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13 Engaging Ways to Begin an Essay

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Writing Your Essay

Write a first draft

Your first draft will help you work out:

  • the structure and framework of your essay
  • how you will answer the question
  • which evidence and examples you will use
  • how your argument will be logically structured.

Your first draft will not be your final essay; think of it as raw material you will refine through editing and redrafting . Once you have a draft, you can work on writing well.

Structure

Structure your essay in the most effective way to communicate your ideas and answer the question.

All essays should include the following structure

Essay paragraphs

A paragraph is a related group of sentences that develops one main idea. Each paragraph in the body of the essay should contain:

  • A topic sentence that states the main or controlling idea
  • Supporting sentences to explain and develop the point you’re making
  • Evidence. Most of the time, your point should be supported by some form of evidence from your reading, or by an example drawn from the subject area.
  • Analysis. Don’t just leave the evidence hanging there – analyse and interpret it! Comment on the implication/significance/impact and finish off the paragraph with a critical conclusion you have drawn from the evidence.
  • a concluding sentence that restates your point, analyses the evidence or acts as a transition to the next paragraph.

See The Learning Centre guide Paraphrasing, summarising and quoting

Tips for effective writing

  • Start writing early – the earlier the better. Starting cuts down on anxiety, beats procrastination, and gives you time to develop your ideas.
  • Keep the essay question in mind. Don’t lose track of the question or task. Keep a copy in front of you as you draft and edit and work out your argument.
  • Don’t try to write an essay from beginning to end (especially not in a single sitting). Begin with what you are ready to write – a plan, a few sentences or bullet points. Start with the body and work paragraph by paragraph.
  • Write the introduction and conclusion after the body. Once you know what your essay is about, then write the introduction and conclusion.
  • Use ‘signpost’ words in your writing. Transition signals can help the reader follow the order and flow of your ideas.
  • Integrate your evidence carefully. Introduce quotations and paraphrases with introductory phrases.
  • Revise your first draft extensively. Make sure the entire essay flows and that the paragraphs are in a logical order.
  • Put the essay aside for a few days. This allows you to consider your essay and edit it with a fresh eye.

 See The Learning Centre guides to Introducing quotations and paraphrases and Transition signals


See next: Referencing your essay

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How to Begin an Essay: 13 Engaging Strategies

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An Introduction to Essay Writing


Introduction

  • Choosing a Topic

  • Writing an Introduction

  • Structuring and Outlining

  • Types of Essays

  • Editing and Improving

Dynamic Ways to Begin an Essay




Dynamic Ways to Begin an Essay.
Illustration by Hugo Lin. ThoughtCo. 
by
Richard Nordquist
Updated June 14, 2018

An effective introductory paragraph both informs and motivates: it lets readers know what your essay is about and it encourages them to keep reading.

There are countless ways to begin an essay effectively. As a start, here are 13 introductory strategies accompanied by examples from a wide range of professional writers.

13 Introductory Strategies

  1. State your thesis briefly and directly (but avoid making a bald announcement, such as “This essay is about . . .”). It is time, at last, to speak the truth about Thanksgiving, and the truth is this. Thanksgiving is really not such a terrific holiday. . . .
    (Michael J. Arlen, “Ode to Thanksgiving.” The Camera Age: Essays on Television. Penguin, 1982)
  1. Pose a question related to your subject and then answer it (or invite your readers to answer it). What is the charm of necklaces? Why would anyone put something extra around their neck and then invest it with special significance? A necklace doesn’t afford warmth in cold weather, like a scarf, or protection in combat, like chain mail; it only decorates. We might say, it borrows meaning from what it surrounds and sets off, the head with its supremely important material contents, and the face, that register of the soul. When photographers discuss the way in which a photograph reduces the reality it represents, they mention not only the passage from three dimensions to two, but also the selection of a point de vue that favors the top of the body rather than the bottom, and the front rather than the back. The face is the jewel in the crown of the body, and so we give it a setting. . . .
    (Emily R. Grosholz, “On Necklaces.” Prairie Schooner, Summer 2007)
  1. State an interesting fact about your subject.

    The peregrine falcon was brought back from the brink of extinction by a ban on DDT, but also by a peregrine falcon mating hat invented by an ornithologist at Cornell University. If you cannot buy this, Google it. Female falcons had grown dangerously scarce. A few wistful males nevertheless maintained a sort of sexual loitering ground. The hat was imagined, constructed, and then forthrightly worn by the ornithologist as he patrolled this loitering ground, singing, Chee-up! Chee-up! and bowing like an overpolite Japanese Buddhist trying to tell somebody goodbye. . . .
    (David James Duncan, “Cherish This Ecstasy.” The Sun, July 2008)

  1. Present your thesis as a recent discovery or revelation.

    I’ve finally figured out the difference between neat people and sloppy people. The distinction is, as always, moral. Neat people are lazier and meaner than sloppy people.
    (Suzanne Britt Jordan, “Neat People vs. Sloppy People.” Show and Tell. Morning Owl Press, 1983)

  2. Briefly describe the place that serves as the primary setting of your essay.

    It was in Burma, a sodden morning of the rains. A sickly light, like yellow tinfoil, was slanting over the high walls into the jail yard. We were waiting outside the condemned cells, a row of sheds fronted with double bars, like small animal cages. Each cell measured about ten feet by ten and was quite bare within except for a plank bed and a pot of drinking water. In some of them brown silent men were squatting at the inner bars, with their blankets draped round them. These were the condemned men, due to be hanged within the next week or two.
    (George Orwell, “A Hanging,” 1931)

  3. Recount an incident that dramatizes your subject.

    One October afternoon three years ago while I was visiting my parents, my mother made a request I dreaded and longed to fulfill. She had just poured me a cup of Earl Grey from her Japanese iron teapot, shaped like a little pumpkin; outside, two cardinals splashed in the birdbath in the weak Connecticut sunlight. Her white hair was gathered at the nape of her neck, and her voice was low. “Please help me get Jeff’s pacemaker turned off,” she said, using my father’s first name. I nodded, and my heart knocked.
    (Katy Butler, “What Broke My Father’s Heart.” The New York Times Magazine, June 18, 2010)

  1. Use the narrative strategy of delay: put off identifying your subject just long enough to pique your readers’ interest without frustrating them.

    They woof. Though I have photographed them before, I have never heard them speak, for they are mostly silent birds. Lacking a syrinx, the avian equivalent of the human larynx, they are incapable of song. According to field guides the only sounds they make are grunts and hisses, though the Hawk Conservancy in the United Kingdom reports that adults may utter a croaking coo and that young black vultures, when annoyed, emit a kind of immature snarl. . . .
    (Lee Zacharias, “Buzzards.” Southern Humanities Review, 2007)

  2. Using the historical present tense , relate an incident from the past as if it were happening now.

    Ben and I are sitting side by side in the very back of his mother’s station wagon. We face glowing white headlights of cars following us, our sneakers pressed against the back hatch door. This is our joy–his and mine–to sit turned away from our moms and dads in this place that feels like a secret, as though they are not even in the car with us. They have just taken us out to dinner, and now we are driving home. Years from this evening, I won’t actually be sure that this boy sitting beside me is named Ben. But that doesn’t matter tonight. What I know for certain right now is that I love him, and I need to tell him this fact before we return to our separate houses, next door to each other. We are both five.
    (Ryan Van Meter, “First.” The Gettysburg Review, Winter 2008)

  1. Briefly describe a process that leads into your subject.

    I like to take my time when I pronounce someone dead. The bare-minimum requirement is one minute with a stethoscope pressed to someone’s chest, listening for a sound that is not there; with my fingers bearing down on the side of someone’s neck, feeling for an absent pulse; with a flashlight beamed into someone’s fixed and dilated pupils, waiting for the constriction that will not come. If I’m in a hurry, I can do all of these in sixty seconds, but when I have the time, I like to take a minute with each task.
    (Jane Churchon, “The Dead Book.” The Sun, February 2009)

  2. Reveal a secret about yourself or make a candid observation about your subject.

    I spy on my patients. Ought not a doctor to observe his patients by any means and from any stance, that he might the more fully assemble evidence? So I stand in doorways of hospital rooms and gaze. Oh, it is not all that furtive an act. Those in bed need only look up to discover me. But they never do.
    ( Richard Selzer , “The Discus Thrower.” Confessions of a Knife. Simon & Schuster, 1979)

  3. Open with a riddle , joke, or humorous quotation , and show how it reveals something about your subject.

    Q: What did Eve say to Adam on being expelled from the Garden of Eden?
    A: “I think we’re in a time of transition.”

    The irony of this joke is not lost as we begin a new century and anxieties about social change seem rife. The implication of this message, covering the first of many periods of transition, is that change is normal; there is, in fact, no era or society in which change is not a permanent feature of the social landscape. . . .
    (Betty G. Farrell, Family: The Making of an Idea, an Institution, and a Controversy in American Culture. Westview Press, 1999)

  1. Offer a contrast between past and present that leads to your thesis .

    As a child, I was made to look out the window of a moving car and appreciate the beautiful scenery, with the result that now I don’t care much for nature. I prefer parks, ones with radios going chuckawaka chuckawaka and the delicious whiff of bratwurst and cigarette smoke.
    (Garrison Keillor, “Walking Down The Canyon.” Time, July 31, 2000)

  2. Offer a contrast between image and reality—that is, between a common misconception and the opposing truth.

    They aren’t what most people think they are. Human eyes, touted as ethereal objects by poets and novelists throughout history, are nothing more than white spheres, somewhat larger than your average marble, covered by a leather-like tissue known as sclera and filled with nature’s facsimile of Jell-O. Your beloved’s eyes may pierce your heart, but in all likelihood they closely resemble the eyes of every other person on the planet. At least I hope they do, for otherwise he or she suffers from severe myopia (near-sightedness), hyperopia (far-sightedness), or worse. . . .
    (John Gamel, “The Elegant Eye.” Alaska Quarterly Review, 2009)


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Examples of Argumentative Essays

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Examples of Argumentative Essays

Posted on January 31, 2013 by EssayShark

Twin College Essay: The Benefits of Being a Twin

examples-of-argumentative-essays-the-one-about-twins

Perhaps almost everyone has dreamed of having a twin in their childhood. It seemed to be so beneficial to have an identical copy of oneself that would think and act similarly. For children, having a twin means to have a reliable friend throughout their whole lives, a mate for sharing numerous jokes and playing games, or an invaluable assistant who would always come to help in the time of need. However, having a twin doesn’t lose its advantages even in the adult age. Twins share many interests; they often form bonds that, due to their unique nature, are not possible in any other relationship and it lasts forever. Therefore, being a twin has many benefits.

The advantages of being a twin are especially evident in the early childhood years. “In the early years the twin children develop a trust between themselves” (Safdarmehdi, 2012, para. 2). Sibling rivalry is not such a problem because the kids form an attachment to each other from birth. Furthermore, at an early age, twins need each other because they give each other a sense of support and security. The twins are there for each other as they experience the ups and downs of life and growing up. Academically, socially and emotionally, twins offer each other support which builds their relationship and creates trust between them.

In contrast, the teenage years offer more insight into the disadvantages of being a twin. This is because privacy and sexuality become more important, and rivalry for the attention of the opposite sex and from parents comes into play. For example, in the film Dead Ringers, two identical twins both became successful gynecologists and ended up falling in love with the same woman (Safdarmehdi, 2012, para. 3). After the teenage years, this rivalry and tension between the twins usually fades away. The twins get married and become involved with their own new families. They do not worry as much about what the other twin is up to. However, a close bond between the twins usually still remains. This process of growth, from early childhood through the teenage years and until adulthood, is what makes the twins bond and understand each other at a level other relationships most often do not get to.

A very positive thing about identical twins is that if they get along and they can help each other in some of life’s sticky situations. For instance, if one twin is sick, but simply cannot miss an appointment, date or meeting, the other twin can replace them. This type of assistance depends on how close the twins are and if they have the same skills. For example, one twin said her sibling is like a partner who completes what needs to be done when she cannot. She said, “On the days when I am busy I know that Lucas will cover my back and get all the bottles at night (Arnold, 2011, para. 3).

It is important to note that ‘perfect’ relationships are not always present and cannot always be achieved between twins. A lot depends on their environment, upbringing and genes. Most twins, particularly identical ones, enjoy a very special and close relationship based on trust because of growing up together and having many more things in common than regular siblings. Additionally, as with any close relationship, emotions can run from love to hate but the love between twins usually triumphs.

Therefore, there are many benefits of being a twin. Having a twin is like having your soul mate with you right from birth. Twins, especially identical ones, reflect each other’s images. In childhood, twins give each other a sense of security. They start to form their relationship based on mutual support and understanding. In the teenage years, twins may experience problems connected to sexuality and privacy, and they often start rivalry for the attention of the opposite sex and parents, but as they grow up that rivalry usually fades away.

A very valuable thing is that twins can help each other in difficult situations, using the similarity in their appearance. In addition, twins can experience complicated and ambiguous feelings towards each other, but usually the relationship they form lasts forever.

If you have no clue on how to start your essay, don’t panic. Examples of argumentative essays provided by EssayShark.com authors will help you understands the basics of academic writing. Search our blog for more samples and useful articles and feel free to post your questions. We remind you, however, that any usage of the texts posted at our website without proper acknowledgment is prohibited. Place an order to receive great examples of argumentative essays or any other kind of essays you may need to help alongside your educational path. We know that learning is hard, and we want to make it easier for you.

Argumentative Essay Example II: Should Parents Monitor Their Children’s Internet Use?

XXI century marked the Digital age in the human history and humanity was introduced to the Internet. It covers every field of specialization today, starting at any information humanity ever acquired on out to online communication between individuals. Access to the Internet requires interaction with a computer, that is proved by numerous researches to be injurious to health in an often use. Usually, it is linked to obesity, irregular sleep cycles and shorter duration sleep, impaired vision, and loss of social skills and we should to be anxious about our children’s health. But there are latent and more dangerous threats the Internet is linked to that we need to protect our children from.

Protection of the personal information, while you are searching the web, is critically important, especially while using social networks like Facebook, as it is the most popular way of communication with other people. Kids often are unaware of what information should not be shared with an online community, and in doing so, they can incur themselves to the danger that the internet possesses. Using this information sexual and other predators can stalk children on the Internet, taking advantage of their innocence, abusing their trust and, perhaps, ultimately luring them into hazardous personal encounters (“Teenagers and the Internet”, 2017). Maybe it would be too harsh to track their activities on the internet, without them knowing because every individual has a right to privacy, but it is necessary to talk with children about possible consequences of posting their personal information on the Internet.

As children grow and spend more time at school, parents are often afraid of them to fall into bad associations. It happens because they don’t know the difference between right and wrong; therefore they cannot distinguish a bad company from good. And if something like that happens there could be a possibility that some of their friends could be trying to convince them to do drugs, shoplift or do something against family’s moral code. The better way of dealing with it would be to talk about it in a neutral way, but if nothing helps to oversee child’s personal messages and to prevent it from happening if suspicions are satisfied will be a right decision. The more child grows, the less he talks to his parents about what is going on in his life, about his friends, and where he goes after school. There may be no need to be worried, as he merely visits the cinema with his friends and by not telling his parents he tries to state a right of privacy and protect it. But he also could be bullied and threatened at school and afraid to complain to parents. More importantly, with the development of the technologies, such harassment can run on and on any place your child goes and can happen 24 hours a day, seven days a week. It could be rumors sent by email, mean text messages, emails or posted on social networks, along with embarrassing images, videos, sites or fake profiles (Pogue, 2017). Whether done using technology or in person, the effects of bullying are similar: they could be reaching for alcohol and drugs, or skipping school, or have lower self-esteem, or even health problems (Cold et al., 2017). Whether a child experiences bullying or he is not the object of harassment but is a bully himself, parents should not make a hasty decision to spy child’s activity on the internet, as it will make things only worse. The best way is to be comfortably talking to the kid, asking guiding questions about what is going on in their life and how to stand up to bullies or why the behavior of harassing other children is not the best to establish social status.

Children may also unwittingly expose their families to online risks by accidentally downloading malware. Malware is a computer program that is installed without the knowledge of permission of the victim with an intention to steal personal data from the computer like passwords, parent’s bank account, and other sensitive information (“Teenagers and the Internet”, 2017). This program downloads and installs onto itself while you are visiting untrusted sites or by phishing. Phishing is the use of emails that try to trick people into clicking on malicious links and attachments, usually containing offers of things at a dramatically reduced price or even for free. With the development of targeted advertising, it became much easier to guess what an individual is interested in, as it analyzes the browsing history on your computer. Young people are easy marks for scams because they have not yet learned to be wary.

The Internet can pose dangers to kids, but it is not the Internet to blame. In fact, it can open doors of wonder for children that previous generations could not even have dreamed of. The best foundation for protecting against internet threats is educating your children and establishing comfortable communication with them fulfilled with trust and understanding, so they are willing to talk about what is going on in their lives.

Works Cited

Cold, Flu & Cough et al. “4 Dangers Of The Internet.” Webmd, 2017, http://www.webmd.com/parenting/features/4-dangers-internet#1.
Pogue, David. “How Dangerous Is The Internet For Children?.” Nytimes.Com, 2017, http://www.nytimes.com/2008/02/28/technology/personaltech/28pogue-email.html?mcubz=1.
“Teenagers And The Internet.” Huffpost, 2017, http://www.huffingtonpost.com/suren-ramasubbu/teenagers-and-the-internet_b_7012050.html.

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OnlineWriting Lab

The Argument Essay

The argument essay is the most common type of writing assignment that college students
will encounter throughout their academic careers. While there are different variations
of the argument essay, the overall foundation is always the same: the writer is tasked
with investigating an issue, taking a stand on the issue, and finding and incorporating
a multitude of evidence in a logical manner to support the overall claim.

Most of us have experience with arguing, but an argumentative essay is quite different
than a verbal argument that arises out of the blue. Verbal arguments often become
heated and unreasonable, while the goal of an argumentative essay is the opposite:
the argument must be specific, reasoned, detailed and supported with a variety of
evidence. Furthermore, a verbal argument often focuses on who is right regarding a
specific issue, while a well-written, researched argument essay focuses on what is
the right side of a particular issue. In short, an argument essay must be logical
from beginning to end.

The following are important elements of a good argument essay:

Topic Selection

Topic selection is of the utmost importance in an argument essay. The writer should
focus on picking a topic that is current and relevant to society and can be argued
logically. It is best to avoid moral topics because they do not always support logical
discussion. Additionally, any potential topic for an argument essay should be current, debatable, researchable and manageable. 

A current topic is one that has not been overdebated and is still being decided by society. Most
writers and readers are sick of topics that have been debated for years: abortion,
the death penalty, the legalization of marijuana, etc. 

A debatable topic is one that has differing viewpoints. In other words, it is a controversial issue.
Writing about how child abuse has consequences for society is not debatable since
no one would disagree with this thesis. On the other hand, debating whether the common
punishments for child abusers are effective or not in deterring crime is debatable
and can make for an interesting and well-supported essay. 

A researchable topic is one in which the writer can find a variety of credible and current sources. In
other words, the writer needs to be able to find a multitude of research performed
by qualified individuals to support the overall argument.  

A manageable topic is one that can be successfully performed within the page requirements of the essay.
Writing about widespread issues such as national or global problems is often unmanageable
in just a few pages. To avoid this, most writers should begin with a basic subject
and then try to narrow the subject down to a more appropriate level. For example,
if a writer is passionate about arguing for or against the Health Care Reform Act that was passed by Congress in 2010, it would be wise to narrow this topic. It isn’t
possible to argue for or against the entire law (the bill itself is more than 2,000
pages long). It may be possible to argue for or against one portion of the law. 

Using the above criteria as a basic guideline should allow a writer to find a suitable
topic.

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There are those, who have to miss classes due to illness or personal matters. Some students don’t like the subject and experience lack of motivation to study it. There are also those, who want to complete an essay on their own but don’t have strong writing skills.

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Our biggest pride is the staff. We devote all our time to find the best authors and experts in the field, so you can be sure that your essay will always receive the highest grades.

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In addition, every employee constantly improves skills and knowledge, attending training programs and lectures. We work only with those, who love writing and know how important it is for you to get the best grades!

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You have found the best academic writing assistant to leave all your troubles aside. We know how to make custom essays or term papers meeting all the academic requirements on time!

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Customer Mr. Hall 5 / 5

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Customer Mr. Russell 5 / 5

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Student years are not always a pure pleasure and it is getting harder and harder to keep up with a crazy study rhythm. Many students struggle not only to follow the curriculum but also to spend enough time with friends, attend sports and work part-time to make the ends meet.

There are those, who have to miss classes due to illness or personal matters. Some students don’t like the subject and experience lack of motivation to study it. There are also those, who want to complete an essay on their own but don’t have strong writing skills.

Does it sound familiar? If yes, don’t worry! Millions of students worldwide experience the same difficulties. That is why there is an outstanding solution: professional companies, which complete essays for student.

