Category: research

Extreme Class Buff Skills Enhancement We…

For full functionality of this page it is necessary to enable JavaScript. Here are the instructions how to enable JavaScript in your web browser

Hi there, we hate annoying ads just as much as you do, but ads keep our website up and cover all expenses, so please consider disabling your ad blocker on our website and we promise not to spam you with annoying ads!

Ran online private servers

top list, game sites, game servers

Ad space for sale!
  • 1
    Details

    Wiz Ran Episode 9
    Newbie Friendly 7 Class Ep9 Server, Combo/Regen/Hunt Based Server! Fast Growing Community and No Premium Services. 24/7 Active and Friendly Staff! Come and Join Us now!

    1
    Details


  • 2
    Details

    Hope Ran Online Episode 9
    #HopeRanEP9 #Officially UP #August20 #UniqueGameplay #PureBakBakan EP9 SERVER *7 CLASS *Midrate Server *Regen Based *Unlock ALL Skills *Latest All Items *Market PK Area *HP UP AND DEF UP Fate Box *Auto Skill *New Items Slot New Features Automated

    2
    Details


  • Warzone-Ran Ep7

    mmtop 200 premium member

    3
    Details

    Warzone-Ran Ep7
    Server Features: 99% FREE FOR PLAY Server Release September 1, 2018 Episode 7 Classic 5 Class System Gunner Balance Game Play Low PC Requirements No Lag Free all skills Pet System Enable Bike Enable Unlocked all skills 7 up to 237 original skill High rate Exp/Gold/Drop with everyday BTG event

    3
    Details

    mmtop 200 premium member


  • 4
    Details

    Neutral Gaming Networks
    New Dedicated Server!Vintage RAN Features unique gameplay!5 Class Balanced Reborn Server!100% Forever free to play!

    4
    Details


  • 5
    Details

    Ranpak Online ep7
    Server Features: FREE FOR PLAY VPoints Base System Donor NonDonor possible Server Release July 16 2018 Episode 7 Classic 5 Class System Balance Game Play Low PC Requirements No Lag Free all skills Lunch Box Hide and seek event Random Event Slot Event

    5
    Details


  • 6
    Details

    Ran School
    5 Class / Pure Classic / 210 Max Level / No Reborn / Item Mixer / + 10 Max Upgrade / 1-177 Skill / 4 days CW / CDM / Very Cheap Donation / No Donate Set / No Donate Wapon / No Bias Gaming / 24/7 Online

    6
    Details


  • UnityRan Gaming

    mmtop 200 premium member

    7
    Details

    UnityRan Gaming
    SERVER FEATURES 8 Balanced Class Ran GS Gameplay Pots Based 260 Max Level No Reborn 7 – 237 Skill Skills Effect Enabled Hackshield Protected Come and Join Us!!

    7
    Details

    mmtop 200 premium member


  • 8
    Details

    ClickerRanOnline [ New Up Server! ]
    youtube/ZJCZnbJrtRM WATCH OUR VIDEO ADVERTISEMENT | MAX LVL 210 up to 187 skills | MAX UPS +9 | Normal Rate Gameplay | QUEST BASED! | FULLY BALANCE! | Watch video for more INFO!

    8
    Details


  • 9
    Details

    Chaos Ran
    EP7 4 Class Server Unique Gameplay 24/7 UP time Official Ran Online PH Items PURE HUNTING SERVER MAX Level 210 Max Skills 167 Random Values Like Official

    9
    Details


  • 10
    Details

    Sync-Ran Online
    Ran Online Private server with classic gameplay NO GUNNER / ASSASIN MAGICIAN HUNT YOUR OWN !

    10
    Details


  • 11
    Details

    South Town Ran
    Almost FREE Gaming! Aiming for infinite Fun! 7 Class Character Available, Killer Streak with Original SFx, Latest Items, Latest Maps, Latest Interface, Latest drop-able Skills, Fun Promo’s and Events, and super friendly GM’s. See you there!

    11
    Details


  • 12
    Details

    R4n Online Classic
    4 Class Server | OLD School Graphics | Balanced Gameplay | Hunting System | No Reborn | Quest system | SW and ODDYSIS War | No AP CHEAT @ War | Earn VP while Online, convert GOLD to VP, Convert Exp to VP | VP to PERMA Items and MORE Join na!!!

    12
    Details


  • 13
    Details

    Ran Survival Online Episode 8 x 9
    Ran survival online is a semi classic ran online mid rate server that with real balanced gamplay, fully action packs, and exciting battles that you will surely love!

    13
    Details


  • 14
    Details

    SYNC-RAN CLASSIC GAMEPLAY
    SYNC-RAN ONLINE CLASSIC GAMEPLAY
    5 CLASSS
    WITH SW GAMEGUARD CHEATLESS SERVER

    14
    Details


  • 15
    Details

    E-Games Ran Online
    Server Features: Classic Game Play- 4 Class- No Assasin Class, No Gunner Class- No Extreme Class- Balanced Game Play- 210 Max Level- No Reborn- No-Over Power- No Lag- Skill up to 167- Request Notification- Easy Leveling- Pet System Enable-Unlimited BTG- Unlimited Mobs-Huntable Items- ETC

    15
    Details


  • 16
    Details

    INTENSE RAN CLASSIC
    INTENSE RAN CLASSIC EPISODE 7 BALANCE GAMING HUNTABLE ITEMS LEVELING SYSTEM SKILLS 1-167 SW/CW EVERYDAY

    16
    Details


  • 17
    Details

    Masters Ran
    Miss Ran Omen? Here is now the newly reborn, Masters Ran – Classic. Well Balance Server, Low Rate Server. Max Upgrade +9, Max level of 150. Active Staffs and Daily Events. Play now!

    17
    Details


  • 18
    Details

    Authentic Gaming Online v1
    Open June 22,2016 / 6 class / highrate /free gpack set/sw/cw/cdm/active staff/always event

    18
    Details


  • 19
    Details

    PhantomRAN – 4 Class – Semi Classic
    Come and join us and experience the real fight inside of the ran online world !MID RATE SERVER !

    19
    Details


  • 20
    Details

    Zync Classic
    Ep7 Gameplay 4class edition , balance donor vs non donor

    20
    Details


  • 21
    Details

    Eclipse Ran Free Donate Server
    FREE DONATE SERVER ! Just be online always and vote ! Donate items @ Vote Mall. Everyday event and 24/7 Dedicated server active staffs and everyday event.

    21
    Details


  • 22
    Details

    Xeus Classic Ran Ep7 4(Class)
    10x Exp Rate\n10x Drop Rate\nBTG ON x2 Rates\nGRAND OPENING March 31 5PM

    22
    Details


  • 23
    Details

    OS Ran Online
    OS ran online OS ran online OS ran online OS ran online OS ran online OS ran online OS ran online

    23
    Details


  • 24
    Details

    X-Calibur Ran Online
    X-CALIBUR RAN ONLINE CLASSIC 24/7 DDS SERVER
    ACTIVE STAFF BALANCE GAME PLAY NO TALKSHIT
    LOTS OF EVENTS TOO MANY TO MENTION
    CHEAP DONATION NOT FOR FUNDS FOR SERVER PURPOSES ONLY

    24
    Details


  • 25
    Details

    Mel Ran Online
    Join us now check your features in our site

    25
    Details


  • 26
    Details

    ZucchiRan v4 EPISODE 9
    ZucchiRan online the first private server in Italy, System Balance, No donation Item premium, Just vote our server you can buy everything item premium permanent on Our website using you Vote points,

    26
    Details


  • 27
    Details

    Divinity Ran
    8 CLASSES / STARTING LV100 / CAP LV260 / OFFICIAL TYRANNY WAR / SCHOOL WARS / CHIP WARS / ITEM LINK / OFFICIAL ITEMS – MOBS – SKILLS – MAPS / +11 MAX UPGRADE / BOSS HUNTING SYSTEM / RIGHT-CLCIK WEAR – UNWEAR FUNCTION / DOTA MULTI-KILL STREAK / ITEM CRAFTING SYSTEM

    27
    Details


  • 28
    Details

    Trapeze Ran Online
    Server Features: – NO PAY TO WIN! – Balance Gameplay – Active Staffs and GM”s – Max Level 260 – Max Skill 237 – Max Upgrade +11 – Rando & Seal Based Gameplay – No Donate Items or RV”s – Hunt your own items!

    28
    Details


  • 29
    Details

    Divine-Ran
    Looking for High Rate Server? Newly Up? Come and Join us! —-DIVINE RAN—- Fresh Hot Server UP Day Feb 16, 2018 [FRIDAY 8:00PM] -EP7 5 class high rate -Regen based -Sync combo based -Level 1 starting level -1-25 rb: lvl 100 -26-50 rb: lvl 150 -300 max lvl -50 rb max rb -Hack Shield -skills up to

    29
    Details


  • 30
    Details

    Hooba Ran Online
    Join Hooba Ran Online now! EP7 Classic Based Server. 24/7 No Lag no bias gameplay , Hunt Based Server!

    30
    Details


  • 31
    Details

    Gladius Gaming EP10
    Ep10 Server / 8 class / highrate gameplay / no donate set and weapon / friendly staff / tyranny / royal rumble

    31
    Details


  • 32
    Details

    Frost Ran Online Ep9 4 Class
    HUNT YOUR OWN SET AND WEAPON !!
    FRESH SERVER Date Released April 6,2014
    EP9 Old School Based Max Ups : +11 Midrate Exp Rate and Drop Rate
    CW Everyday 7pm-8pm
    CDM Fixing time School Wars Coming Soon Unli Mobs Like Ran PH Captain System Gameguard Activated Anti Cheat

    32
    Details


  • 33
    Details

    Rakk Gaming Network
    NO FULL DONATE HUNT YOUR OWN SET AND WEP FOUR BALANCE CLASS Swordsman,Brawler,Archer,Shaman 150 CAP LVL 127 MAX SKILL ENABLED ITEM MIXING/CRAFTING NO DUAL LOG IN LOW DONATIONS SCHOOL WARS WITH SCORE AUTO REWARD ROYAL RUMBLE AUTO DETECTION OF CHEATS AUTO POTIONS / DISCONNECTION OF THE CHEATER

    33
    Details


  • 34
    Details

    Ran Explode ep9
    vote !!!!
    Enjoy playing ran explode. More invite ! More fun ! Meet a new friends

    34
    Details


  • 35
    Details

    Mix RanOnline – ClassicGamesNetwork
    Ep3/Classic w/ Assassin – Cap:150/147Skills – No Custom Item/No Wings – Server Rate Gold:x2/Drops:x5/EXP:x10 – No Gunner/ Extreme – Custom NPC Skill pts Quest – No GM’s Pet – Balanced Economy and skills

    35
    Details


  • 36
    Details

    Encrypted Ran Online Episode X – Tyranny Wars
    Encrypted RAN Online – Episode X Official Tyranny

    36
    Details


  • 37
    Details

    GILAS RAN
    SERVER FEATURES 7 Balanced Class Highrate Gameplay Regen / Combo Based 100 Starting Level 270 Max Level No Reborn Unlock All Skills Skills Effect Enable 25 Ingame Max Upgrade Hackshield Protected Donor vs. Non Donor 100% Possible Pure Hunt Server ADDITIONAL FEATURES Official Interface Official Map

    37
    Details


  • 38
    Details

    Rogue RAN – BBR Gameplay
    Server summary: – Cool Freebies upon creation – Pure BabyRan Gameplay – 5 Class – BabyRan Items – Regen based – Combo based – Build up your own character – Hunt your own items – Item Link – View Character – Reborn System

    38
    Details


  • 39
    Details

    Drift Ran Online Ep8 No Reborn
    Newly Open Server, 24/7 Online, Free 500Premium Points Until Dec25,2104, Low Cost Premium Items, Premium Items Can Be Bougth In NPC, No Reborn, No Over Power Items, 7 Class, Fully Working Skills, Many Freebies,Club War 6 Times In Week, Balance Gameplay and PVP SystemJoin Us Now

    39
    Details


  • 40
    Details

    dark ran ep10 thailand
    Dark Ran Online EP 10 FEATURES 8 Balanced Class Swordsman Brawler Shamman Archer Extreme Gunner Assasin Magician Hunt Your Own Items Starting Level 1 Cap LEvel 260 No Reborn Item Rebuild Card/ Dual Seal Card Item Link Dual Pet Skill Crafting System 15 Max Upgrade

    40
    Details


  • 41
    Details

    princnur.ph
    heloo po baguhan lng ako d2 sa ran online private server salamat po hoping sana mganda ang game nato

    41
    Details


  • 42
    Details

    Asterisk Ran Online
    Episode 10 – 9 Class – Max Level 300 – No Reborn – Skills up to 297 – Regen Base – Fast Paced Gaming – Hunt your Own Items – CW, Tyranny, CDM with Rewards – Daily Suryun / Unique Dungeons – Item Type/Build more info/gameplay just visit our website

    42
    Details


  • 43
    Details

    Cebes Ran Online Ep9
    Gear Score System Require exact gear score on SChool Wars and GOlden Eroom School Wars every 3 hours starting 1 am everyday 30 min Battle Time. Attendance System /move command ex: /move market /maplist displays map code

    43
    Details


  • 44
    Details

    Vladimir Ran Online EP7
    Vladimir Ran Online is a Classic Server that have 5 character class only. The exp and gold rate are low and also the server is updated. such as right click function,pk streak system ETC. So Come and Join US! Register and Download now!

    44
    Details


  • 45
    Details

    Fun Ran Episode IX The Uprising
    NEWLY OPEN SERVER,NO DONATION SERVER,24/7 ONLINE,7 CLASS SERVER, PK STREAK DOTA SYSTEM, MAX REBORN-125, OPEN ALL SKILLS 7 – 237, EVERYDAY CW, FREEBIES 3000 PREMIUM POINTS, PREMIUM SHOP IN-GAME, GAIN PREMIUM/WAR/GOLD POINTS INGAME WHILE PLAYING, FREE TO PLAY! COME AND JOIN US!

    45
    Details


  • 46
    Details

    Glory-Ran Online Classic Server
    4 Class Server = Balanced Gameplay = Lag Free = Dedicated Server = Hunt your own items = 200 Max Level [upto 250 Optional] = Last skill 167 = CLASSIC SERVER = HOPE YOU ENJOY

    46
    Details


  • 47
    Details

    Fury Ran Reloaded
    Fury Ran Reloaded -150 max lvl/127 max skill -4 balanced class -Hunt base/Quest base -Classic leveling -E-games Gameplay -E-points/E-cards/Vote points system

    47
    Details


  • 48
    Details

    Tula Ran Classic
    4 Class server / Cap level 135 / Drop rate x5 / Exp rate x5 / classic gaming quest base server hunt items.

    48
    Details


  • 49
    Details

    Ran 2006 Gameplay EP1
    4 Classic Server Ep1 Gameplay 135 max level 127 skills only +9 upgrade Hunt and Quest Mode up too Prison Map Gametime / Vote points and E-Points Classic CW and 2 PVP Event on July 2017

    49
    Details


  • 50
    Details

    Ran Reborn The best of private server
    The best of ran private server, latest item mob and system. have many items from other games and cartoon animation

    50
    Details


Pages: 1-50 | 51-100 | 101-150 | 151-200


Techtoniks | Ran Online Extreme Fist Weapons and Skill Linking – Techtoniks

Techtoniks

Ran Online Extreme Fist Weapons and Skill Linking


July 8, 2015
Comments Closed
16630 views
MagicBabe Game Guides , Ran Online

I see lots and lots of extreme characters in game. The first mistake comes from nerfing your own extreme character with only 1 skill tree/stat type build. The next mistake is that I also see many not even remotely coming close to using skill links. Then to top it off for mistakes, players have been using 2 weapons.

Ok, what’s wrong with these things?

Contents

  • 1 Ok, what’s wrong with these things?
  • 2 Extreme Fist Weapons
  • 3 Skill Linking
  • Only using 1 build/skill tree. It’s much more convenient, but it defeats the purpose of having an extreme character right from the start. They were meant to go “hybrid” right from the very start. That’s why you have extreme fist weapons!! In only using one type, you completely lose the skill links. You’d have no chance at it whatsoever.
  • No skill links. Again, it’s a great way to nerf your own character!! Sure, the extreme characters still have plenty in the way of attacks and effects. So why did you waste the extras that come with it?!!
  • Two different weapons. That turned out to be a great way to completely waste your own time and money if you didn’t loot your own weapons since the stats don’t stack!! When you have 2 different weapons for your extreme character, it will auto switch them as needed. But when the extreme fist weapons came out, there was no further need to do so. In the case of Int + Dex weapons such as a bow or gun and a spear, you’ll need ammunition (ammo). Very effective at using up more inventory space when you didn’t have to.

Extreme Fist Weapons

Check out the screen shots below.

Forbidden Mighty Fist +4 Sanguine Nimble Fist N Banish Bizarre Fist Banish Mighty Fist Black Dragon Bizzare Fist

With these weapons, switching is done automatically as though you have the actual weapon. But when you look closer at the descriptions, you’ll see that Weapon type is just question marks. What this means is that there is no type check. So for ALL the extreme skills that require Fist as the weapon (ALL of them do!!), these are the weapons it refers to. Not brawler weapons that say “fist” as their weapon type. Note: those weapons do work on the Pow Type brawler skills. With these weapons, you have the use and full attack range of each and every skill the extreme character can offer. With these weapons, you can hybrid with up to 4 skill trees across 2 build types and include skills from ETC. Also note, these weapons do not require ammo and they’ll actually switch GRAPHICALLY to mimic the needed weapon.

Now check the weapons themselves. See the difference between the Banish fists and other fists here? The Black Dragon, Sanguine, and Forbidden extreme fist weapons all give extra stats much more in comparisons to the standard (NON- (N) type) weapons. Compare the Banish fists with the Sanguine fist. When the (N) is there, you get the extra options as showing at the bottom of the Sanguine fist description. So without the (N) or without a title, they’re primarily useless and you’re losing stats and options to make your extreme character stronger.

Each weapon is as follows:

  • Nimble Fist. This is for Dex + Int extreme characters. You’ll always get +Shooting and +Energy.
  • Mighty Fist. This is for Pow + Dex extreme characters. You’ll always get +Melee and +Shooting.
  • Bizarre Fist. This is for Pow + Int extreme characters. You’ll always get +Melee and +Energy.

No matter which way you try to think of something new, this always covers everything an extreme character can handle for each build. Remember, you can mix and match skills from the skill trees, up to 4, for each of the 2 builds available on each weapon. For examples, you can have skills from both sides of Int, and both sides of Dex all at the same time. You can have skills from Dex gunner only and Int assassin only if you wanted to. You could have skills from Pow swordsman and both sides of Dex all at the same time. Knock yourself out!!

Skill Linking

No, this doesn’t mean it will open your default browser and show you a web page based on what you used to attack!! This does mean you can gain extra effects and/or damage if you used the named skill first. See the screen shots.

Extreme Skill Linking 4 Extreme Skill Linking 1 Extreme Skill Linking 2 Extreme Skill Linking 3

Of course, these are just some examples. But you’ll get the idea.

Some skills have 1 extra effect and the others have 2 extras in total. They’ll all stack with the effects of the main skill description. The difference is that one of them is the Link effect. Check out the screen shot of Hurricane Blades. You have 2 effects with that skill. You can tell which is which by reading the yellow colored part of the skill description. In this case, Specular Surface is the Link effect. That’s how the Link skills work. The yellow colored descriptions are naming the trigger skills that activate the Link effect.

Each Link effect has 3 possible trigger skills. Simply use the named skill before the skill with a Link in it to get the extra effect. So in the case of Hurricane Blades you have Poison Smoke, Ignito, and Explosive Blast. When you check the description of Explosive Blast, you’ll see it has no Link effect. However, it is the trigger for other Link effects. Even if it was another Link effect, simply use the named trigger skill before it. But directly after using Explosive Blast, anything else that uses it as a trigger can also be activated. Note the cool downs of the skills.

