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Techtoniks | Ran Online Extreme Fist Weapons and Skill Linking – Techtoniks


Ran Online Extreme Fist Weapons and Skill Linking

July 8, 2015
Comments Closed
MagicBabe Game Guides , Ran Online

I see lots and lots of extreme characters in game. The first mistake comes from nerfing your own extreme character with only 1 skill tree/stat type build. The next mistake is that I also see many not even remotely coming close to using skill links. Then to top it off for mistakes, players have been using 2 weapons.

Ok, what’s wrong with these things?


  • 1 Ok, what’s wrong with these things?
  • 2 Extreme Fist Weapons
  • 3 Skill Linking
  • Only using 1 build/skill tree. It’s much more convenient, but it defeats the purpose of having an extreme character right from the start. They were meant to go “hybrid” right from the very start. That’s why you have extreme fist weapons!! In only using one type, you completely lose the skill links. You’d have no chance at it whatsoever.
  • No skill links. Again, it’s a great way to nerf your own character!! Sure, the extreme characters still have plenty in the way of attacks and effects. So why did you waste the extras that come with it?!!
  • Two different weapons. That turned out to be a great way to completely waste your own time and money if you didn’t loot your own weapons since the stats don’t stack!! When you have 2 different weapons for your extreme character, it will auto switch them as needed. But when the extreme fist weapons came out, there was no further need to do so. In the case of Int + Dex weapons such as a bow or gun and a spear, you’ll need ammunition (ammo). Very effective at using up more inventory space when you didn’t have to.

Extreme Fist Weapons

Check out the screen shots below.

Forbidden Mighty Fist +4 Sanguine Nimble Fist N Banish Bizarre Fist Banish Mighty Fist Black Dragon Bizzare Fist

With these weapons, switching is done automatically as though you have the actual weapon. But when you look closer at the descriptions, you’ll see that Weapon type is just question marks. What this means is that there is no type check. So for ALL the extreme skills that require Fist as the weapon (ALL of them do!!), these are the weapons it refers to. Not brawler weapons that say “fist” as their weapon type. Note: those weapons do work on the Pow Type brawler skills. With these weapons, you have the use and full attack range of each and every skill the extreme character can offer. With these weapons, you can hybrid with up to 4 skill trees across 2 build types and include skills from ETC. Also note, these weapons do not require ammo and they’ll actually switch GRAPHICALLY to mimic the needed weapon.

Now check the weapons themselves. See the difference between the Banish fists and other fists here? The Black Dragon, Sanguine, and Forbidden extreme fist weapons all give extra stats much more in comparisons to the standard (NON- (N) type) weapons. Compare the Banish fists with the Sanguine fist. When the (N) is there, you get the extra options as showing at the bottom of the Sanguine fist description. So without the (N) or without a title, they’re primarily useless and you’re losing stats and options to make your extreme character stronger.

Each weapon is as follows:

  • Nimble Fist. This is for Dex + Int extreme characters. You’ll always get +Shooting and +Energy.
  • Mighty Fist. This is for Pow + Dex extreme characters. You’ll always get +Melee and +Shooting.
  • Bizarre Fist. This is for Pow + Int extreme characters. You’ll always get +Melee and +Energy.

No matter which way you try to think of something new, this always covers everything an extreme character can handle for each build. Remember, you can mix and match skills from the skill trees, up to 4, for each of the 2 builds available on each weapon. For examples, you can have skills from both sides of Int, and both sides of Dex all at the same time. You can have skills from Dex gunner only and Int assassin only if you wanted to. You could have skills from Pow swordsman and both sides of Dex all at the same time. Knock yourself out!!

Skill Linking

No, this doesn’t mean it will open your default browser and show you a web page based on what you used to attack!! This does mean you can gain extra effects and/or damage if you used the named skill first. See the screen shots.

Extreme Skill Linking 4 Extreme Skill Linking 1 Extreme Skill Linking 2 Extreme Skill Linking 3

Of course, these are just some examples. But you’ll get the idea.

Some skills have 1 extra effect and the others have 2 extras in total. They’ll all stack with the effects of the main skill description. The difference is that one of them is the Link effect. Check out the screen shot of Hurricane Blades. You have 2 effects with that skill. You can tell which is which by reading the yellow colored part of the skill description. In this case, Specular Surface is the Link effect. That’s how the Link skills work. The yellow colored descriptions are naming the trigger skills that activate the Link effect.

Each Link effect has 3 possible trigger skills. Simply use the named skill before the skill with a Link in it to get the extra effect. So in the case of Hurricane Blades you have Poison Smoke, Ignito, and Explosive Blast. When you check the description of Explosive Blast, you’ll see it has no Link effect. However, it is the trigger for other Link effects. Even if it was another Link effect, simply use the named trigger skill before it. But directly after using Explosive Blast, anything else that uses it as a trigger can also be activated. Note the cool downs of the skills.

Linking skills is similar to combo moves. But the difference is that combo moves are done in very rapid succession. Linked skills allow you a few short seconds to get the effect(s). Typically, you’ll have until the duration of the trigger skill effect or just a few short seconds to get the Link skill effect. When you look at Hurricane Blades, you see the extra effect Rapid Speed. That is always going to activate as long as the skill doesn’t miss. So take that into account. If you miss the attack, the Link effect is not going to activate.

In the case where the trigger also has a Link effect, you simply use its named trigger skill first. Then it will all stack. Look at Infection and Yellow Tremor. Use Sector Slash to trigger Infection and then Infection to trigger Yellow Tremor. So all together, you’ll have the standard effects of all three skills based on their descriptions + a stun + 50% extra defense for 3 seconds in the example of these 3 skills. Just remember that some effects manage to cancel out others, some stack and some have a higher casting time than others. So test them first.

If you have any questions, comments, and/or requests, please post them in the Ran Online Techtoniks Forums .

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Ran Online Extreme Fist Weapons and Skill Linking

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This is a list of all the skills available for the Extreme class.

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How to Be a Good Friend

Five Parts: Becoming a Good Friend Being Trustworthy Remembering to Include Your Friends Being Supportive Making Your Friendship Last Community Q&A

Being a good friend isn’t always easy, but taking the time to nurture a lasting friendship is worth every ounce of effort. Cultivating meaningful and lasting friendships enrich life immensely. Good friendships provide us strength, happiness, and meaning in ways that social media or striving for popularity cannot. All true friendships are built on mutual trust and support. So whether you’re looking to make new, quality friendships or improve your existing ones, there are mindsets that you can adopt and actions that you can take to be a good friend to others.


Becoming a Good Friend

Part 1

Being Trustworthy

  1. Image titled Be a Good Friend Step 1

    Keep your promises. Don’t ever make a promise that you can’t keep — or at least don’t make a habit of it. If you say you’ll hang out with a friend and a legitimate conflict arises, explain the situation and trust that the friendship is strong enough for the no’s as well as the yes’s. If you just cannot go, give your friend a gift and tell him or her sorry. Nobody’s perfect, and it’s okay if you skip out on a promise once in a blue moon, but don’t make it a regular thing. If this is recurring over time, then you will probably be seen as not trustworthy as you can not be trusted to be committed to someone such as your friend.

    • When you make a serious promise, look at your friend in the eyes and speak slowly to show that you mean it instead of just saying it because you think that you should. Do not break any such promise, as that will hurt your friend.It might even break your friendship!
  2. Image titled Be a Good Friend Step 2

    Be dependable. Being dependable is one of the most important aspects of being a good friend. Your friend will need you for support, especially in hard times. Nobody likes a fake, and nobody wants one for a close friend. It’s hard to rely on a person who doesn’t behave in a consistent and trustworthy way. We all know well-intentioned but flaky people who say, “Okay, I will…” but never follow through. If that’s you, know that you’re eroding your friends’ trust; eventually, they’ll stop believing what you say.

    • If you’re not sure you can do something, don’t agree to do it and flake out later. Instead, be honest about the fact that you’re not sure if you can make it.
    • Your friends should always feel like they can count on you, even when the going gets tough. If you’re only there for the fun times, you’ll be no more than a fair-weather friend.
  3. Image titled Be a Good Friend Step 3

    Apologize when you’ve made a mistake. If you want your friends to trust you, then you can’t act like you’re flawless. If you know you’ve made a mistake, own up to it instead of being in denial. Though your friends won’t be happy that you made a mistake, they’ll be very pleased that you’re mature and grounded enough to admit it instead of just pretending that nothing is wrong, or worse — blaming it on someone else.

    • When you say sorry, you should mean it. Let your friends hear the sincerity in your voice instead of thinking that you don’t care how they feel.
  4. Image titled Be a Good Friend Step 4

    Be honest. If you want to be a good friend and to have people trust you, then you have to be honest about your feelings, about your friends’ actions, and about how you feel about your friendship. If you’re honest about how you feel, that will open up direct lines of communication with your friends and will make them more likely to open up to you. If your friend hurt you, don’t be afraid to talk about it; if something is upsetting you, don’t feel too shy to open up to your friend about it.

    • Being honest is different from being so blunt that you’re hurting your friends. If you think your friend has a drinking problem, for example, then you owe it to your friend to start a conversation about it. But if you think your friend looks kind of weird in her new dress, you may want to keep your mouth shut.
    • Be real. Connect with people whom you value on a deep level if you want to have sustainable, long-term friendships. Invest in people you can be yourself around. If your behavior lacks sincerity, your friendship won’t last.
  5. Image titled Be a Good Friend Step 5

    Don’t use people. If one of your friends suspects that you’re just using them, then they’ll drop you like a hot potato. Good friendships don’t arise from hoping someone else’s popularity or networks will rub off on you. If you’re trying to be friends with a person just to get into a certain clique, that’s not friendship – it’s opportunism – and eventually, the shallow nature of your involvement will reveal itself.

    • And if you have a reputation of using people, then new people won’t be too excited to start a friendship with you.
    • A friendship is about giving and taking. Sure, it may be convenient that one of your friends gives you a ride to school every day, but make sure that you do something for that friend in return.
  6. Image titled Be a Good Friend Step 6

    Be loyal . If your friend tells you something in confidence, keep it and don’t talk about it with anyone else, just as you’d expect your friend to do for you. Don’t discuss your friend behind his or her back, and don’t spread rumors about the confidences they’ve imparted to you. Never say anything about your friend that you would not be prepared to repeat to their face. Be loyal to your true friends and be prepared to defend them if your new friends, or people you barely know, start gossiping about them.