Some people may consider it a fraud, although everything is quite opposite. Our service acts not only like writers but also like tutors and helpers throughout studies years. What do you, when you don’t know how to fix your computer? You turn to a professional company, which deals with devices!

You don’t need to worry that someone will call you a cheat or will find out that you are using a writing company: everything is protected by encrypting programs and you remain the only author of your work.

So what you need to do? Start with writing our managers: just type ‘Please, write a paper for me’ and we will do the rest! You don’t need to go to an office or ask other students for help. Now you can save lots of time and get in touch with the best writers on the market.

Assignments We Complete

Our company works with all sorts of academic papers, so you can entrust your assignment to us and not to worry about anything. We have many years of experience in the field and thousands of students entrust us with their academic papers.

Due to a big number of professional writers, we are ready to complete your essay on math, physics, languages, literature, history, chemistry and a variety of other subjects.

It doesn’t matter whether you are a high school or a college student: your essay will always correspond with its academic level. Make sure you indicate all your requirements and relax, while we will work on your essay.

How to Make an Order

You can place your order in two simple ways: by contacting our managers and leaving a ‘write an essay for me’ request or filling the form on your own.

If you choose the second option, you will need to follow a few simple steps:

  • Choose the order section on the homepage of our website;
  • Complete it with all the necessary details. They include your subject, topic, number of pages, deadlines and additional requirements. You can also attach samples or notes from your class to give the writer a chance to complete the task as accurate, as possible;
  • Proceed with your payment.
Show all

Once you press the ‘order’ button, our managers start processing your request. They analyze it to assign the best writer. Once the writer is selected, he or she starts working on your essay immediately.

When the task is completed, it is sent to your account and on your email. You need to read it carefully and ask for changes if necessary. Simply by making a few clicks you get a quality paper without any risks and worries!

How We Choose Writers

Our biggest pride is the staff. We devote all our time to find the best authors and experts in the field, so you can be sure that your essay will always receive the highest grades.

If you ask yourself ‘Who can write my essay online?’ we can give you an answer! Our company has created a unique system of evaluating potential candidates, so we hire only those, who prove their proficiency.

Everything starts with an English test and only those, who are fluent, can pass to the next level. On the second stage, candidates need to write an essay during a limited period of time. If it is completed successfully, we hold an interview and check candidate’s academic background.

In addition, every employee constantly improves skills and knowledge, attending training programs and lectures. We work only with those, who love writing and know how important it is for you to get the best grades!

Make an Order and Forget About College Tasks!

If you don’t want to waste your time or don’t know the subject perfectly, you only need to write us and ask to ‘write my essay for me’. We work round the clock and are always there to support you.

Our managers have no days off and they speak multiple languages, so there is always a professional team member, who will answer all of your questions.

We guarantee that you will love your student years and completing essays won’t seem a difficult task. Contact us right now and together we will improve your grades and save lots of your precious time!

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What is a dissertation?

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dissertation

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Formal , written treatise that covers a subject in great detail, and is submitted usually in the course of qualifying for a doctor of philosophy (PhD) degree. Also called thesis.

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The student’s graduate dissertation talked about the usage of symbols in Ancient Rome and how they pertained to Roman aristocracy.

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For her doctoral degree in social work she did her dissertation on the issue of sundowning in patients with dementia.

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The dissertation that was submitted to the panel of judges was applauded for it’s obvious understanding of material required for achieving such title of ‘Doctor’.

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Dissertation proposals & writing dissertations

Next: Step 1: Dissertation proposals ►

Dissertation proposals & writing dissertations

Getting Started

Dissertations Writing both your dissertation proposal and your dissertation will utilise the skills you have developed throughout your course. Many of these, such as Research, bookCritical Thinking and Referencing, have been covered elsewhere in the [email protected]


This book will cover:

  • submitting a successful dissertation proposal
  • writing and organising your dissertation
  • presenting your proposal and dissertation to the required specifications for submission.
The first step is to put together your proposal.

 

Next: Step 1: Dissertation proposals ►

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Table of contents

  • Dissertation proposals & writing dissertations
  • Step 1: Dissertation proposals
    • Title
    • Introduction
    • Aims and objectives
    • Methodology
    • Literature survey
    • Scope and constraints
    • Resources
    • Timetable
    • Outline of sections/chapters
    • References
  • Step 2: What sections go into a dissertation?
    • Cover page
    • Acknowledgements
    • Abstract
    • Contents page
    • List of figures or illustrations
    • Main body – introduction
    • Main body – literature survey
    • Main body – methodology
    • Main body – results
    • Main body – discussion
    • Main body – recommendations
    • Main body – conclusion
    • Reference List/Bibliography
    • Appendices
  • What a dissertation should look like
    • Title page
    • Numbering sections and figures
    • Page numbers
    • Format
    • Presentation
    • Binding
  • Dissertation proposals & dissertation checklist
  • Avoiding plagiarism
  • Extra resources
    • Downloadables
  • More help

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© Southampton Solent University 2012. sol:090912:001ss

For more information about how this resource can be reused, check the ‘back page ‘ (Word doc).

Creative Commons Licence [email protected] by Southampton Solent University is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License .

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Ten things I wish I’d known before starting my dissertation


Are you putting the final touches to a dissertation? Let’s pass on some tips to those who’ll be doing them next year

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Student falls asleep in library





Writing a dissertation can be one of the hardest tasks a university student has to accomplish – but it will come to an end. Photograph: Randy Faris/Corbis

The sun is shining but many students won’t see the daylight. Because it’s that time of year again – dissertation time.

Luckily for me, my D-Day (dissertation hand-in day) has already been and gone. But I remember it well.

The 10,000-word spiral-bound paper squatted on my desk in various forms of completion was my Allied forces; the history department in-tray was my Normandy. And when Eisenhower talked about a “great crusade toward which we have striven these many months”, he was bang on.

I remember first encountering the Undergraduate Dissertation Handbook, feeling my heart sink at how long the massive file took to download, and began to think about possible (but in hindsight, wildly over-ambitious) topics. Here’s what I’ve learned since, and wish I’d known back then…

1) If your dissertation supervisor isn’t right, change. Mine was brilliant. If you don’t feel like they’re giving you the right advice, request to swap to someone else – providing it’s early on and your reason is valid, your department shouldn’t have a problem with it. In my experience, it doesn’t matter too much whether they’re an expert on your topic. What counts is whether they’re approachable, reliable, reassuring, give detailed feedback and don’t mind the odd panicked email. They are your lifeline and your best chance of success.

2) If you mention working on your dissertation to family, friends or near-strangers, they will ask you what it’s about, and they will be expecting a more impressive answer than you can give. So prepare for looks of confusion and disappointment. People anticipate grandeur in history dissertation topics – war, genocide, the formation of modern society. They don’t think much of researching an obscure piece of 1970s disability legislation. But they’re not the ones marking it.

3) If they ask follow-up questions, they’re probably just being polite.

4) Do not ask friends how much work they’ve done. You’ll end up paranoid – or they will. Either way, you don’t have time for it.

5) There will be one day during the process when you will freak out, doubt your entire thesis and decide to start again from scratch. You might even come up with a new question and start working on it, depending on how long the breakdown lasts. You will at some point run out of steam and collapse in an exhausted, tear-stained heap. But unless there are serious flaws in your work (unlikely) and your supervisor recommends starting again (highly unlikely), don’t do it. It’s just panic, it’ll pass.

6) A lot of the work you do will not make it into your dissertation. The first few days in archives, I felt like everything I was unearthing was a gem, and when I sat down to write, it seemed as if it was all gold. But a brutal editing down to the word count has left much of that early material at the wayside.

7) You will print like you have never printed before. If you’re using a university or library printer, it will start to affect your weekly budget in a big way. If you’re printing from your room, “paper jam” will come to be the most dreaded two words in the English language.

8) Your dissertation will interfere with whatever else you have going on – a social life, sporting commitments, societies, other essay demands. Don’t even try and give up biscuits for Lent, they’ll basically become their own food group when you’re too busy to cook and desperate for sugar.

9) Your time is not your own. Even if you’re super-organised, plan your time down to the last hour and don’t have a single moment of deadline panic, you’ll still find that thoughts of your dissertation will creep up on you when you least expect it. You’ll fall asleep thinking about it, dream about it and wake up thinking about. You’ll feel guilty when you’re not working on it, and mired in self-doubt when you are.

10) Finishing it will be one of the best things you’ve ever done. It’s worth the hard work to know you’ve completed what’s likely to be your biggest, most important, single piece of work. Be proud of it.



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Basics of Conducting a Literature Review: Home

How to develop a search strategy and search statements to find information.

Request for consultation with Librarian

If you would like help from me, please send a consultation request indicating the day and time you would like to meet.  You can use the email link in my “Personal Librarian” box on the right side of this guide.

Document Delivery

Use Texas Tech Library’s Document Delivery Service to request free electronic copies of articles, standards, or patents delivered to you by email within 48 hours.  Use the link below and follow directions carefully. 

  • Document Delivery

    Resource/s you need unavailable at TTU Libraries? Request through Document Delivery/ILLiad.

How to conduct a literature review

This PowerPoint presentation will show you how to find previously published resources on your research topic.

Also, who is your personal librarian? The Word document will show you how to identify your personal librarian, and how to find lots of databases that support your chosen discipline.


  • Conducting a literature review (PowerPoint presentation)

A short list of databases for finding articles and more

  • Compendex (Ei Village 2)

    The most comprehensive interdisciplinary engineering database, covering over 9 million records from 5,000 engineering journals.

  • IEEE Xplore

    Full-text access to the worldwide technical literature in electrical engineering, computer science, and electronics.

  • Scopus

    Comprehensive scientific, medical, technical and social science database. 

  • Statista: The Statistics Portal

    Statista aggregates the most important statistics and studies from market researchers, organizations, special publications as well as government platforms. With over 1-million statistics from 600+ areas: market data, consumer data, revenue figures and trends.

  • Web of Science

    Covers the world’s leading literature in sciences, social sciences, and the humanities, from 1981 to the present.

More databases

  • Several more databases from which to find literature

    Click on “Category” to find appropriate databases for your topic.

Writing style manuals for citations, etc.

It is important to credit the authors of the resources you consulted in your research. This credit is given through a proper citation that includes the original author’s name, the title of the work, the date of publicationinformation enabling others to access the research you cited.

Getting your research published

Here are some suggestions meant to help you get your completed research published in professional journals or books.

  • Strategy for getting your research published (PowerPoint presentation)


  • Finding Your Personal Librarian and the Best Databases for Your Topic

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G. Tyge Payne

G. Tyge Payne
Texas Tech University | TTU · Management

31.01

· PhD

About
Network
Projects 2
Research 66
About
66
Research items
11,781
Reads
1,853
Citations
Introduction
Researching strategic management and entrepreneurship phenomena, particularly as they manifest in family businesses.
Skills and Expertise
Management Strategic Management Business Leadership Entrepreneurship Innovation Strategic Planning Business Development Business Management Project Management Organizational Theory Change Management Strategic Analysis Strategic Thinking Innovation Management Organizational Learning Business Model Innovation SMEs Entrepreneurship Development Technology & Innovation Innovation Studies Entrepreneurship Education Healthcare Strategy Organizational Behavior Open Innovation Small Business Healthcare Management Organization Institutional Theory Startups Intellectual Capital Business Research
Research Experience
Sep 2010 – Sep 2015
Texas Tech University

Texas Tech University
  • Management
  • Lubbock, United States
Position
  • Jerry S. Rawls Professor of Strategic Management
Aug 2006
Texas Tech University

Texas Tech University
  • Jerry S. Rawls College of Business Administration
  • Lubbock, USA
Position
May 2002 – Aug 2006
University of Texas at Arlington

University of Texas at Arlington
  • Department of Management
  • Arlington, United States
Position
  • Assistant Professor of Strategic Management
Education
Aug 1996 – Aug 2001
Texas Tech University

Texas Tech University
Field of study
  • Business Administration – Strategic Management
Current institution
Texas Tech University | TTU

Texas Tech University | TTU
  • Management
  • Lubbock, Texas, United States
Current position
  • Georgie G. Snyder Professor of Strategic Management
Top co-authors

  • Jeremy C. Short
    Jeremy C. Short
    • University of Oklahoma
  • Miles Aaron Zachary
    Miles Aaron Zachary
    • Auburn University
  • Justin L. Davis
    Justin L. Davis
    • University of West Florida
  • Aaron Mckenny
    Aaron Mckenny
    • University of Central Florida
  • John D Blair
    John D Blair
    • Texas Tech University
Network
Followers
  • Norazlina Mohd Yasin
    Norazlina Mohd Yasin
    • Universiti Teknologi Malaysia
  • Inge Hill
    Inge Hill
    • Coventry University
  • Ramón Sanguino
    Ramón Sanguino
    • Universidad de Extremadura
  • Christina Theodoraki
    Christina Theodoraki
    • Toulouse Business School
  • Amitai Etzioni
    Amitai Etzioni
    • George Washington University
Following
  • Gideon Markman
    Gideon Markman
    • Colorado State University
  • Peter Gianiodis
    Peter Gianiodis
    • Duquesne University
  • Dean A. Shepherd
    Dean A. Shepherd
    • University of Notre Dame
  • Clay Dibrell
    Clay Dibrell
    • University of Mississippi
  • Rodrigo Basco
    Rodrigo Basco
    • American University of Sharjah
Cited
  • Mike Wright
    Mike Wright
    • Imperial College London
  • Franz W. Kellermanns
    Franz W. Kellermanns
    • University of North Carolina at Charlotte
  • Pramodita Sharma
    Pramodita Sharma
    • University of Vermont
  • Danny Miller
    Danny Miller
    • HEC Montréal – École des Hautes Études commerciales
  • Jess Chua
    Jess Chua
    • The University of Calgary
Cited By
  • Aaron H Anglin
    Aaron H Anglin
    • Texas Christian University
  • Todd W. Moss
    Todd W. Moss
    • Syracuse University
  • Jennifer C. Sexton
    Jennifer C. Sexton
    • West Virginia University
  • Greg Bell
    Greg Bell
    • University of Dallas
  • Keith Brigham
    Keith Brigham
    • Texas Tech University
Projects
Projects (2)
Special Issue on Market Entry for the Journal of Management Studies.
Project
Special Issue of Family Business Review on "Process and Variance Methods in Family Business Research". To be published in March 2017!
Archived project
Research
Research Item (66)
Multilevel Challenges and Opportunities in Social Capital Research
Article
Full-text available
  • Mar 2011
  • G. Tyge Payne

    G. Tyge Payne

  • Curt B. Moore

    Curt B. Moore

  • Stanley E. Griffis

    Stanley E. Griffis

  • Chad Autry

    Chad Autry

Social capital refers to the resources derived from social relationships. Although the concept of social capital has been applied at the individual, group, and organizational levels of analysis, researchers have yet to fully embrace social capital’s potential as a multilevel lens through which we might better understand management and organizational phenomena. With a central objective of advancing social capital’s potential as a multilevel theoretical perspective, the authors make two contributions to the management literature. First, the authors comprehensively review two decades of management research to highlight how social capital has been empirically applied across levels of analysis. Second, based on the shortcomings and challenges revealed through the literature review, the authors identify and discuss avenues for future multilevel research, including suggestions for both macro and micro researchers.

Research on Organizational Configurations: Past Accomplishments and Future Challenges
Article
  • Dec 2008
  • Jeremy C. Short

    Jeremy C. Short

  • G. Tyge Payne

    G. Tyge Payne

  • David J. Ketchen

    David J. Ketchen

Organizational configurations are sets of firms that are similar in terms of important characteristics. This article is intended to help close three gaps in the literature on organizational configurations. First, the authors propose clear definitions that may facilitate progress in the literature. Second, they provide the first major review since 1993 of accomplishments and struggles within organizational configurations research. Third, they describe how the configurational approach to organizations can make greater contributions within its traditional domains of organization theory and strategic management and can be extended to inform areas such as human resource management, organizational behavior, ethics, entrepreneurship, and international business.

Corporate Board Attributes, Team Effectiveness and Financial Performance
Article
  • Jun 2009
  • G. Tyge Payne

    G. Tyge Payne

  • George S. Benson

    George S. Benson

  • David Finegold

    David Finegold

Researchers have recently begun to integrate the literatures on corporate boards and team effectiveness in an effort to better understand how boards function and impact company performance. This study identifies five attributes of high-performing teams – knowledge, information, power, incentives and opportunity/time – and argues that these attributes will promote board effectiveness, which in turn influence corporate financial performance. These relationships are investigated using combined survey and archival sources of data for 210 "Fortune 1000" companies. Findings indicate that most team effectiveness attributes are associated with higher levels of board effectiveness as rated by the board directors, and that board effectiveness is significantly related to corporate financial performance. Copyright (c) Blackwell Publishing Ltd 2009.

Examining Configurations and Firm Performance in a Suboptimal Equifinality Context
Article
Full-text available
  • Dec 2006
  • G. Tyge Payne

    G. Tyge Payne

Gresov and Drazin's (1997) suggestions regarding the study of equifinality are used to investigate the organizational configurations that exists within a suboptimal equifinality context. A suboptimal equifinality situation exists when organizations must satisfy multiple and conflicting functional demands with a restricted set of design options; these restrictions force all organizations to operate suboptimally. Gresov and Drazin (1997) speculate that in such a situation legitimacy claims are made about one function being more important than the other(s) so that an increased quantity of acceptable organizational forms are established. Additionally, they argue that a misfit penalty is likely to exist for organizations that deviate from the preferred configurational design. With data from the medical group industry, these speculations about suboptimal equifinality situations are tested using multivariate regression analyses. Findings show that the configuration type aligning with the preferred functional demand of quality performs relatively higher than those aligning with operational efficiency or attempting to meet both demands. Additionally, the greater the organization's deviation from that design, the lower the financial performance. In summary, this study demonstrates that it is useful to take a functional equivalence perspective when examining variance in firm performance that is caused by design differences. Such an approach allows a more complete understanding of the fit-performance relationship by explicitly considering three factors: (i) the number of and level of conflict(s) among functional demands placed on the organization, (ii) the structural design options available to the decision maker, and (iii) the trade-offs that exist.

Entry Timing
Article
Full-text available
  • Dec 2014
  • Miles Aaron Zachary

    Miles Aaron Zachary

  • Peter Gianiodis

    Peter Gianiodis

  • G. Tyge Payne

    G. Tyge Payne

  • Gideon Markman

    Gideon Markman

Entry decisions—often critical to firm survival and growth, market evolution, and industry profit-ability—have been the subject of inquiry for decades. In particular, the timing of entry decisions, drawing primarily on the first-mover advantage (FMA) perspective, has emerged as a prominent area of study. While previous research confirms that entry timing is critical, a large number of contingencies create conceptual and methodological complexities that undermine the formation of a rigorous theory of entry timing. In this article, we review and synthesize management and market-ing research on entry timing published in top-tier outlets from 1989 through 2013—the 25-year period that followed the publication of Lieberman and Montgomery's seminal article on FMA. Distilling key lessons from this literature, our review tries to establish a foundational understanding of the conditions, methods, implications, and strategies of entry timing so that research might be reinvigorated in this domain. Our article concludes by offering a conceptual model of entry based on the lessons gleaned from the articles that we reviewed. Keywords: entry timing; first-mover advantage; pioneer; time to entry Acknowledgments: We thank Jeremy Short, the associate editor, and two anonymous reviewers for their insight-ful and developmental feedback. We seek forgiveness from the many scholars whose work we wanted to cite but were unable to as a result of space limitations. Authors contributed equally; they are listed in a reversed order of seniority. Supplemental material for this article is available at http://jom.sagepub.com/supplemental

Top Management Team Characteristics and Organizational Virtue Orientation: An Empirical Examination of IPO Firms
Article
Full-text available
  • Jun 2018
  • Robert E. Evert

    Robert E. Evert

  • G. Tyge Payne

    G. Tyge Payne

  • Curt B. Moore

    Curt B. Moore

  • Michael S. McLeod

    Michael S. McLeod

Despite extensive research on organizational virtue, our understanding about factors that promote virtue within organizations remains unclear. Drawing on upper echelon theory, we examine the relationship between five top management team (TMT) characteristics and organizational virtue orientation (OVO)—the integrated set of values and beliefs that support ethical traits and virtuous behaviors of an organization. Specifically, we utilize prospectuses of initial public offering (IPO) firms and 10-K post-IPO filings to explore how TMT composition with respect to member age, tenure, education, functional background, and gender influences OVO. Additionally, we examine the moderating effects of organizational size, and argue that the more expansive structures and processes associated with larger organizations diminish the main relationships. Our findings, using two sources of data, are consistent, but somewhat mixed in their support for our hypotheses. Overall, TMT characteristics do appear to influence OVO, but in more complex and counterintuitive ways than initially expected.