Linking skills is similar to combo moves. But the difference is that combo moves are done in very rapid succession. Linked skills allow you a few short seconds to get the effect(s). Typically, you’ll have until the duration of the trigger skill effect or just a few short seconds to get the Link skill effect. When you look at Hurricane Blades, you see the extra effect Rapid Speed. That is always going to activate as long as the skill doesn’t miss. So take that into account. If you miss the attack, the Link effect is not going to activate.

In the case where the trigger also has a Link effect, you simply use its named trigger skill first. Then it will all stack. Look at Infection and Yellow Tremor. Use Sector Slash to trigger Infection and then Infection to trigger Yellow Tremor. So all together, you’ll have the standard effects of all three skills based on their descriptions + a stun + 50% extra defense for 3 seconds in the example of these 3 skills. Just remember that some effects manage to cancel out others, some stack and some have a higher casting time than others. So test them first.

If you have any questions, comments, and/or requests, please post them in the Ran Online Techtoniks Forums .



Post Views:
16,630
Ran Online Extreme Fist Weapons and Skill Linking


By MagicBabe

Just a gamer girl !!

Most Viewed Posts


  • Ran Online Unstoppable Assassin

    Ran Online The Unstoppable Assassin Guide (28,030)

  • Ran Online

    Ran Online The Re-made Gold Gaining Tactics (26,393)

  • Ran Online

    Ran Online GS Swordsman Guide (23,408)

  • VR Headset Front Closed

    VR Box 2.0 Android Guide (20,509)

  • crasher

    Crasher beginners guide (19,229)

Recent Posts

  • Battlegrounds – PUBG Jeep Knock and Kill DVR
  • PLAYERUNKNOWN’S BATTLEGROUNDS: Double kill | Shot with GeForce GTX
  • Battlegrounds – PUBG Double kill Squad Avenged
  • Heroes Evolved Android Gameplay Nosferatu
  • Bloons Tower Defense 5 Android Gameplay

Sign In

Lost Password

Sign In

FANDOM

  • Sign In

  • Dont have an account?

    Register

Start a Wiki

Advertisement

RAN Samba Wiki

RAN Samba Wiki
162
Pages

Add new page

in:

Ran Extreme Skills

List of Extreme Skills

View source

  • History

Comments

Share


This is a list of all the skills available for the Extreme class.

Main Articles:

List of Swordman Extreme Skills

List of Brawler Extreme Skills

List of Archer Extreme Skills

List of Shaman Extreme Skills

Retrieved from ” http://ran-samba.wikia.com/wiki/List_of_Extreme_Skills?oldid=4608 “


Gamer Movie


Deadpool 2


Honest Trailers

How to Be a Good Friend (with Tips and Examples)

research

  • MESSAGES

  • LOG IN

    Log in

    FacebookLoading…
    GoogleLoading…
    CivicLoading…

    wikiHow Account
    No account yet? Create an account
  • EXPLORE

    Community Dashboard Random Article About Us Categories Recent Changes
  • HELP US

    Write an Article Request a New Article Answer a Request More Ideas…
  • EDIT

    Edit this Article

wikiHow logo

We use cookies to make wikiHow great. By using our site, you agree to our cookie policy .
Okay
&#10006
  • Home
  • » Categories
  • » Youth
  • » Social Interactions for Youth
Edit Article

How to Be a Good Friend

Five Parts: Becoming a Good Friend Being Trustworthy Remembering to Include Your Friends Being Supportive Making Your Friendship Last Community Q&A

Being a good friend isn’t always easy, but taking the time to nurture a lasting friendship is worth every ounce of effort. Cultivating meaningful and lasting friendships enrich life immensely. Good friendships provide us strength, happiness, and meaning in ways that social media or striving for popularity cannot. All true friendships are built on mutual trust and support. So whether you’re looking to make new, quality friendships or improve your existing ones, there are mindsets that you can adopt and actions that you can take to be a good friend to others.

Steps

Becoming a Good Friend

Part 1

Being Trustworthy

  1. Image titled Be a Good Friend Step 1

    1
    Keep your promises. Don’t ever make a promise that you can’t keep — or at least don’t make a habit of it. If you say you’ll hang out with a friend and a legitimate conflict arises, explain the situation and trust that the friendship is strong enough for the no’s as well as the yes’s. If you just cannot go, give your friend a gift and tell him or her sorry. Nobody’s perfect, and it’s okay if you skip out on a promise once in a blue moon, but don’t make it a regular thing. If this is recurring over time, then you will probably be seen as not trustworthy as you can not be trusted to be committed to someone such as your friend.

    • When you make a serious promise, look at your friend in the eyes and speak slowly to show that you mean it instead of just saying it because you think that you should. Do not break any such promise, as that will hurt your friend.It might even break your friendship!
  2. Image titled Be a Good Friend Step 2

    2
    Be dependable. Being dependable is one of the most important aspects of being a good friend. Your friend will need you for support, especially in hard times. Nobody likes a fake, and nobody wants one for a close friend. It’s hard to rely on a person who doesn’t behave in a consistent and trustworthy way. We all know well-intentioned but flaky people who say, “Okay, I will…” but never follow through. If that’s you, know that you’re eroding your friends’ trust; eventually, they’ll stop believing what you say.

    • If you’re not sure you can do something, don’t agree to do it and flake out later. Instead, be honest about the fact that you’re not sure if you can make it.
    • Your friends should always feel like they can count on you, even when the going gets tough. If you’re only there for the fun times, you’ll be no more than a fair-weather friend.
  3. Image titled Be a Good Friend Step 3

    3
    Apologize when you’ve made a mistake. If you want your friends to trust you, then you can’t act like you’re flawless. If you know you’ve made a mistake, own up to it instead of being in denial. Though your friends won’t be happy that you made a mistake, they’ll be very pleased that you’re mature and grounded enough to admit it instead of just pretending that nothing is wrong, or worse — blaming it on someone else.

    • When you say sorry, you should mean it. Let your friends hear the sincerity in your voice instead of thinking that you don’t care how they feel.
  4. Image titled Be a Good Friend Step 4

    4
    Be honest. If you want to be a good friend and to have people trust you, then you have to be honest about your feelings, about your friends’ actions, and about how you feel about your friendship. If you’re honest about how you feel, that will open up direct lines of communication with your friends and will make them more likely to open up to you. If your friend hurt you, don’t be afraid to talk about it; if something is upsetting you, don’t feel too shy to open up to your friend about it.

    • Being honest is different from being so blunt that you’re hurting your friends. If you think your friend has a drinking problem, for example, then you owe it to your friend to start a conversation about it. But if you think your friend looks kind of weird in her new dress, you may want to keep your mouth shut.
    • Be real. Connect with people whom you value on a deep level if you want to have sustainable, long-term friendships. Invest in people you can be yourself around. If your behavior lacks sincerity, your friendship won’t last.
  5. Image titled Be a Good Friend Step 5

    5
    Don’t use people. If one of your friends suspects that you’re just using them, then they’ll drop you like a hot potato. Good friendships don’t arise from hoping someone else’s popularity or networks will rub off on you. If you’re trying to be friends with a person just to get into a certain clique, that’s not friendship – it’s opportunism – and eventually, the shallow nature of your involvement will reveal itself.

    • And if you have a reputation of using people, then new people won’t be too excited to start a friendship with you.
    • A friendship is about giving and taking. Sure, it may be convenient that one of your friends gives you a ride to school every day, but make sure that you do something for that friend in return.
  6. Image titled Be a Good Friend Step 6

    6
    Be loyal . If your friend tells you something in confidence, keep it and don’t talk about it with anyone else, just as you’d expect your friend to do for you. Don’t discuss your friend behind his or her back, and don’t spread rumors about the confidences they’ve imparted to you. Never say anything about your friend that you would not be prepared to repeat to their face. Be loyal to your true friends and be prepared to defend them if your new friends, or people you barely know, start gossiping about them.

    • Part of being loyal is understanding the importance of a long-lasting and stable friendship. Don’t throw all that away just to spend all your time hanging out with your new boyfriend or girlfriend or a cool new person you just met.
    • If you have a reputation for being a blabbermouth or a gossip, then your friends will quickly find out and they’ll be hesitant to reveal anything personal to you in the future — or even to spend much time with you at all.
    • Don’t let others say bad things about your friend, either. Until you’ve had a chance to hear your friend’s side of the story, treat comments that are not supportive as hearsay and rumors. If someone says something that shocks you and doesn’t seem like a thing your friend would do or say, then respond with something like, “I know them, and that doesn’t sound right. Let me talk to them; find out his/her perspective on this. Until then, I would appreciate it if you didn’t spread that around.”
  7. Image titled Be a Good Friend Step 7

    7
    Be respectful. Good friends show respect for each other by being openly and mutually supportive. If your friend has certain values and beliefs that don’t align with your own, respect his or her choices and be open to hearing more about them. If you want your friend to trust you, then your friend should feel comfortable voicing opinions that you may not agree with, or discussing a new perspective with you. If your friend thinks that you’ll shoot down any interesting or original idea that they may have, then your friendship won’t be valued.

    • Sometimes your friend will say things that you find boring, uncomfortable or annoying, but if you have respect for your friend, you’ll give your friend the space to speak, and to do so without judgment.
    • During times when you don’t see eye to eye with your friend, disagree respectfully and be willing to see things differently.

Part 2

Remembering to Include Your Friends

  1. 1
    Do not let your friends feel left out, ever. This is a short but essential part of being a good friend. Never let your friends feel left out. Just because you get a boyfriend or start dating doesn’t mean that they’re past you! Always remember: When your crush ends up dating someone else, your friends will be there for you. When you suffer from heartbreak, your friends will be there for you. When the cool people in class turn everyone against you, your friends will be there for you. Remember to be there for them too!

Part 3

Being Supportive

  1. Image titled Be a Good Friend Step 8

    1
    Be selfless. Though you can’t be selfless all the time, being selfless is an important part of being a good friend. Accommodate your friend’s wishes whenever you can, provided this is done in a balanced way. Reciprocate his or her acts of kindness with caring deeds of your own, and your friendship will be strengthened. If you get a reputation for being selfish and only being around your friends when you need some help, then people will know you’re not looking out for them.

    • Do a favor for your friend just out of the goodness of your heart, not because you want something in return.
    • There’s a difference between being selfless at the right time and letting people walk all over you. If you feel like you’re always helping your friends and get nothing back, then you may have a problem.
    • Don’t abuse generosity or wear out your welcome. When your friend does something nice for you, reciprocate quickly. Return any money you borrow promptly. Go home when it seems like the time is right.
  2. Image titled Be a Good Friend Step 9

    2
    Be a good listener. Don’t monopolize conversations, but rather take the time to truly understand and support your friend when they are talking to you. It sounds simple, but make sure you’re listening as much as you’re talking about yourself. If you’re monopolizing every conversation with your feelings, your friend isn’t getting anything out of the relationship. Listening opens space between the two of you and reassures your friend that you care.

    • If you’re just waiting for your friend to finish talking so you can say what you want to say, it’ll be obvious right away.
    • Try to strike a balance of letting your friend talk about half of the time. Though some people are shyer than others, if your friend feels like they can’t get a word in when they’re around you, it’ll be hard to have a healthy, two-sided friendship.
    • If you accidentally interrupt, say something like, “Oh-I’m sorry,go on.”
  3. Image titled Be a Good Friend Step 10

    3
    Help your friends deal with their struggles. To be truly supportive, you’ll have to be able to watch out for your friends when they’re having a tough time. If you sense that your friend is getting into some sort of trouble over which they have little control, such as taking drugs, being promiscuous, or getting too drunk at a party, help him or her get away from the situation by not being afraid to speak up about it.

    • Don’t assume that your friend can handle it alone; this may be the very time that your voice of common sense is needed to wake them from their fugue. If you see a problem, speak up, no matter how awkward you may feel.
    • Let your friend know that you can give him a shoulder to cry on during this tough time. If your friend feels less alone, it’ll be easier for them to deal with their troubles.
    • If all your friend wants to do about the problem is to talk, that’s fine at first, but you should help your friend find practical solutions to his problems.
    • For example, if your friend admitted to having an eating disorder and simply promises to start eating more, you need to talk about taking more serious measures to address the problem, like talking to a health professional.
  4. Image titled Be a Good Friend Step 11

    4
    Be there in a time of crisis. If your friend has to go to the hospital, visit. If their dog runs away, help to find it. If they need someone to pick them up, be there. Take notes for your friend in school when they’re absent. Send cards and care packages when you’re living far apart. If there is a death in their family, attend the funeral. Let your friend see that they can count on you any time.

    • Just make sure that your friend isn’t always in the middle of some kind of crisis, however contrived it may be. You should be there to help out during the hard times, but that can’t be the basis of your whole relationship.
    • Part of being there for your friend in a crisis is providing emotional support, too. Care about your friend enough to help them open up and let the tears roll. Hand them a tissue and listen openly. You don’t have to say anything if nothing seems right; just stay calm and reassuring.
    • If your friend is going through a crisis, don’t say, “Everything is going to be all right” if it’s not going to be. It’s hard not to say that sometimes, but false reassurance can often be worse than none. Instead, let your friend know you are there for them. Stay honest, but upbeat and positive.
    • If your friend begins talking about committing suicide , tell someone about it. This rule overrides the “respect privacy” step, because even if your friend begs you not to tell anyone, you should do it anyway. Suggest a helpline or professional to your friend. Talk to your and your friend’s parents or spouse (unless they are the ones causing the problems) before involving anyone else.
  5. Image titled Be a Good Friend Step 12

    5
    Give thoughtful advice . To be a good friend, you should be able to weigh your friend’s situation from his or her perspective and to provide your opinion without insisting that your friend should do whatever you say. Don’t judge your friend; simply advise them when they reach out.

    • Avoid giving unsought for advice. Allow venting where needed and be willing to offer advice if it’s clear that it’s sought. Always ask before assuming you can give advice.
    • In some cases, a friend could use a little bit of tough love to keep them out of a dangerous situation. Use discretion here; you don’t want to lecture or overwhelm your friend. Tell them how you perceive the situation using factual information, and suggest what you might do in the same circumstances.
  6. Image titled Be a Good Friend Step 13

    6
    Give your friend some space when they need it. Part of being supportive means supporting the fact that your friend won’t always want to spend time with you. Learn to step back and give your friend space. Understand if your friend wants to be alone or to hang out with other people. There’s no need to become clingy or needy. If you’re clingy and check in with your friend every two seconds if they aren’t around, you’ll start to look like a possessive significant other, and that will not be appreciated.

    • Don’t get jealous if your friend has lots of other friends. Every relationship is special and different, and that doesn’t mean that your friend doesn’t appreciate you.
    • Allowing one another the time to hang with other friends gives you much-needed breathing room, and allows you to come together fresh and appreciating each other even more.

Part 4

Making Your Friendship Last

  1. Image titled Be a Good Friend Step 14

    1
    Learn to forgive. If you want your friendship to last, then you should be able to forgive your friend and to move forward. If you hold a grudge and let your bitterness and resentment build up, then you won’t be able to move forward. Recognize that nobody’s perfect and that if your friend is sincerely sorry and if they didn’t do something too horrible, that you should move past it.

    • If your friend really did do something so unforgivable that you just can’t get past it, then it’s better to move on than to try to save the friendship when it’s doomed. But this should happen very rarely.
    • If you’re angry at your friend but won’t tell them why you’ll never be able to forgive them if you don’t talk about it.
  2. Image titled Be a Good Friend Step 15

    2
    Accept your friend for who they are. To make your friendship thrive, you shouldn’t try to change your friend or make your friend see the world from your perspective. If you’re conservative and your friend is liberal, then accept that instead of trying to argue about it all the time. You should appreciate the fresh perspective your friend can bring to your experiences instead of wanting your friend to see everything from your perspective.

    • The more you are with one another, the less you idealize each other and the more you accept one another for who you really are. This is what being a truly good friend is really about — caring deeply for each other, even if you know you’re both full of flaws.
  3. Image titled Be a Good Friend Step 16

    3
    Go beyond the call of duty. A friend will wait while you do your homework. A great friend stays up all night helping. Remember that if you are a good friend, people want to be a good friend to you. Recognize the moments when you need to go above and beyond to help your friend and know that this will make your friendship grow, and that your friend will do the same for you in return.

    • If your friend really needs you and keeps saying, “No, you don’t have to do that…” learn to read between the lines and know that your friend really does need you.
  4. Image titled Be a Good Friend Step 17

    4
    Stay in touch no matter what. As the years pass, people tend to grow apart. Maybe you and a friend will move to different places and only see each other every once in a while. Sometimes years may elapse without much contact. If you never stop caring about your friend, speak up. They will be happy to hear from you. You were friends for a reason in the past, and you may find the same bond still ties you together.

    • Don’t let your location determine the strength of your bond. If your friendship is meaningful, then it should keep growing even if you’re an ocean apart.
    • Make a goal of having monthly phone or Skype dates with your friend even if you’re in a completely different time zone. If keeping up with your friend becomes a routine, your relationship will continue to thrive.
  5. Image titled Be a Good Friend Step 18

    5
    Let your friendship evolve. If you want to be a good friend, then you have to understand that your friendship won’t be the same in high school, college, or in the adult world. Sure, when you were fourteen, you might have spent all of your time with your best friend, but by the time you went off to separate colleges or started your serious relationships, you naturally spent less time talking. This doesn’t mean that your friendship isn’t as strong; it just means that your lives are evolving, and your friendship is taking on a different shape over the years.

    • Don’t try to make your friendship be exactly the same as it was ten years ago. Think of it as elastic, not solid.
    • If your friend is married with kids or even just in a serious relationship, and you’re not, be respectful of the fact that, while your friend cares for you, they won’t be on call 24/7 like they used to be.
    • Appreciate the changes your friendship has made over the years, and learn to grow along with your relationship.

Community Q&A

Search

  • Question
    How do I turn a bad friend into a good friend?
    wikiHow Contributor
    Community Answer

    Be a good role model for your friend and express openly the good things that your virtues bring into your life. Tell your friend that you’re always there for them and that you know there is a really good person inside them and it’s okay to let that show more.
    Thanks!

    Yes
    No
    Not Helpful 23
    Helpful 253

  • Question
    Why is friendship so important?
    wikiHow Contributor
    Community Answer

    Friendship is important because the human being is a social animal and needs friends to talk to, spend time with and to be supported by. In turn, it is great to be able to support, listen to and help others you know you can trust deeply. Friends are people who are there for you and prove it time and again. Friendship gives you strengths that you cannot derive merely from being alone.
    Thanks!

    Yes
    No
    Not Helpful 43
    Helpful 235

  • Question
    What do you do when your friend is gas lighting you?
    wikiHow Contributor
    Community Answer

    Gas lighting refers to the act of the abuser denying the victim’s reality. It is good that you’ve recognized this is happening. The next step is to tell your friend that it was nice knowing them but that you’re leaving to find a friend who treats you with respect, kindness and loyalty. And don’t look back, as hard as it may seem, it’s a lot harder to have someone constantly deny your perspective and reality.
    Thanks!

    Yes
    No
    Not Helpful 35
    Helpful 171

  • Question
    I talk too much about a topic and I am starting to think that this is breaking our friendship. What should I do?
    wikiHow Contributor
    Community Answer

    It does seem you already know – you’ve identified the problem as talking single-mindedly about one topic. The answer is to stop going on about that one thing. It annoys most people when they hear nothing but one topic, it gets old, annoying and it sounds obsessive. Broaden your topics and if you are still needing to discuss that topic, talk to a parent, sibling or your therapist instead.
    Thanks!

    Yes
    No
    Not Helpful 41
    Helpful 172

Ask a Question

200 characters left

Include your email address to get a message when this question is answered.

Submit

  • Already answered
  • Not a question
  • Bad question
  • Other

    Quick Summary

    To be a good friend, keep promises to show that you’re trustworthy. Moreover, be dependable by following through on what you say you’ll do, especially when your friend is going through a hard time. If you’re not sure if you can do something, be honest rather than let your friend down. Also, if you want your friend to trust you, own your mistakes and apologize when necessary. Finally, when you don’t see eye to eye, disagree respectfully and without judgement.

