Essay on science and technology: – Today science and technology have developed a lot. We even cannot think of to live for a single day without science and technology. Very often you may get to write an essay on science and technology or an article on science and technology in different board examinations. Here are a few essays on science and technology along with a speech on science and technology. These essays can also be used to prepare a paragraph on science and technology.
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50 words Essay on Science and Technology / Very short essay on Science and Technology
Advancement of science and technology has made us more advanced in comparison to ancient time. It has completely changed our way of living and work as well. In today’s world, a country’s development completely depends on science and technology. It has made our lives comfortable and burden free. In modern days we cannot live without science and technology.
100 words Essay on Science and Technology
We are now in the age of Science and Technology. In present days it is very necessary for us to step forward with the rapid development of science and technology. The whole world has completely been changed with the different inventions of science. In ancient time people considered the moon or the sky as God. But now people can travel to the moon or to space. This becomes possible only because of development of science and technology. Again science has made our lives comfortable with the invention of different machines. Lots of changes can be seen in different sectors like sports, economy, medical, agriculture, education etc. as a result of the advancement of science and technology.
150 words Essay on Science and Technology
It is called that the modern age is an age of science and technology. Many scientific inventions have been taken place in the present age. It has made our lives easy and comfortable. Science and technology play a vital role in every walk of our life.
In the present age, we cannot live without science and technology. The importance of science and technology in our daily life is immense. We find the wonders of science wherever we look. Electricity, computer, bus, train, telephone, mobile, computer – all are the gifts of science. Development of medical science has lengthened our lives. On the other hand, the internet has made a remarkable change in the field of communication and information and technology as well. Television has brought the whole world to our bedroom.
Advancement in science and technology has made our lives pleasant, but it has also made life complex to a certain extent. But we cannot deny the benefits of science and technology in our daily lives.
N.B. – It is not possible to write all points on science and technology in a 50 or 100 words essay on science and technology. The points that are missing in this essay are portrayed in the next essays.
200 words Essay on Science and Technology
Science and Technology have benefitted human life in various ways. Within the last four to five decades, Science and Technology have changed the face of the world. We can feel the blessings of Science and Technology in every walk of our life. With the development of Science and Technology, man has got mastery over many things and human life has become more comfortable than before.
In the field of transport and communication, Science and Technology have gifted us the bus, train, car, airplane, mobile phone, telephone etc. Again medical science has made us powerful enough to fight against any kind of disease. Due to the advancement of Science and Technology today human can travel up to space. Today the world has become a small village. It has become possible only because of the remarkable development in the field of transport and communication.
We cannot deny the gifts of science, but we also cannot forget that the deadly war weapons are also the inventions of science. But for that, we cannot blame science. Science can don’t harm us if we use science and technology in the proper way for the development of human civilization.
250 words Essay on Science and Technology
In today’s world, Science and technology have become an integral part of human life. Science has made our lives easier and technology has made our works simple and faster as well. We can see the magic of science and technology wherever we see. Without science, we cannot even think to run our daily routine. We get up early in the morning with the ring of an alarm clock; which is a gift of science. Then for the whole day, we take help from different gifts of science in our work. Medical science has reduced our sorrows and sufferings and lengthened our lives. Development in transport and communication has made the human being more advanced. In a developing country like India advancement of Science and Technology is very necessary for the rapid development of the nation. The Countries like USA, China, and Russia are called superpowers because they are more advanced in Science and Technology than other countries. Now the government of India is also taking different steps for development of Science and technology in the country. Former Indian President Dr. APJ Abdul Kalam believed that science and technology is a beautiful gift to humanity and country cannot be developed properly if the scientific base of the country isn’t strong enough.
It can be concluded that Science and technology have become a part and parcel of human life. But sometimes people misuse the science and its inventions and that harms the society. Science and technology can be a friend for us if we use it for the benefits of the society or development of people.