Reflections on Family Business Research: Considering Domains and Theory
Article
  • Jun 2018
  • G. Tyge Payne

    G. Tyge Payne

Strategic entrepreneurial orientation: Configurations, performance, and the effects of industry and time
Article
  • Apr 2018
  • Aaron Mckenny

    Aaron Mckenny

  • Jeremy C. Short

    Jeremy C. Short

  • David J. Ketchen

    David J. Ketchen

  • […]
  • Todd W. Moss

    Todd W. Moss

Research Summary
Strategic entrepreneurship research has sought to understand how firms’ entrepreneurial behaviors and decision making influence firm performance. This research generally has treated entrepreneurial orientation (EO) as consisting of dimensions that independently influence firm performance. This approach conflicts with conceptual and empirical work suggesting that managers embrace complex knowledge structures. Taking a configurational perspective that accounts for relations among the EO dimensions, we analyze a longitudinal sample of 399 firms in four technology industries to reveal how different EO patterns — identified using fuzzy‐set qualitative comparative analysis — lead to higher or lower firm performance based on industrial, temporal, and measurement‐related factors.

Managerial Summary
A firm's entrepreneurial orientation consists of its relative emphasis on autonomy, competitive aggressiveness, innovativeness, proactiveness, and risk taking. Do companies intentionally emphasize different aspects of entrepreneurship? Our analysis suggests that they do, and that different patterns developed by companies have implications for their performance. Our work suggests managers should develop a profile of entrepreneurial dimensions that fit well in their industry. For instance, firms in growing yet stable industries tend to perform well when they emphasize autonomy and competitive aggressiveness and focus less on innovativeness, proactiveness, and risk taking. In contrast, this approach would not lead to high performance in more hostile industries where innovativeness is essential.

Looking Back and Moving On
Article
  • Mar 2018
  • G. Tyge Payne

    G. Tyge Payne

  • Pramodita Sharma

    Pramodita Sharma

Family Business Research as a Boundary-Spanning Platform
Article
  • Mar 2018
  • Daniel T. Holt

    Daniel T. Holt

  • Allison W. Pearson

    Allison W. Pearson

  • G. Tyge Payne

    G. Tyge Payne

  • Pramodita Sharma

    Pramodita Sharma

Family ownership and family involvement as antecedents of strategic action: A longitudinal study of initial international entry
Article
  • Aug 2017
  • Robert E. Evert

    Robert E. Evert

  • Joshua Sears

    Joshua Sears

  • G. Tyge Payne

    G. Tyge Payne

This study integrates behavioral agency theory with the conditions of willingness and ability to investigate how family ownership and family involvement affect the likelihood of initial international entry, both directly and interactively. A firm's initial international entry-its first expansion into a foreign market-is considered a major, and often risky, strategic action that enables a firm to compete and grow. Among family firms, variance in initial international entry is theoretically explained by the family's willingness and ability to participate. Using survival analysis on data representing 190 different family firms across 10. years, our findings support hypotheses suggesting that family ownership and involvement decrease the likelihood of initial international entry. However, these two forms of family control also act as interactive substitutes in relation to initial international entry likelihood. Our findings provide for a more nuanced understanding of family control heterogeneity in relationship to major strategic actions.

Project – Special Issue of Family Business Review on "Process and Variance Methods in Family Business Research". To be published in March 2017!
G. Tyge Payne
G. Tyge Payne
  • May 2017
  • Special Issue of Family Business Review on…
Update

Project goal
1. To inform researchers about key novel or advanced methods and techniques that may prove particularly useful in their study of family businesses, and
2. To challenge scholars to seek out, develop, and utilized these types of enhanced methodological practices to increase confidence in and relevance of research findings.
Conclusion
The final Special Issue is now available; see the homepage of Family Business Review for details. Thank you for your interest!

Time to recalibrate? Exploring entrepreneurial orientation of family businesses before, during, and after an environmental jolt
Article
  • Jan 2017
  • Jennifer C. Sexton

    Jennifer C. Sexton

  • G. Tyge Payne

    G. Tyge Payne

  • Curt B. Moore

    Curt B. Moore

  • Miles Aaron Zachary

    Miles Aaron Zachary

Entrepreneurial orientation (EO) has become a construct of considerable interest in the family business literature. Despite such attention, scholars have yet to examine if and how EO in family businesses changes over time. This study explores this gap by investigating both continuous and discontinuous changes in EO in a sample of S%P 500 family businesses between 2001 and 2012. We find that EO changes before, during, and after an environmental jolt, which is defined as a major unforeseen and discontinuous environmental change. More specifically, we find that EO gradually increases at a linear rate prior to the occurrence of a jolt, discontinuously decreases during the initial stage of the jolt, then resumes a gradual linear growth trend following this period. We further explore the relationship between time and EO by examining change in EO across different industries, finding significant changes between family firms in different industries.

Time to recalibrate? Exploring entrepreneurial orientation of family businesses before, during, and after an environmental jolt
Article
  • Jan 2017
  • Miles Aaron Zachary

    Miles Aaron Zachary

  • G. Tyge Payne

    G. Tyge Payne

  • Curt B. Moore

    Curt B. Moore

  • Jennifer C. Sexton

    Jennifer C. Sexton

Entrepreneurial orientation (EO) has become a construct of considerable interest in the family business literature. Despite such attention, scholars have yet to examine if and how EO in family businesses changes over time. This study explores this gap by investigating both continuous and discontinuous changes in EO in a sample of S&P 500 family businesses between 2001 and 2012. We find that EO changes before, during, and after an environmental jolt, which is defined as a major unforeseen and discontinuous environmental change. More specifically, we find that EO gradually increases at a linear rate prior to the occurrence of a jolt, discontinuously decreases during the initial stage of the jolt, then resumes a gradual linear growth trend following this period. We further explore the relationship between time and EO by examining change in EO across different industries, finding significant changes between family firms in different industries.

Project – Special Issue of Family Business Review on "Process and Variance Methods in Family Business Research". To be published in March 2017!
G. Tyge Payne
G. Tyge Payne
  • Dec 2016
  • Special Issue of Family Business Review on…
Update

http://fbr.sagepub.com/content/early/recent

Process and Variance Modeling: Linking Research Questions to Methods in Family Business Research
Article
  • Nov 2016
  • G. Tyge Payne

    G. Tyge Payne

  • Allison W. Pearson

    Allison W. Pearson

  • Jon C. Carr

    Jon C. Carr

Models are an important component of research design that serve as intermediaries between theories and data, often directing decisions about methods and statistics. This article discusses the basic differences and assumptions associated with process and variance models as a way of introducing the four articles contained within this special issue of Family Business Review on “Process and Variance Methods.” Specifically, we highlight three key issues regarding modeling—time and causality, measurement and operationalization, and model specification—making specific ties to the challenges often associated with family business research.

Project – Special Issue of Family Business Review on "Process and Variance Methods in Family Business Research". To be published in March 2017!
G. Tyge Payne
G. Tyge Payne
  • Oct 2016
  • Special Issue of Family Business Review on…
Update

We have almost completed the Special Issue Introduction Article on "Process and Variance Modeling". Also, the four papers included in the Special Issue are being finalized at SAGE, the publisher of Family Business Review. Some are already available via online first. Go to: http://fbr.sagepub.com/

Project Complexity and Bonding Social Capital in Network Organizations
Article
  • May 2016
  • Curt B. Moore

    Curt B. Moore

  • G. Tyge Payne

    G. Tyge Payne

  • Chad Autry

    Chad Autry

  • Stanley E. Griffis

    Stanley E. Griffis

This study conceptually and empirically explores how project complexity and bonding forms of social capital influence performance outcomes in network organizations. Specifically, we focus on how bonding social capital within network organizations—measured as frequency of collaboration and degree of network coupling—can influence project performance outcomes both (a) directly by facilitating cooperative interaction and (b) contingently by mitigating the transaction costs associated with the management of complex projects. Using longitudinal data on contracted construction jobs to test our hypotheses, we find that project complexity is negatively related to project performance and bonding social capital has both direct and moderating effects. Contrary to expectations, however, we find that the different types of bonding social capital affect project performance uniquely and not always in an improved direction. Our findings suggest a more multifarious relationship than previous social capital research might imply.

Organizational Virtue and Stakeholder Interdependence: An Empirical Examination of Financial Intermediaries and IPO Firms
Article
Full-text available
  • Feb 2016
  • Michael S. McLeod

    Michael S. McLeod

  • Curt B. Moore

    Curt B. Moore

  • G. Tyge Payne

    G. Tyge Payne

  • […]
  • Robert E. Evert

    Robert E. Evert

Organizational virtue orientation (OVO), an organizational-level construct, refers to the integrated set of beliefs and values that support ethical character traits and virtuous behaviors. To advance the study of organizational virtue, we examine OVO in firms making their initial public offerings (IPOs), with respect to key external stakeholders that serve as financial intermediaries (i.e., venture capital firms and underwriting banks). Drawing on stakeholder and resource dependence theories, we argue that mutual interdependencies occur between financial intermediaries and IPO firms such that venture capital firms’ ownership levels and underwriter reputation are positively associated with the selection of more virtuous IPO firms. We also argue for the moderating relationship of IPO firm age on these main relationships; since IPO firms have more history and information availability, less importance will be placed on OVO in the selection process. In support of our hypotheses, the results of this study suggest the organizational virtue of IPO firms influences the selection decisions of financial intermediaries by reflecting positively on these key stakeholders to improve legitimacy and reputation.

"Corporate Venture Capital, Credible Commitments, and Calculative Trust"
Article
  • Jan 2016
  • Joshua Sears

    Joshua Sears

  • Michael S. McLeod

    Michael S. McLeod

  • Robert E. Evert

    Robert E. Evert

  • G. Tyge Payne

    G. Tyge Payne

Reputation and status inconsistency: An examination of its effects in the IPO market
Article
  • Jan 2016
  • Lei Xu

    Lei Xu

  • G. Tyge Payne

    G. Tyge Payne

  • Qinglian Lu

    Qinglian Lu

  • Jeff Chandler

    Jeff Chandler

Prerecruitment organizational perceptions and recruitment website information processing
Article
  • Aug 2015
  • Amanda S. Hinojosa

    Amanda S. Hinojosa

  • H. Jack Walker

    H. Jack Walker

  • G. Tyge Payne

    G. Tyge Payne

Despite the prevalent use of the Internet for recruitment purposes, little is known about how job seekers process presented information, particularly before organizations have actively recruited these job seekers. In this study, we examine the effects of prerecruitment perceptions of familiar organizations before exposure to information on organizational recruitment websites using a combination of undergraduate students and employees of a large university located in the southwestern USA (N = 75). Participants completed a three-part study that allowed us to investigate how these prerecruitment perceptions impact the reported time spent viewing recruitment websites and the ability to recall website information. We used two hierarchical moderated multiple regression models to test study hypotheses. Our results suggest that job pursuit intentions may influence processing of job and organizational information presented on recruitment websites, and this influence is moderated by subjective fit perceptions. Specifically, we find that participants who indicated high job pursuit intentions and low perceptions of subjective fit were more likely to spend time on a recruitment website and recall presented information one week after viewing it. We discuss the implications of these findings for organizations as they design and implement early recruitment activities.

Empirics in Family Business Research
Article
  • Jul 2015
  • Robert E. Evert

    Robert E. Evert

  • Michael S. McLeod

    Michael S. McLeod

  • G. Tyge Payne

    G. Tyge Payne

Competent research methods and data analysis are essential components for the progression of family business research. To identify and evaluate empirical trends, and make suggestions for future research, we examine 319 empirical articles published in Family Business Review since 1988. These studies are compared with 146 family business research articles published in top-tier journals not dedicated to family business research over the same timeframe. While we substantiate growth in rigor and sophistication, we address specific family business research challenges regarding construct validity, generalizability, causality, temporality, and multilevel issues. Suggestions are provided for future empirical research across six major topical areas.

The Transitional Nature of the Multifamily Business
Article
  • Jul 2015
  • Keith Brigham

    Keith Brigham

  • G. Tyge Payne

    G. Tyge Payne

Family firms are heterogeneous and often transitioning. To advance our understanding of how and why family firms change, we draw upon and extend the work of Pieper, Smith, Kudlats, and Astrachan by more closely considering the nature of the multifamily business, which is the focal type of organization in their study. Specifically, we explore how initial founding conditions and ongoing organizational and environmental factors may influence the formation, sustainability, and dissolution of the multifamily business, relative to single-family firms or other organizational forms. We argue that multifamily forms may be more common than generally believed, but tend to be a transitory organizational form.

It Takes a Village
Article
Full-text available
  • Jun 2015
  • G. Tyge Payne

    G. Tyge Payne

  • R. Duane Ireland

    R. Duane Ireland

This editorial explores key issues regarding ethics in family business research – particularly that surrounding the evaluation and publication process – and advocates creating a stronger and more knowledgeable community of scholars to overcome the many challenges facing responsible research. Rather than only discussing the various types of ethical problems in research such as plagiarism, unprincipled data manipulation, and falsification of data, we expand the conversation to include the role the scholarly community – including researchers, reviewers, editors, and institutional leaders – plays in dealing with ongoing ethical concerns in scholarly publishing. We offer a few pragmatic suggestions for improving some processes, but primarily make a broad call for building a stronger (global) community of family business researchers that supports and promotes ethical conduct in publishing research through increased dialogue and interaction.

2014.12 JOM Entry Timing
Data
File available
  • Apr 2015
  • Miles Aaron Zachary

    Miles Aaron Zachary

  • Peter Gianiodis

    Peter Gianiodis

  • G. Tyge Payne

    G. Tyge Payne

  • Gideon Markman

    Gideon Markman

Organizational Ethics Research: A Systematic Review of Methods and Analytical Techniques
Article
  • Nov 2014
  • Michael S. McLeod

    Michael S. McLeod

  • G. Tyge Payne

    G. Tyge Payne

  • Robert E. Evert

    Robert E. Evert

Ethics are of interest to business scholars because they influence decisions, behaviors, and outcomes. While scholars have increasingly shown interest in business ethics as a research topic, there are a mounting number of studies that examine ethical issues at the organizational level of analysis. This manuscript reports the results of a systematic review of empirical research on organizational ethics published in a broad sample of business journals over a 33-year period (1980–2012). A total of 184 articles are analyzed to reveal gaps in the literature and, subsequently, lead to suggestions for future research; this is done in an effort to stimulate and perpetuate high quality research that more broadly impacts business scholars and practitioners.

A Governance Model of Joint Venture Value Creation
Article
  • Oct 2014
  • G. Tyge Payne

    G. Tyge Payne

  • A. Assaf

    A. Assaf

  • Miles Aaron Zachary

    Miles Aaron Zachary

Despite the global prevalence of joint ventures (JVs), research has yet to specifically explore the uniqueness of JV governance structures and processes and the impact they have on value creation. Addressing this gap in the literature, this study diverges from traditional theories of governance and draws on stakeholder theory to develop a model of JV value creation, which involves: governance factors, collective satisfaction, interaction and exchange, value drivers, and knowledge management systems. The model and associated propositions are developed so as to: 1) better describe the unique governance structures and processes of JVs, 2) develop theory that better explains these processes and the value created by JVs (e.g., physical goods and services, esteem, innovation), 3) demonstrate the importance of collaborative knowledge management systems in these processes, and 4) propel governance research forward by addressing this unique context.

Configurational Approaches to the Study of Social Ventures
Article
Full-text available
  • Aug 2014
  • G. Tyge Payne

    G. Tyge Payne

  • Miles Aaron Zachary

    Miles Aaron Zachary

  • Matt LaFont

    Matt LaFont

PurposeThis chapter acknowledges the difficulties in the empirical study of social ventures – broadly defined as market-driven ventures that produce social change – that arise from the vast differences among social venture firms in terms of missions, goals, identities, strategies, and structures. In an effort to improve research in this area and advance the field of social entrepreneurship, the authors advocate approaching social ventures from a configurational perspective.
Design/methodologyThis chapter begins with a discussion of what social ventures are and why organizational configurations – sets of firms that are similar across key characteristics – may be an appropriate perspective to utilize. Then, two methods – cluster analysis and set-theoretic analysis – are discussed in detail as ways to approach the study of social venture configurations. Details include descriptions of the techniques, instructions for use, examples, and limitations for each.
ImplicationsThis chapter identifies research opportunities using configurations approaches in social venture research. Substantial possibilities for multilevel and temporally based research are discussed in depth.
Originality/valueA configurational approach can address the incongruence and non-findings in current social venture research and offers new opportunities for future research.

Configurational Approaches to the Study of Social Ventures
Chapter
Full-text available
  • Aug 2014
  • Social Entrepreneurship and Research Methods
  • G. Tyge Payne

    G. Tyge Payne

  • Miles Aaron Zachary

    Miles Aaron Zachary

  • Matt LaFont

    Matt LaFont

The Effects of Perceived Control on Venture Capitalist Investment Decisions: A Configurational Perspective
Article
  • Jul 2014
  • Will Drover

    Will Drover

  • Matthew Wood

    Matthew Wood

  • G. Tyge Payne

    G. Tyge Payne

Drawing on agency and configurations theories, this study examines how perceived level of control over the entrepreneur influences venture capitalist (VC) decision making. We model the direct effects of perceived control and the interactive effects of control with entrepreneurial prestige and opportunity attractiveness to determine how various combinations of factors influence VCs’ willingness to invest. We test our conceptualizations using conjoint analyses of 552 VC investment decisions. The results show that perceived control is directly related to investment likelihood, but different configurations of control, entrepreneur prestige, and opportunity attractiveness result in different outcomes. Our findings support a configurational perspective of VC decision making.

Institutional Distance and Cross-Border Venture Capital Investment Flows
Article
  • Jan 2014
  • Curt B. Moore

    Curt B. Moore

  • G. Tyge Payne

    G. Tyge Payne

  • Greg Bell

    Greg Bell

  • Justin L. Davis

    Justin L. Davis

Cross-border investments are an increasingly important part of venture capitalists' portfolios. In order to better understand venture capitalists' international investment decisions, we use dyadic pairings of European countries over a 10-year time span to examine how regulative, normative, and cultural-cognitive institutional differences are related to cross-border venture capital investment flows. Results demonstrate that increased normative and cultural-cognitive distance reduce cross-border investments, whereas regulative distance shows no relationship. Together, these findings suggest that institutional dimensions do influence venture capital investment decisions and that the type of distance can have differing effects.

Signaling Organizational Virtue: an Examination of Virtue Rhetoric, Country-Level Corruption, and Performance of Foreign IPOs from Emerging and Developed Economies
Article
  • Sep 2013
  • G. Tyge Payne

    G. Tyge Payne

  • Curt B. Moore

    Curt B. Moore

  • Greg Bell

    Greg Bell

  • Miles Aaron Zachary

    Miles Aaron Zachary

Extending signaling theory by discussing rhetoric in terms of cost and observability, we examine the relationship between organizational virtue rhetoric in prospectuses and the performance of foreign IPOs from 35 different countries. We also explore how the nature of this relationship is contingent upon the level of perceived corruption for each IPO firm's home country, a pervasive and costly problem for emerging economy countries due to its impact on economic growth and national governance. Our results indicate that signaling organizational virtue in prospectuses leads to higher levels of foreign IPO performance, which is positively moderated by perceived home country corruption. Copyright © 2013 Strategic Management Society.

Employing New Business Divisions to Exploit Disruptive Innovations: The Interplay between Characteristics of the Corporation and Those of the Venture Management Team
Article
  • Sep 2013
  • Dilene Crockett

    Dilene Crockett

  • Jeffrey E. McGee

    Jeffrey E. McGee

  • G. Tyge Payne

    G. Tyge Payne

Established firms often create new business divisions in response to new ways of competing, such as those based on disruptive innovations. Using a sample of daily newspapers and their Internet divisions, this study examines the corporate characteristics of orientation, attention, and control and venture management team characteristics of vision, experience, and collective efficacy and their interactive effects on the overall performance of the new division. Findings demonstrate that vision and collective efficacy are related to venture outcomes, orientation affects the experience and vision to venture performance relationships, attention enhances the vision and collective efficacy to performance relationships, and decision autonomy influences the experience and collective efficacy to venture performance relationships. Overall, the results of this study imply that specific venture management team characteristics and corporate characteristics may be tailored to improve chances of meeting specific performance targets and achieving overall venture success.

Social Capital and Entrepreneurship: A Schema and Research Agenda
Article
  • May 2013
  • Eric Gedajlovic

    Eric Gedajlovic

  • Benson Honig

    Benson Honig

  • Curt B. Moore

    Curt B. Moore

  • […]
  • Mike Wright

    Mike Wright

This introduction to the special issue considers past and current research on “Social Capital and Entrepreneurship” to develop a schema and an associated research agenda. With the general goal of establishing social capital as a foundational theory of entrepreneurship, we discuss how future research can utilize social capital perspectives across levels of analysis and contexts to explain a wide variety of entrepreneurship phenomena.