    • Part of being loyal is understanding the importance of a long-lasting and stable friendship. Don’t throw all that away just to spend all your time hanging out with your new boyfriend or girlfriend or a cool new person you just met.
    • If you have a reputation for being a blabbermouth or a gossip, then your friends will quickly find out and they’ll be hesitant to reveal anything personal to you in the future — or even to spend much time with you at all.
    • Don’t let others say bad things about your friend, either. Until you’ve had a chance to hear your friend’s side of the story, treat comments that are not supportive as hearsay and rumors. If someone says something that shocks you and doesn’t seem like a thing your friend would do or say, then respond with something like, “I know them, and that doesn’t sound right. Let me talk to them; find out his/her perspective on this. Until then, I would appreciate it if you didn’t spread that around.”
  7. Image titled Be a Good Friend Step 7

    Be respectful. Good friends show respect for each other by being openly and mutually supportive. If your friend has certain values and beliefs that don’t align with your own, respect his or her choices and be open to hearing more about them. If you want your friend to trust you, then your friend should feel comfortable voicing opinions that you may not agree with, or discussing a new perspective with you. If your friend thinks that you’ll shoot down any interesting or original idea that they may have, then your friendship won’t be valued.

    • Sometimes your friend will say things that you find boring, uncomfortable or annoying, but if you have respect for your friend, you’ll give your friend the space to speak, and to do so without judgment.
    • During times when you don’t see eye to eye with your friend, disagree respectfully and be willing to see things differently.

Part 2

Remembering to Include Your Friends

  1. 1
    Do not let your friends feel left out, ever. This is a short but essential part of being a good friend. Never let your friends feel left out. Just because you get a boyfriend or start dating doesn’t mean that they’re past you! Always remember: When your crush ends up dating someone else, your friends will be there for you. When you suffer from heartbreak, your friends will be there for you. When the cool people in class turn everyone against you, your friends will be there for you. Remember to be there for them too!

Part 3

Being Supportive

  1. Image titled Be a Good Friend Step 8

    Be selfless. Though you can’t be selfless all the time, being selfless is an important part of being a good friend. Accommodate your friend’s wishes whenever you can, provided this is done in a balanced way. Reciprocate his or her acts of kindness with caring deeds of your own, and your friendship will be strengthened. If you get a reputation for being selfish and only being around your friends when you need some help, then people will know you’re not looking out for them.

    • Do a favor for your friend just out of the goodness of your heart, not because you want something in return.
    • There’s a difference between being selfless at the right time and letting people walk all over you. If you feel like you’re always helping your friends and get nothing back, then you may have a problem.
    • Don’t abuse generosity or wear out your welcome. When your friend does something nice for you, reciprocate quickly. Return any money you borrow promptly. Go home when it seems like the time is right.
  2. Image titled Be a Good Friend Step 9

    Be a good listener. Don’t monopolize conversations, but rather take the time to truly understand and support your friend when they are talking to you. It sounds simple, but make sure you’re listening as much as you’re talking about yourself. If you’re monopolizing every conversation with your feelings, your friend isn’t getting anything out of the relationship. Listening opens space between the two of you and reassures your friend that you care.

    • If you’re just waiting for your friend to finish talking so you can say what you want to say, it’ll be obvious right away.
    • Try to strike a balance of letting your friend talk about half of the time. Though some people are shyer than others, if your friend feels like they can’t get a word in when they’re around you, it’ll be hard to have a healthy, two-sided friendship.
    • If you accidentally interrupt, say something like, “Oh-I’m sorry,go on.”
  3. Image titled Be a Good Friend Step 10

    Help your friends deal with their struggles. To be truly supportive, you’ll have to be able to watch out for your friends when they’re having a tough time. If you sense that your friend is getting into some sort of trouble over which they have little control, such as taking drugs, being promiscuous, or getting too drunk at a party, help him or her get away from the situation by not being afraid to speak up about it.

    • Don’t assume that your friend can handle it alone; this may be the very time that your voice of common sense is needed to wake them from their fugue. If you see a problem, speak up, no matter how awkward you may feel.
    • Let your friend know that you can give him a shoulder to cry on during this tough time. If your friend feels less alone, it’ll be easier for them to deal with their troubles.
    • If all your friend wants to do about the problem is to talk, that’s fine at first, but you should help your friend find practical solutions to his problems.
    • For example, if your friend admitted to having an eating disorder and simply promises to start eating more, you need to talk about taking more serious measures to address the problem, like talking to a health professional.
  4. Image titled Be a Good Friend Step 11

    Be there in a time of crisis. If your friend has to go to the hospital, visit. If their dog runs away, help to find it. If they need someone to pick them up, be there. Take notes for your friend in school when they’re absent. Send cards and care packages when you’re living far apart. If there is a death in their family, attend the funeral. Let your friend see that they can count on you any time.

    • Just make sure that your friend isn’t always in the middle of some kind of crisis, however contrived it may be. You should be there to help out during the hard times, but that can’t be the basis of your whole relationship.
    • Part of being there for your friend in a crisis is providing emotional support, too. Care about your friend enough to help them open up and let the tears roll. Hand them a tissue and listen openly. You don’t have to say anything if nothing seems right; just stay calm and reassuring.
    • If your friend is going through a crisis, don’t say, “Everything is going to be all right” if it’s not going to be. It’s hard not to say that sometimes, but false reassurance can often be worse than none. Instead, let your friend know you are there for them. Stay honest, but upbeat and positive.
    • If your friend begins talking about committing suicide , tell someone about it. This rule overrides the “respect privacy” step, because even if your friend begs you not to tell anyone, you should do it anyway. Suggest a helpline or professional to your friend. Talk to your and your friend’s parents or spouse (unless they are the ones causing the problems) before involving anyone else.
  5. Image titled Be a Good Friend Step 12

    Give thoughtful advice . To be a good friend, you should be able to weigh your friend’s situation from his or her perspective and to provide your opinion without insisting that your friend should do whatever you say. Don’t judge your friend; simply advise them when they reach out.

    • Avoid giving unsought for advice. Allow venting where needed and be willing to offer advice if it’s clear that it’s sought. Always ask before assuming you can give advice.
    • In some cases, a friend could use a little bit of tough love to keep them out of a dangerous situation. Use discretion here; you don’t want to lecture or overwhelm your friend. Tell them how you perceive the situation using factual information, and suggest what you might do in the same circumstances.
  6. Image titled Be a Good Friend Step 13

    Give your friend some space when they need it. Part of being supportive means supporting the fact that your friend won’t always want to spend time with you. Learn to step back and give your friend space. Understand if your friend wants to be alone or to hang out with other people. There’s no need to become clingy or needy. If you’re clingy and check in with your friend every two seconds if they aren’t around, you’ll start to look like a possessive significant other, and that will not be appreciated.

    • Don’t get jealous if your friend has lots of other friends. Every relationship is special and different, and that doesn’t mean that your friend doesn’t appreciate you.
    • Allowing one another the time to hang with other friends gives you much-needed breathing room, and allows you to come together fresh and appreciating each other even more.

Part 4

Making Your Friendship Last

  1. Image titled Be a Good Friend Step 14

    Learn to forgive. If you want your friendship to last, then you should be able to forgive your friend and to move forward. If you hold a grudge and let your bitterness and resentment build up, then you won’t be able to move forward. Recognize that nobody’s perfect and that if your friend is sincerely sorry and if they didn’t do something too horrible, that you should move past it.

    • If your friend really did do something so unforgivable that you just can’t get past it, then it’s better to move on than to try to save the friendship when it’s doomed. But this should happen very rarely.
    • If you’re angry at your friend but won’t tell them why you’ll never be able to forgive them if you don’t talk about it.
  2. Image titled Be a Good Friend Step 15

    Accept your friend for who they are. To make your friendship thrive, you shouldn’t try to change your friend or make your friend see the world from your perspective. If you’re conservative and your friend is liberal, then accept that instead of trying to argue about it all the time. You should appreciate the fresh perspective your friend can bring to your experiences instead of wanting your friend to see everything from your perspective.

    • The more you are with one another, the less you idealize each other and the more you accept one another for who you really are. This is what being a truly good friend is really about — caring deeply for each other, even if you know you’re both full of flaws.
  3. Image titled Be a Good Friend Step 16

    Go beyond the call of duty. A friend will wait while you do your homework. A great friend stays up all night helping. Remember that if you are a good friend, people want to be a good friend to you. Recognize the moments when you need to go above and beyond to help your friend and know that this will make your friendship grow, and that your friend will do the same for you in return.

    • If your friend really needs you and keeps saying, “No, you don’t have to do that…” learn to read between the lines and know that your friend really does need you.
  4. Image titled Be a Good Friend Step 17

    Stay in touch no matter what. As the years pass, people tend to grow apart. Maybe you and a friend will move to different places and only see each other every once in a while. Sometimes years may elapse without much contact. If you never stop caring about your friend, speak up. They will be happy to hear from you. You were friends for a reason in the past, and you may find the same bond still ties you together.

    • Don’t let your location determine the strength of your bond. If your friendship is meaningful, then it should keep growing even if you’re an ocean apart.
    • Make a goal of having monthly phone or Skype dates with your friend even if you’re in a completely different time zone. If keeping up with your friend becomes a routine, your relationship will continue to thrive.
  5. Image titled Be a Good Friend Step 18

    Let your friendship evolve. If you want to be a good friend, then you have to understand that your friendship won’t be the same in high school, college, or in the adult world. Sure, when you were fourteen, you might have spent all of your time with your best friend, but by the time you went off to separate colleges or started your serious relationships, you naturally spent less time talking. This doesn’t mean that your friendship isn’t as strong; it just means that your lives are evolving, and your friendship is taking on a different shape over the years.