300 words Essay on Science and Technology/Paragraph on Science and technology
It is said that 21st century is the century of science and technology. Today we do almost all our works with the help of science and technology. In modern times the proper growth of a country cannot be imagined without science and technology. We all know the value of science and technology in our everyday life. Different inventions of Science have made our daily lives simple and stress-free as well. On the other hand, technology has taught us the modern way of living.
On the other hand, the economic growth of a country also depends on the growth of science and technology. As per recent data our country India has the 3rd largest scientific manpower in the world. India is developing gradually in the field of science and technology. Indian Space Research Organization has its own Satellite Launching Vehicle among the all other countries in the world. After independence, India has launched a number of satellites in the space of its own effort. On November 5, 2013, India has again proved its power in the field of science and technology by launching Mangalyaan to Mars. Former Indian President APJ Abdul Kalam worked himself in DRDO (Defense research and development organization) and ISRO and tried to develop India in the field of science and technology.
With the advancement of science and technology, some deadly weapons have been developed and modern wars of different nations have become more devastating and destructive. Nuclear Energy has become a real threat to this world in modern time. Keeping this in mind great scientist Einstein remarked that the fourth world war would be battled with stones or evacuated trees. Actually, he scared that inventions of deadly war weapons might end up human civilization someday. But if we use science and technology for the wellness of human being, it will develop us in the most rapid way.
1 minute speech on Science and Technology
Good morning to all. I am standing before you to deliver a short speech on Science and technology. We all know that today we cannot live a single minute without science and technology. The importance of science and technology in our daily life is immense. Science has gifted us different useful machines or gadgets that have made our lives simple and comfortable. It has developed us a lot in different fields like agriculture, sports, and astronomy, medical etc. The revolutionary invention of the wheel in the Bronze Age has changed the lifestyle of the human. Today we have achieved a lot in the field of transport and communication due to the advancement of science and technology. In fact, it can be concluded that we cannot imagine ourselves in this modern world without science and technology.
Final Words- We have prepared a number of essay on Science and Technology along with a speech on science and technology for you as well. We have tried to cover as much as possible points in our each essay on science and technology.
Artificial Intelligence becomes one of the most important parts of our daily life. Our life will be drastically changed by AI because this technology is to be used in a wide area of day to day services.
These technologies reduce human effort. Now in many industries, people are using this technology to develop machine slaves to perform the different activity. Using the machine for the work speed up your process of doing work and give you an accurate result. Here’s an article which will walk you through Artificial Intelligence, Benefits To Society .
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- aarti May 26, 2018
please provide a essay on Union Indian budgetReply
- Team – GuideToExam May 26, 2018
Sure,It will also be published soon.. Stay tuned.Reply
- Baisakhi Maity August 23, 2018
It’s nice but most common things r there….
But good- easy words n understandingReply
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IELTS essay:The development of science and technology benefit our life. However, scientists cannot find effective solutions to the problems they created. To what degree do you agree or disagree with this opinion?
Essay topics: IELTS essay:The development of science and technology benefit our life. However, scientists cannot find effective solutions to the problems they created. To what degree do you agree or disagree with this opinion?
The development of science and technology makes our life more comfortable and convenient. However, scientists have created many problems, which are not easy to be resolved, such as air pollution, the deterioration of environment and the scarcity of natural resources, to which we must some solutions.
Modern science and technology render people many advantages. Modern telecommunication shortens the distance between people and makes communication much easier. Internet is widely used now not only for collection of abundant information but also for correspondence. Email, the most effective communication device now, is becoming very popular. Besides, telephone and mobile phone make contact more convenient than before.
Modern transportation, such as airplanes and high-speed trains make our journey smooth and fast. With the help of modern transportation, people can go everywhere they prefer to. The journey to outer space and other planets is not a dream any more. Rockets and space shuttles can help us realize the dream of space travel.
Modern medicine prolongs people’s life and relieves patients of sufferings from many diseases. Cancer and AIDS are fatal to people’s health. Thanks to the endeavors scientists have made, these diseases become treatable.