Strategic Consistency of Exploration and Exploitation in Family Businesses
Article
Full-text available
  • Feb 2013
  • Todd W. Moss

    Todd W. Moss

  • G. Tyge Payne

    G. Tyge Payne

  • Curt B. Moore

    Curt B. Moore

This study advances family business research by examining how the strategic consistency with which family businesses pursue exploration and exploitation initiatives affects performance. Using panel data of 94 family businesses operating in four high-tech industries over 12 years, we find that higher strategic consistency—continuity with past exploration and exploitation strategies stemming from managerial intentionality—yields higher levels of performance. This relationship is also moderated by environmental dynamism, munificence, and organizational size, which demonstrates the contingent and complex nature of the main relationship. Furthermore, in contrast to 113 nonfamily businesses, we find that the main relationship is stronger for family businesses.

Researching Long-Term Orientation
Article
Full-text available
  • Feb 2013
  • Keith Brigham

    Keith Brigham

  • G.T. Lumpkin

    G.T. Lumpkin

  • G. Tyge Payne

    G. Tyge Payne

  • Miles Aaron Zachary

    Miles Aaron Zachary

Assumptions about the long-term orientation (LTO) of family firms are common in family business research. Drawing on prior conceptualizations, this article further develops and validates the LTO construct using content analysis techniques on two separate samples of data. Validation comes through empirical analysis of content validity, external validity, dimensionality, and concurrent validity. We find that family firms are higher than nonfamily firms on all three dimensions of LTO. We also discuss how future research can use this now-validated construct to address key questions in family business research, as well as inform the broader business literature.

Using Computer-Aided Text Analysis to Elevate Constructs An Illustration Using Psychological Capital
Article
Full-text available
  • Jan 2013
  • Aaron Mckenny

    Aaron Mckenny

  • Jeremy C. Short

    Jeremy C. Short

  • G. Tyge Payne

    G. Tyge Payne

Applying individual-level constructs to higher levels of analysis can be a fruitful practice in organizational research. Although this practice is beneficial in developing and testing theory, there are measurement and validation concerns that, if improperly addressed, may threaten the validity and utility of the research. This article illustrates how computer-aided text analysis might be utilized to facilitate construct elevation while ensuring proper validation. Specifically, we apply a framework to develop organizational-level operationalizations of individual-level constructs using the psychological capital construct as an example.

Multilevel analysis in family business studies
Article
  • Jan 2013
  • Aaron Mckenny

    Aaron Mckenny

  • G. Tyge Payne

    G. Tyge Payne

  • Miles Aaron Zachary

    Miles Aaron Zachary

  • Jeremy C. Short

    Jeremy C. Short

Applying individual-level constructs to higher levels of analysis can be a fruitful practice in organizational research. Although this practice is beneficial in developing and testing theory, there are measurement and validation concerns that, if improperly addressed, may threaten the validity and utility of the research. This article illustrates how computer-aided text analysis might be utilized to facilitate construct elevation while ensuring proper validation. Specifically, we apply a framework to develop organizational-level operationalizations of individual-level constructs using the psychological capital construct as an example.

Assessing Espoused Goals in Private Family Firms Using Content Analysis
Article
  • Sep 2012
  • Aaron Mckenny

    Aaron Mckenny

  • Jeremy C. Short

    Jeremy C. Short

  • Miles Aaron Zachary

    Miles Aaron Zachary

  • G. Tyge Payne

    G. Tyge Payne

Understanding how private family firms gauge performance is of great interest to family business scholars. Unfortunately, finding comparable data to understand differences in the performance of such firms is challenging. This study draws from the organizational identity literature to show how private family firms communicate different goals in publicly available organizational narratives. The authors illustrate a process using content analysis that allows family business scholars to create a comparative data set that captures both normative and utilitarian goals using website and press release narratives from a sample of Australian firms.

The challenge for researchers
Chapter
  • Jan 2012
  • Handbook of Research Methods on Social Entrepreneurship
  • Aaron Mckenny

    Aaron Mckenny

  • Jeremy C. Short

    Jeremy C. Short

  • G. Tyge Payne

    G. Tyge Payne

Using an informing strategy to manage moral legitimacy in healthcare organisations
Article
Full-text available
  • Jan 2012
  • G. Tyge Payne

    G. Tyge Payne

  • James J. Hoffman

    James J. Hoffman

Healthcare organisations operating within highly institutionalised environments are exposed to very intense isomorphic pressures. These institutional pressures help determine organisational success and survival through the recognition and distribution of legitimacy, which is generally gained through conformity. Moral legitimacy, defined as the ethical judgments made about an organisation's activities, is of particular importance in the healthcare field. Following previous literature that argues that compliance may be an explicit strategic response to institutional processes, this paper develops and discusses a new related strategy for managing organisational moral legitimacy; it is labelled informing. Informing is used to signal allegiance to the institution and enhance organisational moral legitimacy. Building on institutional theory research, we develop key propositional statements regarding the informing strategy and its relationship to moral legitimacy, which is inherently important to all types of healthcare organisations and warrants further study. The informing strategy is then exemplified through several specific tactics that differ in their influence on the moral legitimacy along with other types of organisational legitimacy, although we demonstrate that its main utility lies in its ability to impact moral legitimacy.

Family Business and Market Orientation
Article
Full-text available
  • Aug 2011
  • Miles Aaron Zachary

    Miles Aaron Zachary

  • Aaron Mckenny

    Aaron Mckenny

  • Jeremy C. Short

    Jeremy C. Short

  • G. Tyge Payne

    G. Tyge Payne

Market orientation refers to the collection, dissemination, and utilization of market information that promotes a sustainable competitive advantage. Despite the contribution of the market orientation construct to both the strategic management and marketing literatures, little attention has been devoted to exploring how market orientation relates to family businesses and how these relationships might differ from nonfamily businesses. To address this gap and stimulate further research in this area of inquiry, this study develops and validates a market orientation measure using content analysis of CEO letters from the S&P 500 and tests for differences between family businesses and nonfamily businesses.

Dual Identities in Social Ventures: An Exploratory Study
Article
  • Jul 2011
  • Todd W. Moss

    Todd W. Moss

  • Jeremy C. Short

    Jeremy C. Short

  • G. Tyge Payne

    G. Tyge Payne

  • G.T. Lumpkin

    G.T. Lumpkin

Drawing on the organizational identity literature, this exploratory study examines the dual identities of award-winning social ventures recognized by FastCompany magazine and the Skoll Foundation. Specifically, we use computer-assisted content analysis to explore identities as reflected in organizational mission statements. Our findings demonstrate that these externally recognized social ventures do exhibit dual identities—a utilitarian organizational identity (i.e., entrepreneurial, product oriented) and a normative organizational identity (i.e., social, people oriented). Further, when compared with the mission statements of other high-performing entrepreneurial enterprises culled from the Inc. 500, our post hoc analysis suggests that social ventures manifest a greater normative identity and an equivalent utilitarian identity.

Organizational Virtue Orientationand Family Firms
Article
Full-text available
  • Apr 2011
  • G. Tyge Payne

    G. Tyge Payne

  • Keith Brigham

    Keith Brigham

  • J. Christian Broberg

    J. Christian Broberg

  • […]
  • Jeremy C. Short

    Jeremy C. Short

This manuscript develops the concept of organizational virtue orientation (OVO) and examines differences between family and non-family firms on the six organizational virtue dimensions of Integrity, Empathy, Warmth, Courage, Conscientiousness, and Zeal. Using content analysis of shareholder letters from S&P 500 companies, our analyses find that there are significant differences between family and non-family firms in their espoused OVO, with family firms generally being higher. Specifically, family firms were significantly higher on the dimensions of Empathy, Warmth, and Zeal, but lower on Courage. Based on these findings we further develop the OVO concept through the discussion of implications and areas for future research.

Stale in the pulpit? Leader tenure and the relationship between market growth strategy and church performance
Article
  • Nov 2010
  • Justin L. Davis

    Justin L. Davis

  • Greg Bell

    Greg Bell

  • G. Tyge Payne

    G. Tyge Payne

Taking a strategic choice perspective, the current study examines leader tenure and the growth implications of pursuing a market penetration versus market development strategy in a church setting. Using cross-sectional time series regression analyses of 1415 church organizations over a period of 6 years, study findings demonstrate the influence of leader tenure on both financial and non-financial church performance, but provide minimal evidence supporting the argument that the selected market strategy matters to organizational performance outcomes in churches. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Entrepreneurial Orientation and Firm Performance: The Moderating Role of Managerial Power
Article
Full-text available
  • Oct 2010
  • Justin L. Davis

    Justin L. Davis

  • Greg Bell

    Greg Bell

  • G. Tyge Payne

    G. Tyge Payne

  • Patrick M. Kreiser

    Patrick M. Kreiser

Organizational researchers have long recognized the important role that top managers play within entrepreneurial firms (Ireland, Hitt and Sirmon 2003). Utilizing Covin and Slevin’s (1989) conceptual framework, the current study explores three key entrepreneurial characteristics of top managers and the impact these characteristics have on firm performance. Specifically, we argue that top managers with a high tolerance of risk, those who favor innovative activities and those who display a high degree of proactiveness will positively impact firm performance. In addition, this study examines the influence of top managers’ prestige, structural and expert power on the relationship between entrepreneurial orientation and firm performance. We conclude the study with a discussion of theoretical and practical implications of our findings and suggestions for future research in this area of study.

Competitive Dynamics among Service SME's
Article
  • Oct 2009
  • G. Tyge Payne

    G. Tyge Payne

  • Kevin H. Kennedy

    Kevin H. Kennedy

  • Justin L. Davis

    Justin L. Davis

In an effort to further our understanding of competitive dynamics, the three constructs of firm specialization, environmental munificence, and rivalry intensity are examined in relation to financial performance in service-intensive Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises (SMEs). Using a sample of physician organizations, direct and interaction relationships are empirically examined using multivariate regression analyses. Findings confirm a three-way interaction that exists among these factors in relationship to overall performance; this supports a more complex, configurations approach to competitive dynamics research, particularly among service-intensive SMEs.

The Deal Structuring Stage of the Venture Capitalist Decision‐Making Process: Exploring Confidence and Control*
Article
  • Apr 2009
  • G. Tyge Payne

    G. Tyge Payne

  • Justin L. Davis

    Justin L. Davis

  • Curt B. Moore

    Curt B. Moore

  • Greg Bell

    Greg Bell

This exploratory study examines the deal structuring stage of the venture capitalist decision-making process. Here, the primary issues of concern are investor confidence and potential control of a venture in relation to the level of financing the investor provides and the structure with which the funding is delivered. Confidence comes in support of the entrepreneur, the venture itself, or a combination of the two, prior to capital transfer, but after the initial “invest or not invest” decision has already occurred. Findings support a multicriteria perspective of the pre-investment decision-making process and a distinct difference between entrepreneur confidence and venture confidence in the deal structuring stage.

Family Firms and Entrepreneurial Orientation in Publicly Traded FirmsA Comparative Analysis of the S&P 500
Article
Full-text available
  • Mar 2009
  • Jeremy C. Short

    Jeremy C. Short

  • G. Tyge Payne

    G. Tyge Payne

  • Keith Brigham

    Keith Brigham

  • […]
  • J. Christian Broberg

    J. Christian Broberg

There is considerable disagreement about whether family firm characteristics hinder or support entrepreneurial activities. This article highlights the existence of an entrepreneurial orientation in family firms, and it examines differences between family and nonfamily firms on the entrepreneurial orientation dimensions of autonomy, competitive aggressiveness, innovativeness, proactiveness, and risk taking, using content analysis of shareholder letters from S&P 500 firms. As such, family firms exhibit language consistent with an entrepreneurial orientation for all dimensions but use less language than that of nonfamily firms in relation to autonomy, proactiveness, and risk taking.

An Entrainment-Based Model of Temporal Organizational Fit, Misfit, and Performance
Article
Full-text available
  • Oct 2008
  • Liliana Pérez-Nordtvedt

    Liliana Pérez-Nordtvedt

  • G. Tyge Payne

    G. Tyge Payne

  • Jeremy C. Short

    Jeremy C. Short

  • Ben L. Kedia

    Ben L. Kedia

Entrainment refers to the synchronization of the tempo and/or phase of two or more activities within a system. This article utilizes entrainment theory to develop a conceptual model and related propositions describing and explaining the relationship between temporal fit, misfit, and performance at the organizational level of analysis. Essential to the development of our model is the concept of organization-environment (O-E) temporal fit, which is a state of synchronization or alignment of organization and environment activity cycles. O-E temporal fit is positioned as an important contingency element because temporal misfit implies inefficiencies, substandard performance, and the potential death of the organization over time. Overall, this article offers a theoretical perspective that fills a gap in the extant organizational research literature regarding the elusive and understudied perspective of time and posits its relationship to organizational performance.

The Impact of Economic Integration on Cross‐Border Venture Capital Investments: Evidence From the European Union
Article
  • Sep 2008
  • Hadi S. Alhorr

    Hadi S. Alhorr

  • Curt B. Moore

    Curt B. Moore

  • G. Tyge Payne

    G. Tyge Payne

Despite major policies surrounding economic integration among countries (e.g., the European Union [EU], North Atlantic Free Trade Area, and Mercosur), the theoretical and empirical research addressing the impact of such policies on various countries' entrepreneurial activities has yet to fully emerge. To address this issue, this paper draws on institutional, economic, and entrepreneurship literatures to examine if two specific economic integration mechanisms, namely market and currency commonality, increase cross-border venture capital flows made by participating nations in the EU. Findings suggest that broad scale economic integration policies do influence the extent of foreign venture capital investments made into other member countries.

First Movers and Performance: Timing Is Everything
Article
  • Jan 2008
  • Jeremy C. Short

    Jeremy C. Short

  • G. Tyge Payne

    G. Tyge Payne

In this article the author examines business concepts advanced in the article "The Role of Environmental Dynamics in Building a First Mover Advantage Theory." Noted is the efficacy of the contention that first mover advantage applies to individual types of products and certain industries and that this quality is associated with market share measured against that of the competition. The author of the article examines the importance of lead time on the successful launch of a new product. Also discussed is the business strategy associated with first mover advantage and the cyclical timing associated with the marketing concept.

Exploitation of Entrepreneurial Opportunities in the Corporation: An Exploration of Functional-Level Support, Decision Autonomy, and Performance
Article
Full-text available
  • Sep 2007
  • Dilene Crockett

    Dilene Crockett

  • G. Tyge Payne

    G. Tyge Payne

  • Jeffrey E. McGee

    Jeffrey E. McGee

This chapter examines the role that resource support and decision autonomy play in the successful launch of corporate entrepreneurial initiatives. Specifically, this study assesses whether entrepreneurial initiatives receiving higher levels of support from top management and more resource contributions in key functional areas actually have higher levels of performance. Additionally, this study investigates whether or not the entrepreneurial initiatives that receive greater decision autonomy in the same critical functional areas will experience higher levels of performance. Hypotheses arguing these points are tested using data obtained from the Internet divisions of major metropolitan newspapers. This allows for the discovery and evaluation of an opportunity (i.e., the Internet) to be held constant, so that a better understanding of the exploitation stage of the entrepreneurial process might be obtained. Results suggest the importance of resource support and decision autonomy to initiative performance, but with more importance being placed on the marketing functional group for resource support and the accounting and legal functional areas for decision autonomy.

The Past, Present, and Future of Entrepreneurship Research: Data Analytic Trends and Training1
Article
  • Jul 2007
  • Michelle A. Dean

    Michelle A. Dean

  • Christopher L. Shook

    Christopher L. Shook

  • G. Tyge Payne

    G. Tyge Payne

Competent data analysis is essential to entrepreneurship research and to the discipline's progression. A three-study design was used to evaluate quantitative analytic trends and the adequacy of entrepreneurship doctoral training. First, trends were identified by assessing hypothesis-testing techniques in Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice and the Journal of Business Venturing. Second, top entrepreneurship scholars were surveyed regarding the importance of various quantitative analytical techniques to future research and their expectations regarding doctoral training. Third, newly minted entrepreneurship PhDs were queried regarding their perceived competence with these same techniques. These studies provide a past, present, and future perspective on data analysis techniques and competencies in entrepreneurship.

Chapter 1 Perspectives on Strategic Thinking and Entrepreneurial Action in the Health Care Industry
Article
  • Feb 2007
  • John D Blair

    John D Blair

  • Myron D. Fottler

    Myron D. Fottler

  • Eric W. Ford

    Eric W. Ford

  • G. Tyge Payne

    G. Tyge Payne

Article: Strategy and entrepreneurship have long been seen as separate realities to many scholars. In near-caricature form, the first has been seen as focused on large firms using explicit strategic planning methods supported by increasingly sophisticated information technology; and the second appeared primarily to reflect the actions of a determined, energetic, and intuitive founding entrepreneur or small entrepreneurial action team. Fortunately, many leading scholars in the two corresponding fields of study have recognized that these realities are indeed overlapping and should be approached by researchers as such, whenever possible. We decided to use the concepts of "strategic thinking," rather than strategic planning, together with "entrepreneurial action" rather than focus on the "entrepreneur" or restrict our perspectives to a particular type of firm, such as new ventures. By focusing on the thinking and acting processes, we conceptually wanted to incorporate both deliberate as well as emergent or improvised strategy and entrepreneurial seizing of opportunity.

A Few Bad Apples? Scandalous Behavior of Mutual Fund Managers
Article
  • Feb 2007
  • Justin L. Davis

    Justin L. Davis

  • G. Tyge Payne

    G. Tyge Payne

  • Gary C. McMahan

    Gary C. McMahan

Recent scandals in the business world have intensified the demand for an explanation of the causes of corporate wrongdoing.
This study empirically tests the effects of mutual fund management fees and control structures on the likelihood of illegal
activity within mutual fund organizations. Specific attention is given to the presence of agency duality issues in the mutual
fund industry and how this influences the motivations and decisions of fund managers. Findings provide support for the hypothesized
relationship that higher levels of management fees decrease the likelihood of illegal behavior. Additionally, control of the
mutual fund by external management is found to have a negative impact on the likelihood of illegal activity while also acting
as a moderator of the management fee-illegal behavior relationship.

An examination of cognition and affect in strategic decision-making
Article
Full-text available
  • Nov 2006
  • Kong-Hee Kim

    Kong-Hee Kim

  • G. Tyge Payne

    G. Tyge Payne

Purpose – The purpose of this article is to better understand the nature of the decision maker's cognitive-affective information processing behavior in the context of strategic decision making. Design/methodology/approach – Reviews of the psychological science, organizational behavior, and strategic management literatures serve as a foundation for the development of a model and a series of research propositions. Propositions and model development lead to a discussion regarding limitations of the current literature, as well as areas for future research that incorporates cognitive-affective information processing issues in organizational research. Findings – Organizational homogeneous and heterogeneous behaviors in the organizational adaptation process depend on a strategic decision maker's cognitive-affective informational interpretation of both internal and external environmental stimuli. Research limitations/implications – The focus of this article is limited to the individual level of analysis. Further theoretical and empirical research should investigate how the framework could be applied at the team and organizational levels and how it holds under various industrial and/or environmental conditions. Practical implications – This article informs practicing managers of how their decision-making behavior is influenced by both cognition and affect when they scan and process their strategic informational environment and, furthermore, how these influence their choice of organizational forms and practices. Originality/value – Extends theoretical understanding of cognitive-affective informational processing and its influence on the organizational homogeneous-heterogeneous adaptation process.

Chapter 4 Fit as Moderation and Matching: A Test of Strategy and Structure Congruence in Relationship to Performance
Article
  • Jan 2006
  • Justin L. Davis

    Justin L. Davis

  • G. Tyge Payne

    G. Tyge Payne

  • John D Blair

    John D Blair

Many researchers and executives have viewed fit as a key to organizational survival and high performance (Summer et al., 1990). However, the type of fit and how it can be best achieved may often be in question (Venkataraman, 1989). The current study empirically examines both external and internal fit as predictors of firm performance where: (1) external fit is the alignment of, or congruence between, the organization's strategy and/or structure and the task environment, and (2) internal fit is the multidimensional matching of strategy with structure. The argument presented here is that both internal and external fit can, and do, occur simultaneously. Further, the presence of one type of fit may compensate for deficiencies in the other. Using fit in terms of both matching and moderation, hypotheses are tested to determine the nature of both internal and external fit of strategy and structure. Testing of the hypotheses is conducted using data from the medical group industry. Findings support the influence of individual strategy and structure variables on medical group performance. However, fit found between strategy and structure, be it as matching or moderation, shows little influence on performance. Implications for medical groups and the broader health care industry are discussed.