    • Don’t try to make your friendship be exactly the same as it was ten years ago. Think of it as elastic, not solid.
    • If your friend is married with kids or even just in a serious relationship, and you’re not, be respectful of the fact that, while your friend cares for you, they won’t be on call 24/7 like they used to be.
    • Appreciate the changes your friendship has made over the years, and learn to grow along with your relationship.

Community Q&A


  • Question
    How do I turn a bad friend into a good friend?
    wikiHow Contributor
    Community Answer

    Be a good role model for your friend and express openly the good things that your virtues bring into your life. Tell your friend that you’re always there for them and that you know there is a really good person inside them and it’s okay to let that show more.

    Not Helpful 23
    Helpful 253

  • Question
    Why is friendship so important?
    wikiHow Contributor
    Community Answer

    Friendship is important because the human being is a social animal and needs friends to talk to, spend time with and to be supported by. In turn, it is great to be able to support, listen to and help others you know you can trust deeply. Friends are people who are there for you and prove it time and again. Friendship gives you strengths that you cannot derive merely from being alone.

    Not Helpful 43
    Helpful 235

  • Question
    What do you do when your friend is gas lighting you?
    wikiHow Contributor
    Community Answer

    Gas lighting refers to the act of the abuser denying the victim’s reality. It is good that you’ve recognized this is happening. The next step is to tell your friend that it was nice knowing them but that you’re leaving to find a friend who treats you with respect, kindness and loyalty. And don’t look back, as hard as it may seem, it’s a lot harder to have someone constantly deny your perspective and reality.

    Not Helpful 35
    Helpful 171

  • Question
    I talk too much about a topic and I am starting to think that this is breaking our friendship. What should I do?
    wikiHow Contributor
    Community Answer

    It does seem you already know – you’ve identified the problem as talking single-mindedly about one topic. The answer is to stop going on about that one thing. It annoys most people when they hear nothing but one topic, it gets old, annoying and it sounds obsessive. Broaden your topics and if you are still needing to discuss that topic, talk to a parent, sibling or your therapist instead.

    Not Helpful 41
    Helpful 172

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    Quick Summary

    To be a good friend, keep promises to show that you’re trustworthy. Moreover, be dependable by following through on what you say you’ll do, especially when your friend is going through a hard time. If you’re not sure if you can do something, be honest rather than let your friend down. Also, if you want your friend to trust you, own your mistakes and apologize when necessary. Finally, when you don’t see eye to eye, disagree respectfully and without judgement.

    Did this summary help you?


    • Accept your friend’s decisions. You may not completely agree on them but letting them know you’re there for them is enough.
    • Don’t try to be the same as your friend – differences are what make great friends. Plus, it can get irritating. Embrace your differences and be proud of them! Do make sure not to be so different that your friendship breaks.
    • Tell your friend how much you appreciate their company or how they were with you when you needed them. It will brighten up their day and affirm your friendship.
    • Honest communication is a basic foundation in a friendship. If you and your friend can’t talk to each other freely then you are set up for a difficult and possibly doomed relationship.
    • You don’t have to spend a lot of time and money to be a good friend. The best gifts are often handmade and come from the heart. A phone call can mean as much as a visit.
    • Enjoy one another’s company. It’s not all about bleeding hearts and advice to the lovelorn – or at least, it shouldn’t be. Be sure to have fun together and do spontaneous activities now and then. Be a positive force in your friend’s life.
    • A friend who is only available at school or work is still a friend. Be very glad for that special kind of friendship associated with the place where you share time together.
    • If your friend makes a promise and doesn’t keep it then don’t do the same to them or you will keep repeating the pattern.
    • Don’t set too many expectations and rules. Allow your friendship to evolve and change naturally.
    • Tease friends about something they’re proud of. The better you know your friend, the easier it is to find the things they’re sensitive about and use teasing to pick them up instead of tearing them down.
    • Be there for your friend during hard times
    • Don’t worry so much about losing your friend, but appreciate the times that you have had with them and the ones are still going to have!
    • Always at least try to help; if you can’t then keep trying! Friends always like it when you try to help even if it’s nearly impossible.
    • Root for your friend! Congratulate him or her on something good, and mean it! If you are envious, swallow it for the sake of being a good friend. A true friend is there in bad times, holding you up, but also rooting for you during good times.
    • If your friend doesn’t want to forgive you, tell her the truth about why you did something, and whether it was a mistake or not.
    • If you make a mistake unknowingly and your friend is not talking to you then say sorry. Don’t think that he/she is wrong, be first to say sorry.
    • Always include your friend, or it will make them upset if you don’t. They may ditch you to a hang out with different friend, or just tag along in the back.
    • If you’re trustworthy your friends will rely on you and you will get to know them more, and possibly become their best friend.
    • Always show your awareness of money spent on your behalf. Show your joyful willingness to give gas money, bring household goods if they host often, etc.
    • If your friend has another friend that you dislike, don’t be rude to your friend’s friend. Even if you don’t think your friend will find out, it’s quite possible your friend will hear about it.
    • Listen to each other and keep secrets.
    • If something is bothering you, talk to your friend. Communication is key.
    • Don’t be jealous, if they are doing good. Be proud of them.
    • Make them laugh when they’re feeling down.
    • Do not text or call your friend every hour of the day. They will become annoyed and may not respond when you are calling about something that is actually important.
    • Always try to be inclusive. Don’t leave a friend alone.


    • No one likes an insulting friend, so be careful when you tease them! If your friend asks you to stop, heed the request and stop right away. Otherwise you will end up with no one.
    • If your friend is starting to make new friends, don’t turn jealous. No one likes a jealous friend. Have faith in your friendship. However, if your friend is ignoring you because of this friend, talk to them about it. They have no right to ditch their best friend.
    • If your friend doesn’t treat you well while you treat them well, then there’s no reason to stay friends. Don’t stay close friends with anyone who doesn’t treat you well.
    • If a friend is friends with someone else that you don’t feel right about, talk to him/her about it. That could also save them from making a mistake, and you from a bad friendship!
    • When spending time with your friend, whether having a meal together or just hanging out, both of you should turn your cell phones off. It’s very off-putting to have a conversation constantly interrupted by a ringing phone. He or she may feel that you’re not paying attention to them or don’t value your time together.
    • Don’t share your feelings when you know the person can’t be trusted because she/he might use it against you someday.
    • Don’t talk about things that may make your friend uncomfortable. Nobody wants to be around an uncomfortable person. For example, if your friend’s relative just passed away, don’t talk about something surrounding death. (Note: It’s OK to ask about her feelings about the death. Maybe she wants help surrounding the situation. It’s not good to just ignore it.)

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    Categories: Social Interactions for Youth

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    Italiano:  Essere un Buon Amico , Español:  ser un buen amigo , Português:  Ser um Bom Amigo , Français:  être un bon ami , Deutsch:  Ein guter Freund sein , Русский:  быть хорошим другом , Nederlands:  Een goede vriend zijn , 中文:  做一位好朋友 , Čeština:  Jak být dobrým přítelem , Bahasa Indonesia:  Menjadi Teman yang Baik , ไทย:  เป็นเพื่อนที่ดี , Tiếng Việt:  Làm một người bạn tốt , العربية:  أن تكون صديقا صالحا , 한국어:  좋은 친구가 되는 법 , हिन्दी:  एक अच्छे फ्रेंड (मित्र) बनें (Be a Good Friend)

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    The way to Create the Controversy Essay


    The Social Science Research Council
    The Social Science Research Council


    Minerva Controversy Essay Forum

    Albro, Robert (Contributor), Asher, Thomas (Contributor), Bracken, Paul (Contributor), Corona, Victor P. (Contributor), Devji, Faisal (Contributor), Engerman, David C. (Contributor), Eskander, Saad (Contributor), Gearty, Conor (Contributor), Gusterson, Hugh (Contributor), Joxe, Alain (Contributor), Krebs, Ronald R. (Contributor), Lutz, Catherine (Contributor), Mahnken, Tom (Contributor), Nugent, David (Contributor), Robin, Ron (Contributor), Roxborough, Ian (Contributor), Satia, Priya (Contributor) and Tirman, John (Contributor)
    The Department of Defense recently announced the creation of the Minerva Research Initiative (PDF), also known as Project Minerva, providing as much as $75 million over five years to support social science research on areas of strategic importance to U.S. national security policy. The initiative indicates a renewal of interest in social science findings after a prolonged period of neglect, but it also prompts concerns about the appropriate relationship between university-based research programs and the state, especially when research might become a tool of not only governance but also military violence. The Social Science Research Council (SSRC) has invited prominent scholars to speak to the questions raised by Project Minerva and to address the controversy it has sparked in academic quarters.
    Minerva Controversy Essay Forum
    Albro, Robert (Contributor), Asher, Thomas (Contributor), Bracken, Paul (Contributor), Corona, Victor P. (Contributor), Devji, Faisal (Contributor), Engerman, David C. (Contributor), Eskander, Saad (Contributor), Gearty, Conor (Contributor), Gusterson, Hugh (Contributor), Joxe, Alain (Contributor), Krebs, Ronald R. (Contributor), Lutz, Catherine (Contributor), Mahnken, Tom (Contributor), Nugent, David (Contributor), Robin, Ron (Contributor), Roxborough, Ian (Contributor), Satia, Priya (Contributor) and Tirman, John (Contributor)
    Social Science Research Council, 2008
    On the web
    Minerva Controversy Essay Forum
    Minerva Controversy Essay Forum,
    Albro, Robert (Contributor), Asher, Thomas (Contributor), Bracken, Paul (Contributor), Corona, Victor P. (Contributor), Devji, Faisal (Contributor), Engerman, David C. (Contributor), Eskander, Saad (Contributor), Gearty, Conor (Contributor), Gusterson, Hugh (Contributor), Joxe, Alain (Contributor), Krebs, Ronald R. (Contributor), Lutz, Catherine (Contributor), Mahnken, Tom (Contributor), Nugent, David (Contributor), Robin, Ron (Contributor), Roxborough, Ian (Contributor), Satia, Priya (Contributor) and Tirman, John (Contributor)
    (New York: Social Science Research Council, 2008), .