However, the process of scientific development also arouses many sever problems to our human beings. Internet, though widely used in modern communication, is easy to be destroyed by computer virus. Outer space exploration has produced much waste in the space. A tiny metal, a screw, for example can destroy a flying man-made satellite. Industrialization is making natural resources become scarce.
Confronted with these problems, scientists are seeking prompt and feasible solutions. The development of science and technology bring about both positive and negative effects to us. We must eliminate the positive effects to the least extent. (286 words totally)
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The Role of Science and Technology in the Developing World in the 21st Century
Oct 3, 2012
Developments in science and technology are fundamentally altering the way people live, connect, communicate and transact, with profound effects on economic development. To promote tech advance, developing countries should invest in quality education for youth, and continuous skills training for workers and managers.
Science and technology are key drivers to development, because technological and scientific revolutions underpin economic advances, improvements in health systems, education and infrastructure.
The technological revolutions of the 21st century are emerging from entirely new sectors, based on micro-processors, tele-communications, bio-technology and nano-technology. Products are transforming business practices across the economy, as well as the lives of all who have access to their effects. The most remarkable breakthroughs will come from the interaction of insights and applications arising when these technologies converge.
Through breakthroughs in health services and education, these technologies have the power to better the lives of poor people in developing countries. Eradicating malaria, a scourge of the African continent for centuries, is now possible. Cures for other diseases which are endemic in developing countries are also now possible, allowing people with debilitating conditions to live healthy and productive lives.
Access and application are critical. Service and technology are the differentiators between countries that are able to tackle poverty effectively by growing and developing their economies, and those that are not. The extent to which developing economies emerge as economic powerhouses depends on their ability to grasp and apply insights from science and technology and use them creatively. Innovation is the primary driver of technological growth and drives higher living standards.
As an engine of growth, the potential of technology is endless, and still largely untapped in Africa and other developing world regions across the globe. Less developed countries not only lack skilled labour and capital, but also use these less efficiently. Inputs account for less than half of the differences in per capita income across nations. The rest is due to the inability to adopt and adapt technologies to raise productivity.
Computing for example, through unlocking infrastructure backlogs and managing integrated supply chains, can transform economic performance by enabling affordable and accessible services in education and healthcare. The combination of computers and the Internet, and mobile devices and the “cloud”, has transformed human experience, empowering individuals through access to knowledge and markets, changing the relationship between citizens and those in authority, as well as allowing new communities to emerge in virtual worlds that span the globe.
According to the United Nations International Telecommunications Union (UN-ITU), by the end of 2010 there were an estimated 5.3 billion mobile cellular subscriptions worldwide, including 940 million subscriptions to 3g services. About 90 percent of the world’s population can access mobile networks, with three-quarters of mobile subscribers living in developing economies. Cellular technology has allowed Africa to leapfrog the age of fixed line telephony, bringing affordable access to millions of people.
However, the continued and equitable expansion of Information Communication Technology (ICT) depends on electricity. The real divide over the next 20 years will be between those who have access to reliable electricity to power these devices and those who do not.
Other technologies under development are interventions for cognitive enhancement, proton cancer therapy and genetic engineering. Revolutionary inventions include small underground nuclear power units called nuclear batteries that will be ultra-safe and maintenance-free; new types of photo-voltaics that will make electricity from sunlight cheaper than that from coal; and myriad nano-technologies, some of which lower the cost and increase the reliability of many products – even in the poorest areas of the developing world.
Managing technological revolutions poses challenges. Certain innovations and discoveries will raise fraught bio-ethical issues, as genetic modification of food crops and cloning of human embryos has already done. There is a risk that their cost, particularly in the early stages of development, will worsen the present inequality by limiting access to wealthy individuals. This already happens in health care in certain G7 countries, where the demand for very high-cost diagnostic equipment and surgical interventions enabling longevity and better quality of life for older wealthy people overstretches public health care budgets, and lowers service quality in poor neighborhoods. Finally, resource-intensive technologies, focused on satisfying high consumption demand, like holidays abroad in costal resorts, wilderness areas, or iconic cities, increase carbon emissions and environmental damage.
