Should we give more opportunities for alternative education?

          66. Is education in prisons working?

          67. How we benefit from accelerated learning?

          68. Is education overpriced?

          69. Should private education institutions be forced to offer
            scholarships of their own?

          70. Is security at schools sufficient?

          71. How can schools attract extra funding?

          72. The ways to confront and prevent various kinds of violence at
            schools

          73. The benefits of home education

          74. Are training programs for adults adequate?

          75. How many languages should an average student learn?

          76. Should the Oxford comma be made optional?

          NATURE PROTECTION

          1. Are the existing regulations to protect the environment enough?

          2. Should garden owners be allowed to grow exotic plants?

          3. Why is it crucial to decrease the number of cars by enforcing
            public transportation?

          4. Are we using our natural resources wisely?

          5. The negative effects of pollution today

          6. How making oil from algae will improve the environment?

          7. Is hydraulic fracturing that dangerous?

          8. Disposable diapers are a threat to nature

          9. The positive effects of implementing hybrid cars

          10. How is everyone personally responsible for protecting the nature?

          11. How hazardous are oil spills to marine species?

          12. Why we need to enforce recycling

          13. The negative effects of single-use bags

          14. How harmful is palm oil?

          15. We need to preserve the environmentally sensitive regions

          16. The long-run negative effects of oil drilling

          17. Are fishing restrictions sufficient?

          18. Why is it important to protect the rare species?

          19. Alternative energy sources should be enforced more decisively

          20. The regulation to protect ocean life are insufficient

          21. How nature can benefit from reducing the use of paper?

          22. Why the reckless use of natural resources is dangerous and why they
            should be conserved

          ETHICAL ISSUES

          1. Should women plumbers be paid the same as men plumbers?

          2. Should we legalize euthanasia when doctors lack other options?

          3. Are there better alternatives to death penalty?

          4. Are stereotypes about certain social and other groups of people
            justified?

          5. Is it necessary to test products on animals and/or humans before
            launching the mass production?

          6. Should we try and influence our unborn children’s genetics?

          7. Does donating to charities that help the poor improve the situation
            with poverty?

          8. Why do women still have their genitals artificially deformed and
            why we should no longer take it

          9. Why eating meat is not unethical

          10. Why we should stop buying and wearing fur clothes

          RAISING CHILDREN

          1. Should parents be entitled to allow their underage children to
            drink alcohol and smoke?

          2. Should there be parental guidance for music video clips and music
            television?

          3. How harmful can watching R-Rated movies be for children?

          4. Does it help to restrict teenagers from playing violent video
            games?

          5. Why parents of child performers and sportspeople should be less
            pressing

          6. Why family violence is never a good idea

          7. How fairy tales help to raise a good person

          8. The potential harm of playing R-rated video games

          9. How daycare helps children to be social

          10. Why children should listen to their parents

          11. Why children should stay away from chat rooms in the Internet

          12. Why we need to raise awareness about family violence

          13. The harm we do by lying to children about Santa Claus, Easter
            Bunny, Toothfairy, etc.

          STYLE

          1. Why women should not monopolize the pink color

          FINANCE-RELATED ISSUES

          1. Why should people be banned to wear hats and sunglasses at banks?

          2. Why student loans need to be marked off in most instances

          3. Why casinos at reservations are not as good idea as they seem

          DIET

          1. Is labeling genetically modified foods really helpful?

          2. Why banning alcohol from being advertised on TV did not help?

          3. Should every kid know how to cook?

          4. Should cooking classes be added to the school curriculum?

          5. Better things to do with unsold food products than throwing them to
            the garbage

          6. Is adding sugar to food necessary?

          7. How growing our own crops can improve our health and environment

          8. Is there enough fruit and vegetables in our diet?

          9. Genetically engineered food products are the future of humanity

          10. How we underestimate peanuts

          11. The amazing effects of drinking orange juice regularly

          12. Are farmers’ markets that we have enough?

          13. Can we get rid of the disease by switching our diets to exclusively
            organic food products?

          14. Are the artificial chemicals in our food products that harmful?

          STATE CONTROL AND RESPONSIBILITY

          1. Should the Internet be controlled more strictly?

          2. Should there be state-run websites where companies would be
            obligated to write about all of their job openings?