    Did this summary help you?

    Tips

    • Accept your friend’s decisions. You may not completely agree on them but letting them know you’re there for them is enough.
    • Don’t try to be the same as your friend – differences are what make great friends. Plus, it can get irritating. Embrace your differences and be proud of them! Do make sure not to be so different that your friendship breaks.
    • Tell your friend how much you appreciate their company or how they were with you when you needed them. It will brighten up their day and affirm your friendship.
    • Honest communication is a basic foundation in a friendship. If you and your friend can’t talk to each other freely then you are set up for a difficult and possibly doomed relationship.
    • You don’t have to spend a lot of time and money to be a good friend. The best gifts are often handmade and come from the heart. A phone call can mean as much as a visit.
    • Enjoy one another’s company. It’s not all about bleeding hearts and advice to the lovelorn – or at least, it shouldn’t be. Be sure to have fun together and do spontaneous activities now and then. Be a positive force in your friend’s life.
    • A friend who is only available at school or work is still a friend. Be very glad for that special kind of friendship associated with the place where you share time together.
    • If your friend makes a promise and doesn’t keep it then don’t do the same to them or you will keep repeating the pattern.
    • Don’t set too many expectations and rules. Allow your friendship to evolve and change naturally.
    • Tease friends about something they’re proud of. The better you know your friend, the easier it is to find the things they’re sensitive about and use teasing to pick them up instead of tearing them down.
    • Be there for your friend during hard times
    • Don’t worry so much about losing your friend, but appreciate the times that you have had with them and the ones are still going to have!
    • Always at least try to help; if you can’t then keep trying! Friends always like it when you try to help even if it’s nearly impossible.
    • Root for your friend! Congratulate him or her on something good, and mean it! If you are envious, swallow it for the sake of being a good friend. A true friend is there in bad times, holding you up, but also rooting for you during good times.
    • If your friend doesn’t want to forgive you, tell her the truth about why you did something, and whether it was a mistake or not.
    • If you make a mistake unknowingly and your friend is not talking to you then say sorry. Don’t think that he/she is wrong, be first to say sorry.
    • Always include your friend, or it will make them upset if you don’t. They may ditch you to a hang out with different friend, or just tag along in the back.
    • If you’re trustworthy your friends will rely on you and you will get to know them more, and possibly become their best friend.
    • Always show your awareness of money spent on your behalf. Show your joyful willingness to give gas money, bring household goods if they host often, etc.
    • If your friend has another friend that you dislike, don’t be rude to your friend’s friend. Even if you don’t think your friend will find out, it’s quite possible your friend will hear about it.
    • Listen to each other and keep secrets.
    • If something is bothering you, talk to your friend. Communication is key.
    • Don’t be jealous, if they are doing good. Be proud of them.
    • Make them laugh when they’re feeling down.
    • Do not text or call your friend every hour of the day. They will become annoyed and may not respond when you are calling about something that is actually important.
    • Always try to be inclusive. Don’t leave a friend alone.

    Warnings

    • No one likes an insulting friend, so be careful when you tease them! If your friend asks you to stop, heed the request and stop right away. Otherwise you will end up with no one.
    • If your friend is starting to make new friends, don’t turn jealous. No one likes a jealous friend. Have faith in your friendship. However, if your friend is ignoring you because of this friend, talk to them about it. They have no right to ditch their best friend.
    • If your friend doesn’t treat you well while you treat them well, then there’s no reason to stay friends. Don’t stay close friends with anyone who doesn’t treat you well.
    • If a friend is friends with someone else that you don’t feel right about, talk to him/her about it. That could also save them from making a mistake, and you from a bad friendship!
    • When spending time with your friend, whether having a meal together or just hanging out, both of you should turn your cell phones off. It’s very off-putting to have a conversation constantly interrupted by a ringing phone. He or she may feel that you’re not paying attention to them or don’t value your time together.
    • Don’t share your feelings when you know the person can’t be trusted because she/he might use it against you someday.
    • Don’t talk about things that may make your friend uncomfortable. Nobody wants to be around an uncomfortable person. For example, if your friend’s relative just passed away, don’t talk about something surrounding death. (Note: It’s OK to ask about her feelings about the death. Maybe she wants help surrounding the situation. It’s not good to just ignore it.)

    Edit Related wikiHows

    Convince Your Parents That Your Friends Are Good People

    How to

    Convince Your Parents That Your Friends Are Good People

    Socialize, Be Funny and Make Friends

    How to

    Socialize, Be Funny and Make Friends

    Become Sociable

    How to

    Become Sociable

    Win Friends

    How to

    Win Friends

    Be Friends with Guys

    How to

    Be Friends with Guys

    Decide if Your Friend is a True Friend

    How to

    Decide if Your Friend is a True Friend

    Find a True Friend

    How to

    Find a True Friend

    Know when It's Time to Find New Friends

    How to

    Know when It’s Time to Find New Friends

    Reconcile a Friendship

    How to

    Reconcile a Friendship

    Have Your "Me" Time

    How to

    Have Your “Me” Time

    Not Be Controlled by Your Best Friend

    How to

    Not Be Controlled by Your Best Friend

    Make Friends

    How to

    Make Friends

    Find Out Whether a Girl Loves You or Is Just Being a Good Friend

    How to

    Find Out Whether a Girl Loves You or Is Just Being a Good Friend

    Talk to Girls as a Teen Boy

    How to

    Talk to Girls as a Teen Boy

    Made Recently

    View more (9 total)

    Uploaded 6 months ago
    Uploaded 12 months ago
    Uploaded 1 year ago
    Uploaded 2 years ago
    Uploaded 2 years ago
    Loading…
    Add a photo

    Upload error

    Awesome picture! Tell us more about it? Click here to share your story.

    Article Info

    Categories: Social Interactions for Youth

    In other languages:

    Italiano:  Essere un Buon Amico , Español:  ser un buen amigo , Português:  Ser um Bom Amigo , Français:  être un bon ami , Deutsch:  Ein guter Freund sein , Русский:  быть хорошим другом , Nederlands:  Een goede vriend zijn , 中文:  做一位好朋友 , Čeština:  Jak být dobrým přítelem , Bahasa Indonesia:  Menjadi Teman yang Baik , ไทย:  เป็นเพื่อนที่ดี , Tiếng Việt:  Làm một người bạn tốt , العربية:  أن تكون صديقا صالحا , 한국어:  좋은 친구가 되는 법 , हिन्दी:  एक अच्छे फ्रेंड (मित्र) बनें (Be a Good Friend)

    • Print
    • Edit
    • Send fan mail to authors

    Thanks to all authors for creating a page that has been read 2,066,638 times.

    Did this article help you?


     

    Cookies make wikiHow better. By continuing to use our site, you agree to our cookie policy .
    87% of readers found this article helpful.

    99 votes – 87%

    Click a star to add your vote
    87% of people told us that this article helped them.

    Co-authors: 313
    Updated:
    Views: 2,066,638

    Quick Tips

    Related Articles

    Convince Your Parents That Your Friends Are Good People

    How to

    Convince Your Parents That Your Friends Are Good People

    Socialize, Be Funny and Make Friends

    How to

    Socialize, Be Funny and Make Friends

    Become Sociable

    How to

    Become Sociable

    Win Friends

    How to

    Win Friends

    Did this article help you?

    Yes

    No

    Thanks for letting us know.

    • Home
    • About wikiHow
    • Jobs
    • Terms of Use
    • Site Map
    • Mobile view


    The way to Create the Controversy Essay

    research

    The Social Science Research Council
    The Social Science Research Council

    Publications

    Minerva Controversy Essay Forum

    Albro, Robert (Contributor), Asher, Thomas (Contributor), Bracken, Paul (Contributor), Corona, Victor P. (Contributor), Devji, Faisal (Contributor), Engerman, David C. (Contributor), Eskander, Saad (Contributor), Gearty, Conor (Contributor), Gusterson, Hugh (Contributor), Joxe, Alain (Contributor), Krebs, Ronald R. (Contributor), Lutz, Catherine (Contributor), Mahnken, Tom (Contributor), Nugent, David (Contributor), Robin, Ron (Contributor), Roxborough, Ian (Contributor), Satia, Priya (Contributor) and Tirman, John (Contributor)
    The Department of Defense recently announced the creation of the Minerva Research Initiative (PDF), also known as Project Minerva, providing as much as $75 million over five years to support social science research on areas of strategic importance to U.S. national security policy. The initiative indicates a renewal of interest in social science findings after a prolonged period of neglect, but it also prompts concerns about the appropriate relationship between university-based research programs and the state, especially when research might become a tool of not only governance but also military violence. The Social Science Research Council (SSRC) has invited prominent scholars to speak to the questions raised by Project Minerva and to address the controversy it has sparked in academic quarters.
    Title
    Minerva Controversy Essay Forum
    Author
    Albro, Robert (Contributor), Asher, Thomas (Contributor), Bracken, Paul (Contributor), Corona, Victor P. (Contributor), Devji, Faisal (Contributor), Engerman, David C. (Contributor), Eskander, Saad (Contributor), Gearty, Conor (Contributor), Gusterson, Hugh (Contributor), Joxe, Alain (Contributor), Krebs, Ronald R. (Contributor), Lutz, Catherine (Contributor), Mahnken, Tom (Contributor), Nugent, David (Contributor), Robin, Ron (Contributor), Roxborough, Ian (Contributor), Satia, Priya (Contributor) and Tirman, John (Contributor)
    Published
    Social Science Research Council, 2008
    On the web
    Minerva Controversy Essay Forum
    Citation
    Minerva Controversy Essay Forum,
    Albro, Robert (Contributor), Asher, Thomas (Contributor), Bracken, Paul (Contributor), Corona, Victor P. (Contributor), Devji, Faisal (Contributor), Engerman, David C. (Contributor), Eskander, Saad (Contributor), Gearty, Conor (Contributor), Gusterson, Hugh (Contributor), Joxe, Alain (Contributor), Krebs, Ronald R. (Contributor), Lutz, Catherine (Contributor), Mahnken, Tom (Contributor), Nugent, David (Contributor), Robin, Ron (Contributor), Roxborough, Ian (Contributor), Satia, Priya (Contributor) and Tirman, John (Contributor)
    (New York: Social Science Research Council, 2008), http://essays.ssrc.org/minerva/ .

    Our site uses cookies to enhance your browsing experience. By continuing to use our site you give us permission to deploy cookies per our privacy and cookies policy .

    Ikanafinitetech – Essay And Cover Letter

    Controversy Essay

    Controversial Historical Essay Topics Reportz Web Fc Comcontroversial Historical Essay Topics

    controversial history essay topics controversial history essay controversial historical essay topics reportz web fc comcontroversial historical essay topics

    Thesis Statement For Descriptive Essay Gxart Orgsample Essays Written In Third Person Descriptive Essay Scholarly

    sample essay thesis sample essay thesis statement gxart sample thesis statement for descriptive essay gxart orgsample essays written in third person descriptive essay scholarly

    Martha Stewart Weddings Design Sponge Daily Mail

    martha stewart controversy essay martha stewart weddings design sponge daily mail

    Tech Controversy

    46 controversial topics for argumentative essays com tech controversy

    Portada Del Libro De Ward Churchill 11 Attacks Essay Controversy

    resultados de la b uacute squeda por essay portada del libro de ward churchill 11 attacks essay controversy

    Amandine Mallen Paris Nike Shoe Factory Controversy Essays On Essay About High School Life Memories Essay

    essay for high school life amandine mallen paris nike shoe factory controversy essays on essay about high school life memories essay

    10 Controversial Essay Topics For 2016 Infographic

    controversial essay topics for 2016 infographic 10 controversial essay topics for 2016 infographic

    Ending A Essay

    ending a essay ending a essay essay ending a essay gxart ending ending a essay

    Research Proposal Essay Topics

    controversial topics research paper english essays topics research proposal essay topics

    Business Ethics Case Studywhen

    study essay essay review study case study essay writing business ethics case studywhen

    Pomo 1116 Springwater Essay Xbnpde

    was the springwater corridor doomed to controversy from the start pomo 1116 springwater essay xbnpde

    Controversial Essays Examplesdbq Essay Sample Dbq Essay Example Metapod My Doctor Says Resume Examples Essay

    formal essay example essay formal essay writing how to start a controversial essays examplesdbq essay sample dbq essay example metapod my doctor says resume examples essay

    Text In Context Essay Examplesexample Page

    how to essay examples how to write an essay homework study tips text in context essay examplesexample page

    Essay On Research Paper And Commentary On Abortion Controversy

    research paper and commentary on abortion controversy at essay on research paper and commentary on abortion controversy

    Stem Cell Controversy Essay Essay Bookrags Com Stem Cell Controversy Essay Essay Bookrags Com

    stem cell essay pros and cons stem cell controversy essay essay bookrags com stem cell controversy essay essay bookrags com

    Art Art Arthur Controversy Controversy Essay Schopenhauer

    art art arthur controversy controversy essay schopenhauer art art arthur controversy controversy essay schopenhauer

    United Nations Security Council Resolution 242 And The Controversy Publish Your Master S Thesis Bachelor S Thesis Essay Or Term Paper

    united nations security council resolution 242 and the controversy united nations security council resolution 242 and the controversy publish your master s thesis bachelor s thesis essay or term paper

    Examples Of Problem Solution Essay Topics

    global warming controversy essay com examples of problem solution essay topics

    Portada Del Libro De Ward Churchill 11 Attacks Essay Controversy

    resultados de la b uacute squeda por essay portada del libro de ward churchill 11 attacks essay controversy

    Argumentative Essay About College Dnnd My Ip Meexamples Of Argumentative Essay Day Coessay Argumentative Argumentative Essay

    argumentative essay about college caaddcebcecf g argumentative argumentative essay about college dnnd my ip meexamples of argumentative essay day coessay argumentative argumentative essay

    Teacher Essaysessays Marked By Teachers Lowtax Resume Is Job General Essay Writing Tips Center International

    essays marked by teachers english descriptive writing gcse english teacher essaysessays marked by teachers lowtax resume is job general essay writing tips center international

    apology essay

    Essay About Soccer Is The Best Sport Carsimportant Values In Life Essay

    essay soccer essay about soccer gxart soccer essay titles essay about soccer is the best sport carsimportant values in life essay

    Art Art Arthur Controversy Controversy Essay Schopenhauer

    art art arthur controversy controversy essay schopenhauer art art arthur controversy controversy essay schopenhauer

    Pngessays On The Context Nature And Influence Of Isaac Newton S

    isaac newton essay g sir isaac newton essay gxart sir isaac pngessays on the context nature and influence of isaac newton s

    American History X Essay Odol My Ip Mecontroversy In The Film American History X Essay X Controversy

    american history x essay american history x essay odol ip american american history x essay odol my ip mecontroversy in the film american history x essay x controversy

    Stem Cell Research Controversy Essay Gxart Orgstem Cell Essaysstem Cell Research Paper Thesis United States

    stem cell research controversy essay stem cell research stem cell research controversy essay gxart orgstem cell essaysstem cell research paper thesis united states

    Narrative Essay Techniques Persuasive Techniques In Writing Ppt Persuasive Essay Techniques Persuasi

    persuasive essay techniques persuasive essay techniques gxart narrative essay techniques persuasive techniques in writing ppt persuasive essay techniques persuasi

    Beloved Critical Essaysbeloved Essay Topics Essay My Favourite Subject Articulation Cry The Beloved Country Essay Introduction

    beloved essays beloved essays gxart beloved critical essays beloved critical essaysbeloved essay topics essay my favourite subject articulation cry the beloved country essay introduction