To promote technological advances, developing countries should invest in quality education for youth, continuous skills training for workers and managers, and should ensure that knowledge is shared as widely as possible across society.
In a world in which the Internet makes information ubiquitous, what counts is the ability to use knowledge intelligently. Knowledge is the systemically integrated information that allows a citizen, a worker, a manager, or a finance minister to act purposefully and intelligently in a complex and demanding world. The only form of investment that allows for increasing returns is in building the stocks and flows of knowledge that a country or organization needs, an in encouraging new insights and techniques.
Adopting appropriate technologies leads directly to higher productivity, which is the key to growth. In societies that have large stock and flows of knowledge, virtuous circles that encourage widespread creativity and technological innovation emerge naturally, and allow sustained growth over long periods. In societies with limited stocks of knowledge, bright and creative people feel stifled and emigrate as soon as they can, creating a vicious circle that traps those who remain in a more impoverished space. Such societies stay mired in poverty and dependency.
The investment climate is crucial, as are the right incentive structures, to guide the allocation of resources, and to encourage research and development.
Successful countries have grown their ability to innovate and learn by doing, by investing public funding to help finance research and development in critical areas. Everyone is involved – big and small, public and private, rich and poor.
The benefits that are certain to flow from technological revolution in an increasingly connected world and knowledge-intensive world will be seized by those countries and companies that are alive to the rapidly changing environment, and nimble enough to take advantage of the opportunities. Those that succeed will make substantial advances in reducing poverty and inequality.
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Contributions Made by the Romans to Western Civilization Essay
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Essay on Evolution of Technology in Western Civilization
There is no doubt that Western civilization has caused a unique industrial revolution in life of the world, which has become a science and technology revolution. Transformation of nature on the planet has entered a new stage, which is characterized by avalanche unpredictable progress.
Since the beginning of mankind, there is a constant scientific and technological progress due to the development of the human mind. If we consider the development of man from the beginning, we will notice a trend. Initially, human was engaged in gathering, ie, he gathered berries. Humans used and gathered what was grown by nature, not by him. Then people discovered that they could grow any grains and legumes to provide themselves with food. He began creating special tools to cultivate the land. Later, people began to create a variety of tools for farming, hunting, etc. (Zsinka, 2014).
With the development of crafts, people have got more opportunities for existence, they could provide themselves with everything they needed: food, dishes, clothes, etc. The same trend can be observed during the development of industry. With the development of industry, people have improved their achievements. They create better goods that meet the needs of humanity. People constantly improve themselves and everything around to simplify the life.
In the 20th century, science and technology began to play the role of the main engines of economic and social development. Scientific-technical revolution became a support vector of historical dynamics. For those who enjoyed it to the maximum extent, it gave strength, which at the end of the 20th century was the measure of success of the country and the people. Economic and military power of the state, complemented by a high standard of living, which are based on NTP, actually puts it ahead in the forefront, provides advantages in the global arena (Perl, 2011).
Western civilization is a special type of civilization (culture), which historically emerged in Western Europe and in the last century endured a specific process of social modernization (Bowden, 2011). Western civilization is associated with the progressive development and constant changes in a person’s life. It appeared in ancient Greece and ancient Rome. The first stage of its development, called “ancient civilization”, was marked by the emergence of the core values of the Western type of society: private ownership, private industry, market-oriented; the first sample of democracy – democracy, however, was limited; republican form of government. It created the foundations of civil society to ensure the rights and freedom of the individual, as well as a system of social and cultural principles that contribute to the mobilization of creativity and development of the individual.