          3. Is it the responsibility of the state to take care of the homeless?

          4. Should the schools run by religious institutions get the taxpayers’
            money?

          5. Barack Obama’s portrait on newer dollar bills

          6. How likely is Puerto Rico to be recognized as the 51st
            State?

          7. The imperfections of the US legislative system

          8. Can the state interfere with what people choose to eat and drink?

          9. How inflated is the military budget?

          10. Should the state offer aid to everyone who claims they need it?

          11. Where should we draw the line between local and federal governing?

          12. Why are railroads so ineffective in the USA?

          13. Local authorities neglect the problem of potholes

          14. Are there any valid reasons for practicing eminent domain today?

          15. Why drug-restricting regulations keep failing

          16. Why is the zoning legislation ridiculous in its core

          MEDICINE

          1. Should parents be informed if their underage daughter chooses to
            make an abortion?

          2. Should aborted fetuses be utilized for genetic research?

          3. At what age does it become healthy to use contraceptive medical
            treatment?

          4. The American healthcare system is largely flawed and needs thorough
            revision

          5. Does free distribution of condoms at schools improve the situation
            of sex-related problems among children of school age?

          6. Exercise as an easy way to avoid health problems

          7. All restaurants serving potentially allergenic ingredients in their
            meals should inform their customers thereof properly