The "what" in top management group conflict: The effects of organizational issue interpretation on conflict among hospital decision makers
Article
  • Jun 2005
  • C.L. Shook

    C.L. Shook

  • G. Tyge Payne

    G. Tyge Payne

  • Kathleen E. Voges

    Kathleen E. Voges

Organization issues are thought to invoke different decision-making behaviors that affect the ultimate outcome of the decision. Extant research on the antecedents of conflict has focused on the demographics of the decision-making group. In contrast, this study starts with the organizational issue and examines the relationship between the interpretation of the issue and the type of conflict experienced during resolution of the issue. This relationship is important because managing conflict has been shown to be a key aspect of successful decision making within top management groups. Research findings indicate that managers should encourage cognitive conflict, which is functional, and discourage affective conflict, which is personality-based and dysfunctional. In our study of 52 hospital top management groups in three southwestern states, we found that organizational issue interpretation does impact the amount of affective and cognitive conflict experienced. Specifically, political issues are associated with both types of conflict. Additionally, we find that when the issue is interpreted as more positive, the relationship between political interpretation and cognitive conflict is diminished.

Intellectual capital and performance of new venture high-tech firms
Article
Full-text available
  • Sep 2004
  • Norma Juma

    Norma Juma

  • G. Tyge Payne

    G. Tyge Payne

Intellectual capital (IC) has been proposed as an essential factor for organizational survival
and maintenance of competitive strength. However, there has been very limited consensus
on what encompasses IC and how it can best be conceptualized and measured. Further,
very little empirical work has specifically examined the relationship between IC and financial
performance. Given these shortcomings, this paper focuses first on the impact IC has on
performance and secondly on the role strategic alliances may have on this relationship. ..

From stakeholder management strategies to stakeholder management styles: Serendipitous research on organizational configurations
Article
  • Oct 2002
  • John D Blair

    John D Blair

  • Starr A. Blair

    Starr A. Blair

  • Myron D. Fottler

    Myron D. Fottler

  • […]
  • Grant T Savage

    Grant T Savage

How health care managers make sense of stakeholders and act strategically within these inter-organizational relationships has significant impact on organizational survival and performance. Existing research on stakeholder management has focused on managing dyadic relationships with individual stakeholders. We propose, based on serendipitous findings from a prior research study, that organizations exhibit distinct configurations — stakeholder management styles — in the ways in which they manage their kwy stakeholders. To explicate this notion, we review potential theoretical configurations of stakeholder management styles, including a well-known stakeholder typology, which focuses on the concepts of threat and cooperation. Based on this review, we develop a typology that shifts the focus from individual stakeholders to a focus on the organizations and their orientation toward managing a portfolio of stakeholders. We use secondary data analyses of a national sample of 686 medical group executives to conduct an exploratory study of how and whether stakeholder management styles are likely to impact multiple indicators of organizational performance. We conclude with propositions for future research, as well as implications for managerial practice.

Matching Industries between Target and Acquirer in High-Tech Mergers and Acquisitions
Article
  • Jun 2002
  • Kevin H. Kennedy

    Kevin H. Kennedy

  • G. Tyge Payne

    G. Tyge Payne

  • Carlton J. Whitehead

    Carlton J. Whitehead

Mergers and acquisitions (M&As) have been regarded as a highly viable option for fostering innovation, gaining new products or services, and gaining access to new markets in high technology firms. This study analyzes several alternative variables that impact M&A choices by analyzing their relationship to the industry of both the acquirer and target. Results support two hypotheses implying that (1) M&A transactions with the same acquirer and target industry are more likely to be acquisitions that delivers a greater final share of the target organization to the acquirer, and (2) acquirers are more likely to invest greater dollar amounts in targets that have the same primary industry.

An integrated doctoral educational model for developing researchers in health care strategic management
Article
  • Feb 2001
  • G. Tyge Payne

    G. Tyge Payne

  • Timothy W. Nix

    Timothy W. Nix

  • J Hoffman

    J Hoffman

  • John D Blair

    John D Blair

Doctoral education varies according to how students that graduate from a particular program are prepared for various type of careers. PhD programs principally work to develop researchers; researchers produce and disseminate new knowledge in a given area of expertise. This manuscript looks specifically at a PhD program designed to produce researchers in healthcare strategic management. This program is based in a business school and builds on general business principles to produce strategists that do research in the healthcare context. The business school program (type B) will be analyzed according to the areas (or potential areas) of research done by its graduates. The different areas are shown in a table where one axis is research content (i.e., specifically what the functional area of research is) and the other axis is publication outlet (i.e., what journal the research is disseminated in). Advantages of the type B program are compared to advantages of a PhD program based in a healthcare administration or healthcare management school (type H program) in terms of publications in these different areas.

The role of paradox in integrated strategy and structure configurations: Exploring integrated delivery in health care
Article
  • Dec 2000
  • G. Tyge Payne

    G. Tyge Payne

  • John D Blair

    John D Blair

  • Myron D. Fottler

    Myron D. Fottler

The Paradox Prescription: Leading the Medical Group of the Future
Article
  • Feb 2000
  • John D Blair

    John D Blair

  • G. Tyge Payne

    G. Tyge Payne

Leaders of health care organizations must constantly deal with paradox in and around their organizations. The paradox profile is a modeling technique for examining how organizations prioritize their dealings with the eight competing issues from which the four paradoxes are derived. This article demonstrates the leadership challenges that exist when a paradox is present and how these tensions differ when the integrative status of the medical group–as either part of an integrated system or not–is considered.

NATIONAL POLITICAL INSTITUTIONS AND RESOURCE ENVIRONMENTS AS DETERMINANTS OF NATIONAL ENTREPRENEURIAL ACTIVITY (INTERACTIVE PAPER)
Article
  • J. Christian Broberg

    J. Christian Broberg

  • W. J. Conover

    W. J. Conover

  • G. Tyge Payne

    G. Tyge Payne

  • Jeremy C. Short

    Jeremy C. Short

Although there are a growing number of studies examining entrepreneurial activity within individual countries (Wang, 2006) or regions (Armington & Acs, 2002), there remains a dearth of cross-country comparative empirical work examining the extent to which country level factors actually influence within-country entrepreneurial activity and/or what specific country level factors support entrepreneurial activity advantages over time (van Stel, Storey & Thurik, 2007). Some argue that one critical “structural characteristic” at the national level of analysis is political institutional structures that guide and constrain entrepreneurial behavior within a country (Aldrich, 1999; Spencer, Murtha, and Lenway, 2005), while others suggest that the within country resources available to startups predict formation rates (Bartholomew, 1997; Ho & Wong, 2007; Shane, 2004). Our study advances entrepreneurship research through empirically examining both political institutional structures and resource environments, and how they may influence country-level entrepreneurial activity.
ENTREPRENEURIAL STRATEGIES FOR THE GLOBAL MOTION PICTURE INDUSTRY AND THE INTERPLAY OF COMMERCE AND ART (SUMMARY)
Article
  • Kevin H. Kennedy

    Kevin H. Kennedy

  • G. Tyge Payne

    G. Tyge Payne

  • Rebecca Rust

    Rebecca Rust

This project addresses the conflict and positive interplay between the pursuit of commercial objectives by an entrepreneur and the simultaneous creation of a medium or embodiment of art. The United States and France will be the two primary business environments studied. These two nations represent the two leading countries exporting film based on dollar revenues in 2001.
Cultural industries, such as the global film industry, showcase the complexity of an increasingly global and social world that relies on discovering and communicating regional and national culture, art, and talent. This project examines strategies utilized by entrepreneurs to address the dynamic tensions between emerging and local creative actors and the socially constructed global standards.
Cultural industries are distinct from other industries in their interdisciplinary nature and their inclusion of societal concerns. Cultural production occurs at the intersection of several disciples: communication, economics, and sociology (Miège, 1989) where several different types of capital are crucial: economic capital, academic capital, linguistic capital, symbolic capital, and cultural capital (Bourdieu, 1993). Because of this dynamic nature, it is relatively difficult for entrepreneurs to predict what products or ideas will have the best chances for success in different cultural industries.
Another significant particularity of the film industry is that the majority of costs are sunk costs, with the cost of producing an additional copy of a film being minimal (Moran, 1996). Cultural intermediaries, or gatekeepers, serve as liaisons between producers and consumers, determining which cultural goods will be chosen for the marketplace and firms with distribution channels in place will be at a competitive advantage (Hirsch, 1972). Determinations concerning the quality of artistic goods occur mainly on two levels: by consumers in the marketplace and by industry specialists (Ginsburgh & Weyers, 1999). Entrepreneurs must be aware of who the gatekeepers are that they must interface with.
This empirical piece will be based on data gathered through onsite interviews with entrepreneurs working for firms and organizations relating to the entertainment industry in Los Angeles and Paris. Los Angeles and Paris were selected as the primary research environments because they represent the centers of cultural production (Scott, 1997, 2000) for the United States and France, respectively.
STRATEGY AND STRUCTURE CONFIGURATIONS: AN EXAMINATION OF FIT AND PERFORMANCE
Article
Full-text available
  • G. Tyge Payne

    G. Tyge Payne

  • B S Pharm

    B S Pharm

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            Texas Tech University


            Lubbock, TX

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            • Weaver, Justin
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            How This School Stacks Up

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            501 School Ratings
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            08/30/2018
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            08/28/2018
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            I love tech

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            07/21/2018
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            Absolutely love Texas Tech.

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            07/18/2018
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            Tech is a good school overall, it has it’s pros and cons like every other college. Sure Lubbock isn’t the most exciting town on paper, but once you move out here it’s not bad at all. People are great, campus is nice, atmosphere is something else!

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            06/05/2018
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            Lubbock itself is boring and there isn’t really anything to do unless you’re a social butterfly. Overall great education from Tech. Great professors once you get into classes pertaining to your career goal. Terrible financial aid department. Other than that, overall great environment.

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            WreckEm, best school in Texas. – Traditions & friendlies town in America

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            05/18/2018
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            Honestly a great education at a great price!

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            Great School, its my second year here and I’m loving it more and more with every passing day

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            05/10/2018
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            I know LBK is a small town & in the middle of no where but dont let that stop you. It makes up for it with the people & the fact that youre forced to make friends for that reason. I was scared to come here but I LOVE IT. The dorms suck but once you leave the dorms, youll be fine. Its worth it to stay & soon it becomes a new home. I love Tech!!!

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            05/08/2018
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            The campus is beautiful, but its enormous not really enough time between classes and in another sense i just feel like a number. However, I have been afforded every opportunity to succeed and I am grateful. If I didn’t have to take PE classes as a biochemistry major that would have been nice, but no regrets. Lubbock sucks, the people don’t.

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            05/05/2018
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            Love this campus. Lubbock is an acquired taste if you’re from the big city, but I’m about to graduate and will miss this place dearly.

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            04/25/2018
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            I love it here, everyone is so nice and helpful. The campus is beautiful during the spring and summer time. My only complaint would be that the pigeons are invasive and do their business everywhere.

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            04/03/2018
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            I attended Texas Tech from 2013 – 2016. I had a fantastic time. I never felt like there were any shortcomings in attending here. There is a vast abundance of resources available. The program I went through was also competitive, and now that I’m in graduate school I find it compares well to other well regarded programs in the U.S.

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            04/03/2018
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            Greatest school ever! I was a transfer from TAMU-CC in Fall ’12. Even though Lubbock is in the middle of no where, everything else about the city/school overshadows it. From the professors, to the rec, to the football games this school is one of the best in Texas and most likely the SW of the USA. Highly recommend.

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            03/28/2018
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            This campus is beautiful and Lubbock is not a bad place to live during college but the closest place to go for fun is either Amarillo for shopping or Palo Duro Canyon for hiking. Choose wisely because Lubbock is in the middle of no where.

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            03/04/2018
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            I love it here!

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            02/27/2018
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            Safety

            Texas Tech has been home for two years now, and I’m dreading the moment I’ll have to leave. Joining an organization is how you’ll make friends because of the size of the campus. I have never felt unsafe and during moments of trouble; the university handles emergency with ease. Also, you get used to the 6 hour drive, trust me.

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            02/27/2018
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            I transferred to this university for academic scholarship opportunities. Hated my first year here but have come to love tech for what it is.

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            02/21/2018
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            texas tech

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            02/20/2018
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            Texas Tech is a wonderful university. I wouldn’t trade my experience for the world! Although it is hard to make friends if you are not involved in any organizations due to the large population. The food on campus is pretty good, and the housing is decent. We are a sports heavy school and the school spirit we bring about is perfect!! Wreck ’em Tech!

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                Essay about Was Hamlet A Hero?

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                Essay about Was Hamlet A Hero?

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                Hamlet Is Hamlet heroic? Hamlet, the main character of Shakespeare’s famous play Hamlet, is an angry man who dazzles the audience with his wicked wit and lust for vengeance. He appears to be mad throughout the whole play, leaving the audience with an uncertain feeling toward him. The answer to the question of rather or not Hamlet was crazy plays a key role in the answer to our main question, is Hamlet heroic? Only when it is known if Hamlet is mad or not can a person find or deny the heroisms in his actions. So is Hamlet crazy? From the very beginning Hamlet is shows characteristics of being very disturbed. In act I scene two Hamlet expresses his melancholy, “Oh that this too too sullied flesh would melt, Thaw and resolve itself into

                …show more content…

                He frightens Ophelia, speaks in riddles to Polonius, and walks around the castle with no apparent purpose. His mother gets so worried that she sends for his friends to come. She hoped they could figure out what was wrong with him. Hamlet is putting on a good show to distract everyone from the real problem. Upon meeting his friends Hamlet makes them admit the true reason they have come to Denmark. He tells them, “You were sent for; and there is a kind of confession in your looks which your modesties have not craft enough to colour:” (II. ii. 263-264). His ability to read his friends suggests that Hamlet has a very observant understanding of his surroundings. How is Hamlet insane if he has the presence of mind to read others and toy with them to get what he wants out of them? No one could torture others with word as well as Hamlet does without having a wide range of knowledge and skill. He is too precise in his every action to be truly mad. When he refrains from killing Claudius after reasoning “That would be scann’d; A villain kills my father; and for that, I his sole son, do this same villain send To heaven,” (III. iii. 76-78) he shows judgment that a mad revenge driven character would not have. Hamlet causes the death of many people in this play, and shows no empathy for it. After killing Polonius he simply responds to his act by saying “ A bloody deed! Almost as bad good mother As kill a king, and marry with his

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                Hamlet Made Simple and Other Essays

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                The single greatest contribution to Shakespeare scholarship in recent memory.

                Hamlet Made Simple and Other Essays:

                •   Presents the most compelling and original reading of Hamlet since A.C. Bradley;
                •   Dispenses once and for all with the psychoanalytic interpretation of the play;
                •   Explains the actual meaning of the Oedipus myth; 
                •   Provides the "smoking gun" which establishes Shakespeare’s true identity;
                •   Explodes the fable of Shakespeare’s appearance; and
                •  In the process of correcting misreadings of Shakespeare’s poetry and drama, Hamlet Made Simple offers vital insights and indispensable guidance on how this challenging writer can be fairly and productively approached today.

                Hamlet Made Simple and Other Essays is the definitive exposition of Shakespeare in our time. Nothing else compares.



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                Product details

                • Paperback: 428 pages
                • Publisher: New English Review Press; First edition (January 1, 2013)
                • Language: English
                • ISBN-10: 0985439491
                • ISBN-13: 978-0985439491

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                  C.C. Ryan

                  5.0 out of 5 stars “With the spirit of a poet and the acuteness of a philosopher”

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                  Hank Whittemore

                  5.0 out of 5 stars A Pioneering Work that Brings Shakespeare Studies and the Authorship Question into Alignment and Sheds New Light

                  February 24, 2013


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                  5.0 out of 5 stars Who was Hamlet’s Daddy?

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                  William Smith

                  5.0 out of 5 starsMORE THAN FIVE STARS!

                  Five stars do not do this book justice. Ten would be more like it. My advice to you is buy this book; and then buy additional copies for thoughtful friends. Read more


                  Published on January 13, 2016
                  B. J Robbins

                  2.0 out of 5 starsIf you like Shakespeare, don’t read this.

                  Another Shakespeare book by an amateur. Ho hum. There have been so many books on Hamlet, so many productions, you would think that we have heard the last word. Read more


                  Published on December 24, 2015
                  ReadingOtherPeople

                  4.0 out of 5 starsIt’s like re-reading Hamlet set to a soundtrack of modern rock

                  Kind enough to send me hard copies of the above titles, author David Gontar has seemed to find a niche in the literary world long neglected. Read more


                  Published on December 6, 2015
                  Msiddi

                  1.0 out of 5 starsOne Star

                  dogmatic style is off-putting.


                  Published on November 27, 2015
                  Eoghan P Harris

                  5.0 out of 5 starsA tour de force

                  The most original and absorbing essay on Hamlet since L.C.Knight’s extended essay ‘An Approach to Hamlet’ and that’s high praise as anyone who has read Knights will confirm. Read more


                  Published on December 30, 2014
                  Ricardo Mena Cuevas

                  5.0 out of 5 starsErudition, humour and character.

                  This book exemplifies what the future will be like.

                  Here we have it already in plain view: a mind
                  as wide-read and fierce as Bloom or Greenblatt interpreting… Read more


                  Published on July 28, 2014
                  John L Murphy

                  4.0 out of 5 starsIn-depth review: erudite but accessible

                  Professor Gontar takes on, in his spirited introduction, the sentimentalists (as in Ophelia), the conventional readers and critics (Polonius), the concealers (Gertrude), and the… Read more


                  Published on August 14, 2013
                  William J. Ray

                  5.0 out of 5 starsBreaking Into A New Shakespeare Paradigm

                  The title, ‘Hamlet Made Simple and Other Essays’, may sound whimsical, but the volume’s content is a tour de force of serious moral ambition for finding the truth. Read more


                  Published on June 24, 2013
                  Michael E. Zimmerman

                  5.0 out of 5 starsIlluminating essays about a key figure in Western literature

                  In this volume of essays, David P. Gontar analyses many of the works attributed to William Shakespeare. Read more


                  Published on June 3, 2013
                  Gary L

                  5.0 out of 5 starsA Book Meant for All Students of Shakespeare

                  In “Hamlet Made Simple,” David P. Gontar, Adjunct Professor of Philosophy and Literature at Inner Mongolia University in China, has written a powerful book of essays that belongs… Read more


                  Published on March 13, 2013


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                  Hamlet Revenge Essay

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                  Hamlet is a revenge play. At this time, Shakespeare wrote Hamlet, this was a very common genre. It had certain conventions: a villain commits a murder; the son of the murdered man insists revenge; he carries out his duty and pledge, but in so doing destroys himself. In Hamlet, the entire action of the play is centered on the task assigned by the ghost to Hamlet to avenge his father’s murder But Hamlet has to answer four questions: Is the ghost real? Is revenge good or evil? Is Claudius guilty? These questions, complicates Hamlet’s decision and his reflective, intellectual nature and the revenge obligations of Laertes and Fortinbras that parallel the main plot.

                  Hamlet is tasked with avenging his father’s horrible and unnatural murder. However, he faces a dilemma: should he believe in the honesty of the ghost? The ghost might be a devil. By nature a thinker and truth-seeker, his first step is to evaluate the truth of the ghost’s command, but this self-examination causes delay. Moreover, his extreme depression at his mother’s detestable remarriage, and the fact that Claudius was elected king, has served to make him sarcastic and disbelieving. A chain of circumstances provides a series of obstacles that Hamlet first has to overcome in order to achieve his revenge. This however, affects Hamlet on a spiritual level, as he accepts that both good and evil exist in the world, and that there is a fitness in performing his duty of revenge. His nobility and balance is at constant war with each other from the beginning to the end of the play. The ethical concerns Hamlet has for Claudius and Gertrude are plain to see, at the time, the church considered marriage to a sister in law tantamount to incest. Hamlet’s ethical concerns surrounding his mother’s sudden remarriage is overtly expressed when Gertrude asks Hamlet at her wedding, "If it be, why seems it so particular with thee?" (Hamlet 1.2. 76) Hamlet disputes Gertrude’s charge that he is being hypocritical, "Seems, madam? Nay, it is, I know not ‘seems’…" (Hamlet 1.2.77) For him, she is the one who has shown hypocrisy and he does not agree with her ‘seems’ (Hamlet. 1.2.76) Whereas, Hamlet’s social concerns for Denmark is purely centered around the king and the influence he might have on the rest of the kingdom. Hamlet makes use of an ambiguous pun that depicts his dislike towards Claudius’s insincerity and Claudius’s attempt to polish over what has happened. Hamlet displays clear hostility, "A little more than kin, and less than kind", (Hamlet 1.2.64) Hamlet is more than close in relationship to Claudius (an uncle and a ‘father’), but He resents him and has no feelings of liking and kinship for Claudius. (Shakespeare 2008:158)

                  Another Cryptic pun Hamlet makes use of is in his illustration of the resentment he holds towards Claudius, Hamlet resents Claudius calling him my son, "Not so, my lord, I am too much i’th’ sun." (Hamlet 1.2.66) Hamlet implies that his been deprived of succession to the throne and refuses to take on the role of Claudius’s son. Hamlet faces enormous obstacles in carrying out his revenge. Both his character and circumstances conspire to put him into a state of paralyzed inactivity. His mind is too complex. His keen sense of morality makes him realize that wrong should not lead to further wrong. Moreover, he wrestles with the extremes in his character, which only harmonize when his task is no longer a burden. Then character and circumstance combine to enable his revenge. (Shakespeare 2008:158-159)

                  The appearance of the ghost exemplifies the theme of appearance versus reality. The king appears to be at prayer, and Hamlet decides not to kill his uncle while he is in the state of grace. Hamlet wants his revenge to be not just for the punishment his life on earth but for eternity. Furthermore, if he does kill him in his state of purity, " do this same villain send to heaven. O, this is hire and salary, not revenge" (Hamlet 3.3.76-78), for Claudius’s dreadful offense. The reality is that Claudius cannot repent, as he is unwilling to give up his crown or his queen. When Laertes declares that – "the king is to blame", (Hamlet 5.2. 274) reality and appearance finally meet. On a social level, Hamlet is depressed and melancholy because he believes he can see the evil reality behind the appearance of good in Denmark. The state should be fair, but it is rotten. Men should be noble, made in the image of God, but to Hamlet, life is dust. Women essentially pure and innocent are unfaithful and infected and Love supposedly faithful and honest, is dishonest and unfaithful.