    Related Post of controversy essay
    Cause Or Effect Essay Strategic Management Essays The Other Wes Moore Essay Boo Radley Essay Persuasive Essay Example Essay About Law Essay Teenage Pregnancy My Best Friend Short Essay Write An Essay For Me For Free Essay About World War 2 Discriptive Essay Example Essay My Role Model Edit An Essay Example Of A 500 Word Essay Essay On Most Memorable Moment Free Essay Online Capitalism Vs Communism Essay Analytical Analysis Essay Argumentative Essay Against Death Penalty Structured Essay American Government Essay Topics Education In Life Essays The Unknown Citizen Essay Spanish Essay Help Hypocrisy Essay Fifth Business Essays Social Imagination Essay Science Essay Questions Odysseus Hero Essay Discursive Essay Reality Tv Essays Essay On Child Labor College Essay Writing Help Professionalism Essays Two Kinds By Amy Tan Essay Essay On Power Of Positive Thinking Example Of Division And Classification Essay Types Of Friends Essay Proposal Essay Examples Personal Narrative Sample Essay Why I Need A Scholarship Essay Examples Interpersonal Communication Essay Topics Food Topics For Essays Moral Essay Writing For Life Paragraphs And Essays 123 Essays Online Essay My Hobby Term Paper Writing Service Expository Sample Flowers For Algernon Reviews Essay On My Life Types Of Internet Addiction Check Essay For Plagiarism Free Essays Online Uk Metaphor Essay Illiteracy In India Essay Personal Experience Essay Examples Essay On Vietnam War My Hobby Essay In English The Crucible Essays Photographic Essay Examples Sample Nursing Admission Essay Critical Essays On Pride And Prejudice Essay About Race Essays On Gangs Parenting Styles Essay Fiscal Policy Essay Pythagorean Theorem Essay Conclusion Of Romeo And Juliet Essay Essay Writing My Best Friend Essay On Alcohol Writing An Analytical Essay Sample Essays About Yourself Sample College Essays Life Experience Essay Examples A Good Leader Essay Essay On Polio Candide Essay Topics Compare Contrast Essay Template First Day In College Essay How To Title An Essay Persuasive Speech Sample High School Vs College Essay Compare And Contrast Respect Essays Texting While Driving Essays Essay Health Essay Editing Service Reviews How To Use Ethos Pathos And Logos In An Essay Rebuttal Essays Of Mice And Men Character Analysis Essay College Transfer Essay Example Career Choice Essay Essay Introduction Samples Human Rights Violations Essay True Friendship Definition Essay Essay Download Sample Essay Describe Yourself Essay On Importance Of Computer Education 500 Word Essay Format Single Parent Struggle Argumentative Essay Street Children Essay Boy Overboard Essay Electronic Media Essay Beowulf Hero Essay Symbolic Interactionism Essay Purpose Of An Essay Thesis Statement Argumentative Essay Essay Writting Service Topics For Definition Essays Essays On Literacy A Good Hook For An Essay Essay About Population Explosion Of Mice And Men Power Essay Things To Write A Persuasive Essay On Compare And Contrast 5 Paragraph Essay Hockey Essay Different Topics For Essays 100 Word Essay How To Write A Conclusion For An Essay Essay About College Education Topics For Psychology Papers Apa Essay Papers Essay About Gay Marriage Mary Wollstonecraft Essay Dulce Et Decorum Est Essays Writing An Introduction To An Essay How Do You Write A Scholarship Essay Advantages Of Cell Phones Essay Essay On Electronic Media Essays About Natural Disasters Essay Writing Topics For High School Students Introduction Essay Help English Essay Examples Robert Frost The Road Not Taken Essay Essays About Cell Phones Charles Dickens Essay The Great Gatsby Essay Topics Online Writers Jobs Essay On The Future Essay On Science And Religion Comparison Contrast Essay Topics Writting Essay Persuasive Essay Topics On Animals Leadership College Essay Essay Thesis Statement Essay Classification Essay About Television 1000 Word Essay On Responsibility Quotation Marks In Essays Informal Essay Outline What Should I Do My Powerpoint On Essay On The Media Example Of Essay Speech Descriptive Essay Examples Witness Essay High School Essay Format Essay For Population Persuasive Essay Hooks Examples Just Walk On By Essay Torture Essay Compare Contrast Example Essay Sociology Of The Internet The Green Mile Essay Alcohol Should Be Illegal Essay Essay On Human Evolution Deductive Argument Essay Written Papers Online Free Examples Of Contrast Essays Good Topics To Compare And Contrast Essays On Abortion Pro Life Essay On Old Age Homes Good Leader Essay Essay On Healthcare Cause Of The Civil War Essay Essay Writing Generator Social Class Essay Persuasive Adverts Examples Lewis And Clark Expedition Essay Mba Assignments Help Argumentative Essay Writer Proposal Essay Template Successful Essay Example Argumentative Essay Animal Testing Essay About Paper How To Write An Excellent Essay Different Types Of Argumentative Essays Essay Diagram Writing A Reflection Essay Pro Illegal Immigration Essay Sample 50 Shades Of Grey Giving Back To The Community Essay Rich Dad Poor Dad Essay Culture And Tradition Essay Urgent Essay Order Business Essay Essays Online To Read Thesis Statement For Argumentative Essay Funny Student Essays The Awakening Essay What Is An Analytical Essay Good Topics For Classification Essays Essay On Environment We Real Cool Essay Middle School Essay Outline Nan Wikipedia Persuasive Essay Topic Ideas Freelance Writers Online Accomplishments Essay Essay My First Day In School Argumentative Essay Refutation Essay Example Best Essay Writing Books Popular Culture Essays Buy Essays Papers English Essay Question Examples Argumentation Essay Eveline James Joyce Essay Scary Stories To Write Amazing College Essays Mending Wall Analysis Essay Essay About My Teacher My Hero Macbeth Guilt Essay Persuasive Essay Hook Argumentative Essay Example Essay Teenage Problems Scholarship Essay Format Example The Diary Of Anne Frank Essay Writing A Review Essay Essay On Wireless Communication Stats Problem Solver Free Essay Paper Essays On Africa Good Argumentative Essay Examples Essay On Domestic Violence The Outsiders Essay Questions Tips On Writing Argumentative Essays Essay On The Scarlet Letter Pro And Con Essay Good Thesis Statement Examples For Essays Essay Topics For Othello Sample Essays For School Children Essay Dream Film Essay Structure Essay Writings Essay On Rule Of Law Proper Mla Format Essay Title College Essay Nature Vs Nurture Debate Essay Thesis Statement For Education Essay Essay About My Community Expositiory Essay Short Story Essays For School Sample Essay Introduction Paragraph Politics And The English Language Essay Marijuana Legalization Research Paper Love Essays Narrative Essay About Love Black Death Essay Declaration Of Independence Essays Essay Problem Solution Topics Video Games Violence Essay Essay On Corporate Culture Imperative Essay Jay Best College Admission Essay Format Example Help To Write Essay Informative Essay Example How To Become A Freelance Writer And Get Paid Example Of A Descriptive Essay About A Place Anne Bradstreet Essay What Is A Call To Action In An Essay Essays By Maya Angelou Romeo And Juliet Essay Conclusion Essay Samples For Scholarships Essays By Virginia Woolf Food Security Essay Background Essay Example James Thurber Essays Should Abortions Be Legal Essay Child Obesity Essay The Things They Carried Analysis Essay Ucf College Essay Template For Persuasive Essay Easy Expository Essay Topics War Essays Where Can I Type An Essay Online Cesar Chavez Essay Life Essays Examples How To Write A Good English Essay Argument For Abortion Essay Self Evaluation Essay What Is The Purpose Of A Persuasive Essay Essay On Patience Essay On Womens Rights Science Argumentative Essay Topics What Is College For Essay Cell Phone Essays Homework Essay Career Plans Essay How To Write A Comparison Essay Persuasive Essay Abortion Food Shortage Essay Of Mice And Men Critical Essay Stop Animal Abuse Essay General Quotes For Essays Brown University Essay Racial Segregation Essay True Friends Essay My Education Essay 9th Grade Persuasive Essay Citing A Website In An Essay Book Review Essay Example Leadership Essays Examples Essay About Immigration In United States Essay Natural Disaster Essay Communication Division And Classification Essay Topics Graduate Essay Sample English Essays Examples La-mar Reducing Soap Moral Values Of Life Admission Essay Writing Service Beautiful Essays Essay On Racism In America My Best Movie Essay Essay On Art Paper Cheap Write An Essay In An Hour Essay Of William Shakespeare Twin Towers Essay High School Essay Topics Gay Marriage Essay Video Game Violence Essay Argumentative Essay On Obesity Essay About Friendship Problem Solution Essay Role Model Essay Example Essay Against Gay Marriage Argument Essay On Abortion How To Make A Rhetorical Analysis Save Earth Essay Student Nurse Reflective Essay Cruelty Towards Animals Essay Grade My Essay Online Free Reflective Essay Thesis Political Science Essay Topics For Comparison And Contrast Essays Call Of The Wild Essay Questions Ivy League Admissions Essays Essay On Orphans Lord Of The Flies Essay Prompts Eveline Essay Essay On Pollution Control Anti Imperialism Essay Essay 500 Words The Types Of Essay Essay On Importance Of Water Essays About Yourself 19th Century Essays How To Prevent Air Pollution Essay Describing A Person Essay Othello Essay Five Paragraph Essay Example Of A Persuasive Essay Alcohol Addiction Essay Bob Marley Biography Essay Positive Thinking Essays Effects Of Stress Essay Essay On The Color Purple What Is Expository Essay Advertisement Essay Sample Report Essay Examples Essays On Reading Persuasive Speech Samples Free Writing A 500 Word Essay Role Of Women In French Revolution Diversity College Essay Taming Of The Shrew Essay Citizen Kane Essay What Is Respect Essay Essays For Free Media Essay Writing Paper Writer Essay On Abortion Cultural Relativism Essay Chamber Of Secrets Characters New York Descriptive Essay Computers Essay Writing A Classification Essay Essay On Math Romeo And Juliet Act 3 Scene 5 Essay Claude Monet Essay Pop Culture Essay The Importance Of English Essay What Is A Personal Narrative Essay Essays On History Arumentative Essay Page Essay Sample Ethics Essay Essay On School Rules Thesis Statement Narrative Essay Great Gatsby Essay Topics Free Online Paper Writer Best Custom Essay Writing Services Business Cycle Essay Of Mice And Men Book Review Essay Profile Essays Examples My Birthday Party Essay Essay On Cells The Best Essay Ever All Free Essays Argumentative Essay Sample Essay On Down Syndrome Essay On Water Management How To Quit Smoking Essay Pet Peeve Essays Essay Loneliness Graduate Admissions Essays Essay About The Family The Alchemist Essays Pride And Prejudice Original Title Does Money Buy Happiness Essay Sample Essay Thesis Statement Edgar Linton Success In College Essay Jobs As A Writer Finance Homework Help Free How To Make A Compare And Contrast Essay Essay On Information Lord Of The Flies Essay Question Example Of An Illustration Essay Essay Maker Online Essay On Binge Drinking Essay On Safety At Home College Math Help Websites Essay Arguments Sample Report Essay I Know Why The Caged Bird Sings Essay Chemistry Projects Ideas Persuasive Essay On Video Games Healthy Food Essays Essay Of Internet Nutrition Essay Topics Hook For An Essay Pay Someone To Write My Essay Writing An Essay In Spanish Lifelong Learning Essay Proposing A Solution Essay Ideas Captains Of Industry Essay Sample Essay Introduction Reading Essays Essay On The Holocaust Republic Day Of India Essay Interpretive Essays Polution Essay Essay On Leadership Experience Buy Essay Writing Lady Macbeth Character Analysis Essay Essays On Gambling My Favourite Hero Essay Steroids In Baseball Essay Gmo Food Essay Sport Essay Example Happy Essay Expository Essay Format Outline How To Write A Essay For Kids Bilingualism Essay Legalization Of Weed Essay The Glass Castle Essay Topics What Is A Critical Thinking Essay Best Custom Writing Service Short Story Essays Examples Chicago Style Essay Personality Essay Sample Early Childhood Education Essay Stendhal Syndrome Symptoms Aone Essays Stendhal Writer Essay Air Pollution Advertisement Analysis Essay Descriptive Essay On Christmas Compare And Contrast Essay Template Physical Punishment Of Children Essay Example Of A Persuasive Essay Outline Persusive Essays History Examples For Sat Essay Teenage Abortion Essays 3rd Person Essay Example Essay For Orchestra Frankenstein Essay Thesis Alexander Pope Essay On Man Summary Essay On Importance Of English Language Belonging Essays International Relations Essay Topics Life In Prison Essay Ce Era Writing A College Entrance Essay Short Essay On Indira Gandhi Intersectionality Essay Essay In Terrorism
    About Terms Contact Copyright

    Copyright 2016ikanafinitetech , Inc. All rights reserved
    Any content, trademarks, or other material that might be found on the ikanafinitetech website that is not ikanafinitetech property remains the copyright of its respective owners. In no way does ikanafinitetech claim ownership or responsibility for such items, and you should seek legal consent for any use of such materials from its owner..

    Essay: A Memorable Birthday

    research


    skip to main content
    WUWM logo


    Site Menu

    Donate

    Essay: A Memorable Birthday

    By Elaine Maly

    Jan 7, 2016
    Tweet Share Google+ Email

    • Antti T. Nissinen
      / Flickr

    Lake Effect essayist Elaine Maly’s birthday is tomorrow.  But as she looks ahead to the next one, she also looks back at a notorious one from her past:

    Listen
    Listening…

    /

    4:20

    Lake Effect essayist Elaine Maly reads “A Memorable Birthday”

    My birthday is January 8th. Two weeks after Christmas and one week after New Years, in the dead of Wisconsin’s winter. It’s usually not much of a celebration. I’ve had a birthday gathering that was canceled due to a six foot snowfall. A birthday when no one, not even my mother, remembered to send a card. Oh, and then there was the year I turned 40. I had an emergency tonsillectomy. Yep, at best, my birthday has been just another day for my entire adulthood.

    Except for last year. I was turning 59, the last year of a big decade, and I had just quit a job that paid well but sucked the joy out of life. It was time to get out of the god forsaken freezer we live in and let our friends, California Dave and his wife, Misao, show us a good time. Dave and Misao live in San Jose and are wonderful hosts. My husband, Tom, and I had visited them many times before and they knew exactly what I would like. The morning of January 8th we set out for a long hike in the red woods of Henry Cowell Park and had a picnic lunch. Then on to wine tasting at Beauregard Winery. Late afternoon we headed to Bonny Doon beach to watch what promised to be a glorious sunset.

    As we started our slightly tipsy descent down the sand dunes with a blanket to find a comfortable viewing spot, something besides the setting sun caught our attention. A paunchy middle aged naked guy with shoulder length white hair, who had a remarkable resemblance to my husband from a distance, was running laps between dunes.

    “Hey, that guy could be Tom’s stunt double,” said Dave. A humorous observation. There were distinct similarities. But seeing a naked guy wasn’t a big deal. We’d been to this beach before and been exposed to similar situations. This is a nude friendly beach but we’re not the type to indulge.

    We had just settled down on our blanket to watch the sunset when Misao inexplicably got up and took off after Naked Guy. Most of the time, Misao is pretty quiet and reserved but every once in a while, she surprises us. Like the time she yelled “Heat it up, heat it up” at the craps table at Potawatomi. Or the time she leaned over the balcony to blow kisses to the cast of Jersey Boys. Or the time she scolded me for being impatient with my husband. She later apologized for “going all Japanese on me.”

    We could see that Misao and Naked Guy were exchanging a few words and then they turned and ran back to the blanket together.

    “Oh, no she didn’t,” I said and had serious thoughts about running the other way.

    “I hear it’s your birthday,” said Naked Guy.

    “Yes it is,” I said trying to avert my gaze.

    “Well, happy birthday,” said Naked Guy with a shrug and returned to his jiggly lap running.

    “Nope,” said Tom who had the same close up view I did. “No way that guy could be my stunt double.”

    I laughed so hard I snorted merlot out of my nose. “If I was going to see a naked guy on my birthday, couldn’t it have been Antonio Banderas?”
     

    Essayist Elaine Maly is the 2015 winner of the Wisconsin Writers Association’s humor writing contest.  She writes about her life as a native Milwaukeean at her website .

    Tags: 
    essay
    Lake Effect
    Tweet Share Google+ Email

    Related Content

    Essay: Christmas Gifts

    By Elaine Maly

    Dec 23, 2015

    mac9416 / Flickr

    Tomorrrow is Christmas Eve – or maybe more accurately, tomorrow night is Christmas Eve.  Some among us will open their presents at that juncture, while others will wait until Christmas itself.

    For Lake Effect essayist Elaine Maly, the timing of the gifts isn’t really the issue:

    Playwriting Lesson: Some Stories Aren’t For You To Tell

    By Alvaro Saar Rios

    Nov 30, 2015

    Dave Einsel/Getty Images

    Playwright and Lake Effect essayist Alvaro Saar Rios has told many powerful stories through his work over the years. But it was a play he didn’t write that guides his work today:

    Ten years ago, when Hurricane Katrina hit New Orleans, I was living in Texas working on commission for a new play. My first draft deadline was weeks away and I still had no idea what the play was going to be about.

    No. That’s not true. I did have a title.

    Essay: Micro Adventures

    By Cari Taylor-Carlson

    Nov 25, 2015

    Cari Taylor-Carlson

    Today is the day before Thanksgiving. Friday is the day after, known in the retail world as Black Friday. Where will you be on that day? Just as significantly, Lake Effect essayist Cari Taylor Carlson knows where she won’t be:

    In my opinion, REI, a purveyor of outdoor equipment and clothing, got it right when they announced they would close all one-hundred-forty-three stores and pay twelve thousand employees to take Black Friday off. They call it #OPTOUTSIDE. I say, instead of shopping, go find a micro adventure.

    Essay: Heeding the Wiener Whistle

    By Avi Lank

    Nov 23, 2015

    Lynn Friedman, flickr

    For almost a hundred years, the descendants of a German immigrant owned the meat company he founded in Chicago in 1904. But the Oscar Mayer company was eventually sold – several times – and is now owned by Kraft Heinz. Its headquarters are currently in Madison. But as Lake Effect essayist Avi Lank notes, that, too, will soon change.

    Best 10 Resume Writers: 2018 Reviews of Top Resume Writing …

    research

    Facebook
    Youtube
    Twitter
    Rss
    1 (800) 715-3274

    • Home
    • About Us
    • Resume Writing Services
    • Resume Samples
    • Contact
    • Testimonials
    • Our Guarantee
    • Blog

    Resume Writing by Career Level

    Executive | Professional | Entry and Student Level

    Federal | Military | LinkedIn Profile

     

    Would you benefit from a resume today that creates a highly professional, polished first impression, opens doors, and gets you noticed? Our certified professional resume writers give your resume the competitive edge over other candidates seeking the same position. If not you, then who? From executives to entry level candidates we create job winning resumes that get results. We know the qualities and skills that an employer looks for in selecting a candidate to interview. Our resume writing services goal is to put your best foot forward in the world of changing market conditions and opportunities and help you avoid mistakes.

     


    Our Process

    Step 1: Submit your current resume or work history today.

    Step 2: You will receive a customized questionnaire for the professionally written, targeted resume service that explores your career goals, talents, skills, and accomplishments and then you will receive a first draft within five days.

    Step 3: Work with the writer until a final draft is approved.

    Our Guarantee

    Satisfaction Guaranteed. We stand behind the quality of our resumes and maintain 100% satisfaction guarantee.


    The following advantages our resume service provides:

    reduce your job search timecreate result-oriented resumes
    have intimate knowledge of job marketmakes your first impression count
    will give your resume a competitive edgeexperts in crafting resumes with all the right keywords
    generate interest from recruitershelp you avoid mistakes and increase opportunities

     


    Partial list of industry expertise

    Finance

    Information Technology

    Sales & Marketing

    Accounting

    Engineering

    Insurance

    Government

    Hospitality

    Executive Management

    Healthcare/Medical

    Human Resources

    Federal

    Consulting

    Manufacturing

    Arts & Entertainment

    Telecommunications

    Public Relations

    Electronics

    Pharmaceuticals

    Nonprofit

    Military

    Construction

    Publishing

    Banking

    Administration

    Retail & Wholesale

    Transportation

    Legal

    Real Estate

    Education

    Today’s Marketplace

    The Resume Must Answer: Why You?

    In today’s highly competitive marketplace a person has to not only stand up but stand out. A person could be the most qualified for the position but they have to get invited to the interview. Their resume has to be a cut above the competition and they have to overcome the pre-employment screening obstacles that stand in the way. The resume has to aggressively sell your value, talents, skills, and accomplishments to the employer. The key to successful interviewing is to practice and be prepared.

         Be Prepared for the Interview

     

    Get Started Today

    rss

    • Subscribe to our newsletter today

      Receive free advice on job searching guerilla tactics, networking, career, and interviewing tips.

    • All Service Benefits Includes:
      • Free 28 page Ultimate Quick Start Guide to Leverage the Power of LinkedIn
      • Includes Resources for LinkedIn Special Tools and Video Training Platform
      • Utilizing the power of job searching through LinkedIn
    • new

    • Home
    • About Us
    • Resume Writing Services
    • Resume Samples
    • Contact
    • Testimonials
    • Our Guarantee
    • Blog
    © Upgrade Resume. All Rights Reserved.

    Need effective resume?
    Let’s help you now! Call 1 (800) 845-0586
    Call Us

    Resume Professional Writers

    Professional Resume Writing Services


    Navigation

    • Services
      • Resume Writing Services
      • CV Writing Services
      • Federal Resume Writing
      • LinkedIn Profile Writing
      • Job Board Posting
      • Other Resume Services
    • Resume Samples
    • FAQs
    • Start Now!
    • Log in

    We’ve Got You Covered!


    Resume Professional Writers guarantees interviews within 60 days or we’ll update your Resume, CV, or Federal Resume FREE of charge!


    Start Now!
     
    Resume Writing

    Resume Writing


    Level up your job search and ultimately shine above the rest.

    Learn More
    CV Writing

    CV Writing


    Present your competencies extensively in the best light.

    Learn More
    Federal Resume

    Federal Resume


    Become the most qualified for a much-coveted federal job.

    Learn More


    LinkedIn Profile Writing

    LinkedIn Profile


    LinkedIn profile helps you promote yourself and jumpstart your career!

    Learn More
    Job Board Posting

    Job Board Posting


    Earn maximum exposure to potential employers minus all the hassle.

    Learn More
    Other Resume Services

    Other Resume Services


    Be equipped with other resume services to help you win your quest.

    Learn More
    0

    Resumes Written

    0

    LinkedIn Profiles Produced

    0

    Federal Resumes Developed

    0

    Referrals Earned

    Our guarantee of professional resume writing services comes with these exclusive privileges:


    Unlimited Revisions

    Unlimited
    Revision
    Free Lifetime Document Storage

    Free Lifetime
    Document Storage
    Free Future Resume Update

    Free Future
    Resume Update
    Interview Guarantee

    Interview
    Guarantee
     

    Resume Professional Writers is the largest provider of innovative and professional resume writing services. With more than 100,000 unique powerful resumes written, no other company can contend with our range, skill, and experience. Surveys of major publications rank our resumes with a 92% higher chance of generating a job interview or getting the job, as compared to resumes written by others in the industry.


    View Sample Resumes

    testimonials

    I was extremely pleased with the service. From the project request to close, Mia kept me informed and was responsive to my editing requests. The final product exceeded my expectations!


    Gwen B., St. Louis, MO
    July 13, 2018

    It was great experience! I love how fast it was done and how fast my comments were added and advises that were given. Thank you Reese (my writer).


    Anastasiia T., Millbrae, CA
    July 13, 2018

    This was the first time I’ve reached out to a Resume service. I found myself laid off after 12 years at my current company. My resume was last updated in 2009 and I needed help! I reached out to your team and I was treated as a VIP. I want to say Thank You to Brittany who walked me through the process via Chat. Once I submitted my questionnaire/old resume I had a response from Jason Roll in 3-4 business days. My resume writer, Ross was great to work with. His expertise and talent in re-creating my resume gave me a comfort level on the next steps to my next adventure. Overall my experience was excellent!