          8. How harmful fast food really is?

          9. Why medical research would be rendered ineffective without animal
            testing

          10. How effective are seat belts to prevent lethal casualties in
            traffic accidents?

          11. How diabetes may affect your performance at work

          12. The unpleasant consequences of skipping breakfasts

          13. Is healthy fast food possible?

          14. Is sex ed at schools effective?

          15. Why we should consume as little salt as possible

          16. Do we eat too much meat?

          17. Why is the importance of good sleep underestimated?

          18. School kids need to be educated about the prevention of rape and
            other sexual misconduct

          19. How much soda can one drink without causing any damage to one’s
            health?

          20. How junk food can be improved not to be junk

          21. What happens if one works for several years without a good vacation

          22. Why is it important to pick the right toothpaste

          23. We consume too much sugar

          24. Do we need more strict regulations regarding the advertisement of
            drugs?

          25. Can we lower the percentage of suicides by legalizing euthanasia?

          26. The underused potential of electroconvulsive treatment

          27. The effective methods to withstand stress factors

          28. The negative long-term and short-term effects of steroids for farm
            animals

          29. Pros and cons of donating organs

          30. The dangers of homeopathic treatment

          31. The dangers of anti-vaccination ideology

          32. How sleepwalking can be fatal

          33. The hidden threat of vaporizers

          34. The myth of electronic cigarettes being less harmful than tobacco

          35. Why we should be skeptical about diet pills

          36. What is Red Cross day for?

          37. How donating blood benefits the society and you

          38. The underestimated importance of drinking enough water

          39. How to maintain a healthy diet without overdoing it

          40. How few people can do a CPR

          41. How you endanger others by smoking

          42. Are there any ‘easy’ tips for staying fit?

          43. Why and how should society confront mass obesity

          44. Why are healthy food products too expensive?

          45. The misused potential of gluten

          46. How little do we know about side effects of popular drugs?

          47. Do doctors get enough wages?

          48. How high heels are bad for one’s health

          49. How we endanger ourselves by using tanning beds

          50. Why prescription drugs need to be more accessible

          51. The real and mythical dangers of smoking

          52. Easy steps to keep your teeth healthy

          53. Medical studies are dramatically underfunded

          54. How to develop healthy everyday life habits

          55. How laughing improves your health

          56. Bike helmets save lives and should not be neglected

          57. How having good friends can literally save your life

          58. The deeds of the AA should be more advertised and appreciated

          59. Medical care needs to be more accessible

          60. How contraceptive treatment saves lives

          61. Infectious diseases can be prevented more effectively

          62. The health benefits of dark chocolate

          63. Why positive thinking is good for you

          64. How stomach stapling is being overused

          65. Is it safer to chew tobacco than to smoke it?

          66. Driving without seatbelts should be punished more severely

          67. Do we know enough about food additives?

          68. Until what age should mothers breastfeed their children?

          69. Is binge drinking as great of a menace as it used to be?

          70. Should teenage pregnancy be prevented?

          71. What new factors cause teenage suicide?

          72. Do we know enough about fire safety precautions?

          73. Why people should donate their organs?

          74. How to prolong your life without medical interference?

          HISTORY IN GENERAL AND IN DETAIL

          1. Did the USA drug their soldiers in Vietnam without their consent?

          2. Do we know enough about the important figures from the
            African-American history?

          3. What makes Abraham Lincoln a role model for all Presidents?

          4. Why no nation should revise their history?

          5. Why so many people believe that Neil Armstrong did not land on the
            Moon?

          CROSS-CULTURAL AND INTERNATIONAL ISSUES

          1. The USA should involve in international processes less