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    Essay: A Memorable Birthday


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    Essay: A Memorable Birthday

    By Elaine Maly

    Jan 7, 2016
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    Lake Effect essayist Elaine Maly’s birthday is tomorrow.  But as she looks ahead to the next one, she also looks back at a notorious one from her past:




    Lake Effect essayist Elaine Maly reads “A Memorable Birthday”

    My birthday is January 8th. Two weeks after Christmas and one week after New Years, in the dead of Wisconsin’s winter. It’s usually not much of a celebration. I’ve had a birthday gathering that was canceled due to a six foot snowfall. A birthday when no one, not even my mother, remembered to send a card. Oh, and then there was the year I turned 40. I had an emergency tonsillectomy. Yep, at best, my birthday has been just another day for my entire adulthood.

    Except for last year. I was turning 59, the last year of a big decade, and I had just quit a job that paid well but sucked the joy out of life. It was time to get out of the god forsaken freezer we live in and let our friends, California Dave and his wife, Misao, show us a good time. Dave and Misao live in San Jose and are wonderful hosts. My husband, Tom, and I had visited them many times before and they knew exactly what I would like. The morning of January 8th we set out for a long hike in the red woods of Henry Cowell Park and had a picnic lunch. Then on to wine tasting at Beauregard Winery. Late afternoon we headed to Bonny Doon beach to watch what promised to be a glorious sunset.

    As we started our slightly tipsy descent down the sand dunes with a blanket to find a comfortable viewing spot, something besides the setting sun caught our attention. A paunchy middle aged naked guy with shoulder length white hair, who had a remarkable resemblance to my husband from a distance, was running laps between dunes.

    “Hey, that guy could be Tom’s stunt double,” said Dave. A humorous observation. There were distinct similarities. But seeing a naked guy wasn’t a big deal. We’d been to this beach before and been exposed to similar situations. This is a nude friendly beach but we’re not the type to indulge.

    We had just settled down on our blanket to watch the sunset when Misao inexplicably got up and took off after Naked Guy. Most of the time, Misao is pretty quiet and reserved but every once in a while, she surprises us. Like the time she yelled “Heat it up, heat it up” at the craps table at Potawatomi. Or the time she leaned over the balcony to blow kisses to the cast of Jersey Boys. Or the time she scolded me for being impatient with my husband. She later apologized for “going all Japanese on me.”

    We could see that Misao and Naked Guy were exchanging a few words and then they turned and ran back to the blanket together.

    “Oh, no she didn’t,” I said and had serious thoughts about running the other way.

    “I hear it’s your birthday,” said Naked Guy.

    “Yes it is,” I said trying to avert my gaze.

    “Well, happy birthday,” said Naked Guy with a shrug and returned to his jiggly lap running.

    “Nope,” said Tom who had the same close up view I did. “No way that guy could be my stunt double.”

    I laughed so hard I snorted merlot out of my nose. “If I was going to see a naked guy on my birthday, couldn’t it have been Antonio Banderas?”

    Essayist Elaine Maly is the 2015 winner of the Wisconsin Writers Association’s humor writing contest.  She writes about her life as a native Milwaukeean at her website .

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    Essay: Christmas Gifts

    By Elaine Maly

    Dec 23, 2015

    mac9416 / Flickr

    Tomorrrow is Christmas Eve – or maybe more accurately, tomorrow night is Christmas Eve.  Some among us will open their presents at that juncture, while others will wait until Christmas itself.

    For Lake Effect essayist Elaine Maly, the timing of the gifts isn’t really the issue:

    Playwriting Lesson: Some Stories Aren’t For You To Tell

    By Alvaro Saar Rios

    Nov 30, 2015

    Dave Einsel/Getty Images

    Playwright and Lake Effect essayist Alvaro Saar Rios has told many powerful stories through his work over the years. But it was a play he didn’t write that guides his work today:

    Ten years ago, when Hurricane Katrina hit New Orleans, I was living in Texas working on commission for a new play. My first draft deadline was weeks away and I still had no idea what the play was going to be about.

    No. That’s not true. I did have a title.

    Essay: Micro Adventures

    By Cari Taylor-Carlson

    Nov 25, 2015

    Cari Taylor-Carlson

    Today is the day before Thanksgiving. Friday is the day after, known in the retail world as Black Friday. Where will you be on that day? Just as significantly, Lake Effect essayist Cari Taylor Carlson knows where she won’t be:

    In my opinion, REI, a purveyor of outdoor equipment and clothing, got it right when they announced they would close all one-hundred-forty-three stores and pay twelve thousand employees to take Black Friday off. They call it #OPTOUTSIDE. I say, instead of shopping, go find a micro adventure.

    Essay: Heeding the Wiener Whistle

    By Avi Lank

    Nov 23, 2015

    Lynn Friedman, flickr

    For almost a hundred years, the descendants of a German immigrant owned the meat company he founded in Chicago in 1904. But the Oscar Mayer company was eventually sold – several times – and is now owned by Kraft Heinz. Its headquarters are currently in Madison. But as Lake Effect essayist Avi Lank notes, that, too, will soon change.

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    An Essay on Paradise Lost by John Milton


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      Paradise Lost: Satan

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                   Paradise Lost: Satan’s Character
      In Milton’s first book of Paradise Lost, Satan, the expected evil archfiend of the epic, is actually depicted as a powerful and heroic character. Satan’s passionate and ambitious character is more intriguing than God’s reasonable and mild personality. Milton needs Satan to be a desirable character in the beginning to represent the temptation man faces when dealing with the devil. However Milton, being a strong puritan, would never allow an evil character to become the true hero. Milton did not plan on Satan being viewed as positively as he sometimes is in book one. Much of the sympathy and praise Satan receives from readers is due to the changed morals of today’s society. The ambitious and proud character that Milton created for Satan, is seen as positive in today’s society. However when Milton wrote this epic, being ambitious was seen as an act against God. Milton had intentions to make Satan agreeable in the beginning, however he did not intend him to resemble the epic’s hero. This view was caused by the change in society’s morals and could not have been predicted by Milton.
      In the beginning of the epic, Satan is not pure evil. By the end of book one, he still resembles Lucifer, the angel he once was in heaven. It is not until the later books that Satan is portrayed as completely evil and disagreeable. Satan is seen as a tragic figure as he is thrown down into Hell. This evokes feelings of sympathy towards him. Because Satan is not pure evil, it leaves room for people to feel positively towards him. Satan’s magnificence also comes from the inspired verse which Milton puts into his speeches. “All is not lost: the unconquerable will, and study of revenge, immortal hate, and courage never to submit or yield: and what is else not to be overcome?” Satan’s passionate and encouraging words draws the reader towards him. Satan’s character is far more complex than God’s and more interesting…

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      Design a database with UML

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      UML stands for Unified Modeling Language.  It involves sketching up little diagrams that describe how elements of a system are connected!

      Databases are all about collecting and saving information. Before you start collecting, you have to decide what to collect and that’s where UML comes in.

      What to collect?

      A UML class diagram is a list of what you think should get collected in a database table.

      A table is just like a spreadsheet. A relational database is a database that is composed of a bunch of linked tables. 

      In UML, we refer to tables as classes.

      Here’s an example of a UML class diagram (we’ll break it down in a second):

      The UML diagram for the Restaurant class
      The Restaurant class

      The UML class diagram is a box that features a word, usually a noun, at the top of the box. This is the name of the class. There is a line and below the line, there is a list of attributes. In the  Restaurant  class, the attributes are things that we want to collect about each restaurant. If we were to turn the class diagram into a table, the attributes become the column titles:






      Holy Cannoli



      33 Sugo Street


      Rough Burger

      Burger Joint


      22 Catsup Way


      Tacky Hut



      11 Scale Road

      very cheap

      To see this same concept with a different subject, here’s another table that lists friends and their possible attributes:

























      And here’s a class diagram that describes that same Friend table:

      Don’t know what PK means? Don’t worry. We’ll talk about that later!

      When you draw a class diagram, you name the class, in this case Friend, and also name the attributes of the class. 

      In the UML world, you can call a row of a table an object of a class. For example, in the Friend class there are currently 5 objects. On the database side, you’d say that there are 5 rows in the Friend table.

      Choosing good names

      Elephant, Pachyderm, PeanutEater, or Item?

      Choosing a good name takes some thought! Even an elephant can be described in a myriad of ways.

       As Phil Karlton said, “There are only two hard things in Computer Science: cache invalidation and naming things.”

      Names are the building blocks to complex systems. If the names are not appropriate, the system can easily get confused. If the names are spot-on, everyone in a system can communicate effectively.

      UML diagrams are amazing tools to help choose good names.

      Since a database is a way of saving information in a way that models how a system operates, choosing good names and creating an accurate model of a system will require speaking to the the different players involved. Different people may have different views about a system.

      A UML diagram is an excellent tool for this discussion. And through this discussion, you will develop a model that will start to reflect how the system operates.

      This will require multiple drafts of UML diagrams and conversations in order to arrive at a clear image of the system.

      If a system’s components are named accurately, the model you make will be clear both to you and to your clients.

      Check out this domain diagram:

      A UML Domain diagram for a train station
      A UML Domain diagram for a train station

      Your clients may not know about how database work, but they’ll be able to see what you are calling things and roughly how things are related.

      For example, in the diagram above, a better name for  Trip  might be  Route , which your client might suggest to you. If something looks wrong, your client can question both your names and your logic about how the parts are connected.

      We’ll go into detail about domain diagrams such as the above figure later.

      Naming conventions

      Naming conventions are like the grammar of a sentence. You choose your own words, but grammar rules dictate the form the word should take.

      Here are some naming conventions for a class:

      • The name of the class should be a singular noun.

      • The first letter should be uppercase

      • If you need to make a table named with multiple words, they should be in UpperCamelCase.

      An example of a class diagram
      An example of a class diagram

      The naming convention for an attribute is singular and lowerCamelCase.

      The purpose of the naming conventions are to reduce bugs and typos. Some programmers use underscores ( _ ) between words instead of camel case.  Some programmers only use  ID  for an id and not  parkingSpotID or  psID  or  parking_spot_id  or  ps_id . It’s important to have consistency in your code or you can quickly lose track of all your variations.

      Editing names

      Choosing the right names is important for a database’s schema. Accuracy in naming leads to accurate communication in your enterprise and accuracy in your code.