                  The play shows the strain of knowing the truth about people, living in a world of appearances. Fundamentally, Hamlet expresses the dilemma of living in that world. Marcellus’ remark "Something is rotten in the state of Denmark" (Hamlet 1.2. 65), reveals the corruption that is found on all levels in the state. As a result, there are frequent references to, and images of, corruption. Claudius is irredeemably corrupt, guilty of fratricide (the murder of a brother) and regicide (the murder of a king). Hamlet refers to Claudius as "a Canker in our nature" (Hamlet 2.2. 290). The relationship between Claudius and Gertrude, which starts with adultery, is immoral, but this is glossed over. The corruption Claudius embodies taints everything: Polonius, Laertes, Rosencrantz and Guildenstern all lose their moral sense under Claudius’s manipulation. The penalty they pay is the loss of their lives. There is an explicit link between the moral legitimacy of a ruler and the health of the nation. If this is flawed, the state, "the body" (Hamlet 1.2.163), is sick, so Denmark is frequently referred to as a body made ill by corruption. Laertes ironically says to Hamlet (Hamlet 1.2. 20-21) "that on his choice depends/ the sanity and health of this whole state." Unknowingly, he has hit upon Hamlet’s task in the play- to restore soundness and morality to Denmark. The consequences of murder for Claudius (Shakespeare 2008: 155-335)

                  Most Elizabethans believed in ghosts. Ghosts were considered real, and were taken seriously. They could not initiate conversation, and came from an external world. This ghost is dressed in military armor and looks like Hamlet’s father, but it could well be a devil impersonating the dead king. An abnormal set of circumstances has led to the disturbance of the chain of being and infection sets in. Jenkins states that, "the universe, ordered by God, consists of different hierarchies: the angels were closes to God, and were followed by men, beasts, objects, and the devils in the underworld."(Jenkins. H 1982:154) Although Hamlet does not yet know that his father has been murdered by his uncle, there are already ominous signs that all is not well. Claudius has hastily and incestuously remarried, a ghost walks the night and Denmark is being corrupted by revelry and drunkenness. These signs are witnessed and announced by Francisco who is "sick at heart". (Hamlet 1.1. 9) A strong feeling of wrongness is present. Horatio acknowledges that the ghost’s appearance signifies "some strange eruption to our state" (Hamlet 1.1 69). The onset of disease is suggested. When the chain of being is broken, disorder is the result. (Shakespeare 2008: 143-148)

                  The character and role of Claudius is malevolent, perceptive and crafty. He manipulates people and persuades them in taking up his point of view. His great strength is his capacity to see all sides of a situation. He is power hungry. Maintaining power is all that matters to him. He is an excellent storyteller, and his principal weapon is his influential use of language, which enables him to smooth over situations and turn them to his own advantage. He is deceitful. He lies slickly and persuasively. Even when he knows he is mortally wounded, he says, "O yet, defend me, friends, I am but hurt."(Hamlet 5.2. 350) He knows Gertrude is poisoned but says, "She swoons to see them bleed." (Hamlet 5.2.350) He earns the qualified pity of the audience. As the audience, we see him as a man tortured by guilt over his actions. He is also an able king, resolving quickly the threat against Denmark. The consequences of murder for Claudius is losing everything he greatly sacrificed so much for his "Queen, ambition and his crown"(Hamlet 3.3 .55)(Shakespeare 2008: 354)

                  However, on a spiritual level, Claudius reaches out in aid for forgiveness and pity. Especially in this instance, he is begging for forgiveness, this is the first and last time as the audience that we witness Claudius in a twist, he is unable to spin himself out of completely. The characters in the play assume roles in order to hide themselves. Claudius appears to be a grieving brother, concerned uncle and lawful king, but in reality, a he is a murderer and usurper.

                  The first passage (Hamlet 3.3. 36-98) concentrates mainly on Claudius’s begging for forgiveness so that he is saved from his sinful act that he had committed, the murder of his brother. His confession is rather ambivalent and is in contradiction to that of his true word. He ask’s for forgiveness but he might not be sincerely repenting for his wrongdoing. In his plea, it seems as though he is truthfully asking for a second chance: "Try what repentance can. What can it not? / Yet what can it when one cannot repent" (Hamlet 3.3.64) Claudius’s soliloquy is unexpected, for it shows him struck by his conscience, miserable and human. He makes an honest admission of his crime. However, considering all the facts Claudius has committed a dreadful transgression. Nevertheless, despite his strong intention to ask for atonement, he is unable to do so because of the negative consequences in Heaven,"O, my offense is rank, it smells to heaven."(Hamlet 3.3.37) and his unwillingness to give up what he has gained through his crime, "My crown, mine own ambition, and my queen."(Hamlet 3.3. 55), so Claudius abandons repentance. His prayer has made no transformation, and he carries on untouched. (Shakespeare 2008:272-273)

                  On a social level of the play, and by means of close examination of the passage wherein Claudius and Laertes plan to avenge the death of Polonius, seek out ways in order to kill Hamlet. As the audience, we are led to believe that on a superficial level Claudius sincerely, truthfully and genuinely feels the need to comfort Laertes in his hour of need. However, Claudius abuses his position as King and in many ways manipulates Laertes. Just as Claudius had poured poison into Late King Hamlet’s ear, so too is he pouring poison into Laertes’s ears, which is evident in their conversation when Claudius asks Laertes, "Will you do this?"(Hamlet 4.7.106). Claudius uses his fury and resentment to his advantage. Claudius misuses the control and power that he has in the kingdom in order to make himself look like the victim in all of this. (Shakespeare 2008: 316)

                  Claudius repeatedly blackens Hamlet in his conversation with Laertes and subtly compares his acts to Hamlet’s sinful and unacceptable behavior that has progressively led to Polonius and Ophelia’s death. Claudius’s revenge is like a disease without a cure, it festers and becomes an ugly sore, incurable and irrepressible, and his bloodthirsty hunger for taking Hamlet’s life is all he wants and even if it is to the detriment of the current state of Denmark. (Edward. P 2003:57)

                  However, there is a touch of irony in the relationship that Hamlet and Laertes share. Hamlet seeks to avenge his father’s death, receives messages from a ghost that is meant to represent his late father and based on this, Hamlet, in the heat of the moment, accidentally kills Polonius, hoping that he has killed Claudius. Laertes now switches places with Hamlet, harbors the very same hatred that Hamlet holds towards Claudius only now everything Hamlet went through is happening to Laertes. This sudden reversal of roles adds tremendously to the revenge and murder theme Hamlet. Shakespeare often compares characters similar pictures so that the audience may make a decisive decision on whether its message is real, natural and unintentionally created in order to set the scene. One example of this is the similarity of madness that Ophelia and Hamlet share, however, Ophelia’s madness is real unlike the pretended madness that Hamlet seems to be, a reminder of the real power of grief and the chaotic emotions that Hamlet must have felt. (Bradley. A. C 1952: 137)

                  On a spiritual level of the play, and by close examination of the text, Claudius kills the late king Hamlet on a somatic, fleshly and bodily platform. However, the murder of the king haunts Claudius on a spiritual level; his guilt is what leads him into going to the church and confessing to his atrocious crime. Claudius, ‘the serpent'(Hamlet 1.5.39) "poured poison in his brother’s ear and now he speaks to Laertes on a metaphorical level and, in turn, pours poison into Laertes’s ears", (Lecture notes) "Laertes, was your father dear to you? / Or are you like the painting of a sorrow, / A face without a heart?" (Hamlet 4.7. 94-96). His sudden concern leans towards the manipulative, conceited and unscrupulous characteristics of "a serpent" (Hamlet 3.2.239) portraying devious and cunning acts upon his prey, in order to take full advantage of any situation he may find himself in.(Shakespeare 2008: 187-316)

                  Laertes, however, thinks of double treason; unlike Hamlet, whose aim is primarily to avenge his Father’s death but thinks about the right and wrong in all his decisions. He ponders constantly over himself, attaches meaning to the essence of life, death and the meaning of existence. Laertes not only seeks to avenge his father’s death, but also wants Hamlet to suffer by taking his life and punishing him in his afterlife. He shows deliberate, planned and premeditated murder when he speaks to Claudius and shows no remorse. Laertes says to Claudius that he will "cut his throat i’th’ church" (Hamlet 4.7.103)and the significance of murdering somebody in a holy place as the church, suggests Laertes’s hatred runs much deeper and the punishment that Hamlet deserves should not only last for now but forever.(Shakespeare 2008: 316)

                  Claudius and Laertes both share commonalties in the sense that both are power hungry. Laertes, flattered by Claudius’s constant praise, falls into his trap and gives Claudius the impression that he is just as vengeful, frustrated and determined in taking revenge on Polonius’s and Ophelia’s death for his sincere concern for Laertes. Claudius takes full advantage of the fact that Laertes is so open to explaining himself to him, being the master of manipulation, unprincipled and unscrupulous uses Laertes’s anger, resentment and rage to get Hamlet killed, ultimately getting exactly what he wanted. (Bradley A.C 1952:123)

                  In conclusion, the various levels of the play culminate into one direction that ultimately leads to the disintegration of the kingdom and the fall of king of Denmark. On a social level, Claudius abuses his power in order to gain the trust he needs to claim his position in the social realm of the power hungry group. In addition to this, Claudius hopes to occupy the realm of king and to get Hamlet out of the picture entirely. On a spiritual level, the representation of the ghost is seen as either Claudius’s conscience pricking him, the guilt that clouds his mind or it is to indicate to the audience that although Claudius has killed Late King Hamlet in his physical, he has not necessarily killed him in his spiritual form. His soul still lingers in the hope that justice is served and Claudius is brought to task for his sinful acts.

                  Lastly, on an ethical level, the play does, however, have a slight principled and virtuous hint to it, instances wherein right and wrong are differentiated between, for example, the struggle Hamlet has within himself and the anger he wants to express against Claudius in search of his revenge. Completely leading himself, Laertes, Gertrude and Claudius death.


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                  STO Producer Briefs the New Odyssey Class Starship

                  statement

                  Star Trek Online (STO) players will have the chance to get their hands on the latest Federation starship to be added to the game for free during the second anniversary event . The latest ship, the Odyssey class, can be obtained through the event by players level 5 and higher. The ship is usable at the rank of Vice Admiral and contains 4 Fore weapon slots and 4 Aft along with 4 device slots, 1 Lieutenant Tactical, 1 Commander Engineering, 1 Lieutenant Science, 1 Ensign Universal, 1 Lieutenant Commander Universal bridge officer slots.

                  For a full rundown of the Odyssey class, check out the latest developer blog.

                  Source: STO Season 5 Dev Diary #13 – Odyssey Class Starship




                  To read the latest guides, news, and features you can visit our
                  Star Trek Online
                  Game Page.


                  Last Updated:

                  Mar 29, 2016

                  About The Author

                  Zombie 0
                  Stacy "Martuk" Jones was a long-time news editor and community manager for many of our previous game sites, such as Age of Conan. Stacy has since moved on to become a masked super hero, battling demons in another dimension.

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                  ‘Star Trek Online’ 3D Printed Ships Available Now

                  | March 15, 2018 |
                  By: TrekMovie.com Staff
                  7 comments so far

                  Last month we reported that Star Trek Online was planning on offering players the chance to get their personal ships turned into actual models through a partnership with the integral reality company, Mixed Dimensions using their “new GamePrint technology. Today, Perfect World and Cryptic rolled out the new feature for PC players, along with more pricing, details, photos and a video showing how it is done.

                  According to the announcement, the handcrafted resin starship collectibles can be delivered almost anywhere around the world and base pricing will begin at $200, depending on size and customization options.

                  Star Trek Online’s executive producer, Steve Ricossa, explains the 3D offering in this video:

                  Starting today, Star Trek Online players can bring their starships to life, using Mixed Dimensions’ proprietary 3D printing solution along with the hand craftsmanship from a team of master artists. After customizing their ships in the PC version of Star Trek Online, players will discover an option to upload their ship design directly to the GamePrint website.

                  Star Trek Online Pathfinder long range science vessel

                  Players are able to select from three different purchase options (Costs for all three options may vary according to ship size and customizations):

                  Collectible Version – Base Price: $350: Captains can commission one of the company’s master artists to hand-paint a premium, full-colored resin model of their starship, which includes detailed shading. Exceptional artistry and focus is placed on each individual ship.

                  Pathfinder collectible

                  Single Color Version – Base Price: $225: Players can order a 3D-printed model of their starship, painted in either gold, silver, bronze or black. The model is polished, finished and ready for display.

                  Primer Version – Base price: $200: Model painters and hobbyists can order a primed model of their favorite starship, coated in a base layer of primer and ready to be painted.

                  Pathfinder primer version

                  All starships will be delivered in customized packaging and include an exclusive Star Trek Online-branded display stand. For more info, including limited time introductory pricing, visit gameprint.net .

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                  newest
                  oldest

                  somethoughts

                  that pathfinder needs to be sucked into a blackhole and destroyed forever, how about showing the constitution or galaxy class?

                  March 15, 2018 12:24 pm
                  mwz

                  Harsh. I’m guessing they prefer to emphasize their own starship designs over 30+ or 50+ year old designs, no matter how iconic those older designs happen to be.

                  March 15, 2018 9:20 pm
                  ewplayer3

                  ouuuuuch…. That’s pricey. Not going to completely rule it out, but I’ll have to save my pennies and make sure I “choose wisely”.

                  March 15, 2018 1:32 pm
                  Shadowknight1

                  Agreed. I wish they offered more options, too. Like sometime the size of an Eaglemoss ship rather than as big as these things look to be. I’m going to have to think on whether I want my modified Yorktown/Odyssey or my Kelvin Connie with different colorations. And if I go the latter…I’d have to choose between what I normally roll with or the “classic” version that makes it look more like the TOS in colors.

                  March 15, 2018 3:45 pm
                  El Chup

                  $200? Oooff.

                  March 15, 2018 4:26 pm
                  Trekonlinefan

                  Regarding the prices:

                  1) cryptic isnt making these, an outside company is

                  2) for custom 3D printing, these are actually cheap compared to other companies

                  That said, its still more than I personally want to spend, so, oh well.

                  March 15, 2018 7:05 pm
                  James

                  Will this be offered to console gamers too?

                  March 16, 2018 9:43 am

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                  Odyssey Star Cruiser

                  From Star Trek Online Wiki
                  Jump to: navigation , search
                  Faction Federation-aligned.png Odyssey Star Cruiser
                  Odyssey.png
                  Rank:
                  Rank background icon.png

                  Vice Admiral Rank icon (Federation).png
                  Tier:
                  5
                  Type:
                  Cruiser
                  Admiralty stats:
                  Adm eng fed.png 46 Adm tac fed.png 13 Adm sci fed.png 16
                  Hull:
                  42,000
                  Shield modifier:
                  1.15
                  Weapons:
                  Fore 4 Aft 4

                  Bridge Officers:
                  Lieutenant Tactical   Commander Engineering   Lieutenant Science   Ensign Science   Lieutenant Commander Universal
                  Device slots:
                  4
                  Consoles:
                  Console tac icon.png 2 Console eng icon.png 4 Console sci icon.png 3
                  Turn rate:
                  6
                  Impulse modifier:
                  0.15
                  Inertia rating:
                  20
                  Bonus Power:
                  +10 shield power
                  +10 auxiliary power
                  Cost:
                  200,000 Fleet Credits
                  Abilities:
                  Strategic Maneuvering icon (Federation).png Strategic Maneuvering
                  Shield Frequency Modulation icon (Federation).png Shield Frequency Modulation
                  Weapon System Efficiency icon (Federation).png Weapon System Efficiency
                  Attract Fire icon (Federation).png Attract Fire

                  Odyssey class

                   ~Star Cruiser
                  Tier 5 Variants
                  • Odyssey Star Cruiser
                  • Odyssey Operations Cruiser
                  • Odyssey Science Cruiser
                  • Odyssey Tactical Cruiser
                  Tier 6 Variants
                  • Operations Star Cruiser (T6)
                  • Science Star Cruiser (T6)
                  • Tactical Star Cruiser (T6)
                  Related
                  • U.S.S. Enterprise (NCC-1701-F)
                  • Odyssey Dreadnought (Mob)
                  • Mirror Odyssey Dreadnought (Mob)
                  • Odyssey Cruiser Set
                  • Flagship Technologies Console Set

                  For the NPC version, see Odyssey Dreadnought Cruiser .

                  The Odyssey Star Cruiser is an Admiral (Tier 5) level Federation Cruiser . Players can obtain the vessel through the Shipyard for 200,000 Fleet Credits, as long as the player’s Fleet has a Tier V shipyard. It has been touted as the pinnacle of Federation starship design and will carry the Federation into a new generation of exploration. The newly commissioned U.S.S. Enterprise (NCC-1701-F) is an example of this class and stands as the flagship of Starfleet.

                  Contents

                  • 1 Variants
                    • 1.1 Odyssey class
                    • 1.2 Odyssey Operations Cruiser
                    • 1.3 Odyssey Science Cruiser
                    • 1.4 Odyssey Tactical Cruiser
                  • 2 Admiralty Ship
                  • 3 Abilities
                    • 3.1 Cruiser Commands
                  • 4 Standard Configuration
                  • 5 Comparison with other Odyssey variants
                  • 6 Gallery
                    • 6.1 Official Images [1][2]
                  • 7 Notes
                  • 8 Links

                  Variants[ edit | edit source ]

                  Ody patch.png

                  Odyssey class[ edit | edit source ]

                  The Odyssey class is the largest ever created by Starfleet. Its large size makes it very resilient, but its turn rate is reduced by the bulk of the vessel. The Odyssey’s unique split saucer pylon reduces subspace wake at higher warp speeds. The Odyssey is designed as an extreme long-range vessel, and can operate for long periods of time away from support. Because of this, it is the most versatile cruiser ever developed by the Starfleet Corps of Engineers.

                  Odyssey Operations Cruiser[ edit | edit source ]

                  The Odyssey Operations Cruiser is a variant of the Odyssey class intended to enhance extended operation during multipurpose missions. The EPS systems have been balanced to provide equal power generation across all primary systems. Redundant power generation systems and improved warp field design also marks the return of saucer separation to Starfleet cruisers after an extended absence.

                  Odyssey Science Cruiser[ edit | edit source ]

                  The primary mission of the Starfleet remains scientific exploration. The Odyssey Science Cruiser variant meets these goals with unmatched sensor enhancements, unseen in previous cruiser designs. Along with enhanced shield power, Work Bee Cargo Management Units are typically assigned to this class in order to support ship operations on extended scientific endeavors.

                  Odyssey Tactical Cruiser[ edit | edit source ]

                  In this extended period of conflict, the Starfleet Corps of Engineers were tasked with developing a cruiser with additional firepower. The Odyssey Tactical Cruiser is a unique development that emerged from this goal. While the EPS systems were tuned to provide superior power to weapons, the standout feature is the wholesale replacement of the secondary shuttle bay with a specially designed Aquarius-class escort.

                  Admiralty Ship[ edit | edit source ]

                  Admiralty Ship
                  Shipshot Background Admiralty.png
                  Shipshot Cruiser Odessey.png
                  Shipshot Frame Engineering.png
                  Adm eng fed.png 46 Adm tac fed.png 13 Adm sci fed.png 16
                  -5% Maintenance per Ship

                  Abilities[ edit | edit source ]

                  • Quantum Slipstream Drive icon (Federation).png Advanced Quantum Slipstream Drive

                  The Advanced Quantum Slipstream Drive ability allows the Odyssey class starship to travel at Transwarp Factor 20 for 60 seconds instead of the normal 30 seconds in sector space.