          2. The actual dictatorships supported by the USA government

          3. Should Catalunya be independent from Spain?

          4. How independent can a country be?

          5. Why should every nation seek to be independent in terms of energy
            sources

          6. Is nuclear disarmament moving too slowly?

          7. The USA should have never invaded Iraq

          8. Is the UN as effective as it is supposed to be?

          9. Whose responsibility is it to enforce human rights in regions where
            they are violated?

          LEGAL ISSUES

          1. How should drunk drivers be punished adequately?

          2. Should we outlaw using a cellphone while driving?

          3. Should any unauthorized use of music and films be outlawed?

          4. Should an illegal immigrant be able to pass the driving test and
            get a license?

          5. Should we outlaw driving motorbikes without helmets?

          6. Should elderly people be allowed to drive?

          7. What should be the legal age for driving?

          8. Is it dangerous to keep the possession of deadly weapons legal?

          9. Does forbidding the use of explicit vocabulary on TV in the daytime
            help its cause?

          10. Is owing exotic pets regulated well enough legally?

          11. Should one be able to sue a fast food joint if they become obese?

          12. Would it help to introduce additional taxation for unhealthy food
            products?

          13. It to rightful to outlaw public smoking?

          14. Should English remain the only universally official language of the
            USA?

          15. Why do some groups of people argue that abortion should be illegal
            and punishable?

          16. Should gambling remain legal?

          17. Do same-sex couples deserve to be granted the same rights as
            traditional ones?

          18. Should being in a moving car without a fastened seatbelt be
            punishable more severely?

          19. Is the current voting age justified or should it be lowered?

          20. Should being too loud be considered a crime?

          21. Should bullying be considered a full-scale crime?

          22. Should recycling become mandatory?

          23. Is it a good idea to legalize medicinal marijuana?

          24. At what age should people become eligible for Social Security?

          25. Was it a mistake to legalize abortions?

          26. Is the current immigration legislation wise and fair?

          27. The restriction of smoking in public places violates rights of
            citizens

          28. Should military (or navy) service be mandatory for all the US
            citizens?

          29. Why are laws against drunk driving ineffective?

          30. Why same-sex couples should be granted same rights as other couples

          31. Should it be legal for everyone to hunt

          32. Is having death penalty as a practicable punishment justified
            today?

          33. Should it be completely outlawed to employ the underage at any
            kinds of work?

          LITERARY STUDIES

          1. In what ways are books better than TV?

          2. The positive impact of the likes of Twilight and Fifty Shades of
            Gray

          3. Why is reading a good idea

          TELEVISION

          1. Why media promotes certain beauty standards and how harmful it is

          2. Do younger generations actually degrade due to the influence of the
            TV?

          3. Should the teenage-oriented media be more careful about the
            messages they send to their audiences?

          4. Has the Star Wars franchise and lore benefited after being acquired
            by Disney?

          5. Children would treat TV more critically if Photography was studied
            at schools

          6. Should age restrictions for TV shows be stricter?

          7. How comic books are useful

          8. How educational are educational TV shows?

          9. Should TV be more education-oriented?

          10. Public broadcasters are critically underfinanced

          11. Violence, nudity and coarse language on TV needs to be regulated
            more strictly

          12. The Cable TV market is too monopolized

          MUSIC

          1. How guitar music is better than synthetic

          2. Lyrics in songs should not be censored

          3. Music is the easiest and the most effective way to lighten up

          4. How music contributes both to the individual and to the society

          5. Music in MP3 format should be free as a promo material, whereas
            music in better sound quality formats should be for sale