      Nobody gets it on the first shot.

      You need to choose names that are neither too specific nor too general.

      Is the name too general or too specific?

      For example, if you have a UML class for all things that you might eat in the morning, you could call it  Cereal .

      If that is all you eat in the morning, then it could be a fine name.

      But if you start having poached eggs for breakfast and put that in the  Cereal  table, it could lead to some scrambled logic about what should be put in this table. 

      On the other hand, if you choose a name that is too general, like  Food , and if there is already another table named  Lunch , then your schema is confused. 

      Somehow the word  Breakfast  comes to mind as the right name choice.

      A more practical example would be in a company’s database.

      For a company, you’d probably need to make a table for the employees, and you could call it  Employee. But if your clients start putting information about clients, freelancers, and vendors into this table, then its name,  Employee  will be confusing. 

      Another programmer on your team may not understand that the  Employee  table contains more than just employees. Potentially, he or she would create another table for client information partially duplicating your  Employee  table.

      If you had understood that the client wants to put all the personnel and client information in the same table, you would have probably chosen a name more general than "Employee." If you had named the table  User  the scrambling of information would probably have been avoided.

      So after you create a UML Class and Domain diagrams, review them with your clients. Their feedback for your name choices will be both invaluable for understanding ‌the system and for developing an accurate and usable model.

      In the next chapter, we’ll go over how class diagrams can interact.

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      Cambridge University Personal Statements

      We hope our collection of Cambridge University personal statements provides inspiration for writing your own. Please do not plagiarise them in any way, or UCAS will penalise your application. Our  Personal Statement Editing & Review Services  are availble if you feel you need a little extra help.

      Chemical Engineering Personal Statement ***
      I have always enjoyed studying Maths, Physics and Chemistry, and I would like the opportunity to continue this study. Chemical Engineering appeals to me because of the challenges involved in the application of scientific theory to practical, real world problems such as how to deal with nuclear waste…

      Computer Science Personal Statement ***
      From an early age I’ve always been deeply interested in computing. It was my dad, introducing me to the computer systems at his work place that first sparked this interest. I can always remember the feeling of wanting to know just how computers worked, why they worked and what else they could do…

      Mathematics Personal Statement ***
      I have always been fascinated by my mathematical studies and, having a flair for the subject, there was never any doubt that I would choose mathematics as a degree. It is a pivotal subject on which so many others depend (such as physics and chemistry)…

      Engineering Personal Statement ****
      The art of engineering is applying scientific theories to design. The fundamental principles that are applied to products and structures are paramount and by studying engineering I am hoping to learn how engineers use these principles and then integrate them into designs…

      History Personal Statement *
      I have always read widely and, due to my English Exhibition at Woodbridge School and my enjoyment of writing, at one point I had hoped to read English at university. However, whilst studying World War One poetry for my English Literature GCSE, I found that I was most interested in the times and conditions in which the author was writing…

      History Personal Statement
      I am captivated by the diversity and depth offered by a History degree; attracted by the way it encourages us to be analytical of the values and patterns of past societies. It was in my final year of secondary school that I was awarded the History Attainment Award, although my desire to study History dates back to an earlier age when I visited the site of the allied landings in Normandy at just eleven years old…

      Linguistics Personal Statement
      My most memorable Christmas came with a parcel of Harry Potter audio books and this was where my quest to understanding language began. The moment Stephen Fry started to narrate chapter one, I fell in love with words and all they could achieve…

      Psychology Personal Statement
      Psychology surrounds us. I often observe my class mates and ask myself why they are so different, struggling with attention or eating disorders. While looking for reasons, I also want to find ways to help them and I am confident that Psychology will give me the means to do so…

      Politics and International Relations Personal Statement
      The era in which we live goes through constant turmoil and shifting powers. Not a day goes by without a change somewhere on our planet, which in turn has an effect on yet another change to come elsewhere…

      Education/Drama Personal Statement (Oxbridge)
      “I shall have poetry in my life. And adventure. Unbiddable, ungovernable, like a riot in the heart, come ruin or rapture.” Perhaps one should not begin with the words of another when presenting oneself, but as an actress, utilising the words of others is something that has become second nature…

      Psychology Personal Statement
      It was the odd behavioural traits displayed by my uncle, who has Asperger’s syndrome that first generated from a young age my questioning about why he acted so ‘differently’ to the rest of us. This was part of what led to my interest of studying psychology, as it made me question how and why humans are so disparate from one another, and what part the brain plays in running our everyday lives…

      Politics & International Relations Personal Statement
      It was November 1989. My parents were rattling their keys in the main square of Bratislava with other Czechoslovak youngsters asking for the democracy that was denied by the Communist regime. They raised me in an environment, where appreciation of freedom, expressing my thoughts and being an active citizen have been essential…

      Mathematics and Physics Personal Statement
      Mathematics is a fundamental tool for understanding our world: it can be used to define the symmetry of flowers or to manage global companies. What is so appealing about mathematics is the opportunity of applying it in the physical world…

      Aerospace (Aeronautical) Engineering Personal Statement
      Fire, the wheel, boats, book printing, electricity, engines, automobiles, planes, spaceships, wireless information transfer: engineering is determining this progress. Leading engineers are the creators of our future…

      Maths and Spanish Personal Statement
      For as long as I have recognised words and numbers, I have seen a connection between the two. As I progressed in the AS Mathematics course I realised how drawn I was to the subject, motivating me to spend 2 weeks at school over the summer holidays learning 2 entire AS Further Maths modules, in order to take the full A-level course in one year…

      Languages Personal Statement
      At the age of eight, a friend introduced me to Guy Hamilton’s 1969 film ‘Battle of Britain’. This instilled in me two things: my doomed childhood ambition to be a Spitfire pilot, long since grudgingly abandoned, but also, perhaps ironically, a love for the sound and feel of the German language that has stayed with me all through the intervening decade…

      English Personal Statement (Mature Student)
      Having worked on a secure psychiatric unit for two years, caring for many people unable to or precluded from following their dreams due to mental illness, as well as over a decade employed in positions just to pay the bills, I am finally pursuing my dream of becoming a published novelist…

      History Personal Statement
      It isn’t an exaggeration to say my devotion to History has moulded me into the diligent and ambitious person I am today. History continues to shape our contemporary world and my opinions have been formed from an intellectual curiosity about the resonances between the past and the present…

      Agriculture Personal Statement ***
      Ever since i watched “shaun the sheep” on CBBC, i have been passionate about becoming a farmer. For me, nothing in life would be as good as a farmers life; driving a tractor really slowly and holding everyone up, speaking in an “ooh argh” farmer accent, immediatly gaining a farmers wife upon becoming a farmer, almost guaranteed fame due to presence in most adverts regarding bread/wheat/cereal, wearing clothes that died out decades ago, and most importantly raising animals in order pit them against each other in a gladitorial pit…

      Chemistry Personal Statement
      Science is not just a subject taken in school, or a body of knowledge; it is a state of mind as well – always inquisitive and wondering. As a child, the world around me constantly captivated me and inspired questions, and I found delight in having my questions answered, always wanting to learn more, from fundamental particles, to atoms and molecules, to organisms, planets, and the universe…

      Anthropology Personal Statement
      My fascination with human behaviour and the motivations behind human actions has existed for most of my adult life, to determine a cause however I would accredit this to the voluntary work I participated in with Crisis Single Persons Homeless charity…

      Economics & Statistics Personal Statement *****
      Living in a time of immense economic uncertainty has sparked my curiosity to explain the rationale of consumers, firms and governments.

      The severity of vast global problems, from financial crisis to poverty, has also attracted me to Economics: a subject relevant now more than ever to the prosperity of all societies…

      Natural Sciences Personal Statement ****
      My perception of the sciences has changed over time as my understanding of them has developed. Subjects that once appeared isolated and independent now merge into one coherent field, each interacting with another…

      Mathematics and Economics Personal Statement
      Every day we make decisions and interact with others; the laws of economics help us make rational choices and consider the irrationality of others, as well as understand the world better. Maths and statistics are the necessary tools for me to understand the modern economics…

      Mechanical Engineering Personal Statement
      The ability to apply what I have learnt in the classroom to the outside world is an aspect of physics and maths that I particularly enjoy. An example of this was being able to calculate the coefficient of friction between a book and a table, by knowing the weight and measuring the angle at which it started to move…

      Architecture Personal Statement *****
      My application for your university stems from my desire to study at one of the best universities in the world and from my internationalist perspective as a world traveller. It also ensues from my deep passion for art, my appreciation of architecture, and my yearning to be amongst those who create the changing skylines that form our cities…

      Pharmacology/Neuroscience Personal Statement ***
      I enjoy studying science because it is a subject that encompasses so much of life’s issues and practicalities, and a subject that can be applied and made useful to everyday life. Biological science is fascinating but it is even more exciting when studying abnormal function in medical science, from the facts in pathology to the application in pharmacology…

      Pure Mathematics Personal Statement
      Mathematics is beautiful to me because of the deep and meaningful ideas
      touched upon by it, the vastness of these ideas, the clearness and
      elegance of their representation. Mathematics gives me the ability to
      apply knowledge by approaching things logically, and thinking clearly…

      Civil Engineering Personal Statement ***
      Modern life is almost wholly dependent on engineering. It is everywhere and it is always changing, and it is this in particular which attracts me to civil engineering. I hope that in this field I can combine my knowledge and skills in physics and maths, two subjects which particularly interest me, and also work in an area which is both diverse and exciting…

      Mechanical Engineering Personal Statement ***
      I personally feel that there is substantial cachet to be gained by pursuing the field of Mechanical Engineering. The diversity present in this field has attracted me and it is consistent with my enthusiasm for Mathematics and Science…

      History, Politics and Economics Personal Statement ***
      It may sound exaggerated, but I genuinely love History, and it has become a part of my life for over four years.