    Kathy B., Hamilton, IL
    July 13, 2018

    I would like to thank Ryan Collins for all his wonderful work. I am very impressed with the way Ryan worked with me to perfect my resume. He was very polite and accurate throughout the entire process. Ryan made sure that I was completely satisfied with my resume. I am extremely satisfied with his work. I will recommend your services to my friends and colleague. Thank you for your service!


    Veta W., Roosevelt, NY
    July 12, 2018

    My name is Gary Millner of Seminole, Florida. My goal is to obtain a career with a bank as a “personal” or “relationship” banker. I don’t have prior banking experience, but I do have over twenty years of retail sales, and more than ten of those years in management positions. I am a very organized, detailed, and analytically minded person. Teaching middle school math has been my second career, but I became really tired of working with twelve and thirteen year old students. I am now 55 years old, and I can’t get banks to even look at someone my age, which is why I’m thinking that a resume makeover was in order. I found “Resume Professional Writers” services on-line, and they were highly recommended. In all honesty, I was not happy with the first writer’s resume draft at all. I expressed my concerns, and I was assigned a new (senior) writer, Mr. Andrei Johnson. Within 24 hours, Mr. Johnson provided me with an initial draft. (And) within 48 hours, I had a polished, professional resume, cover letter, and thank you letter. Not only did Resume Professional Writers right a (initial) wrong, but they delivered a great product as promised. I would highly recommend Resume Professional Writers services, and also their “premium resume package” that I purchased. I am confident and excited to see the responses I get once they post my resume on the top 25 job boards / websites.


    Gary M., Seminoole, FL
    July 12, 2018

    Questions?

    Talk to a Career Specialist or Call 1 (800) 845-0586
     


    Login to Fiverr


    Continue with Facebook


    Continue with Google

    OR

    Reset Password
    Please enter your email address and we’ll send you a link to reset your password.

    Join Fiverr

    Join Fiverr


    Continue with Facebook


    Continue with Google

    OR

    By joining I agree to receive emails from Fiverr.

    Fiverr's logo


    Continue with Facebook


    Continue with Google

    OR

    Please enter your email address and we’ll send you a link to reset your password.

    Fiverr's logo


    Continue with Facebook


    Continue with Google

    OR

    By joining I agree to receive emails from Fiverr.

    Professional Resume Writers

    Boost your job search with Fiverr’s professional resume writing services. Find and hire the best resume writer you need to help you land the job you’re dreaming of.

    Join Fiverr

    Customers Reviews In resume writing Services

    get you the job of your dreams through expert CV and cover letter writing

    stevemossphd
    stevemossphd

    Level 1 Seller

    I will get you the job of your dreams through expert CV and cover letter writing


    5.0 (52)

    Starting at
    $20
    €18.03
    £16.25
    A$29.17
    C$27.65
    ₪75.58

    Reviewed by kennethmoseley

    I am not sure about the Interview just yet but I was able to get a better understanding of my resume and the content for it working with Steve. I would recommend him to anyone.

    1 day ago

    • resume writing
    • curriculum vitae
    • resume writer
    • content writing
    • job application

    rewrite resume, cover letter, cv, linkedin profile and ats


    amyjbond007

    Level 2 Seller

    I will rewrite resume, cover letter, cv, linkedin profile and ats


    5.0 (192)

    Starting at
    $50
    €45.07
    £40.62
    A$72.91
    C$69.13
    ₪189

    Reviewed by jetillinghast

    Very professional and explained everything succinctly. Well worth it.

    about 14 hours ago

    • resume writing
    • cv writing
    • linkedin profile
    • resume rewriting
    • ats resume

    provide attention grabbing, executive and technical resume writing services

    exectiveresume
    exectiveresume

    I will provide attention grabbing, executive and technical resume writing services


    5.0 (45)

    Starting at
    $60
    €54.08
    £48.74
    A$87.50
    C$82.95
    ₪227

    Reviewed by jesseclemons

    Aamazing experience working with this guy! 5 stars all around. He took my resume from 0-100 in less than 3 hours. Highly Recommened!

    Today

    • resume writing
    • resume cover letter
    • resume writing cv
    • resume linkedin
    • resume writer

    showcase career history as an optimized resume

    redrocketresume
    redrocketresume

    I will showcase career history as an optimized resume


    4.7 (3)

    Starting at
    $280
    €252
    £227
    A$408
    C$387
    ₪1,058

    Reviewed by heysuphello1

    Angela really optimized my resume. I've already started to get more interviews.

    2 months ago

    • resume writing
    • resume writer
    • linkedin
    • linked in
    • cover letter

    Services Related To Resume Writing

    • Resumes & Cover Letters
    • Career Advice
    • Proofreading & Editing
    • Creative Writing
    • Articles & Blog Posts
    • Data Entry
    • Translation
    • Research & Summaries
    • Business Cards & Stationery
    • Infographic Design

    Alcohol Abuse &amp

    research

    AlcoRehab.org AlcoRehab.org

    Get Treatment. Call (888)-459-5511
    Menu

    Alcohol Addiction Awareness Essay Contest

    AlcoRehab.org is proud to award $6,000 in scholarships each year to three students, who share their vision on the dangers of alcohol abuse and addiction.

    Essay Contest Eligibility

    Applicants must be:

    • Enrolled full-time in a U.S. institution for graduate or undergraduate program. (U.S. territories are excluded)
    • U.S. Citizens, U.S. Nationals, U.S. Permanent Residents, Refugees, Asylees, Cuban-Haitian Entrants, or Humanitarian Parolee
    • At least 18 years old

    Applicants may not be:

    • Owners, volunteers, their children, and grandchildren
    • DACA students
    • International students
    • Temporary residents

    Only one (1) submission per student is allowed.

    Description and Guidelines

    If you are concerned with the effects of alcohol abuse and addiction and want to help raise awareness of its dangers, we encourage you to share your vision and have a chance to win money to cover your educational expenses.

    The submitted essays must not exceed 1,200 words and should answer the following questions:

    • How alcohol abuse and addiction affects the modern society?
    • What steps can be taken to decrease the impact of alcohol abuse and addictions on people and society?

    The winning applicants will be determined based on the essay content, style, and originality. Judges are looking for logically organized and well-supported essays.

    Next application period begins: July 10th, 2017

    The application deadline is: October 1st, 2017

    The winning applicants (spring 2017 semester) are:

    1st Place:

    Linda Barton — West Virginia University School of Medicine

    2nd Place:

    Anna Wallace — UC San Diego School of Medicine

    3rd Place:

    James Cervantes — Dedman School of Law, Southern Methodist University

    Awards

    • icon-awards-silver

      The winner of the second prize will receive the amount of $2,000

    • icon-awards-gold
      The winner of the first prize will receive the amount of $3,000

    • icon-awards-bronze

      The winner of the third prize will receive the amount of $1,000

    The scholarship awards may only be used to pay for college tuition and/or education-related expenses.

    There are no costs associated with submitting an application for this scholarship.

    How to Participate

    1. Read Rules and Regulations
    2. Download, print and fill in a Scholarship Contest Application Form
    3. Email your essay as well as a scanned copy of your completed application form to [email protected]

    The winners will be notified by email and announced to public within 30 days after the application deadline.

    The Story

    Drinking alcoholic beverages is an activity in which people have indulged since the dawn of man. People enjoy drinking to this very day, whether it’s at a special public occasion or in an intimate setting with a few close friends. However, drinking is an activity that can get out of hand and cause a variety of problems in the long run.

    Alcohol is also considered as one of the most dangerous lethal drugs available today.

    The truth is, there is a great number of very dangerous drugs out there such as heroin, cocaine, crystal meth and others that can easily lead to death. Furthermore, as dangerous and lethal as all of these drugs are, alcohol is also one of them.

    Continually, alcoholism is a dire problem in today’s society that can lead to various diseases like cirrhosis of the liver, hepatic failure, wet brain syndrome, and many others. Additionally, alcoholism causes the user to act out, lose control, become violent at times and carry out irrational deeds that can have astoundingly negative ramifications.

    The goal of this contest is to raise awareness of the dangers of alcohol abuse and addictions and help motivate people struggling with the alcohol abuse issues to reach our for help.

     

    General Disclaimer

    The information provided on this website in is not a substitute for professional medical advice. If you believe you have a medical emergency, you should immediately call 911.

    Get Treatment

    Find hope for addiction-free future. Get treatment now.

    Treatment Is Almost Always Fully Covered by Insurance.

    (888)-459-5511

    Back to Top

    Moved Permanently

    The document has moved here .


    Apache Server at www.awo-fulda.de Port 80

    An Essay on Paradise Lost by John Milton

    research


    Saved Essays
    • Save your essays here so you can locate them quickly!
    Topics in Paper
    • Hell
    • Milton
    • Devil
    • Adam And Eve
    • Satan
    • English Language Films
    • Epic Poetry
    • Hero
    • Adam
    @Example Essays

      Paradise Lost: Satan



      3 Pages
      783 Words

                   Paradise Lost: Satan’s Character
                  
      In Milton’s first book of Paradise Lost, Satan, the expected evil archfiend of the epic, is actually depicted as a powerful and heroic character. Satan’s passionate and ambitious character is more intriguing than God’s reasonable and mild personality. Milton needs Satan to be a desirable character in the beginning to represent the temptation man faces when dealing with the devil. However Milton, being a strong puritan, would never allow an evil character to become the true hero. Milton did not plan on Satan being viewed as positively as he sometimes is in book one. Much of the sympathy and praise Satan receives from readers is due to the changed morals of today’s society. The ambitious and proud character that Milton created for Satan, is seen as positive in today’s society. However when Milton wrote this epic, being ambitious was seen as an act against God. Milton had intentions to make Satan agreeable in the beginning, however he did not intend him to resemble the epic’s hero. This view was caused by the change in society’s morals and could not have been predicted by Milton.
                  
      In the beginning of the epic, Satan is not pure evil. By the end of book one, he still resembles Lucifer, the angel he once was in heaven. It is not until the later books that Satan is portrayed as completely evil and disagreeable. Satan is seen as a tragic figure as he is thrown down into Hell. This evokes feelings of sympathy towards him. Because Satan is not pure evil, it leaves room for people to feel positively towards him. Satan’s magnificence also comes from the inspired verse which Milton puts into his speeches. “All is not lost: the unconquerable will, and study of revenge, immortal hate, and courage never to submit or yield: and what is else not to be overcome?” Satan’s passionate and encouraging words draws the reader towards him. Satan’s character is far more complex than God’s and more interesting…

      Continue reading this essay
      Continue reading

      Page 1 of 3

      Next Page

      More Essays:


      APA    
      MLA    
      Chicago

      Paradise Lost: Satan. (1969, December 31). In MegaEssays.com. Retrieved 06:27, September 06, 2018, from https://www.megaessays.com/viewpaper/34313.html
      MegaEssays. “Paradise Lost: Satan.” MegaEssays.com. MegaEssays.com, (December 31, 1969). Web. 06 Sep. 2018.
      MegaEssays, “Paradise Lost: Satan.,” MegaEssays.com, https://www.megaessays.com/viewpaper/34313.html (accessed September 06, 2018)

      Moved Permanently

      The document has moved here .


      Apache/2.4.18 (Ubuntu) Server at www.jpm.hu Port 80

      Moved Permanently

      The document has moved here .


      Apache/2.4.18 (Ubuntu) Server at www.jpm.hu Port 80

      create class diagram online free

      research

      The web browser you are using is out of date, please upgrade .

      Please use a modern web browser with JavaScript enabled to visit OpenClassrooms.com



      OpenClassrooms.com

      Sign up

      Sign in

      Design a database with UML

      Last updated on 8/22/18

      • 20 hours

      • Medium
      License

      Free online content available in this course.

      Videos available in this course

      Certificate of achievement available at the end this course

      Got it!

      Learn about class diagrams


      Log in or subscribe for free to enjoy all this course has to offer!

      UML stands for Unified Modeling Language.  It involves sketching up little diagrams that describe how elements of a system are connected!

      Databases are all about collecting and saving information. Before you start collecting, you have to decide what to collect and that’s where UML comes in.

      What to collect?

      A UML class diagram is a list of what you think should get collected in a database table.

      A table is just like a spreadsheet. A relational database is a database that is composed of a bunch of linked tables. 

      In UML, we refer to tables as classes.

      Here’s an example of a UML class diagram (we’ll break it down in a second):

      The UML diagram for the Restaurant class
      The Restaurant class

      The UML class diagram is a box that features a word, usually a noun, at the top of the box. This is the name of the class. There is a line and below the line, there is a list of attributes. In the  Restaurant  class, the attributes are things that we want to collect about each restaurant. If we were to turn the class diagram into a table, the attributes become the column titles:

      name

      kind

      rating

      address

      price

      Holy Cannoli

      Italian

      9

      33 Sugo Street

      expensive

      Rough Burger

      Burger Joint

      4

      22 Catsup Way

      cheap

      Tacky Hut

      Seafood

      3

      11 Scale Road

      very cheap

      To see this same concept with a different subject, here’s another table that lists friends and their possible attributes:

      friendID

      firstName

      lastName

      hairColor

      1

      Fred

      Sted

      black

      2

      Fred

      Martina

      null

      3

      Martina

      Fred

      brown

      4

      Fred

      Red

      blond

      5

      Fred

      Red

      blue

      And here’s a class diagram that describes that same Friend table:

      Don’t know what PK means? Don’t worry. We’ll talk about that later!

      When you draw a class diagram, you name the class, in this case Friend, and also name the attributes of the class. 

      In the UML world, you can call a row of a table an object of a class. For example, in the Friend class there are currently 5 objects. On the database side, you’d say that there are 5 rows in the Friend table.

      Choosing good names

      Elephant, Pachyderm, PeanutEater, or Item?

      Choosing a good name takes some thought! Even an elephant can be described in a myriad of ways.

       As Phil Karlton said, “There are only two hard things in Computer Science: cache invalidation and naming things.”

      Names are the building blocks to complex systems. If the names are not appropriate, the system can easily get confused. If the names are spot-on, everyone in a system can communicate effectively.

      UML diagrams are amazing tools to help choose good names.

      Since a database is a way of saving information in a way that models how a system operates, choosing good names and creating an accurate model of a system will require speaking to the the different players involved. Different people may have different views about a system.

      A UML diagram is an excellent tool for this discussion. And through this discussion, you will develop a model that will start to reflect how the system operates.

      This will require multiple drafts of UML diagrams and conversations in order to arrive at a clear image of the system.

      If a system’s components are named accurately, the model you make will be clear both to you and to your clients.

      Check out this domain diagram:

      A UML Domain diagram for a train station
      A UML Domain diagram for a train station

      Your clients may not know about how database work, but they’ll be able to see what you are calling things and roughly how things are related.

      For example, in the diagram above, a better name for  Trip  might be  Route , which your client might suggest to you. If something looks wrong, your client can question both your names and your logic about how the parts are connected.

      We’ll go into detail about domain diagrams such as the above figure later.

      Naming conventions

      Naming conventions are like the grammar of a sentence. You choose your own words, but grammar rules dictate the form the word should take.

      Here are some naming conventions for a class:

      • The name of the class should be a singular noun.

      • The first letter should be uppercase

      • If you need to make a table named with multiple words, they should be in UpperCamelCase.

      An example of a class diagram
      An example of a class diagram

      The naming convention for an attribute is singular and lowerCamelCase.

      The purpose of the naming conventions are to reduce bugs and typos. Some programmers use underscores ( _ ) between words instead of camel case.  Some programmers only use  ID  for an id and not  parkingSpotID or  psID  or  parking_spot_id  or  ps_id . It’s important to have consistency in your code or you can quickly lose track of all your variations.

      Editing names

      Choosing the right names is important for a database’s schema. Accuracy in naming leads to accurate communication in your enterprise and accuracy in your code.

      Nobody gets it on the first shot.

      You need to choose names that are neither too specific nor too general.

      Is the name too general or too specific?

      For example, if you have a UML class for all things that you might eat in the morning, you could call it  Cereal .

      If that is all you eat in the morning, then it could be a fine name.

      But if you start having poached eggs for breakfast and put that in the  Cereal  table, it could lead to some scrambled logic about what should be put in this table. 

      On the other hand, if you choose a name that is too general, like  Food , and if there is already another table named  Lunch , then your schema is confused. 

      Somehow the word  Breakfast  comes to mind as the right name choice.

      A more practical example would be in a company’s database.

      For a company, you’d probably need to make a table for the employees, and you could call it  Employee. But if your clients start putting information about clients, freelancers, and vendors into this table, then its name,  Employee  will be confusing. 

      Another programmer on your team may not understand that the  Employee  table contains more than just employees. Potentially, he or she would create another table for client information partially duplicating your  Employee  table.

      If you had understood that the client wants to put all the personnel and client information in the same table, you would have probably chosen a name more general than "Employee." If you had named the table  User  the scrambling of information would probably have been avoided.

      So after you create a UML Class and Domain diagrams, review them with your clients. Their feedback for your name choices will be both invaluable for understanding ‌the system and for developing an accurate and usable model.

      In the next chapter, we’ll go over how class diagrams can interact.

      • #

      • Sign Up
      • Sign In

      Tools, Templates and Resource to Draw Class Diagrams

      Tools, Templates and Resource to Draw Class Diagrams

      • Text to draw feature to create detailed classes by just typing text
      • Smart objects detect logical relationships between class diagrams
      • Support for Use Case, ER, DFD’s and other UML diagram types

      Start Drawing Now

      • class-diagram Templates
      • class-diagram Articles
      • class-diagram Symbols

      class-diagram Templates

      Class Diagram for Bank ATM System

      By Creately Templates

      Updated: 2 weeks ago

      5

      (1)

      Class Diagram for Bank ATM System

      Retail Banking System – Class Diagram

      By Creately Templates

      UML Class Diagram Example – Retail Banking System Class Diagram Template

      Tagged: class,uml,tech,software,class diagram template,banking system class,banking

      Updated: 4 weeks ago

      2

      (2)

      Retail Banking System – Class Diagram

      Composite Structure Diagram

      By Creately Templates

      Updated: 1 year ago

      5

      (1)

      Composite Structure Diagram

      Profile Diagram

      By Creately Templates

      Tagged: other,none,more,business,pest,ansoff,value chain

      Updated: 1 year ago

      0

      (0)

      Profile Diagram

      Package Diagram

      By Creately Templates

      Tagged: uml,tech,software,component

      Updated: 1 year ago

      5

      (1)

      Package Diagram

      UML – Order Processing System Template

      By Creately Templates

      Class diagram for Order Processing system Template

      Tagged: uml,class diagram,design patterns,uml class,class diagram template,class templates

      Updated: 1 year ago

      4.2143

      (14)

      UML – Order Processing System Template

      Online Bus Reservation System – Class Diagram

      By Creately Templates

      UML Class Diagram Example – Bus Reservation System Class Diagram Template

      Tagged: class,uml,tech,software,class diagram template,class templates,bus reservation class,oline bus booking system

      Updated: 1 year ago

      4.5

      (2)

      Online Bus Reservation System – Class Diagram

      Order Class Diagram Template

      By Creately Templates

      Customer Order Class Diagram Template

      Tagged: uml,class diagram,design patterns,uml templates,class diagram template,uml class

      Updated: 2 years ago

      4.2143

      (14)

      Order Class Diagram Template

      Copy of Online Shopping System – Class Diagram

      By Creately Templates

      UML Class Diagram Example – Online Shopping System Class Diagram Template

      Tagged: class,uml,tech,software,online shopping system,online shopping class diagram,class diagram templates

      Updated: 2 years ago

      0

      (0)

      Copy of Online Shopping System – Class Diagram

      Point of Sales System (POS) – Class Diagram

      By Creately Templates

      Class Diagram Example POS – Point OF Sales Class Diagram Template

      Tagged: class,uml,tech,software,pos class,point of sales system,class diagram template,pos example

      Updated: 2 years ago

      5

      (2)

      Point of Sales System (POS) – Class Diagram

      Courier Management System – Class Diagram

      By Creately Templates

      Tagged: class,uml,tech,software

      Updated: 2 years ago

      0

      (0)

      Courier Management System – Class Diagram

      Online Examination System – Class Diagram

      By Creately Templates

      UML Class Diagram Example – Online Examination System Class Diagram Template

      Tagged: class,uml,tech,software,class diagram template,examination reservation system,examination class diagram

      Updated: 2 years ago

      0

      (0)

      Online Examination System – Class Diagram

      View More Templates

      UML Class Diagrams Explained

      UML Class Diagrams are diagrams which represent the static view of an application. It describes the types of objects in the system and the static relationships between them.