          POLITICAL ISSUES

          1. Why is it dangerous to allow political parties to accept financial
            donations from large corporations?

          2. The importance of every vote

          3. Politicians should at least be fined for using personal abuse
            rhetoric

          4. Why Bernie Sanders lost the primaries

          LIFE SKILLS

          1. Survival basics that everybody needs to know

          2. Few simple rules of camping for everyone

          3. How being clean affects your personal and professional life and
            wellbeing

          PSYCHOLOGY AND SOCIAL STUDIES

          1. How much is intelligence pre-determined genetically?

          2. To what extent does our environment influence who we are

          3. Can a “shrink” be trusted?

          4. What is the purpose of love in our lives?

          5. How much does your feeling of happiness depend on your financial
            state of affairs?

          PERSONAL ISSUES

          1. Are long-distance relationships possible via online means?

          2. Are words of love gender-biased?

          3. It is possible to maintain a relationship being far away from one
            another

          4. How to know the person for real before marrying?

          RELIGION AND SPIRITUAL ISSUES

          1. Should religion studies be included in the curriculum of public
            schools?

          2. Can students from religious backgrounds make their prayers at
            schools?

          3. Why most religions are not ready to allow women be priests

          4. Why are religious conflicts the fiercest?

          5. Why every religion claims to be peaceful?

          6. Why fundamentalist movements arise

          7. How we decide whether a certain cult is dangerous

          8. Why it is important to allow people practicing their religion or
            lack thereof

          SELF-IMPROVEMENT

          1. How to confront stress and depression using art

          2. Zeal is the most important factor in mastering anything

          3. Why we should not overthink our lives

          4. Is there any ‘simple’ time management advice for everyone?

          5. How to benefit from stressful situations

          6. How your looks influences your success

          7. Why personal development is never enough

          8. Confidence is crucial to any undertaking

          9. Being persistent will help you achieve any results

          EVERYDAY LIFE

          1. Should obese people be forced to pay for two seats at public
            transport or entertainment venues?

          2. Would it be effective to restrict the number of children in an
            American family to a certain number?

          3. Is it justified to obligate residents to clear their adjacent
            sidewalks from snow?

          4. Will we get rid of drunk driving if we appoint a responsible police
            officer to every pub?

          5. Is it justified to present senior citizens with free use of public
            transportation?

          6. Is it a good idea to make a certain period of community service
            compulsory for every US citizen?

          7. Should we join the rest of the world and adopt the metric system?

          8. How should we deal with people who refuse to stand up for the
            pledge?

          9. Is it the responsibility of a good municipal government to arrange
            free Wi-Fi spots all over the city?

          10. What makes urban life better than the countryside one?

          11. Why it is important to stay open-minded at all times

          12. Should an education worker give up on a “hard” kid in favor of the
            rest of the class?

          13. Internet connection should be free of charge for everyone

          14. Paparazzi and stalkers violate privacy of other people too often

          15. Human life has improved a great deal in past 100 years

          16. Why stereotypes exist?

          17. Why raising awareness about feminism and gender studies is crucial

          18. Is it ethical to aim marketing campaigns to underage audiences?

          19. Should convicts be able to practice their right to vote?

          20. How justified is Social Darwinism?

          21. Why are jails so overcrowded with convicts in the US?

          22. Are the currently running campaigns against poverty effective?

          23. Is it possible to prolong weekends by one day without compromising
            working efficiency?

          24. Are imposed gender roles a thing of the past?

          25. The implications of traditional “trick or treat” custom

          26. Should the state provide homes to lonely senior citizens for free?

          27. Why are public restrooms so messy and what should be done about it?

          28. Are genetically modified food products really that harmful?

          29. Bullying is a destructive social factor

          30. Society imposes downright dangerous beauty standards

          31. Being polite will get you everywhere

          32. Why buying at Walmart should be avoided

          33. How to bring good to your community right now

          34. Lack of fair-priced residences is a serious problem

          35. The holidays are too short for no good reason

          36. What makes propaganda a hazardous weapon?

          37. How excessive wealth corrupts people

          38. Why elderly people need the opportunity to use public
            transportation for free?

          39. How public transportation system can be improved

          40. Why everyone should contribute to the community

          41. Why should all the homeless be assisted with finding homes

          42. Cyberbullying is a serious threat

          43. What you achieve by supporting charities

          44. People can and should retire at an older age than they used to

          45. Censorship is suffocating the emerging information society

          46. Foster parenthood should be more advertised and encouraged

          47. The real reasons for equality

          48. How can we help children with single parents

          49. How to tame corruption at a country level

          50. Why it is important to buy local goods

          51. Security alarms are a simple thing that can improve our lives
            drastically

          52. The importance of alternative penitentiary options

          53. Lawsuits are becoming a circus and profanate the very legislative
            system

          54. Poverty cannot be dealt with unless we invest more resources into
            the social system

          55. Working hours in pubs need to be reconsidered

          56. Police should be the last place to come across corruption

          57. The society should show more support to non-working single parents

          58. Female workers still usually have to work at lower wages than their
            male colleagues, and it is a big problem

          59. Cosmetic surgery is abused as a result of poor regulation

          60. Senior citizens today need more care than ever

          61. Why some companies still maintain the infamous tradition of racial
            profiling

          62. How can we enforce more respect to people’s privacy

          63. Why the struggle for women equality advances so slowly

          64. Why relations between various ethnic groups still leave much to be
            desired

          65. Mass media are biased and subjective

          SPORTS

          1. Should support crew such as marching bands and mascots be regarded
            as sportspeople?

          2. Is bike sharing more than just a fresh trend?

          3. Should college team players be treated as professional sportspeople
            and be rewarded financially?

          4. Are school teams overfinanced?

          5. Why are women sports less interesting to the media?

          6. Why drug tests for professional sportspeople are still not a must?

          7. Is it fair that sportspeople earn such tremendous amounts of money?

          8. Sports is about pushing yourself to the edge, and not about
            defeating others

          9. Is it justified to reflect ethnical-cultural details in team names
            and other attributes?

          10. Are cheerleaders as good sportspeople as others?

          11. Why even the most professional team would have no chance with a
            name like Yellowfaces?

          12. Why sports get so much attention?

          13. Gym classes should be more focused on practical physical skills
            like swimming

          14. Why professional sports should remain privately financed?

          15. Are the existing safety precautions for athletes sufficient?

          16. Physical training is overrated

          Sure, with such a huge variety of topics to choose from, picking just one
          may be a challenge. As we already mentioned, the trick is to pick a subject
          that appeals to you personally. This is one of the surest ways to approach
          any academic paper because it’s going to be way more interesting to
          research the subject and because writing the actual paper will quite a lot
          of fun!

          Still, figuring out the best topic for your essay is not your only concern
          as a student. The next step would be crafting a compelling thesis
          statement. As a rule, essay writers present their thesis at the end of the
          introductory paragraph. Further on, you will base your paper on this
          statement, so choose wisely.