                  Cruiser Commands[ edit | edit source ]

                  As a cruiser, this ship supports the following cruiser commands

                  • Strategic Maneuvering icon (Federation).png Ability: Strategic Maneuvering
                  • Shield Frequency Modulation icon (Federation).png Ability: Shield Frequency Modulation
                  • Weapon System Efficiency icon (Federation).png Ability: Weapon System Efficiency
                  • Attract Fire icon (Federation).png Ability: Attract Fire

                  Standard Configuration[ edit | edit source ]

                  Federation starships come with standard equipment and weapons of the lowest mark available at the ship’s minimum rank. The items provided are appropriate to the type of vessel and its related playing style.

                  Equipment

                  • Shield Array Mk X icon.png

                    Common icon.png

                    [ Shield Array Mk X ]

                  • Deflector Array Mk X icon.png

                    Common icon.png

                    [ Deflector Array Mk X ]

                  • Impulse Engines Mk X icon.png

                    Common icon.png

                    [ Impulse Engines Mk X ]

                  • Matter Anti-Matter Warp Core Mk X icon.png

                    Common icon.png

                    [ Matter Anti-Matter Warp Core Mk X ]

                  Fore Weapons

                  • Phaser Beam Array Mk X icon.png

                    Common icon.png

                    [ Phaser Beam Array Mk X ]

                  • Photon Torpedo Launcher Mk X icon.png

                    Common icon.png

                    [ Photon Torpedo Launcher Mk X ]

                  • Phaser Beam Array Mk X icon.png

                    Common icon.png

                    [ Phaser Beam Array Mk X ]

                  • Phaser Beam Array Mk X icon.png

                    Common icon.png

                    [ Phaser Beam Array Mk X ]

                  Aft Weapons

                  • Phaser Beam Array Mk X icon.png

                    Common icon.png

                    [ Phaser Beam Array Mk X ]

                  • Phaser Beam Array Mk X icon.png

                    Common icon.png

                    [ Phaser Beam Array Mk X ]

                  • Phaser Beam Array Mk X icon.png

                    Common icon.png

                    [ Phaser Beam Array Mk X ]

                  • Photon Torpedo Launcher Mk X icon.png

                    Common icon.png

                    [ Photon Torpedo Launcher Mk X ]

                  Comparison with other Odyssey variants[ edit | edit source ]

                  Star Cruiser Operations Science Tactical
                  Bridge Officers Boff lt tac.png Boff cmdr eng.png Boff lt sci.png Boff ens sci.png Boff ltcmdr univ.png Boff lt tac.png Boff cmdr eng.png Boff lt sci.png Boff ltcmdr univ.png Boff ens univ.png Boff lt tac.png Boff cmdr eng.png Boff lt sci.png Boff ltcmdr univ.png Boff ens univ.png Boff lt tac.png Boff cmdr eng.png Boff lt sci.png Boff ltcmdr univ.png Boff ens univ.png
                  Consoles Console tac icon.png 2 Console eng icon.png 4 Console sci icon.png 3 Console tac icon.png 2 Console eng icon.png 5 Console sci icon.png 3 Console tac icon.png 2 Console eng icon.png 4 Console sci icon.png 4 Console tac icon.png 3 Console eng icon.png 4 Console sci icon.png 3
                  T5-U Console Console tac icon.png +1 Console eng icon.png +1 Console tac icon.png +1
                  Power Modifiers +10 Shield Power
                  +10 Auxiliary Power
                  +5 All Power +10 Shield Power
                  +10 Auxiliary Power
                  +10 Weapon Power
                  +5 Shield Power
                  +5 Auxiliary Power
                  Unversal Console and Abilities [ Console – Universal – Chevron Separation ] [ Console – Universal – Work Bees ]
                  Sensor Analysis
                  [ Console – Universal – Aquarius Escort ]

                  Gallery[ edit | edit source ]

                  Official Images [1 ] [2 ][ edit | edit source ]

                  • Enterprise F

                  • From various angles

                  • Odyssey class bridge

                  • Earth Spacedock

                  • Earth orbit

                  • Utopia Planitia Fleet Yards

                  • Mars orbit

                  • Mars drydock

                  • Mars orbit

                  • Deep space

                  • Deep space

                  • Deep space

                  • Deep space

                  • The prototype, U.S.S. Odyssey, on trial runs

                  • Auxiliary craft (WIP)

                  • Enterprise-F in chevron separation mode (WIP)

                  • Odyssey Star Cruiser with Assimilated Borg Technology Set

                  Notes[ edit | edit source ]

                  • The Odyssey class was designed by Adam Ihle, winner of Cryptic Studios’ Design the Next Enterprise contest.
                  • This ship was released during the 2nd Anniversary of Star Trek Online . Those who participated received this ship as a reward for completing “The Odyssey Class” .
                  • Players can choose to purchase the “Odyssey bundle” for 5,000 Zen small icon.png , which includes all three variants. It is also the easiest way to acquire the full Odyssey Cruiser Set , which grants players an Odyssey cruiser with the chevron separation of an Operations variant, the Worker Bee of a Science variant, and the Aquarius escort of the Tactical variant all in one ship plus the set bonus of an increased turn rate to partially offset the Odyssey’s cumbersome maneuverability.
                  • With Season Six , the standard Odyssey Star Cruiser was added to the fleet store for 200,000 Fleet Credits .

                  Links[ edit | edit source ]

                  1. Official Enterprise-F images
                  2. Star Trek Online Facebook page
                  • Building the Next Enterprise
                  • Odyssey class at the Official website

                  v · d · e

                  Playable Starships
                  Faction FED23.png Faction FED25.png Federation: (Complete & Detailed List)  
                  Small Craft
                  Shuttles Type 8 Shuttle • Type 10 Shuttle • Class F Shuttle • Delta Class Shuttle • Tal’Kyr Support Craft • Aeon Timeship • Type 7 Shuttle
                  Runabouts Danube Runabout • Mirror Danube Runabout • Yellowstone Runabout • Captain’s Yacht Valiant icon.png
                  Fighters Peregrine Attack Fighter • Stalker Stealth Fighter
                  Early-game ships
                  Rank Tier 1 Tier 2 Tier 3 Tier 4
                  Rank Starfleet Lt.png Rank Starfleet LtCom.png Rank Starfleet Com.png Rank Starfleet Cap.png
                  Cruisers • Starter Ship
                    – Faction FED23.png Utility Cruiser
                    – Faction FED25.png Light Cruiser
                  • Light Cruiser (TOS)
                  • Cruiser
                    – Cruiser Refit
                  • Heavy Cruiser
                    – Heavy Cruiser Refit
                  • Advanced Heavy Cruiser
                  • Support Cruiser
                  • Exploration Cruiser
                    – Exploration Cruiser Refit
                  • Temporal Cruiser
                  Escorts • Light Escort
                  • Blockade Runner Escort
                  • Andorian Light Escort
                  • Escort
                    – Escort Refit
                  • Heavy Escort
                    – Heavy Escort Refit
                  • Temporal Escort
                  • Tactical Escort
                    – Tactical Escort Refit
                  Science Vessels • Light Science Vessel • Science Vessel
                    – Science Vessel Refit
                  • Temporal Science Vessel
                  • Research Science Vessel
                  • Advanced Research Vessel
                  • Long Range Science Vessel
                    – Long Range Science Vessel Refit
                  Endgame ships
                  Zen small icon.png or ✓ means this ship may be upgraded to Tier 5-U capabilities
                  Rank Rank Starfleet LAdm.png
                  Tier 5 – Level 40
                  Rank Starfleet VAdm.png
                  Tier 5 – Level 50
                  Rank Starfleet VAdm.png
                  Tier 6
                  Cruisers • Assault Cruiser
                    – Mirror Assault Cruiser Generic Lock Box icon.png
                  • Star Cruiser
                    – Mirror Star Cruiser Generic Lock Box icon.png
                  • Advanced Heavy Cruiser Retrofit ✓
                  • Support Cruiser Retrofit


                  • Mirror Heavy Cruiser Retrofit Generic Lock Box icon.png
                  • Heavy Cruiser Retrofit
                    – Fleet Heavy Cruiser Retrofit ✓
                  • Fleet Advanced Heavy Cruiser Retrofit ✓
                  • Fleet Support Cruiser Retrofit ✓
                  • Exploration Cruiser Retrofit Zen small icon.png
                    – Fleet Exploration Cruiser Retrofit ✓
                  • Assault Cruiser Refit Zen small icon.png
                    – Fleet Assault Cruiser Refit ✓
                  • Fleet Star Cruiser ✓
                  • Odyssey Star Cruiser
                  • Odyssey Star Cruisers: Zen small icon.png
                    – Operations
                    – Science
                    – Tactical
                  • Advanced Heavy Cruiser (T6)
                    – Fleet Advanced Heavy Cruiser (T6)
                  • Intel Assault Cruiser (T6)
                    – Fleet Intel Assault Cruiser (T6)
                  • Command Assault Cruiser (T6)
                    – Fleet Command Assault Cruiser (T6)
                  • Exploration Cruiser (T6)
                    – Fleet Exploration Cruiser (T6)
                  • Guardian Cruiser (T6)
                    – Fleet Guardian Cruiser (T6)
                    – Mirror Guardian Cruiser (T6)
                  • Flagship Star Cruisers (T6):
                    – Sojourner (Operations)
                    – Yorktown (Science)
                    – Endeavor (Tactical)
                  • Temporal Cruiser (T6)
                    – Fleet Temporal Cruiser (T6)
                  • Kelvin Timeline Heavy Command Cruiser (T6) Generic Lock Box icon.png
                  • Temporal Light Cruiser (T6) Special Requisition Choice Pack - Tier 6 Promotional Ship Choice Pack icon.png
                  • Advanced Light Cruiser (T6)
                    – Fleet Advanced Light Cruiser (T6)
                  • Miracle Worker Cruisers (T6):
                    – Scott (Operations)
                    – Daystrom (Science)
                    – Tucker (Tactical)
                  • Tellarite Pralim Flight-Deck Assault Cruiser (T6)
                    – Fleet Tellarite Pralim Flight-Deck Assault Cruiser (T6)
                  • Light Exploration Cruiser (T6) Lobi Crystal icon.png
                  Battle Cruisers • Temporal Battlecruiser Zen small icon.png • Battle Cruiser Zen small icon.png
                    – Fleet Battle Cruiser ✓
                  • Battlecruiser (T6)
                    – Fleet Battlecruiser (T6)
                  • Command Battlecruisers (T6):
                    – Concorde (Engineering)
                    – Geneva (Science)
                    – Presidio (Tactical)
                  • Eclipse Intel Cruiser (T6)
                    – Fleet Eclipse Intel Cruiser (T6)
                  • Temporal Battlecruiser (T6)
                    – Fleet Temporal Battlecruiser (T6)
                  Dreadnoughts   • Dreadnought Cruiser Zen small icon.png
                    – Fleet Dreadnought Cruiser ✓
                  • Dreadnought Cruiser (T6)
                    – Fleet Dreadnought Cruiser (T6)
                  • Kelvin Timeline Intel Dreadnought Cruiser (T6) Lobi Crystal icon.png
                  • Prototype Dreadnought Cruiser (T6) Generic Lock Box icon.png
                  • Temporal Heavy Dreadnought Cruiser (T6) Special Requisition Choice Pack - Tier 6 Promotional Ship Choice Pack icon.png
                  Escorts • Advanced Escort
                    – Mirror Advanced Escort Generic Lock Box icon.png
                  • Patrol Escort
                    – Mirror Patrol Escort Generic Lock Box icon.png
                  • Mirror Escort Retrofit Generic Lock Box icon.png
                  • Escort Retrofit
                    – Fleet Escort Retrofit ✓
                  • Tactical Escort Retrofit Zen small icon.png
                    – Fleet Tactical Escort Retrofit ✓
                  • Multi-Vector Advanced Escort Zen small icon.png
                    – Fleet Advanced Escort ✓
                  • Patrol Escort Refit Zen small icon.png
                    – Fleet Patrol Escort Refit ✓
                  • Aquarius Light Escort
                    – Fleet Aquarius Light Escort ✓
                  • Blockade Runner Escort Retrofit ✓
                  • Andorian Escorts: Zen small icon.png
                    – Kumari (Tactical)
                    – Charal (Engineering)
                    – Khyzon (Science)
                  • Tactical Escort (T6)
                    – Fleet Tactical Escort (T6)
                  • Advanced Escort (T6)
                    – Fleet Advanced Escort (T6)
                  • Phantom Intel Escort (T6)
                    – Fleet Phantom Intel Escort (T6)
                  • Pilot Escorts (T6)
                    – Ajax (Engineering)
                    – Icarus (Science)
                    – Mercury (Tactical)
                  • Temporal Escort (T6)
                    – Fleet Temporal Escort (T6)
                  • NX Escort Refit (T6) Lobi Crystal icon.png
                  • Caitian Shikaris Escort (T6)
                    – Fleet Caitian Shikaris Escort (T6)
                  • Andorian Allied Pilot Escorts (T6)
                    – Kuthar (Engineering)
                    – Chimesh (Science)
                    – Thozyn (Tactical)
                  Escort Carriers   • Heavy Escort Carrier Zen small icon.png
                    – Fleet Heavy Escort Carrier ✓
                  • Heavy Escort Carrier (T6)
                    – Fleet Heavy Escort Carrier (T6)
                  Destroyers • Mobius Temporal Destroyer ✓
                  • Solanae Dyson Science Destroyer Lobi Crystal icon.png
                  • Chimera Heavy Destroyer Starfleet Veteran icon.png
                  • Fleet Chimera Heavy Destroyer Starfleet Veteran icon.png
                  • Advanced Dyson Science Destroyers: Zen small icon.png
                    – Reconnaissance
                    – Strategic
                    – Surveillance
                  • Heavy Destroyer (T6) Starfleet Veteran icon.png
                    – Fleet Heavy Destroyer (T6) Starfleet Veteran icon.png
                  • Klein Temporal Destroyer (T6) Lobi Crystal icon.png
                  • Recon Destroyer (T6)
                    – Fleet Recon Destroyer (T6)
                  Science Vessels • Deep Space Science Vessel
                    – Mirror Deep Space Science Vessel Generic Lock Box icon.png
                  • Reconnaissance Science Vessel
                    – Mirror Reconnaissance Science Vessel Generic Lock Box icon.png
                  • Advanced Research Vessel Retrofit ✓
                  • D’Kyr Science Vessel ✓
                  • Wells Temporal Science Vessel Generic Lock Box icon.png


                  • Mirror Science Vessel Retrofit Generic Lock Box icon.png
                  • Science Vessel Retrofit
                    – Fleet Science Vessel Retrofit ✓
                  • Research Science Vessel Retrofit
                    – Fleet Research Science Vessel Retrofit ✓
                  • Fleet Advanced Research Vessel Retrofit ✓
                  • Long Range Science Vessel Retrofit Zen small icon.png
                    – Fleet Long Range Science Vessel Retrofit ✓
                  • Fleet Deep Space Science Vessel ✓
                  • Fleet Reconnaissance Science Vessel ✓
                  • Multi-Mission Explorers: Zen small icon.png
                    – Aventine (Reconnaissance)
                    – Rademaker (Strategic)
                    – Vesta (Surveillance)
                  • Long Range Science Vessel (T6)
                    – Fleet Long Range Science Vessel (T6)
                  • Scryer Intel Science Vessel (T6)
                    – Fleet Scryer Intel Science Vessel (T6)
                  • Experimental Science Vessel (T6)
                    – Fleet Experimental Science Vessel (T6)
                  • Advanced Research Vessel (T6)
                    – Fleet Advanced Research Vessel (T6)
                  • Temporal Science Vessel (T6)
                    – Fleet Temporal Science Vessel (T6)
                  • Multi-Mission Explorers (T6): Zen small icon.png
                    – Palatine (Reconnaissance)
                    – Esquiline (Strategic)
                    – Brigid (Surveillance)
                  • Science Spearhead (T6) Generic Lock Box icon.png
                  • Verne Temporal Science Vessel (T6) Generic Lock Box icon.png
                  Carriers   • Caitian Atrox Carrier Zen small icon.png
                    – Fleet Caitian Atrox Carrier ✓
                  • Carrier (T6)
                    – Fleet Carrier (T6)
                  Faction KDF.png Klingon Empire: (Complete & Detailed List)  
                  Small Craft
                  Kivra Shuttle • Toron Shuttle • DujHod Chariot Valiant icon.png • To’Duj Fighter • Rozhenko Timeship
                  Early-game ships
                  Rank Tier 1 Tier 2 Tier 3 Tier 4
                  Rank Klingon Lt.png Rank Klingon LtCom.png Rank Klingon Com.png Rank Klingon Cap.png
                  Raiders • B’rel Bird-of-Prey
                    – B’Rotlh Bird-of-Prey
                  • QulDun Bird-of-Prey
                    – Qaw’Dun Bird-of-Prey
                  • Norgh Bird-of-Prey
                    – Ning’tao Bird-of-Prey
                  • Ki’tang Bird-of-Prey
                    – Ch’Tang Bird-of-Prey
                  Raptors   • Somraw Raptor • Qorgh Raptor
                    – SuQob Raptor
                  • Pach Raptor
                    – Puyjaq Raptor
                  Battle Cruisers   • K’Tanco Battle Cruiser • K’t’inga Battle Cruiser
                    – Koro’t’inga Battle Cruiser
                  • Kamarag Battle Cruiser
                  • Vor’cha Battle Cruiser
                    – Vor’Kang Battle Cruiser
                  Destroyers     • Vandal Destroyer • Scourge Destroyer
                  Support Vessels     • Phalanx Science Vessel • Draguas Support Vessel
                  Flight-Deck Cruisers     • Dacoit Flight-Deck Cruiser • Corsair Flight-Deck Cruiser
                  Endgame ships
                  Zen small icon.png or ✓ means this ship can be upgraded to Tier 5-U capabilities
                  Rank Rank Klingon Gen1.png
                  Tier 5 – Level 40
                  Rank Klingon Gen3.png
                  Tier 5 – Level 50
                  Rank Klingon Gen3.png
                  Tier 6
                  Raiders • Hegh’ta Heavy Bird-of-Prey


                  • Mirror Universe Ki’tang Bird-of-Prey Retrofit Generic Lock Box icon.png
                  • B’rel Bird-of-Prey Retrofit Zen small icon.png
                     – Fleet B’rel Bird-of-Prey Retrofit ✓
                  • Fleet Norgh Bird-of-Prey Retrofit ✓
                  • HoH’SuS Bird-of-Prey
                    – Fleet HoH’SuS Bird-of-Prey ✓
                  • Kor Bird-of-Prey (T6)
                    – Fleet B’rel Bird-of-Prey (T6)
                  • Kelvin Timeline D4x Pilot Bird-of-Prey (T6) Generic Lock Box icon.png
                  Escorts , Raptors , Flight-Deck Raptors • Qin Heavy Raptor
                    – Mirror Universe Qin Heavy Raptor Generic Lock Box icon.png