      As contemporary political events have increasingly become my main concern in recent years, Politics and Economics are also my favourite subjects…

      Anthropology Personal Statement ****
      For me the appeal of anthropology is that it draws on a wide range of disciplines, and that it combines theory with empirical study. Anthropology is a useful discipline in the world, where, for example, its use in developing countries is needed to give appropriate consideration as to how to successfully aid development without harming or diluting the country’s indigenous cultures…

      International Physics Personal Statement *****
      Since infancy, I have been intrigued as to how anything I came into contact with worked; however, the explanations I received were always either too vague or beyond my knowledge at the time, I have came to realize that the keyword for all my questions was physics, where the most complex phenomena of the universe can be explained by fitting small pieces of the puzzle into a structured theory…

      Civil Engineering Personal Statement
      Civil engineering is a discipline which is essential in the modern world: roads, bridges, airports, railways, sewage works and power stations all provide the fabric of today’s society, and without them the world would be a very different place…

      Electrical and Electronics Engineering Personal Statement *****
      Flirting with electrons has worked wonders. Electronics engineers have manipulated these positron antiparticles to revolutionise fields as diverse as acoustics, medicine and robotics. Impressed by these phenomenal advancements, I am ambitious to join the wonderful people who relentlessly strive to change our lives for the better…

      Mathematics and Engineering Personal Statement
      Questions regarding the reason for my liking of mathematics have only one answer: mathematical logic and concepts contribute to a practical approach in every aspect of life. It is the diversity and universal applicability of this subject that encourages me to delve further and study it in depth…

      Engineering personal statement (Mature Student) *****
      Having had a successful 11 year career in the travel industry, it may seem a little peculiar that I am now applying to study engineering. When I was younger, I had planned to become an engineer and at 16 I took an apprenticeship with the Royal Navy…

      Maths and Science Personal Statement
      Maths and science, in particular physics, have always been my favourite subjects in school. I have an inquisitive mind and am always asking “how?” and “why?” to find out how things work. I chose maths, physics and biology for my A levels, yet only realised I wanted to do engineering when I started studying topics such as mechanics…

      Anthropology Personal Statement ****
      Witnessing Hindu worship in Old Delhi, I became drawn to the systematic study of humankind. Having viewed religion as diminishing and irrelevant, I grew receptive to the manifestations of worship that exist in my own culture, and saw that the explanation of a cultural feature should involve the entire context…

      International Relations Personal Statement ****
      The Middle East has always been a political hot zone, at the center of international disputes which gain worldwide attention. Since the beginning of the twentieth century, the region has acted as a battlefield for other nations, making stability in the area an impossible feat…

      Civil Engineering Personal Statement *****
      My choice to study Civil Engineering was the result of mature reflection. I’m aware that the decisions I make at this age will surely determine my life. The direction of my studies will certainly bond my future and I decided that this commitment should contain things I love, and make me feel useful in society…

      Medicine Personal Statement
      Given that over ninety nine percent of the body consists of just six elements, it is hard to imagine the human body as an intricately synchronised and immensely complex machine. Yet, it has done well to puzzle even the brightest minds in history-but I am drawn to a challenge; I cannot think of anything else more fascinating to work with…

      Geography Personal Statement – Human/Environmental
      The possibility of the human race’s days being numbered by our destructive lifestyles, as planted in my mind by Al Gore’s sensationalised and controversial ‘The Inconvenient Truth’, has fuelled my interest in the global warming phenomenon, forcing me to question society’s reluctance to tackle it and realise the worldwide impact of each of our daily lives…

      Psychology Personal Statement
      There is a reason behind everything we do, a purpose to our actions. The cognition behind any decision that we make is one of the many aspects of psychology that I am fascinated by. The following five words, as said by the Prophet Muhammad, I believe explain such a suggestion: “Actions are but by intentions”…

      Mathematics Personal Statement
      Mathematics is at the root of many academic subjects, such as mechanics in Physics, organic Chemistry and even Music and this is why I find it so fascinating. The process of starting from a simple set of formulae and deriving nearly all mathematical truth from these is what makes Mathematics a leading academic subject…

      Physics & Maths Personal Statement *****
      The nobility of physics together with my aspiration to explore natural phenomena mathematically and to formulate theories that govern them has changed my perception of reality and this has made me ponder difficult questions…

      Engineering Personal Statement
      Overcoming economic hurdles tempered by ecological limits requires innovative solutions. For centuries mathematical and analytical skills have fused to solve practical problems. The diverse nature of engineering has made advancements possible in an array of fields from the wheel to The International Space Station…

      Politics and International Relations Personal Statement *****
      My great grandfather volunteered in the 1948 War of Independence and became the first Inspector General of the Israeli Navy, ensuring I was brought up in a strongly political family. However I am broad minded, as I attend a conservative school yet am part of a liberal youth movement so I have been exposed to many diverse opinions, encouraging me to be an informed decision-maker…

      Architecture Personal Statement
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      Irish elk

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      Irish elk
      Temporal range: Middle Pleistocene to Early Holocene , 0.781–0.008  Ma


      Irish Elk Side (white background).jpg
      Mounted skeleton
      Scientific classification e
      Kingdom: Animalia
      Phylum: Chordata
      Class: Mammalia
      Order: Artiodactyla
      Family: Cervidae
      Subfamily: Cervinae
      Genus: Megaloceros
      Species:M. giganteus
      Binomial name
      Megaloceros giganteus
      ( Blumenbach , 1799)

      †Megaceros giganteus
      †Megaloceros giganteus giganteus

      The Irish elk (Megaloceros giganteus) [1] [2] also called the giant deer or Irish giant deer, is an extinct species of deer in the genus Megaloceros and is one of the largest deer that ever lived. Its range extended across Eurasia during the Pleistocene , from Ireland to Siberia to China . A related form is recorded in China during the Late Pleistocene . [3] The most recent remains of the species have been carbon dated to about 7,700 years ago in Siberia. [4]

      Although most skeletons have been found in bogs in Ireland, the animal was not exclusive to Ireland and was not closely related to either of the living species currently called elk – Alces alces (the European elk, known in North America as the moose) or Cervus canadensis (the North American elk or wapiti). For this reason, the name “Giant deer” is used in some publications, instead of “Irish elk”. [5] [6] [7] [8] [9] A study has suggested that the Irish elk was closely related to the Red deer ( Cervus elaphus ). [10] However, other phylogenetic analyses support a sister-group relationship with fallow deer ( Dama dama ). [8] [11] [12]


      • 1 Taxonomy
        • 1.1 Evolution
      • 2 Description
      • 3 Palaeobiology
        • 3.1 Size of antlers
        • 3.2 Orthogenesis
        • 3.3 Reproduction
      • 4 Extinction
      • 5 Cultural significance
        • 5.1 Folklore
        • 5.2 Northern Ireland
        • 5.3 Potential revival
      • 6 References
      • 7 Further reading
      • 8 External links

      Taxonomy[ edit ]

      Skeletal reconstruction from 1856

      In the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries it began to be apparent to scientists that many fossilized specimens being discovered did not represent any organisms that were currently living on earth. The Irish elk was among these specimens. Neither exclusive to Ireland nor an elk, it was named so because the most well-known and best preserved fossil specimens have been found in lake sediments and peat bogs in Ireland. The Irish elk had a far-reaching range, being located throughout Europe, northern Africa, and some related forms located in China. The first scientific descriptions erroneously confuse the animal with the American moose , while other scientists believed the elk was identical to the European reindeer . These scientists did not have the current conception of evolutionary biology that we have now. They did not consider extinction, believing instead that the unexplained fossils had living descendants in undiscovered parts of the globe. French scientist Georges Cuvier was the first to challenge that notion, documenting that the Irish elk did not belong to any species of mammal that was living at the time. His study of the Irish elk was a key moment in the history of the study of extinction .

      Evolution[ edit ]

      Skull of M. g. antecedens

      The Irish elk evolved throughout the last few million years during the Glacial Periods and Ice Age, specifically the Pleistocene Epoch. Once established, the elk spread throughout Europe, northern Asia and Africa, and some parts of China. [13] Physically, the Irish elk was the heaviest known member of the “Old World deer”, [11] a division of the subfamily Cervinae whose groups the “Old World deer” and “New World deer” are distinguished by foot structure rather than geographical origin. [14] The first Megaloceros giganteus appear about 400,000 years ago, but most Irish remains date from between 11,750 BP and 10,950 BP. Over 100 individuals have been found in Ballybetagh Bog, Co. Dublin, the outstanding site known. [15] Studies have shown they possibly evolved from M. antecedens. The earlier taxon , sometimes considered a paleosubspecies M. giganteus antecedens, is similar but had more complex and compact antlers.

      Description[ edit ]

      The Irish elk stood about 2.1 metres (6.9 ft) tall at the shoulders carrying the largest antlers of any known cervid (a maximum of 3.65 m (12.0 ft) from tip to tip and weighing up to 40 kg (88 lb)). In body size, the Irish elk tied with the extant moose subspecies of Alaska (Alces alces gigas) as the third largest known deer , second and first belonging to the genus Cervalces ( C. scotti and C.latifrons respectively). The Irish elk is estimated to have attained a total mass of 540–600 kg (1,190–1,323 lb). Large specimens weighed 700 kg (1,543 lb) or more, comparable with the Alaskan Moose. [16] [17] A significant collection of M. giganteus skeletons can be found at the Natural History Museum in Dublin .