          >
          The best tip on constructing a great thesis statement would be to choose
          something that is not too obvious. This way, you will have a chance to hook
          your reader and make him/her interested in what you have to say on the
          topic.

          The number of body paragraphs will mostly depend on the length of your
          paper. Normally, having three major arguments to prove your point is enough
          for a convincing paper. This, in its turn, will give you three body
          paragraphs, each starting with its own point. Make sure to use logical
          transitions between the paragraphs, though – do not just skip from one
          issue to another.

          The last (and usually, the fifth) paragraph of your paper is the
          conclusion. Here, it is very important to restate your thesis statement.
          But remember – you should not do it word for word. The main point of a
          quality conclusion is to summarise everything you have written and prove
          your thesis statement either right (this is the most common approach) or
          wrong (it may sometimes happen in argumentative papers).

          All in all, you can see that writing a persuasive essay is no brain
          surgery. Still, it would be hard to argue that the process requires quite a
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          Grademiners.com Blog /50 Best Persuasive Speech  Essay Topics: Ideas and Writing Tips

          Blog

          50 Best Persuasive Speech  Essay Topics: Ideas and Writing Tips

          December 18, 2017 | GradeMiners

          4348

          A persuasive essay is aimed at convincing the reader to agree with a chosen idea and to motivate them to adopt your point of view. In fact, working on this assignment , you should prove that one idea is more legitimate than another by using a series of logical arguments.

          A persuasive essay seems to have a lot in common with an argumentative essay. But crafting the last one you should create a discussion to showcase that your point of view is valid. At the same time, writing a persuasive essay, you have to present all reasons why your opinion can be considered as the only correct one. No doubt, whether you’re taking a stand against junk food at school or trying to convince a professor to accept your late paper, the ability to create a compelling persuasive essay is necessary to help you get your point across clearly.

          Every student knows that in most cases you get a particular topic assigned. But sometimes you can be asked to select one yourself. Freedom of choice is great. On the other hand, it can turn into a daunting task, especially when you’re not sure whether or not your choice is good. To help you with this challenge, we’ve created a list of winning persuasive essay topics.

          How to choose a great topic for your persuasive essay

          The first thing you have to realize looking for a perfect topic is that your opinion is what matters the most. When it comes to a persuasive essay, don’t try to please your teacher by choosing something that would be interesting just for them. When you’re allowed to write about anything you want, never rely on someone’s thoughts about the topic you like as a pivotal criterion for your decision.

          Finding the topic of your interest will help you work harder on your project and show your style in the best way possible. Besides, it’ll give you the added motivation to persuade the reader and choose appropriate evidence, facts, and details to achieve this goal.

          Here are some useful tips to help you choose the right topic:

          • Begin with a brainstorm. Discuss some topic ideas with your friends or other students. The primary goal of brainstorming is to generate a variety of unique ideas everyone can use. Doing so, you’ll certainly find your perfect essay title easily and faster.
          • Write down your thoughts and ideas. Take notes concerning all potential topics you can consider. After that prioritize them and meditate which one is the best for your paper.
          • Narrow the chosen topic. A broad subject always seems easier to write about as you can find a lot of materials about it. Still, you should make your topic more specific. Why? The answer is simple: if you want to persuade the reader to adopt your opinion, your essay has to be clear and precise.
          • Conduct a research. Your paper should be supported with proven facts and details, as you have to present different reasons why your point of view is correct. Therefore, you have to find enough substantial evidence for the particular topic.
          • Follow your passion. Never miss a chance to discuss something you genuinely like or feel passionate about. Learn more about your interests and show your in-depth knowledge of the subject.

          Always keep in mind that a perfect persuasive essay should be persuasive. The bottom line is that you’re not going to compose another informative paper. It really has to be persuasive. Take into consideration our suggestions on persuasive essay topics.