The next stage in the development of Western civilization is connected with Europe and Christianity. The Reformation gave rise to a new trend in Christianity – Protestantism, which became the spiritual foundation of Western civilization. The main value of this civilization is the individual freedom of choice in all spheres of life. It was directly connected with the development of specific European type of personality that emerged during the Renaissance. “The individual becomes tragically responsible not only for approximation and removal from the Supreme, but also for the choice of what he, that individual, considers the Supreme…” (Fitzgerald, 2002).
According to Weber, rationality became the most important independent value of the West. Public consciousness is rational, free of religious dogma in solving practical problems, pragmatical, but the scope of application of Christian values is a social morality of not only his personal life, but also of business ethics (Zafirovski, 2011).
In the era of geographical discoveries and colonial wars, Europe extended its type of development in other regions of the world. For the first time, mankind, due to the global spread of Western values and institutions (16-19 centuries), was really integrated into the framework of the world-embracing system of connections. By the end of the 19th-early 20th century, these values and institutions became dominant in the world and continued to define the main features of the face of the Earth in this century until very recently.
The main content of civilization process in the 20th century was the tendency to the formation of the historical structures of the universal world civilization. Processes taking place in the 20th century in the West became global, directly affecting all nations, all other civilizations, who were forced to seek an answer to the historical challenge of the West. That challenge was perceived in a particular form of reality as an imperative of modernization. In this situation, the question of the relationship between modernization and westernization became central to the vast majority of humanity of non-Western world (Lin, 2010).
In the second half of the 20th century, the world was developing under the influence of scientific and technological revolution (STR), which is usually understood as a qualitative transformation of modern productive forces on the basis of science and technology. STR began in the 30s of the 20th century and received a powerful acceleration during the Second World War and the Cold War.
There were found new sources of energy – nuclear, solar-powered, wind power plants. People started using new artificial materials – nylon, plastic, etc. Automation has changed the nature of work and the place of man in the production process. The emergence of cybernetics has created logistical base for the scientific management of social processes. Industries such as electronics, petrochemicals, nuclear energy, the overall mechanization and automation of production came to the fore. People started exploring space and underwater world. STR has led to the release of new types of products, introduction of new technologies and new tools. Dissemination of scientific and technological revolution was not confined to industry, transport, communications, and energy. STR rapidly invaded other areas of life, such as trade, monetary system, education, management (Milke, 2012).
Today technology intrudes into all areas of society: from economics to sports and leisure, it affects interpersonal relationships, changes the structure and hierarchy of values, and determines characteristics of the modern individual.
With the help of technology people create a new world, both real and virtual, make technical objects (car, computer) the main objects of attention, replacing natural communication with their people. Technology has multiplied power and possibilities of man. At the same time, it has brought a host of new problems, spawned sharp contradictions, has become one of the causes of the crisis of civilization (Hunt, 2008). Public opposition to the construction of nuclear power plants, chemical, pulp and paper mills can be considered a reaction to the scientific and technological progress. Sometimes they are expressed in a very extravagant form. For example, American farmers Mennonites abandoned agricultural machinery and plow with the help of horses (Zsinka, 2014).
Technical progress can not be stopped. Ultimately, it defines the socio-economic development of society and the standard of living. Development of civilization depends on how rapidly scientific and technological progress develops. Enhancing the role of science and technology in modern society actualizes the moral responsibility of the scientist for the consequences of his discoveries. It is known that many nuclear scientists involved in the development of atomic weapons, warned the world about the catastrophic consequences of its application.
In our time, humanity has great losses, both human and material, as a result of technical failures and accidents. Though, not only technique is to be blamed. People controlling it usually make mistakes, which lead to tragedies. The root cause of the negative impact of technology on the human need should be looked for not so much in it, as in man, in social relations, in the ways of solving economic and other issues, ways to meet social and individual needs.
Mankind has invented drugs and alcohol, which are widely used in medicine and industry; but they also created the conditions for such phenomena as drug addiction and alcoholism, providing mass human losses comparable with wars (Huff, 2014).