      Palaeobiology[ edit ]

      Size of antlers[ edit ]

      Skeleton on display with antlers spanning 2.7 metres (8.9 ft) and a mass of 40 kg (88 lb)

      The size of Irish elk antlers are distinctive. Scientists have proposed multiple theories regarding the evolution of these antlers. One theory is that their antlers, under constant and strong sexual selection , increased in size because males were using them in combat for access to females. Thus, it is hypothesized that they eventually became so unwieldy that the Irish Elk could not carry on the normal business of life and so became extinct. It was not until Stephen Jay Gould ‘s important 1974 essay on Megaloceros that this theory was tested rigorously. [18]


      Gould demonstrated that for deer in general, species with a larger body size have antlers that are more than proportionately larger, a consequence of allometry , or differential growth rate of body size and antler size during development. Irish Elk had antlers of the appropriate size in correlation to their massive bodies. This does not mean that sexual selection played no part in maintaining large antler size, only that the antlers of the species’ ancestors were already large to begin with. Indeed, Gould concluded that the large antler size and their position on the skull was very much maintained by sexual selection: they were morphologically ill-suited for combat between males, but their position was ideal to present them to intimidate rivals or impress females. Unlike other deer, M. giganteus did not even have to turn its head to present the antlers to best effect, but could accomplish this by simply looking straight ahead. [18]

      The size of antlers has also been attributed to the health of the Irish elk. Gould stated: “If the Irish elk responded to nutritional restriction as red deer do, a huge and well-fed stag with 40 kg antlers (the near maximal size [18] [19] ) would have had 20 to 28 kg antlers under poor conditions. These estimates are within the range of extant moose Alces alces antlers. [20] More typical prime stags with 35 kg antlers [21] would have had 18 to 25 kg antlers in times of nutritional stress.” [22] “A linear measure of antler size (basal circumference), however, was reduced even further to 41% of the mainland mean. Because basal circumference is highly correlated with other linear measures of antler size, [23] such a decrease indicates that insular antler mass dropped to 1/14th of the mainland antler mass. This reduction in antler mass is 2.7 times more extreme than expected given the allometric relationship between antler and body masses in red deer [18] and demonstrates a rapid evolution of smaller antlers. A similar change in a typical Irish elk population with prime stags having 35 kg antlers [21] would result in antler weights of 13 kg or less in worsening climatic conditions. This estimate is within the range of extant wapiti/red deer (Cervus spp.) antler weights. [20]

      It has been noted that Irish elk stags in more adverse environments had smaller bodies and relatively even smaller antlers, [19] [24] but proponents of the antler-extinction hypothesis have not addressed the possibility of rapid evolutionary reduction in antler size. We expect that the antlers of the Irish elk should have been able to evolve rapidly in the face of selection for smaller and less expensive sizes. This conclusion is supported by the great diversity of Irish elk antler forms found among different populations at different times, including compact upright orientations possibly from populations inhabiting more heavily wooded environments [25] suggesting the evolutionary malleability of Irish elk antlers.” [22] In 1987, Kitchener presented evidence that Irish elk antlers were in fact used for fighting. [26] In addition, the Irish elk’s antlers had several functions such as being a display for attraction of females and dominance of rival males. [24] The elks shed their antlers and re-grew a new pair during mating season. [27] Ultimately, the decrease in energy intake by the Late Pleistocene, influenced the ability to produce for Irish elk females. [22]

      Orthogenesis[ edit ]

      Model in Ulster Museum

      Further information: Orthogenesis

      Before the 20th century, the Irish elk was taken as a prime example of orthogenesis (directed evolution), an evolutionary mechanism in which the successive organisms within the lineage of an evolutionary series become increasingly modified in a single undeviating direction. Orthogenesis was a widely accepted evolutionary mechanism in the 19th and 20th centuries. Orthogenesis is only a hypothesis, unlike natural selection which is understood by the scientific community as a theory. It was popular amongst anti-Darwinian paleontologists because it stated that evolution proceeded void of natural selection in a straight line. In terms of the Irish elk, it is believed that orthogenesis caused an evolutionary trajectory towards antlers which became larger and larger. This was due to sexual selection which drove an increase in antler size. These antlers caused eventual extinction because the Irish elk’s antlers would grow to sizes which inhibited proper feeding habits and caused the animal to become trapped in tree branches. [8]

      Other examples of orthogenesis include saber tooth cats’ teeth growing to unbearable sizes or oysters coiling their valves into itself until it suffocated. The Irish elk was a prime example of orthogenesis because it had evolved from a smaller ancestor with smaller antlers. However, in the 1930s, orthogenesis was disproved by Darwinians led by Julian Huxley , who noted that antler size was relative to body size. Because the Irish elk was a large organism compared to its smaller relatives such as deer, there was an allometric relationship between the antlers and body size. This theory, too, was countered by Stephen Jay Gould, as he deemed the allometry theory to be very similar to the orthogenesis theory. [28] Gould was convinced that the elk’s antler served a primary, unknown purpose. He believed that their immense antlers did not only evolve for combat but that they were also visual representations. Gould and many modern-day scientists have concluded that the antlers served as signals, in which the male elk with large antlers were more suited to attract females. [29] Thus, there is an increasing amount of evidence pointing to the idea that sexual selection was the driving force behind the large antlers, rather than orthogenesis or natural selection. [29]

      It is easy to advance a number of hypotheses regarding the disappearance of the more localized populations of this species. The situation is less clear regarding the final demise of the Irish elk in continental Eurasia east of the Urals. Stuart et al. (2004) tentatively suggest that a combination of human presence along rivers and slow decrease in habitat quality in upland areas presented the last Irish elk with the choice of either good habitat but considerable hunting pressure, or general absence of humans in a suboptimal habitat.

      Reproduction[ edit ]

      Restoration by Charles R. Knight

      There are frequent debates as to whether or not sexual selection led to the Irish elk’s extinction. Sexual selection can increase or decrease a population’s chance of extinction, due to behaviors such as male-male competition and female choice. Also, sexual harassment by males can result in lower female fecundity or even death. [30] Regardless of the details of the species’ life history, extinction would require that too few males survive to maturity to fertilize a sufficient number of females to maintain a viable population. [30] When it comes to male-male competition, if the assumption is that detrimental effects are clear in only the males, a surviving male would have a large number of females to choose from, with little competition. Selection must, therefore, favor the less extreme male genotypes, and it appears impossible to generate a scenario where males with larger antlers are still selected for when the lifetime reproductive success of males with large antlers approaches zero (as required for deterministic extinction to occur). [30]

      In female choice, sexual selection could, thus, reinforce natural selection and lead to quicker responses to environmental changes, should they occur. [30] With a decrease in male population, females have fewer choices, which could result in inbreeding. This can pose significant threats to population survival. [30] However, much of these studies are contradicting. Females may adaptively avoid the accumulation of inbreeding, so that female choice might increase effective population size. [30]

      Late Pleistocene fossils from Ballybetagh bog, near Dublin, Ireland, indicate that males segregated from females during winters. [24] This type of segregation implies that the Irish elk had behaviors such as rutting and polygynous mating systems, where a single male mates with two or more females. This also supports the belief that the large antler size was used for social display. Within male groups, winterkill was the chief cause of death and was highest among juveniles and small adults with small antlers. [24]

      Extinction[ edit ]

      Sculptures in Crystal Palace

      Traditionally, discussion of the cause of their extinction has focused on the antler size (rather than on their overall body size), which may be due more to their impact on the observer than any actual property. Some have suggested hunting by humans was a contributing factor in the demise of the Irish elk, as may have been the case with other prehistoric megafauna , even assuming that the large antler size restricted the movement of males through forested regions or that it was by some other means a ” maladaptation “. [18] Others assume the ultimate cause of extinction may have been the adaptations for mineral metabolism that were beneficial to the Irish elk until vegetation changed. [31] But given the difficulty of recovering quantitative records of human hunting impacts from the sub-fossil record alone, the role of humans in the extinction of the Irish elk is not yet clear.

      Some research has suggested that a lack of sufficient high-quality forage caused the extinction of the elk. According to an article written by researchers Silvia Gonzalez, Andrew Kitcheneri, and Adrian Lister, in 2000, a reduction in forest density into the Late Pleistocene decreased nutritional selection and is believed to have led to a conflict between sexual selection and ultimately a decrease in antler and body size, which can explain what may have caused their demise. [32] High amounts of calcium and phosphate compounds are required to form antlers, and therefore large quantities of these minerals are required for the massive structures of the Irish elk. The males (and male deer in general) met this requirement partly from their bones, replenishing them from food plants after the antlers were grown or reclaiming the nutrients from discarded antlers (as has been observed in extant deer). Thus, in the antler growth phase, giant deer suffered from a condition similar to osteoporosis . [19] When the climate changed at the end of the last glacial period , the vegetation in the animal’s habitat also changed towards species that presumably could not deliver sufficient amounts of the required minerals, at least in the western part of its range.

      Simply blaming antler size for their extinction may not be entirely accurate. The most likely cause is the significantly shortened growing season seen toward the end of the Pleistocene Era. This reduced availability in nutrition resulted in the lowering of the female reproduction output by about 50%. [22]

      However, the most recent specimen of M. giganteus in northern Siberia, dated to approximately 7,700 years ago – well after the end of the last glacial period – shows no sign of nutrient stress. They come from a region with a continental climate where the proposed vegetation changes had not (yet) occurred. [33]

      New radiocarbon dates from specimens in stratified contexts suggest that giant deer still existed 1,400 years after their supposed extinction. Giant deer fossils found on the Isle of Man at Ballaugh confirm the survival of the species into early Holocene in at least this area. The Ballaugh Elk skeleton is smaller than the entire range of Irish skeletons, but has a relatively large skull and the antlers are well-sized for an adult male. This suggests that size decreased into the Holocene.

      There is strong intraspecific allometry among Irish deer. Smaller animals have relatively shorter antlers. Reduced display organs are theorized to indicate a prelude to extinction from nutritional stress. Reduced forage density leads to a conflict between sexual selection for antler size and nutritional selection pressures. These factors reduced populations and the body size of the giant deer. However, data indicates that they are unlikely to have been wholly responsible for the animal’s extinction. With available evidence, it is hard to define the cause of extinction.

      Many scientists argue that factors like ecological change, virulent disease, and hunting by people wiped out many large mammal species during the end of the European Ice age, including the giant deer. Fossils found on the Isle of Man at Ballaugh, and at two places in western Siberia postdating the supposed extinction of the species show that, whatever the causes, the actual termination of the species was likely due to a variety of factors which had different significance and timing in different parts of the species’ range.
      [32] [34]

      Cultural significance[ edit ]

      Folklore[ edit ]

      Cave painting from Lascaux

      A folk memory of the Irish Elk was once thought to be preserved in the Middle High German word Schelch, a large beast mentioned in the 13th-century Nibelungenlied along with the then-extant aurochs (Dar nach schluch er schiere, einen Wisent und einen Elch, Starcher Ure vier, und einen grimmen Schelch / “After this he straightway slew a Bison and an Elk, Of the strong Wild Oxen four, and a single fierce Schelch.”). The Middle Irish word segh was also suggested as a reference to the Irish Elk. [35] [36] Turf cutters of Clooney and Tulla in County Clare, Ireland referred to the Irish Elk as the Fiaghmore. [37] However, these interpretations are not conclusive. [18] [38]

      Northern Ireland[ edit ]

      An Irish elk is displayed on the Coat of arms of Northern Ireland .