      Class Diagrams are not only used for visualizing and documenting different aspects of a system but also for constructing executable code of the software application.

      UML Class Diagram Objects Explained

      Check out the UML Class Diagram Objects page to learn about various class diagram objects and what they represent

      Once you drag and drop the relevant objects Creately smart connectors will automatically detect the available relationships and provide you with a way to quickly set the relationship.

      Tutorials, Blog Posts and Case Studies about class-diagrams

      The Easy Guide to UML Class Diagrams | Class Diagram Tutorial

      At the heart of any object-oriented system is the step of designing the class structure – therefore the saying goes that class diagrams are the most popular out of the UML diagram types. In this easy class diagram tutorial, we’ve…

      Top 5 Community Diagrams of the Week!

      I hope you had fun using our simple Gantt chart drawing tools and your Creately experience is going to get even better with the launch of Creately Diagramming Community this week. While we are working on those things Creately users…

      The Relationships that exist between Classes

      In a class diagram, obviously you can’t have classes just floating around; you need to see the relationship between them. Peruse the content below to see the types of relationships that exist between classes, along with their notation, and also what they actually mean.

      How to Draw Class Diagrams: Simple Class Diagram Rules for Clear Communication

      When it comes to system construction, a class diagram is the most widely used diagram. This diagram generally consists of interfaces, classes, associations and collaborations.

      pdfApplying to Oxford or Cambridge

      research

      Skip to main content
      Share this page
      StumbleUpon
      Twitter
      RSS
      Facebook

      Read our Blog

      Studential.com

      • GCSEs

        Popular

        Guide to GCSE Results Day

        Finding a job after school or college

        Retaking GCSEs

        In this section

        Choosing GCSE Subjects

        Post-GCSE Options

        GCSE Work Experience

        GCSE Revision Tips

      • Further Education

        Popular

        Guide to A Level Results Day

        Guide to AS Level results Day

        Clearing Guide 2018

        Applying to University

        SQA Results Day Guide

        BTEC Results Day Guide

        Vocational Qaulifications Guide

        A Levels

        In this section

        Sixth Form or College

        Vocational Courses

        International Baccalaureate

        Post 18 options

        Gap Years

        Finding a Job

        School Leaver Programmes

        Traineeships

      • Gap Years

        Popular

        Should I take a Gap Year?

        Travel Planning

        Retakes

        Volunteering

        In this section

        Gap Year Guide

        Travelling

        Learning

        Gap Year Blogs

      • Apprenticeships

        Popular

        Why Take an Apprenticeship?

        Applying for an Apprenticeship

        Apprenticeships Interviews

        In this section

        What is an Apprenticeship?

        Real Life Apprentices

      • Enterprise

        Popular

        10 Steps to Startup Success

        Why Start a Business?

        In this section

        Business Startup

        Startup Success Stories

        Peter Jones Enterprise Academy

      • University

        Popular

        Applying to Oxbridge

        Applying to US Universities

        Choosing a Degree

        Choosing a University or College

        Personal Statements

        Personal Statement Editing and Review Service

        University Interviews

        In this section

        Applying to University

        Clearing Guide 2018

        Guide to Freshers’ Week

        Studying Abroad

        Student Guides

        Student Cooking

        Student Blogs

        Resources

      • Postgraduate

        Popular

        Job Interviews

        Types of Postgraduate Course

        Writing a Postgraduate Personal Statement

        Postgraduate Funding

        In this section

        Postgraduate Study

        Jobs

        Travelling

      • Army
      • Shop

        Popular

        Personal Statement Editing and Review Service

        In this section

        Books

      Menu

      You are here

      Home » University » Applying To University » UCAS Application Guide » Personal Statements » Personal Statement Examples » By University » Cambridge University Personal Statements
      • Applying To University
        • UCAS Application Guide
          • Admissions Tests
          • Choosing A Degree
          • Choosing A University Or College
          • Interviews
          • Personal Statements
            • Personal Statement Examples
              • By Subject
              • By University
                • Aberdeen
                • Aberystwyth
                • Anglia Polytechnic University
                • Aston
                • Bath
                • Bath Spa University College
                • Birmingham
                • Bournemouth University
                • Bristol
                • British College of Osteopathic Medicine
                • British School of Osteopathy
                • Brunel
                • Cambridge
                • Canterbury Christ Church University College
                • Cardiff
                • Central School of Speech and Drama
                • Chester A College of The University of Liverpool
                • City
                • City College Manchester
                • Coventry University
                • De Montfort University
                • Dundee
                • Durham
                • Edge Hill College of Higher Education
                • Edinburgh
                • Essex
                • Exeter
                • Falmouth University
                • Farnborough College of Technology
                • Glamorgan Centre for Art and Design Technology
                • Glasgow
                • Glasgow Caledonian University
                • Goldsmiths College
                • Heriot-watt
                • Heythrop College
                • Hull
                • Imperial
                • Keele
                • Kent
                • Kings College
                • Kingston University
                • LSE
                • Lancaster
                • Leeds
                • Leeds Metropolitan University
                • Leicester
                • Liverpool
                • Liverpool Hope
                • Liverpool John Moores University
                • London Metropolitan University
                • London South Bank University
                • Loughborough
                • Loughborough College
                • Manchester
                • Middlesex University
                • Napier University, Edinburgh
                • Newcastle
                • Newcastle College
                • Northumbria University
                • Nottingham
                • Nottingham Trent
                • Oxford
                • Oxford Brookes
                • Queen Margaret University College, Edinburgh
                • Queen Mary
                • Queens, Belfast
                • Reading
                • Regents Business School London
                • Roehampton University of Surrey
                • Royal Holloway
                • Royal Veterinary College
                • SOAS
                • Sheffield
                • Sheffield Hallam University
                • Southampton
                • Southampton Institute
                • St Andrews
                • St Georges Hospital Medical School
                • St Marys University College
                • Staffordshire University
                • Stirling
                • Strathclyde
                • Surrey
                • Sussex
                • Swansea
                • Swansea Institute of Higher Education
                • Thames Valley University
                • The Arts Institute At Bournemouth
                • The Glasgow School of Art
                • The Liverpool Institute for Performing Arts
                • The London Institute
                • The Manchester Metropolitan University
                • The North East Wales Institute of Higher Education
                • The Robert Gordon University
                • The Surrey Institute of Art and Design
                • The University of Bradford
                • The University of Buckingham
                • The University of Gloucestershire
                • The University of Huddersfield
                • The University of Salford
                • UCL
                • UEA
                • UMIST
                • University College Northampton
                • University College Worcester
                • University of Abertay Dundee
                • University of Brighton
                • University of Central Lancashire
                • University of Derby
                • University of East London
                • University of Glamorgan
                • University of Greenwich
                • University of Hertfordshire
                • University of Lincoln
                • University of Plymouth
                • University of Portsmouth
                • University of Sunderland
                • University of Teesside
                • University of The West of England, Bristol
                • University of Ulster
                • University of Wales College, Newport
                • University of Wales Institute, Cardiff
                • University of Wales, Bangor
                • University of Westminster
                • University of Wolverhampton
                • Warwick
                • Writtle College
                • York
                • York St John College
              • Gap Year Personal Statements
              • International Student Personal Statements
              • Mature Student Personal Statements
              • Personal statement editing and critique service
              • Postgraduate Personal Statements
              • Top Rated
            • Personal Statement Writing Guide
            • Submit your personal statement
          • Russell Group Universities
          • University Open Days
          • University Rankings
          • UCAS Application Process
          • Applying to Oxbridge
          • UCAS Adjustment
          • UCAS Deadlines – 2018 entry
          • UCAS Extra
          • UCAS FAQs
          • UCAS Tariff
          • UCAS Track
          • UCAS Reference
          • UCAS for Parents
          • Disabled UCAS Students
          • International UCAS Students
          • Mature UCAS Students
        • Subject Application Guides
        • A Level Results Day Guide 2018
        • Clearing Guide 2018
        • University Guides
        • Studying Abroad
        • Distance Learning Degrees
      • Higher Education Colleges
      • Preparing For University
      • Freshers Week Guide
      • Student Guides
      • Student Cooking
      • Student Blogs
      • Resources

      Cambridge University Personal Statements

      We hope our collection of Cambridge University personal statements provides inspiration for writing your own. Please do not plagiarise them in any way, or UCAS will penalise your application. Our  Personal Statement Editing & Review Services  are availble if you feel you need a little extra help.

      Chemical Engineering Personal Statement ***
      I have always enjoyed studying Maths, Physics and Chemistry, and I would like the opportunity to continue this study. Chemical Engineering appeals to me because of the challenges involved in the application of scientific theory to practical, real world problems such as how to deal with nuclear waste…

      Computer Science Personal Statement ***
      From an early age I’ve always been deeply interested in computing. It was my dad, introducing me to the computer systems at his work place that first sparked this interest. I can always remember the feeling of wanting to know just how computers worked, why they worked and what else they could do…

      Mathematics Personal Statement ***
      I have always been fascinated by my mathematical studies and, having a flair for the subject, there was never any doubt that I would choose mathematics as a degree. It is a pivotal subject on which so many others depend (such as physics and chemistry)…

      Engineering Personal Statement ****
      The art of engineering is applying scientific theories to design. The fundamental principles that are applied to products and structures are paramount and by studying engineering I am hoping to learn how engineers use these principles and then integrate them into designs…

      History Personal Statement *
      I have always read widely and, due to my English Exhibition at Woodbridge School and my enjoyment of writing, at one point I had hoped to read English at university. However, whilst studying World War One poetry for my English Literature GCSE, I found that I was most interested in the times and conditions in which the author was writing…

      History Personal Statement
      I am captivated by the diversity and depth offered by a History degree; attracted by the way it encourages us to be analytical of the values and patterns of past societies. It was in my final year of secondary school that I was awarded the History Attainment Award, although my desire to study History dates back to an earlier age when I visited the site of the allied landings in Normandy at just eleven years old…

      Linguistics Personal Statement
      My most memorable Christmas came with a parcel of Harry Potter audio books and this was where my quest to understanding language began. The moment Stephen Fry started to narrate chapter one, I fell in love with words and all they could achieve…

      Psychology Personal Statement
      Psychology surrounds us. I often observe my class mates and ask myself why they are so different, struggling with attention or eating disorders. While looking for reasons, I also want to find ways to help them and I am confident that Psychology will give me the means to do so…

      Politics and International Relations Personal Statement
      The era in which we live goes through constant turmoil and shifting powers. Not a day goes by without a change somewhere on our planet, which in turn has an effect on yet another change to come elsewhere…

      Education/Drama Personal Statement (Oxbridge)
      “I shall have poetry in my life. And adventure. Unbiddable, ungovernable, like a riot in the heart, come ruin or rapture.” Perhaps one should not begin with the words of another when presenting oneself, but as an actress, utilising the words of others is something that has become second nature…

      Psychology Personal Statement
      It was the odd behavioural traits displayed by my uncle, who has Asperger’s syndrome that first generated from a young age my questioning about why he acted so ‘differently’ to the rest of us. This was part of what led to my interest of studying psychology, as it made me question how and why humans are so disparate from one another, and what part the brain plays in running our everyday lives…

      Politics & International Relations Personal Statement
      It was November 1989. My parents were rattling their keys in the main square of Bratislava with other Czechoslovak youngsters asking for the democracy that was denied by the Communist regime. They raised me in an environment, where appreciation of freedom, expressing my thoughts and being an active citizen have been essential…

      Mathematics and Physics Personal Statement
      Mathematics is a fundamental tool for understanding our world: it can be used to define the symmetry of flowers or to manage global companies. What is so appealing about mathematics is the opportunity of applying it in the physical world…

      Aerospace (Aeronautical) Engineering Personal Statement
      Fire, the wheel, boats, book printing, electricity, engines, automobiles, planes, spaceships, wireless information transfer: engineering is determining this progress. Leading engineers are the creators of our future…

      Maths and Spanish Personal Statement
      For as long as I have recognised words and numbers, I have seen a connection between the two. As I progressed in the AS Mathematics course I realised how drawn I was to the subject, motivating me to spend 2 weeks at school over the summer holidays learning 2 entire AS Further Maths modules, in order to take the full A-level course in one year…

      Languages Personal Statement
      At the age of eight, a friend introduced me to Guy Hamilton’s 1969 film ‘Battle of Britain’. This instilled in me two things: my doomed childhood ambition to be a Spitfire pilot, long since grudgingly abandoned, but also, perhaps ironically, a love for the sound and feel of the German language that has stayed with me all through the intervening decade…

      English Personal Statement (Mature Student)
      Having worked on a secure psychiatric unit for two years, caring for many people unable to or precluded from following their dreams due to mental illness, as well as over a decade employed in positions just to pay the bills, I am finally pursuing my dream of becoming a published novelist…

      History Personal Statement
      It isn’t an exaggeration to say my devotion to History has moulded me into the diligent and ambitious person I am today. History continues to shape our contemporary world and my opinions have been formed from an intellectual curiosity about the resonances between the past and the present…

      Agriculture Personal Statement ***
      Ever since i watched “shaun the sheep” on CBBC, i have been passionate about becoming a farmer. For me, nothing in life would be as good as a farmers life; driving a tractor really slowly and holding everyone up, speaking in an “ooh argh” farmer accent, immediatly gaining a farmers wife upon becoming a farmer, almost guaranteed fame due to presence in most adverts regarding bread/wheat/cereal, wearing clothes that died out decades ago, and most importantly raising animals in order pit them against each other in a gladitorial pit…

      Chemistry Personal Statement
      Science is not just a subject taken in school, or a body of knowledge; it is a state of mind as well – always inquisitive and wondering. As a child, the world around me constantly captivated me and inspired questions, and I found delight in having my questions answered, always wanting to learn more, from fundamental particles, to atoms and molecules, to organisms, planets, and the universe…

      Anthropology Personal Statement
      My fascination with human behaviour and the motivations behind human actions has existed for most of my adult life, to determine a cause however I would accredit this to the voluntary work I participated in with Crisis Single Persons Homeless charity…

      Economics & Statistics Personal Statement *****
      Living in a time of immense economic uncertainty has sparked my curiosity to explain the rationale of consumers, firms and governments.

      The severity of vast global problems, from financial crisis to poverty, has also attracted me to Economics: a subject relevant now more than ever to the prosperity of all societies…

      Natural Sciences Personal Statement ****
      My perception of the sciences has changed over time as my understanding of them has developed. Subjects that once appeared isolated and independent now merge into one coherent field, each interacting with another…

      Mathematics and Economics Personal Statement
      Every day we make decisions and interact with others; the laws of economics help us make rational choices and consider the irrationality of others, as well as understand the world better. Maths and statistics are the necessary tools for me to understand the modern economics…

      Mechanical Engineering Personal Statement
      The ability to apply what I have learnt in the classroom to the outside world is an aspect of physics and maths that I particularly enjoy. An example of this was being able to calculate the coefficient of friction between a book and a table, by knowing the weight and measuring the angle at which it started to move…

      Architecture Personal Statement *****
      My application for your university stems from my desire to study at one of the best universities in the world and from my internationalist perspective as a world traveller. It also ensues from my deep passion for art, my appreciation of architecture, and my yearning to be amongst those who create the changing skylines that form our cities…

      Pharmacology/Neuroscience Personal Statement ***
      I enjoy studying science because it is a subject that encompasses so much of life’s issues and practicalities, and a subject that can be applied and made useful to everyday life. Biological science is fascinating but it is even more exciting when studying abnormal function in medical science, from the facts in pathology to the application in pharmacology…

      Pure Mathematics Personal Statement
      Mathematics is beautiful to me because of the deep and meaningful ideas
      touched upon by it, the vastness of these ideas, the clearness and
      elegance of their representation. Mathematics gives me the ability to
      apply knowledge by approaching things logically, and thinking clearly…

      Civil Engineering Personal Statement ***
      Modern life is almost wholly dependent on engineering. It is everywhere and it is always changing, and it is this in particular which attracts me to civil engineering. I hope that in this field I can combine my knowledge and skills in physics and maths, two subjects which particularly interest me, and also work in an area which is both diverse and exciting…

      Mechanical Engineering Personal Statement ***
      I personally feel that there is substantial cachet to be gained by pursuing the field of Mechanical Engineering. The diversity present in this field has attracted me and it is consistent with my enthusiasm for Mathematics and Science…

      History, Politics and Economics Personal Statement ***
      It may sound exaggerated, but I genuinely love History, and it has become a part of my life for over four years.