Transformation of science into a direct productive force of society does not mean that science is transformed into its fourth element. This only shows that science most significantly and positively affects every element of the productive forces of society, thereby converting and amplifying them. Results of research eventually lead to the improvement and the emergence of innovative instruments and objects of labor, raise the level of knowledge and skills of the workforce, which in turn provides the basis for the transformation and growth of the productive forces of society, and ultimately – for economic development.
As to such a feature of modern scientific and technological revolution, as the priority development of science in comparison with the equipment and technology, it is of fundamental importance in the present conditions. Countries and large economic entities gain the possibility to predict and plan the creation of such equipment and technology, which will ensure the implementation of strategic plans in the field of economic development and solving social problems.
Acceleration of STP has great economic and social importance for any country in the world. Perhaps there is no more powerful and strong factor, which has such a significant effect on all economic and social processes.
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- For other uses, see Andromeda .
The Andromeda-class was a type of exploration cruiser fielded by the Federation Starfleet beginning in 2410 . It was an advanced variant of the venerable Galaxy-class of the mid- 24th century . ( STO video game : Delta Rising )
With the Andromeda-class the Starfleet Corps of Engineers meant to duplicate the success of the earlier Pathfinder-class update to the Intrepid-class hull plan. Designed and built at Utopia Planitia Fleet Yards , the Andromeda-class featured improved capabilities over even retrofitted Galaxy-class vessels.
The systems updates developed for the Andromeda-class were later reused in the Yamato-class dreadnought cruiser , a variant of the Galaxy X-class . ( STO video game : Delta Rising )
Technical data Edit
In addition to standard Starfleet weapons and defenses, the Andromeda-class equipped a molecular cohesion nullifier field , a device that disrupted the molecular bonds in surrounding matter, increasing the effectiveness of the cruiser ‘s weapons. ( STO video game : Delta Rising )
Known vessels Edit
- USS Andromeda (NCC-47700, prototype)
|This article or subsection has an associated category .||Andromeda class cruisers|
|Starship classes of the Federation Starfleet|
Akira ( Alita • Armitage • Thunderchild ) •
|other named classes|
AA class • Aakenn • Achilles • Advance • Aegian • Aeolus • Aerie • Akula destroyer / escort • Ambassador Hardin • Andes • Andor • Andromeda (24th century) • Antares • Apache • Aquarius • Archer • Archimedes • Ariel • Ascendant • Atrox • Avenger (scout) • Babcock • Bader • Baker • Baton Rouge • Bode • Bolarus • Bonaventure • Bradbury • Brenton • Canada • Canopus • Capella (23rd century) • Capella (24th century) • Castor • Centaur • Centaurus • Ceres • Challenger • Chandley • Chariot • Chimera fast frigate • Christopher • Cle Dan • Cochrane transport • Columbia • Continent • Contortrix • Copernicus • Crossfield • Daedalus • Dauntless • Decker • Defender • Delta • D’Kyr • Deneva • Derf • Drexler • Durrett • Eagle • Eclipse • Edward • Einstein • El Dorado • future Enterprise • Epoch • Epsilon • Eternal • Federation • Fenlon • Fermi • Fiji • Freedom • Frontier • Gagarin (24th century) • Galen • Ganges • Geneva • Genser • Graceful • Grayson • Griffon • Guardian • Gemini • Hale • Hermes fast cruiser • Heston • Hogan • Hokule’a • Horizon cruiser • Icarus • Ilthirin • Indomitable • Intrepid (light cruiser) • Iowa • Istanbul • Iwo Jima • Class J • Jupiter • Karekh • Keith • Kethkin • Kiev • K’Kmarak • Kolm-An • Korolev • Larson • Lauro • Laweya • Legacy • Lenthal • Lexington • Liberty • Loki • Loknar • London • Makin • Mann • Marklin • Marshall • M’Benga • Mediterranean • Merced • Mercury (courier) • Mercury (escort) • Merian • Messier • Midway • Mission • Missouri • Mobulai • MoKal • Moscow • Mulciber • Nachthexen ) • Narcine • Nautilus • Nelson • New Orleans • Niagara • Noble laboratory vessel • Nomad escort • Northampton • Oberon • Odin • Odysseus • Odyssey • Okinawa • Oppenheimer • Orion • Osaka • Ouroboros • Overfield • Paladin battlecruiser • Paladin destroyer • Paladin (24th century) • Perseus • Pioneer • Phalanx • Phantom • Philadelphia • Pinnacle • Piper • Pollux • Portsmith • Pralim • Premonition • Proxima • Pyotr Velikiy • Pyrenees • Rakota • Ranger battlecruiser • Ranger explorer • Ranger scout • Renaissance • Rickenbacker • Rigel • Rochester • Royal Sovereign • Sagittarius • Samson • Sawyer • Scorpio • Scryer • Scylla • Sequoia • Sevaijen • ShiKahr • Sierra • Solar • Springfield • Sulek • Surak • Sydney • Tangent • Tempest • Theophrastus • Thomas Paine • Thucydides • Thufir • Tiberius • Ticonderoga • Theseus • Tritium • Typhon • Typhoon • Ukora • Ulysses • Ural • Utah • Venture scout • Vigilant scout • Voyager • Walker • Wambundu • Wilkerson • Wei-Fa • Wellington • Yamato • Yorkshire • Yorktown • Zodiac • unnamed
Defiant pathfinder • John Glenn • Huron • Raging Queen • Sun Tzu • Valley Forge • Federation assault ship • Federation cargo ship • Federation colony ship • Federation construction ship • Federation cruiser • deep galaxy ship • Federation frigate • Federation galaxy ship • Federation holoship • Federation light cruiser ( Constitution-variant light cruiser • Intrepid-variant light cruiser ) • Federation medium cruiser ( Excelsior-variant medium cruiser ) • Federation mining freighter • Federation repair ship • Starfleet tanker
External links Edit
- Tier 6 Iconic Ship Stats ( STO developer blog)
- Exploration Cruiser (T6) article at The Star Trek Online Wiki .
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What is the difference between feasibility studies and pilot testing?
Feasibility study: “Feasibility studies are pieces of research done before a main study to answer the question ‘Can this study be done?’ They are used to estimate important parameters that are needed to design the main study”  . Data collected would not be analyzed or included in publications.
- Going to a potential site to see if the research is possible
- Checking to see what is the best approach to the research
- Going through a consent process with friends to see if the information is comprehensible
- Sending your survey instrument to a few experts in the field for their feedback as to whether or not the questions are appropriate for the topic and/or cohort of the research
- Feedback from colleagues and peers about research design
- Student researcher designs questionnaire for their study’s target population and asks someone from a different population to test the questionnaire
A researcher planning to conduct interviews regarding landowner perspectives of land use regulations contacts the US Forest Service to ask how they have typically approached land owners in the past and asks for feedback on their planned questions.
Pilot testing: “A small scale-study conducted prior to conducting an actual experiment; designed to test and refine procedures.”
- Checking to see if the designed tool works
- Asking people to complete a survey to find out whether a question results in the requested information
- Testing the intervention with four people before trying it with 60 people
- Asking people to complete your survey and then revising the questions based on their responses
- Revising the study after analyzing preliminary data and determining that the data do not address their research question
- Student researcher designs questionnaire for their study’s target population, asks the population to try out the questionnaire, and the questions are revised based on the responses
A researcher planning to conduct interviews regarding landowner perspectives of land use regulations conducts interviews with 5 people to test the questions and see if they get answers that make sense. The researchers may revise their interview guides based on the initial data collected.
Q: Does my feasibility study/pilot testing require IRB Review?
A: The federal regulations indicate that pilot testing meets the definition of research involving human subjects and requires IRB review. However, feasibility studies typically do not meet the definition of research involving human subjects and therefore would not require IRB review.