      Potential revival[ edit ]

      This species has been selected by the Long Now Foundation as a potential candidate for de-extinction . [39]

      References[ edit ]

      1. ^ Geist, Valerius (1998). “Megaloceros: The Ice Age Giant and Its Living Relatives”. Deer of the World: Their Evolution, Behaviour, and Ecology . Stackpole Books. ISBN   0-8117-0496-3 . 
      2. ^ Lister, A.M. (1987). Megaceros or Megaloceros? The nomenclature of the giant deer. Quaternary Newsletter 52: 14-16.
      3. ^ Gould, S.J. “The misnamed, mistreated, and misunderstood Irish elk”. Ever Since Darwin. W.W. Norton. pp. 79–90. 
      4. ^ Stuart, A.J.; Kosintsev, P.A.; Higham, T.F.G. & Lister, A.M. (2004). Pleistocene to Holocene extinction dynamics in giant deer and woolly mammoth. Nature 431(7009): 684-689. PMID   15470427 doi : 10.1038/nature02890 PDF fulltext [ permanent dead link ] Supplementary information . Erratum in Nature 434(7031): 413, doi : 10.1038/nature03413
      5. ^ Vislobokova, I. A. (2010), “Giant Deer: Origin, Evolution, Role in the Biosphere,” Paleontological Journal. vol. 46 no. 7 pg. 643-775
      6. ^ Bro-Jorgensen, J. (2014), “Will their armaments be their downfall? Large horn size increases extinction risk in bovids,” Animal Conservation. vol. 17 no. 1 pg. 80-87
      7. ^ Lemaitre, J. F. (2014), “The allometry between secondary sexual traits and body size is nonlinear among cervids,” Biology Letter. vol. 10 no. 3
      8. ^ a b c Hughes, Sandrine; Hayden, Thomas J.; Douady, Christophe J.; Tougard, Christelle; Germonpré, Mietje; Stuart, Anthony; Lbova, Lyudmila; Carden, Ruth F.; Hänni, Catherine; Say, Ludovic (2006). “Molecular phylogeny of the extinct giant deer, Megaloceros giganteus“. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 40 (1): 285–291. doi : 10.1016/j.ympev.2006.02.004 . PMID   16556506 . 
      9. ^ Vislobokova, I. A. (2011), “Historical Development and Geographical Distribution of Giant Deer (Cervidae, Megacerini)”, Paleontological Journal. vol. 45 no. 6 pg. 674-688
      10. ^ Kuehn, Ralph; Ludt, Christian J.; Schroeder, Wolfgang; Rottmann, Oswald (2005). “Molecular Phylogeny of Megaloceros giganteus — the Giant Deer or Just a Giant Red Deer?”. Zoological Science. 22 (9): 1031–1044. doi : 10.2108/zsj.22.1031 . PMID   16219984 . 
      11. ^ a b Lister, Adrian M.; Edwards, Ceiridwen J.; Nock, D. A. W.; Bunce, Michael; van Pijlen, Iris A.; Bradley, Daniel G.; Thomas, Mark G.; Barnes, Ian (2005). “The phylogenetic position of the giant deer Megaloceros giganteus”. Nature. 438 (7069): 850–853. Bibcode : 2005Natur.438..850L . doi : 10.1038/nature04134 . PMID   16148942 . 
      12. ^ Immel, Alexander; Drucker, Dorothée G.; Bonazzi, Marion; Jahnke, Tina K.; Münzel, Susanne C.; Schuenemann, Verena J.; Herbig, Alexander; Kind, Claus-Joachim; Krause, Johannes (2015). “Mitochondrial Genomes of Giant Deers Suggest their Late Survival in Central Europe” . Scientific Reports. 5 (10853): 10853. Bibcode : 2015NatSR…510853I . doi : 10.1038/srep10853 . PMC   4459102  Freely accessible. PMID   26052672 . 
      13. ^ Gould, S.J. “The Case of the Irish Elk.” The Case of the Irish Elk. UC Berkeley, n.d. Web. 23 Oct. 2014.
      14. ^ Geist, Valerius (1998). Deer of the World: Their Evolution, Behaviour, and Ecology. Stackpole Books. ISBN   0811704963 . 
      15. ^ Johnston, Penny; Kelly, Bernice; Tierney, John. “Megaloceros Giganteus on the Loose” (PDF). Seanda: The NRA Archaeology Magazine. pp. 58–59. Archived from the original (PDF) on October 29, 2013. 
      16. ^ R. D. E. Mc Phee, Extinctions in Near Time: Causes, Contexts, and Consequences p.262
      17. ^ Moen R.A; Pastor J. & Cohen Y. 1999. Antler growth and extinction of Irish Elk. Evolutionary Ecology Research 1: 235–249. [1]
      18. ^ a b c d e f Gould, Stephen Jay (1974). “The Origin and Function of ‘Bizarre’ Structures: Antler Size and Skull Size in the ‘Irish Elk,’ Megaloceros giganteus”. Evolution. 28 (2): 191. doi : 10.2307/2407322 . JSTOR   2407322 . 
      19. ^ a b c Moen, R.A.; Pastor, J. & Cohen, Y. (1999). Antler growth and extinction of Irish Elk. Evolutionary Ecology Research 1: 235–249. Abstract
      20. ^ a b Geist 1998
      21. ^ a b Barnosky 1986
      22. ^ a b c d O’Driscoll Worman, Cedric; Kimbrell, Tristan (2008). “Getting to the hart of the matter: Did antlers truly cause the extinction of the Irish elk?”. Oikos. 117 (9): 1397–1405. doi : 10.1111/j.0030-1299.2008.16608.x . 
      23. ^ Bartoš and Bahbouh 2006
      24. ^ a b c d Barnosky, Anthony D. (19 April 1985). “Taphonomy and Herd Structure of the Extinct Irish Elk, Megalocerous giganteus”. Science. New. 228 (4697): 340–344. Bibcode : 1985Sci…228..340B . doi : 10.1126/science.228.4697.340 . PMID   17790237 . 
      25. ^ Lister 1994
      26. ^ Kitchener, A (1987). “Fighting behavior of the extinct Irish elk”. Modern Geology. 11: 1–28. 
      27. ^ “Irish elk” . Archived from the original on 2013-10-21. Retrieved 2013-10-21. 
      28. ^ Anderson, Kristina. “What On Earth – A Canadian Newsletter for the Earth Sciences.” What On Earth – A Canadian Newsletter for the Earth Sciences. N.p., 15 Nov. 2002. Web. 23 Oct. 2014.
      29. ^ a b Zimmer, Carl. “The Allure of Big Antlers : The Loom.” The Loom. Discover, 3 Sept. 2008. Web. 23 Oct. 2014.
      30. ^ a b c d e f Kokko, H., & Brooks, R. (2003). Sexy to die for? sexual selection and the risk of extinction. Annales Zoologici Fennici, 40(2), 207-219. Retrieved from
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      32. ^ a b Gonzalez, Silvia; Andrew Kitchener; Adrian Lister (15 June 2000). “Survival of the Irish elk into the Holocene”. Nature. 405 (6788): 753–754. doi : 10.1038/35015668 . PMID   10866185 . 
      33. ^ Hughes, Sandrine; Hayden, Thomas J.; Douady, Christophe J.; Tougard, Christelle; Germonpré, Mietje; Stuart, Anthony; Lbova, Lyudmila; Carden, Ruth F.; Hänni, Catherine; Say, Ludovic (2006). Molecular phylogeny of the extinct giant deer, Megaloceros giganteus. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 40(1): 285–291. doi : 10.1016/j.ympev.2006.02.004 PDF fulltext Archived 2007-10-01 at the Wayback Machine .. Supplementary data 1, DOC fulltext Supplementary data 2, DOC fulltext Supplementary data 3, DOC fulltext
      34. ^ Irish Elk Survived after Ice Age Ended Author(s): S. P. Source: Science News, Vol. 166, No. 19 (Nov. 6, 2004), p. 301 Published by: Society for Science & the Public
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      Further reading[ edit ]

      • Kurten, Bjorn (1995): Dance of the Tiger . University of California Press. ISBN   0-520-20277-5 .
      Kurten is a paleo-anthropologist, and in this novel he presents a theory of Neanderthal extinction. Irish elk feature prominently, under the name shelk which Kurten coins (based on the aforementioned old German schelch) to avoid the problematic aspects of “Irish” and “elk” as discussed above. The book was first published in 1980, when the name “Giant Deer” was not yet being used widely.
      • ZOOLOGICAL SCIENCE 22: 1031–1044 (2005)
      • Juliana, Adelman. “An Insight into Commercial Natural History: Richard Glennon, William Hinchy and the Nineteenth-century Trade in Giant Irish Deer Remains.” Archives of Natural History 39.1 (2012): 16-26. Print.
      • Larson, Edward J. (2004). Evolution: The Remarkable History of a Scientific Theory

      External links[ edit ]

      Wikimedia Commons has media related to Megaloceros giganteus .
      • icon Paleontology portal
      • “Extinct Giant Deer Survived Ice Age, Study Says” . National Geographic. 
      • “CGI picture from “Walking with Beasts” . Discovery Channel. Archived from the original on February 17, 2006. Retrieved February 14, 2006. 
      • “Megaloceros, Irish elk, Giant deer” . BBC. Retrieved October 25, 2005. 
      • “The Case of the Irish Elk” . University of California at Berkeley. Archived from the original on November 11, 2005. Retrieved October 25, 2005. 
      Taxon identifiers
      • Wikidata : Q312054
      • Wikispecies : Megaloceros giganteus
      • EoL : 4446592
      • Fossilworks : 149394
      • GBIF : 5846758
      • iNaturalist : 354793
      • NCBI : 227166

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      Categories :

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      • Pleistocene mammals of Europe
      • Pleistocene mammals of Asia
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      • All articles with dead external links
      • Articles with dead external links from November 2017
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