      As contemporary political events have increasingly become my main concern in recent years, Politics and Economics are also my favourite subjects…

      Anthropology Personal Statement ****
      For me the appeal of anthropology is that it draws on a wide range of disciplines, and that it combines theory with empirical study. Anthropology is a useful discipline in the world, where, for example, its use in developing countries is needed to give appropriate consideration as to how to successfully aid development without harming or diluting the country’s indigenous cultures…

      International Physics Personal Statement *****
      Since infancy, I have been intrigued as to how anything I came into contact with worked; however, the explanations I received were always either too vague or beyond my knowledge at the time, I have came to realize that the keyword for all my questions was physics, where the most complex phenomena of the universe can be explained by fitting small pieces of the puzzle into a structured theory…

      Civil Engineering Personal Statement
      Civil engineering is a discipline which is essential in the modern world: roads, bridges, airports, railways, sewage works and power stations all provide the fabric of today’s society, and without them the world would be a very different place…

      Electrical and Electronics Engineering Personal Statement *****
      Flirting with electrons has worked wonders. Electronics engineers have manipulated these positron antiparticles to revolutionise fields as diverse as acoustics, medicine and robotics. Impressed by these phenomenal advancements, I am ambitious to join the wonderful people who relentlessly strive to change our lives for the better…

      Mathematics and Engineering Personal Statement
      Questions regarding the reason for my liking of mathematics have only one answer: mathematical logic and concepts contribute to a practical approach in every aspect of life. It is the diversity and universal applicability of this subject that encourages me to delve further and study it in depth…

      Engineering personal statement (Mature Student) *****
      Having had a successful 11 year career in the travel industry, it may seem a little peculiar that I am now applying to study engineering. When I was younger, I had planned to become an engineer and at 16 I took an apprenticeship with the Royal Navy…

      Maths and Science Personal Statement
      Maths and science, in particular physics, have always been my favourite subjects in school. I have an inquisitive mind and am always asking “how?” and “why?” to find out how things work. I chose maths, physics and biology for my A levels, yet only realised I wanted to do engineering when I started studying topics such as mechanics…

      Anthropology Personal Statement ****
      Witnessing Hindu worship in Old Delhi, I became drawn to the systematic study of humankind. Having viewed religion as diminishing and irrelevant, I grew receptive to the manifestations of worship that exist in my own culture, and saw that the explanation of a cultural feature should involve the entire context…

      International Relations Personal Statement ****
      The Middle East has always been a political hot zone, at the center of international disputes which gain worldwide attention. Since the beginning of the twentieth century, the region has acted as a battlefield for other nations, making stability in the area an impossible feat…

      Civil Engineering Personal Statement *****
      My choice to study Civil Engineering was the result of mature reflection. I’m aware that the decisions I make at this age will surely determine my life. The direction of my studies will certainly bond my future and I decided that this commitment should contain things I love, and make me feel useful in society…

      Medicine Personal Statement
      Given that over ninety nine percent of the body consists of just six elements, it is hard to imagine the human body as an intricately synchronised and immensely complex machine. Yet, it has done well to puzzle even the brightest minds in history-but I am drawn to a challenge; I cannot think of anything else more fascinating to work with…

      Geography Personal Statement – Human/Environmental
      The possibility of the human race’s days being numbered by our destructive lifestyles, as planted in my mind by Al Gore’s sensationalised and controversial ‘The Inconvenient Truth’, has fuelled my interest in the global warming phenomenon, forcing me to question society’s reluctance to tackle it and realise the worldwide impact of each of our daily lives…

      Psychology Personal Statement
      There is a reason behind everything we do, a purpose to our actions. The cognition behind any decision that we make is one of the many aspects of psychology that I am fascinated by. The following five words, as said by the Prophet Muhammad, I believe explain such a suggestion: “Actions are but by intentions”…

      Mathematics Personal Statement
      Mathematics is at the root of many academic subjects, such as mechanics in Physics, organic Chemistry and even Music and this is why I find it so fascinating. The process of starting from a simple set of formulae and deriving nearly all mathematical truth from these is what makes Mathematics a leading academic subject…

      Physics & Maths Personal Statement *****
      The nobility of physics together with my aspiration to explore natural phenomena mathematically and to formulate theories that govern them has changed my perception of reality and this has made me ponder difficult questions…

      Engineering Personal Statement
      Overcoming economic hurdles tempered by ecological limits requires innovative solutions. For centuries mathematical and analytical skills have fused to solve practical problems. The diverse nature of engineering has made advancements possible in an array of fields from the wheel to The International Space Station…

      Politics and International Relations Personal Statement *****
      My great grandfather volunteered in the 1948 War of Independence and became the first Inspector General of the Israeli Navy, ensuring I was brought up in a strongly political family. However I am broad minded, as I attend a conservative school yet am part of a liberal youth movement so I have been exposed to many diverse opinions, encouraging me to be an informed decision-maker…

      Architecture Personal Statement
      I vividly remember the moment when I knew I wanted to be an architect. I had been taken to Barcelona to see ‘the wavy buildings’, at the time I didn’t know anything about Gaudí or his work so I was relatively unenthusiastic…

      History Personal Statement
      My interest in history lies in the simple fact that I have always been fascinated by the past. At eleven I won a full academic bursary to attend my current school. This was a way into a community in which my intellectual curiosity would be valued and where I could further my enthusiasm for history…

      Mathematics Personal Statement ***
      Mathematics is the fundamental basis of science. I want to understand just how the world hangs together, and maths seems to provide me with a solid foundation for my understanding of many other fields of knowledge…

      Biology/Natural Sciences Personal Statement *****
      I do not have to look far to find the source of my love of science. Just glancing around my living room my eyes fall upon a whole host of fascinating different organisms, seen and unseen they create a brilliant miniature ecosystem with billions of tiny processes and reactions for me to sit and unpick…

      Medicine Personal Statement
      While the idea to care for others is appealing to me, the applications of medicine for finding remedies to the complexities of the human body fascinates me even more.

      Studying medicine opens several career options from general practice to clinical research! Having the interest and aptitude for scientific knowledge and the awareness to promote health safety, it encourages me to choose this highly rewarding and satisfying course…

      Languages and Maths Personal Statement ****
      I am a versatile individual with a passion and flair for both Languages and Maths. I am applying to a variety of courses to pursue my combined interest.

      My love for languages began when I moved to Switzerland in 2006…

      Aerospace Engineering Personal Statement
      While other children fell asleep to the sound of their parents reading them bedtime fairytales, I was busy re-reading Ladybirds Explorer’s, “Flight” for probably the fourth time that day. I’ve been enthralled by the concept of flight and aerodynamics ever since I was young…

      Chemistry Personal Statement
      The realisation I wanted to study Chemistry at degree level came with my growing appreciation of its contribution and significance in shaping modern society, coupled with an increasing interest in the subject as my knowledge and understanding have developed…

      History Personal Statement
      History has always fascinated me because of what it can tell us about humanity; the decisions taken, the actions chosen and the mistakes made can all make us reflect on what it means to be human. I firmly believe history is not simply a case of learning facts and dates but rather a chance to analyse the past, enhancing our understanding of how we interact with each other today…

      Mathematics Personal Statement *****
      The challenge of problem solving has always been key to my passion for mathematics. For me, the satisfaction gained from systematically working through a complex problem to an often unobvious solution is unmatched by other areas of study…

      Maths Personal Statement
      Mathematics dictates our understanding of the universe; the sciences that the world depends on today are founded and dependant on maths. Scientists and mathematicians spend their lives making remarkable discoveries contributing to the development of humanity, the findings we have been making in fields like quantum mechanics would be completely impossible without maths…

      Maths Personal Statement ***
      ‘When is something maths?’. To ask this question would generate many replies perhaps declaring ‘doing complex calculations’ or ‘working out sums’, but it is simply so much more. To me, mathematics is a language, explaining how our world works, such as why things exist as they do in geometrical space…

      English Personal Statement
      English is not simply the study of humanity, or society, or history or the written word; it is all of those together and it is this versatility that makes it so appealing to me. The link between literary criticism and psychoanalysis is a great interest of mine…

      Politics Personal Statement *****
      Politics has always enthused me because it allows an exploration of some of the fundamental values of our society: the principles of democracy, good governance and the relationship between the state and individual…

      Psychology Personal Statement
      I first became interested in Psychology whilst discussing the underlying causes of criminal behaviour and non-conformity with my father. The nature-nurture debate gave me a huge desire to increase my knowledge and understanding of the human condition…

      Economics Personal Statement
      Since my parents were busy with the financial income throughout my childhood, I have been raised up by my grandmother. She was the oldest of 8 siblings in a family who were living in impoverished conditions…

      Natural Sciences Personal Statement
      Why and How? I believe these are the two most important question words as they express mankind’s unquenchable thirst for knowledge, and they have lain the foundation of sciences and have helped us find answers and solutions to problems throughout history from the domestication of fire to Darwin’s theory of evolution, to landing on the moon and so on…

      Archaeology Personal Statement
      I have always enjoyed learning about different cultures and civilisations, reflected in my enduring love of history, and more recently, archaeology. Compared to modern history, archaeology carries a sense of enigma which makes it much more stimulating for an imaginative and inquisitive mind…

      Mechanical Engineering Personal Statement
      These days, we are surrounded by engineering marvels. From radios to space shuttles, everything involves a vital feat of engineering. That is what I find most attractive about this field as its application is everywhere…

      Natural Sciences Personal Statement ***
      “Eureka!” This joyful exclamation sums up my satisfaction when I have finally solved an intractable problem. I frequently experience such “eureka” moments in my passionate exploration of science. My curiosity drives me to immerse myself in studying many scientific fields; which is why I believe the Natural Sciences course will best suit my abilities and interests…

      Politics & International Relations Personal Statement ****
      Growing up in a family directly affected by the Biafran War has greatly contributed to my interest in Politics and International Relations. My mother’s stories about the nomadic life forced upon her family made me examine the reasons why countries go to war…

      Land Economy Personal Statement (Cambridge University)
      Having been born and lived all my life in Hungary, with an English father and Hungarianmother, I have always wanted to go to university in England and spend most of my summers working in England. Being bilingual gives me an ability to see both sides of the question, and examine things from different perspectives which I feel will be useful for my studies…

      General Engineering Personal Statement
      As I triggered the release mechanism and watched two pounds of rock hurtle skywards I thought to myself, “trebuchets are awesome!”. Years passed before I realised that this was my first engineering project…

      International Relations Personal Statement *****
      Since visiting Cairo in 2009 and hearing first-hand of the contempt towards the police force and government I have held an enduring interest in the politics of other nations. This is why I was struck to see my twitter feed overrun with updates on the Arab Spring and later the global Occupy movements…

      Politics and International Relations Personal Statement ***
      t was on a family holiday to Egypt, just two weeks after the Egyptian uprisings; that I learned first-hand, from those who had experienced it; the power of the people.

      What I did not know then, was the explosive effect this would have on the middle-eastern community and that this call for democracy would ripple through Bahrain, Libya, Yemen and multiple other countries, including Syria; which is currently in the midst of a civil war…

      Engineering Personal Statement
      When I was a child, most of the sentences I spoke out finished with a question mark, asking how everyday things work. Receiving answers to these questions and learning more about Mathematics and Physics has enlarged my desire to make human life easier and become an Engineer…

      Linguistics Personal Statement
      Have you ever heard the Tuvan throat singing technique?
      Beautiful and intriguing at the same time. The question that’s bound to accompany a throat singing performance is how the human voice could possibly produce such a sound…

      Economics Personal Statement *****
      One look at the world around us and we can instantly see how vital a role economics plays in every aspect of life. A fleeting glimpse of a newspaper headline or the core section of the evening news will tell you that economics influences nearly everything we do and think…

      Computer Science Personal Statement
      Computer Science – the most exciting insight into humanity’s mission to conquer the future. It has been my favourite and most fascinating preoccupation since childhood, though back then I did not even know it…

      Computer Science Personal Statement *****
      Interacting with computers has been my passion ever since I was a young kid. I will not lie – I was initially drawn to them because I fancied computer games. However, the more I operated with computers, the more I began to appreciate understanding how they work, discovering just how much they can do and the near limitless potential they hold…

      History Personal Statement
      Whether considering the real world applications of Bentham’s utilitarianism in Religious Studies, analysing the context of a changing Victorian society in English Literature, or debating the evolving ideology of the Labour Party in Politics, there is one common thread connecting what I enjoy most about my studies: history…

      Sociology Personal Statement
      The need for the study of Sociology in society is, arguably, universally fundamental.

      The study of society is of paramount importance in solving social problems of great magnitude such as poverty and family disorganisation…

      Back to:

      • University specific personal statements
      • All personal statements

      Object moved to here .

      Case Studies Essay Sample: Importance of Animals …

      research

      Penn State Extension Penn State Extension Penn State Extension Penn State Extension

       

      • Penn State
        |
      • Penn State Extension
        |
      • Programs
        |
      • Pennsylvania 4-H
        |

      • PDFs
        |

      • 4-H State Days and Shooting Sports Contest Rules
        |

      • Small Animal Essay Contest

      Pennsylvania 4-H

      Pennsylvania 4-H

      • Find Your County 4-H Program

      • About 4-H

      • Join 4-H

      • Programs and Projects

      • Give to 4-H

      Information For…

      Members

      Volunteers

      Parents

      Teachers

      Learn More…

      Upcoming Events

      News

      Social Media

      Contact Us

      Directory

      Facebook

      Twitter

      Instagram

      Pinterest

      4-H State Council

      Enroll Now

      4-H Faculty and Staff Resources

      Small Animal Essay Contest

      This contest is designed to recognize achievement and encourage small animal project members to evaluate and describe on paper the subject matter knowledge and skills, life skills and responsibilities of working with small animals.

      PDF document icon
      Small_Animal_Essay.pdf



      PDF document,
      117 KB (120321 bytes)

      You have no items in your shopping cart.

      Irish elk

      From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

      Jump to navigation
      Jump to search

      Irish elk
      Temporal range: Middle Pleistocene to Early Holocene , 0.781–0.008  Ma

      PreЄ
      Є
      O
      S
      D
      C
      P
      T
      J
      K
      Pg
      N

      Irish Elk Side (white background).jpg
      Mounted skeleton
      Scientific classification e
      Kingdom: Animalia
      Phylum: Chordata
      Class: Mammalia
      Order: Artiodactyla
      Family: Cervidae
      Subfamily: Cervinae
      Genus: Megaloceros
      Species:M. giganteus
      Binomial name
      Megaloceros giganteus
      ( Blumenbach , 1799)
      Synonyms

      †Megaceros giganteus
      †Megaloceros giganteus giganteus

      The Irish elk (Megaloceros giganteus) [1] [2] also called the giant deer or Irish giant deer, is an extinct species of deer in the genus Megaloceros and is one of the largest deer that ever lived. Its range extended across Eurasia during the Pleistocene , from Ireland to Siberia to China . A related form is recorded in China during the Late Pleistocene . [3] The most recent remains of the species have been carbon dated to about 7,700 years ago in Siberia. [4]

      Although most skeletons have been found in bogs in Ireland, the animal was not exclusive to Ireland and was not closely related to either of the living species currently called elk – Alces alces (the European elk, known in North America as the moose) or Cervus canadensis (the North American elk or wapiti). For this reason, the name “Giant deer” is used in some publications, instead of “Irish elk”. [5] [6] [7] [8] [9] A study has suggested that the Irish elk was closely related to the Red deer ( Cervus elaphus ). [10] However, other phylogenetic analyses support a sister-group relationship with fallow deer ( Dama dama ). [8] [11] [12]

      Contents

      • 1 Taxonomy
        • 1.1 Evolution
      • 2 Description
      • 3 Palaeobiology
        • 3.1 Size of antlers
        • 3.2 Orthogenesis
        • 3.3 Reproduction
      • 4 Extinction
      • 5 Cultural significance
        • 5.1 Folklore
        • 5.2 Northern Ireland
        • 5.3 Potential revival
      • 6 References
      • 7 Further reading
      • 8 External links

      Taxonomy[ edit ]

      Skeletal reconstruction from 1856

      In the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries it began to be apparent to scientists that many fossilized specimens being discovered did not represent any organisms that were currently living on earth. The Irish elk was among these specimens. Neither exclusive to Ireland nor an elk, it was named so because the most well-known and best preserved fossil specimens have been found in lake sediments and peat bogs in Ireland. The Irish elk had a far-reaching range, being located throughout Europe, northern Africa, and some related forms located in China. The first scientific descriptions erroneously confuse the animal with the American moose , while other scientists believed the elk was identical to the European reindeer . These scientists did not have the current conception of evolutionary biology that we have now. They did not consider extinction, believing instead that the unexplained fossils had living descendants in undiscovered parts of the globe. French scientist Georges Cuvier was the first to challenge that notion, documenting that the Irish elk did not belong to any species of mammal that was living at the time. His study of the Irish elk was a key moment in the history of the study of extinction .

      Evolution[ edit ]

      Skull of M. g. antecedens

      The Irish elk evolved throughout the last few million years during the Glacial Periods and Ice Age, specifically the Pleistocene Epoch. Once established, the elk spread throughout Europe, northern Asia and Africa, and some parts of China. [13] Physically, the Irish elk was the heaviest known member of the “Old World deer”, [11] a division of the subfamily Cervinae whose groups the “Old World deer” and “New World deer” are distinguished by foot structure rather than geographical origin. [14] The first Megaloceros giganteus appear about 400,000 years ago, but most Irish remains date from between 11,750 BP and 10,950 BP. Over 100 individuals have been found in Ballybetagh Bog, Co. Dublin, the outstanding site known. [15] Studies have shown they possibly evolved from M. antecedens. The earlier taxon , sometimes considered a paleosubspecies M. giganteus antecedens, is similar but had more complex and compact antlers.

      Description[ edit ]

      The Irish elk stood about 2.1 metres (6.9 ft) tall at the shoulders carrying the largest antlers of any known cervid (a maximum of 3.65 m (12.0 ft) from tip to tip and weighing up to 40 kg (88 lb)). In body size, the Irish elk tied with the extant moose subspecies of Alaska (Alces alces gigas) as the third largest known deer , second and first belonging to the genus Cervalces ( C. scotti and C.latifrons respectively). The Irish elk is estimated to have attained a total mass of 540–600 kg (1,190–1,323 lb). Large specimens weighed 700 kg (1,543 lb) or more, comparable with the Alaskan Moose. [16] [17] A significant collection of M. giganteus skeletons can be found at the Natural History Museum in Dublin .

      Palaeobiology[ edit ]

      Size of antlers[ edit ]

      Skeleton on display with antlers spanning 2.7 metres (8.9 ft) and a mass of 40 kg (88 lb)

      The size of Irish elk antlers are distinctive. Scientists have proposed multiple theories regarding the evolution of these antlers. One theory is that their antlers, under constant and strong sexual selection , increased in size because males were using them in combat for access to females. Thus, it is hypothesized that they eventually became so unwieldy that the Irish Elk could not carry on the normal business of life and so became extinct. It was not until Stephen Jay Gould ‘s important 1974 essay on Megaloceros that this theory was tested rigorously. [18]

      Restoration

      Gould demonstrated that for deer in general, species with a larger body size have antlers that are more than proportionately larger, a consequence of allometry , or differential growth rate of body size and antler size during development. Irish Elk had antlers of the appropriate size in correlation to their massive bodies. This does not mean that sexual selection played no part in maintaining large antler size, only that the antlers of the species’ ancestors were already large to begin with. Indeed, Gould concluded that the large antler size and their position on the skull was very much maintained by sexual selection: they were morphologically ill-suited for combat between males, but their position was ideal to present them to intimidate rivals or impress females. Unlike other deer, M. giganteus did not even have to turn its head to present the antlers to best effect, but could accomplish this by simply looking straight ahead. [18]

      The size of antlers has also been attributed to the health of the Irish elk. Gould stated: “If the Irish elk responded to nutritional restriction as red deer do, a huge and well-fed stag with 40 kg antlers (the near maximal size [18] [19] ) would have had 20 to 28 kg antlers under poor conditions. These estimates are within the range of extant moose Alces alces antlers. [20] More typical prime stags with 35 kg antlers [21] would have had 18 to 25 kg antlers in times of nutritional stress.” [22] “A linear measure of antler size (basal circumference), however, was reduced even further to 41% of the mainland mean. Because basal circumference is highly correlated with other linear measures of antler size, [23] such a decrease indicates that insular antler mass dropped to 1/14th of the mainland antler mass. This reduction in antler mass is 2.7 times more extreme than expected given the allometric relationship between antler and body masses in red deer [18] and demonstrates a rapid evolution of smaller antlers. A similar change in a typical Irish elk population with prime stags having 35 kg antlers [21] would result in antler weights of 13 kg or less in worsening climatic conditions. This estimate is within the range of extant wapiti/red deer (Cervus spp.) antler weights. [20]

      It has been noted that Irish elk stags in more adverse environments had smaller bodies and relatively even smaller antlers, [19] [24] but proponents of the antler-extinction hypothesis have not addressed the possibility of rapid evolutionary reduction in antler size. We expect that the antlers of the Irish elk should have been able to evolve rapidly in the face of selection for smaller and less expensive sizes. This conclusion is supported by the great diversity of Irish elk antler forms found among different populations at different times, including compact upright orientations possibly from populations inhabiting more heavily wooded environments [25] suggesting the evolutionary malleability of Irish elk antlers.” [22] In 1987, Kitchener presented evidence that Irish elk antlers were in fact used for fighting. [26] In addition, the Irish elk’s antlers had several functions such as being a display for attraction of females and dominance of rival males. [24] The elks shed their antlers and re-grew a new pair during mating season. [27] Ultimately, the decrease in energy intake by the Late Pleistocene, influenced the ability to produce for Irish elk females. [22]

      Orthogenesis[ edit ]

      Model in Ulster Museum

      Further information: Orthogenesis

      Before the 20th century, the Irish elk was taken as a prime example of orthogenesis (directed evolution), an evolutionary mechanism in which the successive organisms within the lineage of an evolutionary series become increasingly modified in a single undeviating direction. Orthogenesis was a widely accepted evolutionary mechanism in the 19th and 20th centuries. Orthogenesis is only a hypothesis, unlike natural selection which is understood by the scientific community as a theory. It was popular amongst anti-Darwinian paleontologists because it stated that evolution proceeded void of natural selection in a straight line. In terms of the Irish elk, it is believed that orthogenesis caused an evolutionary trajectory towards antlers which became larger and larger. This was due to sexual selection which drove an increase in antler size. These antlers caused eventual extinction because the Irish elk’s antlers would grow to sizes which inhibited proper feeding habits and caused the animal to become trapped in tree branches. [8]

      Other examples of orthogenesis include saber tooth cats’ teeth growing to unbearable sizes or oysters coiling their valves into itself until it suffocated. The Irish elk was a prime example of orthogenesis because it had evolved from a smaller ancestor with smaller antlers. However, in the 1930s, orthogenesis was disproved by Darwinians led by Julian Huxley , who noted that antler size was relative to body size. Because the Irish elk was a large organism compared to its smaller relatives such as deer, there was an allometric relationship between the antlers and body size. This theory, too, was countered by Stephen Jay Gould, as he deemed the allometry theory to be very similar to the orthogenesis theory. [28] Gould was convinced that the elk’s antler served a primary, unknown purpose. He believed that their immense antlers did not only evolve for combat but that they were also visual representations. Gould and many modern-day scientists have concluded that the antlers served as signals, in which the male elk with large antlers were more suited to attract females. [29] Thus, there is an increasing amount of evidence pointing to the idea that sexual selection was the driving force behind the large antlers, rather than orthogenesis or natural selection. [29]

      It is easy to advance a number of hypotheses regarding the disappearance of the more localized populations of this species. The situation is less clear regarding the final demise of the Irish elk in continental Eurasia east of the Urals. Stuart et al. (2004) tentatively suggest that a combination of human presence along rivers and slow decrease in habitat quality in upland areas presented the last Irish elk with the choice of either good habitat but considerable hunting pressure, or general absence of humans in a suboptimal habitat.