          Easy persuasive essay topics

          • Does social media create isolation?
          • Should citizens be allowed to keep exotic pets?
          • Does the school day start too early?
          • Should soda be sold to children in restaurants?
          • Should breastfeeding be allowed in public places?
          • Are we too dependent on technology?
          • Should parents go to jail if their children do something illegal?
          • Is professional football too dangerous for players?
          • Are athletes overpaid?
          • Should a relaxed dress code be allowed in the workplace?

          Controversial essay topics

          • Is hunting good if it brings in money for the local businesses?
          • Should single parents be allowed to adopt?
          • Is climate change is more political than scientific?
          • Should euthanasia be allowed?
          • Do the ways of solving Israeli-Palestinian conflict exist?
          • Is sex orientation determined in childhood?
          • Is capital punishment a crime?
          • Should both parents be certified in order to have children?
          • Does religious freedom exist for most people all over the world?
          • Does genetics determine human behavior?

          The best essay topics for college

          • Is online education just as good as classroom learning?
          • Does smartphone use lower levels of concentration and focus?
          • Should girls be allowed on the wrestling and football teams?
          • Should you marry a person with the same educational level as you?
          • Is working while in college something everyone ought to do?
          • Should universities require every student to learn a foreign language?
          • Are private schools better than public schools?
          • Does homeschooling prepare students for college?
          • Do grades measure how smart you are?
          • Should people read more books?

          Master’s degree essay topics

          • Are there such things as good and evil?
          • Does happiness comes from helping others?
          • Should our country have free health care?
          • Do magazine advertisements send unhealthy signals to young women?
          • Should we pay for Internet access?
          • Should smokers pay a healthy tax?
          • Should people with terminal illnesses have the right to doctor assisted suicides?
          • Should the driving age be raised to twenty-one?
          • Do celebrities do good role models for kids?
          • How does violence on TV affect people?

          Still can’t choose a topic? We can help.

          If after reading a list of really great topics, you still can’t choose one to write about, feel free to ask GradeMiners for assistance. Our qualified academic experts will help you find a perfect persuasive essay topic according to all your requirements and write a custom-tailored model answer.

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          Resume QA: Writing Cover Letters; Transitioning from the Military

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          Q. Do recruiters and hiring managers actually read cover letters and emails? What about thank you notes after the interview?

          A. The answer to your first question is that recruiters and hiring managers may or may not read a cover letter or email—so “maybe.” If the cover letter or email is short, powerful, professional, and targeted, then you should assume it will be read. If it is confusing and generic, it will not be read, or even worse it will count against you.

          Should you include a cover letter with your resume? The answer to that question is an unqualified yes. If only one recruiter or hiring manager expects a cover letter or email, then it was worth the time and effort to craft one.

          As for thank you letters, they also cannot hurt—if they are short, powerful, professional, and tailored to the actual experience and information you received at the interview.

          By the way, “professional” includes correct grammar, spelling, and punctuation, as well as clear and correct contact information for both you and the person you are writing to.

          Q. I’m ex-military, looking for a job with a civilian company. How do I make civilians understand everything I did in the military? They seem to get easily confused when I talk about my career, and I’m not sure that any of my experience relates to a corporate job.

          A. The military world is filled with jargon and arcane terms that the civilian world has never mastered. The job of your resume is to clarify those terms. This is the same advice I give to civilians who are in high tech careers: spell out acronyms, keep the jargon as minimal as possible, and mention skills in terms of what you accomplished with those skills.

          For someone with a military background, that last piece of advice might mean concentrating on your accomplishments in leadership, cost savings, team motivation, training, negotiation, communications, and project management—all valuable assets in the civilian world. A focus on results will make it easier for you to bridge the military-to-civilian gap. A security clearance, overseas experience, and advancement in your military career are all pluses that the civilian world can easily understand.

          Robin’s Resumes® has decades of experience helping military personnel transition in civilian jobs. Please contact us today .

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