In order for the IRB to determine whether your activities constitute a feasibility study or pilot testing, and subsequently, whether they require IRB review, please complete and submit the initial sections of the new application and protocol form, which can be found on the ” Preparing an Initial Submission ” page. In this form, it is helpful to note with whom the study or testing is going to be done and how the data will be used.
 National Institute for Health Research; http://www.nets.nihr.ac.uk/glossary
What is the total "target enrollment" number? ›
The process of writing a case study. The structure of the paper.
People who work in business, marketing, social sciences, legal, medical, engineering, academic, and many other fields quite often need to submit reports about a person, a group of people, or a situation that they have been studying over a certain period of time. Such a published report is called case study, and in order to write good case studies one should follow specific guidelines because they have a particular style and format.
Is There Any Difference between Essay and Case Study?
You might be already familiar with essay writing . Essays differ from case studies because they answer a certain question based on research through the author’s own evaluation. Reports, in turn, present and analyze findings from practical research. While reports are usually descriptive and describe sequential events such as experiments or results from surveys, essay can be descriptive, evaluative, and discursive. The type of the essay depends on the given questions.
Because case studies are educational for readers, they have to provide information as clear as possible. The structure of this writing should be as follows:
The title should give a very accurate description of a study. It has to be very effective because its function is to let readers know what the main focus of the study is.
Since it is not a scientific paper, the abstract in this writing does not have a structure, i.e. no subheadings of methodology, conclusions, etc. You need to give a background which has to outline, for instance, the clinical condition of the study under analysis. Then you need to provide relevant details and results of the study and give an overall conclusion. The final step is to give five key words.
In this section you need to provide a brief review of the published literature relevant to your subject. The best kind of articles to use here are other review articles and the first case that was described in the literature.
If you are working in the field of medicine, for example, in this part you write about your patient’s health issues, treatment, and laboratory results. All the data has to be presented in chronological order and in figures or tables. Research ethics is crucial: your patient cannot be identified anywhere in the study. If a photo is necessary, your patient has to sign a written consent. To publish your writing you have to contact the primary care physician and come to an agreement.
In this section one presents the case and the laboratory findings. An author’s job is to relate his/her findings to the previous studies and, in case they differ, make it clear what is the reason of this difference and what your scientific opinion is. The question you should answer here is why your paper is unique.
Make a summary of what you have learnt from your study. Do not repeat the case history; just give short and informative conclusions.
If there are people who have assisted you in your study but are not co-authors, make sure to acknowledge them.
You can use only reliable sources in this section such as peer-reviewed scholarly articles. Make sure that the entire reference is accurate according to the style – MLA, APA, etc.
Tables and Figures
If you have a lot of data that you cannot mention in the discussion section, put it to tables and figures and locate them in this section of your writing. Adding tables and photographs is a great strategic decision because it makes the writing more informative and comprehensible.
Are People Taught Case Study Writing?
This type of writing is rather popular in education system and quite often happens to be a student assignment. This project is very helpful in school/university because it allows students to apply their knowledge in practice. For example, students who take courses in psychotherapy or physiology can put themselves in the role of professionals and examine how certain method can be applied to the person in the story and how your case management and counseling skills can help the client.
Not only can students pay more attention to the development of their technical writing skills, but also they can demonstrate their individual approach to a specific issue. Although teaching how to write a case study requires a lot of time, students need training in this field because the process of the case study writing is complex. A good guide will help them learn how to use their analytical skills to make a better work. Besides, you can always mention this skill during the interview with the company you want to work for .
What Is the Case Study Method?
If you are a student in a law school or are planning to get your MBA, Harvard University has prepared a lot of extremely helpful tips on case study writing for current and prospective students. For instance, Harvard Law School presents the difference between case study method and case method. While the first method uses a narrative of a legal dilemma to showcase the principles of law, the second one uses a court decision for the same purpose. The case study method requires teamwork and discussion between the participants whereas the case method uses the discussion between professor and student. Finally, the case study method analyzes the dilemma in its developments while the second method analyzes it after it has been resolved.