      Reproduction[ edit ]

      Restoration by Charles R. Knight

      There are frequent debates as to whether or not sexual selection led to the Irish elk’s extinction. Sexual selection can increase or decrease a population’s chance of extinction, due to behaviors such as male-male competition and female choice. Also, sexual harassment by males can result in lower female fecundity or even death. [30] Regardless of the details of the species’ life history, extinction would require that too few males survive to maturity to fertilize a sufficient number of females to maintain a viable population. [30] When it comes to male-male competition, if the assumption is that detrimental effects are clear in only the males, a surviving male would have a large number of females to choose from, with little competition. Selection must, therefore, favor the less extreme male genotypes, and it appears impossible to generate a scenario where males with larger antlers are still selected for when the lifetime reproductive success of males with large antlers approaches zero (as required for deterministic extinction to occur). [30]

      In female choice, sexual selection could, thus, reinforce natural selection and lead to quicker responses to environmental changes, should they occur. [30] With a decrease in male population, females have fewer choices, which could result in inbreeding. This can pose significant threats to population survival. [30] However, much of these studies are contradicting. Females may adaptively avoid the accumulation of inbreeding, so that female choice might increase effective population size. [30]

      Late Pleistocene fossils from Ballybetagh bog, near Dublin, Ireland, indicate that males segregated from females during winters. [24] This type of segregation implies that the Irish elk had behaviors such as rutting and polygynous mating systems, where a single male mates with two or more females. This also supports the belief that the large antler size was used for social display. Within male groups, winterkill was the chief cause of death and was highest among juveniles and small adults with small antlers. [24]

      Extinction[ edit ]

      Sculptures in Crystal Palace

      Traditionally, discussion of the cause of their extinction has focused on the antler size (rather than on their overall body size), which may be due more to their impact on the observer than any actual property. Some have suggested hunting by humans was a contributing factor in the demise of the Irish elk, as may have been the case with other prehistoric megafauna , even assuming that the large antler size restricted the movement of males through forested regions or that it was by some other means a ” maladaptation “. [18] Others assume the ultimate cause of extinction may have been the adaptations for mineral metabolism that were beneficial to the Irish elk until vegetation changed. [31] But given the difficulty of recovering quantitative records of human hunting impacts from the sub-fossil record alone, the role of humans in the extinction of the Irish elk is not yet clear.

      Some research has suggested that a lack of sufficient high-quality forage caused the extinction of the elk. According to an article written by researchers Silvia Gonzalez, Andrew Kitcheneri, and Adrian Lister, in 2000, a reduction in forest density into the Late Pleistocene decreased nutritional selection and is believed to have led to a conflict between sexual selection and ultimately a decrease in antler and body size, which can explain what may have caused their demise. [32] High amounts of calcium and phosphate compounds are required to form antlers, and therefore large quantities of these minerals are required for the massive structures of the Irish elk. The males (and male deer in general) met this requirement partly from their bones, replenishing them from food plants after the antlers were grown or reclaiming the nutrients from discarded antlers (as has been observed in extant deer). Thus, in the antler growth phase, giant deer suffered from a condition similar to osteoporosis . [19] When the climate changed at the end of the last glacial period , the vegetation in the animal’s habitat also changed towards species that presumably could not deliver sufficient amounts of the required minerals, at least in the western part of its range.

      Simply blaming antler size for their extinction may not be entirely accurate. The most likely cause is the significantly shortened growing season seen toward the end of the Pleistocene Era. This reduced availability in nutrition resulted in the lowering of the female reproduction output by about 50%. [22]

      However, the most recent specimen of M. giganteus in northern Siberia, dated to approximately 7,700 years ago – well after the end of the last glacial period – shows no sign of nutrient stress. They come from a region with a continental climate where the proposed vegetation changes had not (yet) occurred. [33]

      New radiocarbon dates from specimens in stratified contexts suggest that giant deer still existed 1,400 years after their supposed extinction. Giant deer fossils found on the Isle of Man at Ballaugh confirm the survival of the species into early Holocene in at least this area. The Ballaugh Elk skeleton is smaller than the entire range of Irish skeletons, but has a relatively large skull and the antlers are well-sized for an adult male. This suggests that size decreased into the Holocene.

      There is strong intraspecific allometry among Irish deer. Smaller animals have relatively shorter antlers. Reduced display organs are theorized to indicate a prelude to extinction from nutritional stress. Reduced forage density leads to a conflict between sexual selection for antler size and nutritional selection pressures. These factors reduced populations and the body size of the giant deer. However, data indicates that they are unlikely to have been wholly responsible for the animal’s extinction. With available evidence, it is hard to define the cause of extinction.

      Many scientists argue that factors like ecological change, virulent disease, and hunting by people wiped out many large mammal species during the end of the European Ice age, including the giant deer. Fossils found on the Isle of Man at Ballaugh, and at two places in western Siberia postdating the supposed extinction of the species show that, whatever the causes, the actual termination of the species was likely due to a variety of factors which had different significance and timing in different parts of the species’ range.
      [32] [34]

      Cultural significance[ edit ]

      Folklore[ edit ]

      Cave painting from Lascaux

      A folk memory of the Irish Elk was once thought to be preserved in the Middle High German word Schelch, a large beast mentioned in the 13th-century Nibelungenlied along with the then-extant aurochs (Dar nach schluch er schiere, einen Wisent und einen Elch, Starcher Ure vier, und einen grimmen Schelch / “After this he straightway slew a Bison and an Elk, Of the strong Wild Oxen four, and a single fierce Schelch.”). The Middle Irish word segh was also suggested as a reference to the Irish Elk. [35] [36] Turf cutters of Clooney and Tulla in County Clare, Ireland referred to the Irish Elk as the Fiaghmore. [37] However, these interpretations are not conclusive. [18] [38]

      Northern Ireland[ edit ]

      An Irish elk is displayed on the Coat of arms of Northern Ireland .

      Potential revival[ edit ]

      This species has been selected by the Long Now Foundation as a potential candidate for de-extinction . [39]

      References[ edit ]

      1. ^ Geist, Valerius (1998). “Megaloceros: The Ice Age Giant and Its Living Relatives”. Deer of the World: Their Evolution, Behaviour, and Ecology . Stackpole Books. ISBN   0-8117-0496-3 . 
      2. ^ Lister, A.M. (1987). Megaceros or Megaloceros? The nomenclature of the giant deer. Quaternary Newsletter 52: 14-16.
      3. ^ Gould, S.J. “The misnamed, mistreated, and misunderstood Irish elk”. Ever Since Darwin. W.W. Norton. pp. 79–90. 
      4. ^ Stuart, A.J.; Kosintsev, P.A.; Higham, T.F.G. & Lister, A.M. (2004). Pleistocene to Holocene extinction dynamics in giant deer and woolly mammoth. Nature 431(7009): 684-689. PMID   15470427 doi : 10.1038/nature02890 PDF fulltext [ permanent dead link ] Supplementary information . Erratum in Nature 434(7031): 413, doi : 10.1038/nature03413
      5. ^ Vislobokova, I. A. (2010), “Giant Deer: Origin, Evolution, Role in the Biosphere,” Paleontological Journal. vol. 46 no. 7 pg. 643-775
      6. ^ Bro-Jorgensen, J. (2014), “Will their armaments be their downfall? Large horn size increases extinction risk in bovids,” Animal Conservation. vol. 17 no. 1 pg. 80-87
      7. ^ Lemaitre, J. F. (2014), “The allometry between secondary sexual traits and body size is nonlinear among cervids,” Biology Letter. vol. 10 no. 3
      8. ^ a b c Hughes, Sandrine; Hayden, Thomas J.; Douady, Christophe J.; Tougard, Christelle; Germonpré, Mietje; Stuart, Anthony; Lbova, Lyudmila; Carden, Ruth F.; Hänni, Catherine; Say, Ludovic (2006). “Molecular phylogeny of the extinct giant deer, Megaloceros giganteus“. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 40 (1): 285–291. doi : 10.1016/j.ympev.2006.02.004 . PMID   16556506 . 
      9. ^ Vislobokova, I. A. (2011), “Historical Development and Geographical Distribution of Giant Deer (Cervidae, Megacerini)”, Paleontological Journal. vol. 45 no. 6 pg. 674-688
      10. ^ Kuehn, Ralph; Ludt, Christian J.; Schroeder, Wolfgang; Rottmann, Oswald (2005). “Molecular Phylogeny of Megaloceros giganteus — the Giant Deer or Just a Giant Red Deer?”. Zoological Science. 22 (9): 1031–1044. doi : 10.2108/zsj.22.1031 . PMID   16219984 . 
      11. ^ a b Lister, Adrian M.; Edwards, Ceiridwen J.; Nock, D. A. W.; Bunce, Michael; van Pijlen, Iris A.; Bradley, Daniel G.; Thomas, Mark G.; Barnes, Ian (2005). “The phylogenetic position of the giant deer Megaloceros giganteus”. Nature. 438 (7069): 850–853. Bibcode : 2005Natur.438..850L . doi : 10.1038/nature04134 . PMID   16148942 . 
      12. ^ Immel, Alexander; Drucker, Dorothée G.; Bonazzi, Marion; Jahnke, Tina K.; Münzel, Susanne C.; Schuenemann, Verena J.; Herbig, Alexander; Kind, Claus-Joachim; Krause, Johannes (2015). “Mitochondrial Genomes of Giant Deers Suggest their Late Survival in Central Europe” . Scientific Reports. 5 (10853): 10853. Bibcode : 2015NatSR…510853I . doi : 10.1038/srep10853 . PMC   4459102  Freely accessible. PMID   26052672 . 
      13. ^ Gould, S.J. “The Case of the Irish Elk.” The Case of the Irish Elk. UC Berkeley, n.d. Web. 23 Oct. 2014.
      14. ^ Geist, Valerius (1998). Deer of the World: Their Evolution, Behaviour, and Ecology. Stackpole Books. ISBN   0811704963 . 
      15. ^ Johnston, Penny; Kelly, Bernice; Tierney, John. “Megaloceros Giganteus on the Loose” (PDF). Seanda: The NRA Archaeology Magazine. pp. 58–59. Archived from the original (PDF) on October 29, 2013. 
      16. ^ R. D. E. Mc Phee, Extinctions in Near Time: Causes, Contexts, and Consequences p.262
      17. ^ Moen R.A; Pastor J. & Cohen Y. 1999. Antler growth and extinction of Irish Elk. Evolutionary Ecology Research 1: 235–249. [1]
      18. ^ a b c d e f Gould, Stephen Jay (1974). “The Origin and Function of ‘Bizarre’ Structures: Antler Size and Skull Size in the ‘Irish Elk,’ Megaloceros giganteus”. Evolution. 28 (2): 191. doi : 10.2307/2407322 . JSTOR   2407322 . 
      19. ^ a b c Moen, R.A.; Pastor, J. & Cohen, Y. (1999). Antler growth and extinction of Irish Elk. Evolutionary Ecology Research 1: 235–249. Abstract
      20. ^ a b Geist 1998
      21. ^ a b Barnosky 1986
      22. ^ a b c d O’Driscoll Worman, Cedric; Kimbrell, Tristan (2008). “Getting to the hart of the matter: Did antlers truly cause the extinction of the Irish elk?”. Oikos. 117 (9): 1397–1405. doi : 10.1111/j.0030-1299.2008.16608.x . 
      23. ^ Bartoš and Bahbouh 2006
      24. ^ a b c d Barnosky, Anthony D. (19 April 1985). “Taphonomy and Herd Structure of the Extinct Irish Elk, Megalocerous giganteus”. Science. New. 228 (4697): 340–344. Bibcode : 1985Sci…228..340B . doi : 10.1126/science.228.4697.340 . PMID   17790237 . 
      25. ^ Lister 1994
      26. ^ Kitchener, A (1987). “Fighting behavior of the extinct Irish elk”. Modern Geology. 11: 1–28. 
      27. ^ “Irish elk” . Archived from the original on 2013-10-21. Retrieved 2013-10-21. 
      28. ^ Anderson, Kristina. “What On Earth – A Canadian Newsletter for the Earth Sciences.” What On Earth – A Canadian Newsletter for the Earth Sciences. N.p., 15 Nov. 2002. Web. 23 Oct. 2014.
      29. ^ a b Zimmer, Carl. “The Allure of Big Antlers : The Loom.” The Loom. Discover, 3 Sept. 2008. Web. 23 Oct. 2014.
      30. ^ a b c d e f Kokko, H., & Brooks, R. (2003). Sexy to die for? sexual selection and the risk of extinction. Annales Zoologici Fennici, 40(2), 207-219. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/18804232
      31. ^ Moen, Ron; John Pastor; Yosef Cohen (1999). “Antler growth and extinction of Irish elk”. Evolutionary Ecology Research: 235–249. 
      32. ^ a b Gonzalez, Silvia; Andrew Kitchener; Adrian Lister (15 June 2000). “Survival of the Irish elk into the Holocene”. Nature. 405 (6788): 753–754. doi : 10.1038/35015668 . PMID   10866185 . 
      33. ^ Hughes, Sandrine; Hayden, Thomas J.; Douady, Christophe J.; Tougard, Christelle; Germonpré, Mietje; Stuart, Anthony; Lbova, Lyudmila; Carden, Ruth F.; Hänni, Catherine; Say, Ludovic (2006). Molecular phylogeny of the extinct giant deer, Megaloceros giganteus. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 40(1): 285–291. doi : 10.1016/j.ympev.2006.02.004 PDF fulltext Archived 2007-10-01 at the Wayback Machine .. Supplementary data 1, DOC fulltext Supplementary data 2, DOC fulltext Supplementary data 3, DOC fulltext
      34. ^ Irish Elk Survived after Ice Age Ended Author(s): S. P. Source: Science News, Vol. 166, No. 19 (Nov. 6, 2004), p. 301 Published by: Society for Science & the Public
      35. ^ Cuvier, Georges ; Edward Griffith; et al. (1827). The Animal Kingdom Arranged in Conformity with Its Organization . London: G. B. Whittaker. pp. 87–89. CS1 maint: Explicit use of et al. ( link )
      36. ^ Hibbert, S. (October 1829 – April 1830). “Additional Contributions towards the History of the Cervus Euryce, or Fossil Elk of Ireland” . The Edinburgh Journal of Science. 2 (3): 314. 
      37. ^ Westropp, Thomas Johnson (1913). “A Folklore Survey of County Clare. Chapter 17: Animal and Plant Superstitions” . 
      38. ^ Owen, Richard (1846). A History of British Fossil Mammals, and Birds . London: John Van Voorst. pp. 461–462. 
      39. ^ “Candidate species | Revive & Restore” . Longnow.org. Archived from the original on 2016-02-18. Retrieved 2016-02-19. 

      Further reading[ edit ]

      • Kurten, Bjorn (1995): Dance of the Tiger . University of California Press. ISBN   0-520-20277-5 .
      Kurten is a paleo-anthropologist, and in this novel he presents a theory of Neanderthal extinction. Irish elk feature prominently, under the name shelk which Kurten coins (based on the aforementioned old German schelch) to avoid the problematic aspects of “Irish” and “elk” as discussed above. The book was first published in 1980, when the name “Giant Deer” was not yet being used widely.
      • ZOOLOGICAL SCIENCE 22: 1031–1044 (2005)
      • Juliana, Adelman. “An Insight into Commercial Natural History: Richard Glennon, William Hinchy and the Nineteenth-century Trade in Giant Irish Deer Remains.” Archives of Natural History 39.1 (2012): 16-26. Print.
      • Larson, Edward J. (2004). Evolution: The Remarkable History of a Scientific Theory

      External links[ edit ]

      Wikimedia Commons has media related to Megaloceros giganteus .
      • icon Paleontology portal
      • “Extinct Giant Deer Survived Ice Age, Study Says” . National Geographic. 
      • “CGI picture from “Walking with Beasts” . Discovery Channel. Archived from the original on February 17, 2006. Retrieved February 14, 2006. 
      • “Megaloceros, Irish elk, Giant deer” . BBC. Retrieved October 25, 2005. 
      • “The Case of the Irish Elk” . University of California at Berkeley. Archived from the original on November 11, 2005. Retrieved October 25, 2005. 
      Taxon identifiers
      • Wikidata : Q312054
      • Wikispecies : Megaloceros giganteus
      • EoL : 4446592
      • Fossilworks : 149394
      • GBIF : 5846758
      • iNaturalist : 354793
      • NCBI : 227166

      Retrieved from ” https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Irish_elk&oldid=858141121 ”
      Categories :

      • Prehistoric deer
      • Pleistocene even-toed ungulates
      • Pleistocene mammals of Europe
      • Pleistocene mammals of Asia
      • Pleistocene first appearances
      • Holocene extinctions
      Hidden categories:

      • All articles with dead external links
      • Articles with dead external links from November 2017
      • Articles with permanently dead external links
      • Webarchive template wayback links
      • CS1 maint: Explicit use of et al.
      • Articles with ‘species’ microformats

      Navigation menu

      Personal tools

      • Not logged in
      • Talk
      • Contributions
      • Create account
      • Log in

      Namespaces

      • Article
      • Talk

      Variants

        Views

        • Read
        • Edit
        • View history

        More


          Navigation

          • Main page
          • Contents
          • Featured content
          • Current events
          • Random article
          • Donate to Wikipedia
          • Wikipedia store

          Interaction

          • Help
          • About Wikipedia
          • Community portal
          • Recent changes
          • Contact page

          Tools

          • What links here
          • Related changes
          • Upload file
          • Special pages
          • Permanent link
          • Page information
          • Wikidata item
          • Cite this page

          Print/export

          • Create a book
          • Download as PDF
          • Printable version

          In other projects

          • Wikimedia Commons
          • Wikispecies

          Languages

          • العربية
          • Aragonés
          • Azərbaycanca
          • Català
          • Čeština
          • Dansk
          • Español
          • Esperanto
          • Euskara
          • فارسی
          • Français
          • Gaeilge
          • Galego
          • 한국어
          • Italiano
          • עברית
          • ქართული
          • Қазақша
          • Latviešu
          • Lietuvių
          • Magyar
          • മലയാളം
          • Nederlands
          • 日本語
          • Occitan
          • Polski
          • Português
          • Română
          • Русский
          • Simple English
          • Slovenčina
          • Српски / srpski
          • Suomi
          • Svenska
          • ไทย
          • Türkçe
          • Українська
          • Tiếng Việt
          • 中文
          Edit links

          • This page was last edited on 5 September 2018, at 10:19 (UTC).
          • Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License ;
            additional terms may apply. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy . Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. , a non-profit organization.
          • Privacy policy
          • About Wikipedia
          • Disclaimers
          • Contact Wikipedia
          • Developers
          • Cookie statement
          • Mobile view
          • Wikimedia Foundation
          • Powered by MediaWiki