                  • Mirror Universe Somraw Raptor Retrofit Generic Lock Box icon.png
                  • Somraw Raptor Retrofit
                    – Fleet Somraw Raptor Retrofit ✓
                  • Fleet Qin Heavy Raptor ✓
                  • Qa’Tel Flight Deck Raptor (T6)
                    – Fleet Qin Flight Deck Raptor (T6)
                  • Mat’Ha Raptor (T6)
                    – Fleet Mat’Ha Raptor (T6)
                  • Pilot Raptors (T6):
                    – Qui’Tu (Engineering)
                    – Klavek (Science)
                    – Kortar (Tactical)
                  • Ferasan Slithus Escort (T6)
                    – Fleet Ferasan Slithus Escort (T6)
                  • Lethean Allied Pilot Escorts (T6):
                    – Oniros (Engineering)
                    – Nemosin (Science)
                    – Xechas (Tactical)
                  • Ketha Recon Raptor (T6)
                    – Fleet Ketha Recon Raptor (T6)
                  Battle Cruisers • Negh’Var Heavy Battle Cruiser
                    – Mirror Universe Negh’Var Heavy Battle Cruiser Generic Lock Box icon.png
                  • Vor’cha Battle Cruiser Retrofit
                    – Mirror Universe Vor’cha Battle Cruiser Generic Lock Box icon.png
                  • Kamarag Battle Cruiser Retrofit
                  • K’t’inga Battle Cruiser Retrofit
                    – Fleet K’t’inga Battle Cruiser Retrofit ✓
                  • Fleet Kamarag Battlecruiser Retrofit ✓
                  • Fleet Tor’Kaht Battle Cruiser Retrofit ✓
                  • Fleet Negh’Var Heavy Battle Cruiser ✓
                  • Mogh Battle Cruiser Zen small icon.png
                     – Fleet Mogh Battle Cruiser ✓
                  • Bortas Battle Cruiser
                  • Bortasqu’ Cruisers: Zen small icon.png
                    – Command
                    – Tactical
                    – War
                  • Negh’Tev Heavy Battlecruiser (T6)
                    – Fleet Negh’Tev Heavy Battlecruiser (T6)
                  • Kurak Battlecruiser (T6)
                    – Fleet Mogh Battlecruiser (T6)
                  • Qib Intel Battlecruiser (T6)
                    – Fleet Qib Intel Battlecruiser (T6)
                  • Command Battlecruisers (T6):
                    – An’quat (Engineering)
                    – Klinzhai (Science)
                    – Ty’Gokor (Tactical)
                  • Flagship Battlecruisers (T6):
                    – Gorkon (Science)
                    – Martok (Tactical)
                    – Kahless (War)
                  • D7 Temporal Battlecruiser (T6) Special Requisition Choice Pack - Tier 6 Promotional Ship Choice Pack icon.png
                  • D9 Dreadnought Battlecruiser (T6) Generic Lock Box icon.png
                  • Durgath Temporal Heavy Dreadnought Battlecruiser (T6) Special Requisition Choice Pack - Tier 6 Promotional Ship Choice Pack icon.png
                  • QeHpu’ Advanced Light Battlecruiser (T6)
                    – Fleet QeHpu’ Advanced Light Battlecruiser (T6)
                  Cruisers   • Miracle Worker Cruisers (T6):
                    – Mur’Eq (Operations)
                    – Antaak (Science)
                    – Klothos (Tactical)
                  Destroyers • Krenn Temporal Destroyer ✓
                  • Peghqu’ Heavy Destroyer Starfleet Veteran icon.png
                  • Scourge Destroyer Retrofit
                    – Fleet Scourge Destroyer Retrofit ✓
                  • Guramba Siege Destroyer Zen small icon.png
                  • Fleet Peghqu’ Heavy Destroyer Starfleet Veteran icon.png
                  • Kolasi Siege Destroyer (T6)
                    – Fleet Guramba Siege Destroyer (T6)
                  • Duvqu’ Heavy Destroyer (T6) Starfleet Veteran icon.png
                    – Fleet Duvqu’ Heavy Destroyer (T6) Starfleet Veteran icon.png
                  • Chargh’poH Temporal Destroyer (T6) Lobi Crystal icon.png
                  Support Vessels • Varanus Support Vessel ✓
                  • Korath Temporal Science Vessel Generic Lock Box icon.png
                  • Nov Dyson Science Destroyer Lobi Crystal icon.png
                  • Varanus Fleet Support Vessel ✓
                  • Advanced Dyson Science Destroyers: Zen small icon.png
                    – Chontay (Tactical)
                    – MoQ (Battle)
                    – Ta’Sub (Command)
                  • Naj’sov Research Vessel (T6)
                    – Fleet Naj’sov Research Vessel (T6)
                  • Multi-Mission Explorers (T6): Zen small icon.png
                    – Khaimas (Reconnaissance)
                    – Ihgomas (Strategic)
                    – Ahgamas (Surveillance)
                  • Qul’poH Temporal Science Vessel (T6) Generic Lock Box icon.png
                  Flight-Deck Cruisers • Marauder Flight-Deck Cruiser ✓ • Corsair Flight Deck Cruiser Retrofit
                    – Fleet Corsair Flight Deck Cruiser Retrofit ✓
                  • Orion Blackguard Flight-Deck Assault Cruiser (T6)
                    – Fleet Orion Blackguard Flight-Deck Assault Cruiser (T6)
                  Carriers • Vo’Quv Carrier
                    – Mirror Universe Vo’Quv Carrier Generic Lock Box icon.png
                  • Fleet Vo’Quv Carrier ✓
                  • Kar’Fi Battle Carrier Zen small icon.png
                     – Fleet Kar’Fi Battle Carrier ✓
                  • Sarcophagus Dreadnought Carrier (T6) Generic Lock Box icon.png
                  Faction FED25.png Federation & Faction KDF.png Klingon Empire-exclusive starships  
                  These ships cannot be flown by Romulan Republic captains.
                  Dominion captains may fly all of them except the Veteran Heavy Destroyer, Captain’s Gig, and Command Assault Cruiser variants.
                  Faction Federation Klingon Empire
                  Small Craft • Captain’s Yacht Valiant icon.png • DujHod Chariot Valiant icon.png
                  Rank Rank Starfleet LAdm.png
                  Rank Starfleet VAdm.png
                  Tier 5 – Levels 40 & 50 (Fleet)
                  Rank Starfleet VAdm.png
                  Tier 6
                  Rank Klingon Gen1.png
                  Rank Klingon Gen3.png
                  Tier 5 – Levels 40 & 50 (Fleet)
                  Rank Klingon Gen3.png
                  Tier 6
                  Cruisers & Battle Cruisers   • Command Assault Cruiser (T6)
                    – Fleet Command Assault Cruiser (T6)
                  • Kelvin Timeline Heavy Command Cruiser (T6) Generic Lock Box icon.png
                  • Temporal Light Cruiser (T6) Special Requisition Choice Pack - Tier 6 Promotional Ship Choice Pack icon.png
                    • D7 Temporal Battlecruiser (T6) Special Requisition Choice Pack - Tier 6 Promotional Ship Choice Pack icon.png
                  Destroyers • Chimera Heavy Destroyer Starfleet Veteran icon.png
                    – Fleet Chimera Heavy Destroyer Starfleet Veteran icon.png
                  • Mobius Temporal Destroyer
                  • Heavy Destroyer (T6) Starfleet Veteran icon.png
                    – Fleet Heavy Destroyer (T6) Starfleet Veteran icon.png
                  • Klein Temporal Destroyer (T6) Lobi Crystal icon.png
                  • Peghqu’ Heavy Destroyer Starfleet Veteran icon.png
                    – Fleet Peghqu’ Heavy Destroyer Starfleet Veteran icon.png
                  • Krenn Temporal Destroyer
                  • Duvqu’ Heavy Destroyer (T6) Starfleet Veteran icon.png
                    – Fleet Duvqu’ Heavy Destroyer (T6) Starfleet Veteran icon.png
                  • Chargh’poH Temporal Destroyer (T6) Lobi Crystal icon.png
                  Dreadnoughts   • Prototype Dreadnought Cruiser (T6) Generic Lock Box icon.png
                  • Temporal Heavy Dreadnought Cruiser (T6) Special Requisition Choice Pack - Tier 6 Promotional Ship Choice Pack icon.png
                  • Kelvin Timeline Intel Dreadnought Cruiser (T6) Lobi Crystal icon.png
                    • D9 Dreadnought Battlecruiser (T6) Generic Lock Box icon.png
                  • Durgath Temporal Heavy Dreadnought Battlecruiser (T6) Special Requisition Choice Pack - Tier 6 Promotional Ship Choice Pack icon.png
                  Escorts   • NX Escort Refit (T6) Lobi Crystal icon.png    
                  Raiders       • Kelvin Timeline D4x Pilot Bird-of-Prey (T6) Generic Lock Box icon.png
                  Science Vessels • Solanae Dyson Science Destroyer Lobi Crystal icon.png
                  • Wells Temporal Science Vessel Generic Lock Box icon.png
                  • Verne Temporal Science Vessel (T6) Generic Lock Box icon.png • Nov Dyson Science Destroyer Lobi Crystal icon.png
                  • Korath Temporal Science Vessel Generic Lock Box icon.png
                  • Qul’poH Temporal Science Vessel (T6) Generic Lock Box icon.png
                  Faction Romulan Republic.png Romulan Republic: (Complete & Detailed List)  
                  Small Craft
                  Tiercel Shuttle • Kestrel Runabout • Commander’s Gig Valiant icon.png • Scorpion Fighter
                  Early-game ships
                  Rank Tier 1 Tier 2 Tier 3 Tier 4
                  Rank Romulan Lt.png Rank Romulan LtCom.png Rank Romulan Com.png Rank Romulan Cap.png
                  Warbirds • T’liss Light Warbird
                    – T’varo Light Warbird
                  • Dhelan Warbird
                    – Dhael Warbird
                  • Mogai Heavy Warbird
                    – Valdore Heavy Warbird
                  • Ar’Kif Tactical Warbird
                    – Ar’Kala Tactical Warbird
                  Warbird Battle Cruisers       • D’deridex Warbird Battle Cruiser
                    – D’ridthau Warbird Battle Cruiser
                  Endgame ships
                  ✓ means this ship can be upgraded to Tier 5-U capabilities
                  Rank Rank Romulan LAdm.png
                  Tier 5 – Level 40
                  Rank Romulan VAdm.png
                  Tier 5 – Level 50
                  Can all be upgraded ✓
                  Rank Romulan VAdm.png
                  Tier 6
                  Warbirds • Ha’feh Assault Warbird
                    – Mirror Universe Ha’feh Assault Warbird Generic Lock Box icon.png


                  • Mirror Universe T’varo Light Warbird Retrofit Generic Lock Box icon.png
                  • Mirror Universe Dhelan Warbird Retrofit Generic Lock Box icon.png
                  • Mirror Universe Mogai Heavy Warbird Retrofit Generic Lock Box icon.png
                  • T’varo Light Warbird Retrofit Zen small icon.png
                    – Fleet T’varo Light Warbird Retrofit
                  • Dhelan Warbird Retrofit Zen small icon.png
                    – Fleet Dhelan Warbird Retrofit
                  • Mogai Heavy Warbird Retrofit Zen small icon.png
                    – Fleet Mogai Heavy Warbird Retrofit
                  • Ar’Kif Tactical Carrier Warbird Retrofit Zen small icon.png
                    – Fleet Ar’Kif Tactical Carrier Warbird Retrofit
                  • Fleet Ha’feh Assault Warbird
                  • Malem Light Warbird (T6)
                    – Fleet T’varo Light Warbird (T6)
                  • Morrigu Heavy Warbird (T6)
                    – Fleet Mogai Heavy Warbird (T6)
                  • Jhu’ael Tactical Carrier Warbird (T6)
                    – Fleet Ar’kif Tactical Carrier Warbird (T6)
                  • Faeht Intel Warbird (T6)
                    – Fleet Faeht Intel Warbird (T6)
                  • Pilot Warbirds (T6):
                    – Khaiell (Engineering)
                    – Jaeih (Science)
                    – Okhala (Tactical)
                  • T’liss Temporal Warbird (T6) Special Requisition Choice Pack - Tier 6 Promotional Ship Choice Pack icon.png
                  • Hathos Warbird (T6)
                    – Fleet Dhelan Warbird (T6)
                  • Kelvin Timeline T’laru Intel Carrier Warbird (T6) Generic Lock Box icon.png
                  Dreadnought Warbirds• Dreadnought Warbirds: Zen small icon.png
                    – Scimitar (Tactical)
                    – Falchion (Engineering)
                    – Tulwar (Science)
                  • Dreadnought Warbirds (T6):
                    – Shamshir (Operations)
                    – Flambard (Science)
                    – Khopesh (Tactical)
                  • Thrai Dreadnought Warbird (T6) Generic Lock Box icon.png
                  • Valkis Temporal Heavy Dreadnought Warbird (T6) Special Requisition Choice Pack - Tier 6 Promotional Ship Choice Pack icon.png
                  Warbird Battle Cruisers • Ha’apax Advanced Warbird
                    – Mirror Universe Ha’apax Advanced Warbird Generic Lock Box icon.png
                  • D’deridex Warbird Battle Cruiser Retrofit Zen small icon.png
                    – Fleet D’deridex Warbird Battle Cruiser Retrofit
                  • Haakona Advanced Warbird Zen small icon.png
                    – Fleet Ha’apax Advanced Warbird
                  • D’Khellra Warbird Battlecruiser (T6)
                    – Fleet D’deridex Warbird Battle Cruiser Retrofit (T6)
                  • Kara Advanced Warbird (T6)
                    – Fleet Ha’apax Advanced Warbird (T6)
                  • Aelahl Light Warbird Battlecruiser (T6)
                    – Fleet Aelahl Light Battlecruiser Warbird (T6)
                  • Command Battlecruisers (T6):
                    – Baratan (Engineering)
                    – Deihu (Science)
                    – Vastam (Tactical)
                  • Deleth Advanced Light Warbird Battlecruiser (T6)
                    – Fleet Deleth Advanced Light Warbird Battlecruiser (T6)
                  • Miracle Worker Warbirds (T6):
                    – Nijil (Operations)
                    – Varel (Science)
                    – Tebok (Tactical)
                  Flight-Deck Cruisers   • Suliban Silik Flight-Deck Assault Cruiser (T6)
                    – Fleet Suliban Silik Flight-Deck Assault Cruiser (T6)
                  Escorts   • Dewan Allied Pilot Escorts (T6)
                    – Dynnasia (Engineering)
                    – Ikkabar (Science)
                    – Vandros (Tactical)
                  Science Vessels • Ha’nom Guardian Warbird
                    – Mirror Universe Ha’nom Guardian Warbird Generic Lock Box icon.png
                  • R’Mor Temporal Science Vessel Generic Lock Box icon.png
                  • Aves Dyson Science Destroyer Lobi Crystal icon.png
                  • Fleet Ha’nom Guardian Warbird
                  • Advanced Dyson Science Destroyers:
                    – Harpia (Recon)
                    – Tyton (Strategic)
                    – Caprimul (Surveillance)
                  • Laeosa Research Warbird (T6)
                    – Fleet Laeosa Research Warbird (T6)
                  • Multi-Mission Explorers (T6): Zen small icon.png
                    – Surhuelh (Reconnaissance)
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                      The Park in Winter

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                      The Park in Winter

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                      Introduction

                      30th September 2001 DESCRIPTIVE WRITING The Park in Winter The icy wind whistles through the finger like branches of the bare trees, a light covering of snow lying heavily on their extremities. Brittle autumn leaves dance dramatically around in a great swirl of colour. Children are skating on the icy surface of the pond making large cracks like gaping wounds. Sledges hurtle down the piebald hills, rosy faces glowing and laughing, amidst the flurry of ice particles. Snowball throwing children cry with pain, their swollen red fingers throbbing with cold, their gloves wet and icy. An isolated snowman looks out over the glacial landscape, its coal eyes surveying all before it, somebody’s old bob-cap perched crookedly on its cold head. …read more.

                      Middle

                      The bowling green and crazy golf have an eerie silence about them, they lie like a forgotten town, deserted and derelict. I leave my lonely bench now. The cold is seeping through into my bones, the blood icy through my veins. My thick coat pulled tightly to keep me a little warmer. Maybe I will come again next week to sit and watch the winter wonderland before me. The Park in Summer Children run excitedly towards the chiming of the ice cream van, its familiar tune carried on the warm summer breeze, the raspberry sauce dripping blood like down their hands. Families with swimming costumed children paddle in the paddling pool, their faces contorted with laughter and delight. …read more.

                      Conclusion

                      Elderly men have sauntered down with their bowls to have a leisurely afternoon game, their sweaters slung casually around their necks, their caps on to protect their papery skin. Teenagers lark around on the miniature golf laughing and joking while trying to put their friends off. The pond is full of hungry ducks that swim around the lily pads to eat the bread, thrown in by the children. Dog owners are walking their pets; some are throwing sticks for their eager animals while some are relaxing, their pet panting in the heat. My bench is full of gossiping mothers today, soaking up a bit of sunshine, while their children run riot around the field, their ball hurtling through the air like an asteroid. I will stay a little longer in the park today as the sun makes my skin tingle with warmth. Kate Sherratt …read more.

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                      Domestic Vocation

                      matrimony, parenthood, homeschooling … its not just life, its a vocation!

                      Essay on a Winter Landscape

                      Christine Johnson / February 19, 2015

                      My 16 year-old recently wrote this descriptive essay about what it’s like to go outside after a snow storm. Since yesterday’s Wordless Wednesday post was one of our front yard after Monday night’s snow storm, I thought it would be the perfect time to share it (with her permission):

                      When winter arrives and brings with it the cold snow that characterizes the season, it is easy to be overwhelmed by the sight, sounds, and smells that accompany it. The sensations that come with the snow storms of the cold season are memorable and well-known to those who have grown used to them, and are usually looked forward to during the end of summer and the midst of autumn. Whether it be a person’s first snowfall or their hundredth, however, the way in which the frozen crystals transform and crystalize the world is still just as unforgettable.

                      The usual surrounding landscape is entirely transformed when snow falls. Where there was once pale, dead grass, there is now endless, rolling hills of crystal. Trees look like thin, bare dancers, twisting up from the cold ground, and as the snow gathers on the branches, they are clothed with decadent ivory jewels. Bushes become lumps of sugar, and the power lines that dip down between the poles become heavy, sagging as they are laden with the weight of the flakes, eventually disappearing and taking on an appearance that suggests the snow itself is suspended between the telephone poles.

                      As more snow collects on the landscape, a certain hush falls over the world. The snow seems to mute the usual sounds that go hand in hand with the bustle of everyday life. As people hurry from place to place, their movements cause a quiet crunching and squeaking to arise as the snow is tamped down beneath their feet. Later in the day, as the branches and limbs of the trees and bushes become weighted with the frozen crystals, they settle down, creaking and groaning as they come to rest.

                      The smell of snow, however, is difficult to explain. The frozen water crystals have a certain scent to them, an almost crisp odor. It stifles the smell of the pines and the miasma of the rotting leaves beneath the bleak branches, replacing it instead with the smell of what could be considered the cold itself. Soon to join that inexpressible scent, though, is the heavy aroma of hot chocolate and warm baked goods. Although they are not the smell of the snow in itself, these are so often associated with the frozen flakes that at the first snowfall of a winter, the memories of the past winter are so strong that at times, it is almost possible to catch that faint scent drifting through the air at the mere sight of such a blizzard.

                      Overall, the sensations that accompany snow are memorable and long-lasting, especially those of the sights, sounds, and smells. Winter scenes such as these impact people so much that there are many beautiful poems written to capture the beauty on paper, although it is admittedly difficult to convey the full effects of a blizzard within a few words. In conclusion, the freshly fallen snow has a profound effect on the world and how people go about their lives, no matter how often or how many times it has occurred.

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                      How to Start a Personal Statement

                      statement


                      Object Moved

                      This document may be found here

                      Hussian College
                      Hussian College

                      How to Write a Successful Personal Statement for Art School


                      How to Write a Successful Personal Statement for Art School

                      Table of Contents

                      • 1 How to Write a Successful Personal Statement for Art School
                        • 1.1 What Should Be in My Personal Essay for Art School?
                          • 1.1.1 Structuring Your Art School Application Essay
                        • 1.2 Personal Statement Essay Do’s and Don’ts
                          • 1.2.1 Personal Essay Do’s
                          • 1.2.2 Personal Essay Don’ts
                        • 1.3 Personal Statement Prompts
                          • 1.3.1 Making a Great First Impression with Your Personal Artist Statement
                        • 1.4 Most Importantly, Don’t Sweat It

                      If an art school offers the option of submitting a personal statement, it may be tempting for forgo the opportunity. However, it could actually work to your advantage! In addition to showcasing your personality and thought process, submitting an application essay allows the admissions team to see that you are so much more than just your transcripts. Whether you were a top student or perhaps received lower than average test scores, an art school application essay allows you to showcase your direction as an artist, as well as highlight any additional accomplishments, making you further stand out as an applicant.

                      When it comes to an art college essay, you may be asked about your art philosophy, your artistic influences, maybe even how you have evolved as an artist. Although the content of the essay itself is subjective, it is a potentially powerful piece that may make the difference between admission and rejection. Needless to say, you need to showcase the very best of you, especially if it may not have come out in the other parts of the application package.

                      What Should Be in My Personal Essay for Art School?

                      Some applications may require a lengthier autobiographical essay while others, such as Hussian College, simply request a succinct couple of paragraphs. Either way, there are a few crucial elements to consider to help your artist statement stand out for the right reason.

                      Although there are no “rules” (unless they are outlined in the requirements), you should remember that it is an essay to be written with care. Ideas should flow together in a way that makes sense and attention should be paid to grammar and verbiage. By showing that you are able to craft a professional piece of content that is mindful of proper grammar and verbiage while speaking to who you are as an individual, your personal statement will truly stand out.

                      Structuring Your Art School Application Essay

                      Just like the essays you were taught to write in school, your personal statement should have a discernible introduction, body, and conclusion.

                      • The Introduction: Ideally, your introduction should frame the question being asked of you in the context of how you envision yourself as an artist. It is a good place to set out the parameters of your essay so the reader knows what is to come. You could also use the introduction to provide the reader a basic roadmap so that they can understand how your statement is intended to flow.
                      • The Body: The body will contain your arguments and explanations. Where applicable, make sure you provide concrete examples that can paint a vivid picture for the reader. For example, if you say that abstract modern art has influenced your aesthetic style, you may identify a particular painting, artist, or group of works, that embody what you love. If you pick something like Picasso’s Guernica, speak to the individual visual elements that make the work stand out to you. Is it the use of color? The way the artist has interpreted the historical bombing? What is it that you see in this work or art that may not have been evident to others?
                      • The Conclusion: Though you may be relieved to finally be writing the conclusion, don’t let your personal statement end abruptly! The conclusion, after all, is your last chance to leave a final great first impression. It should reiterate the theme of your statement without introducing any new ideas. Essentially, the reader should be left feeling as though they have a better understanding of who you are as an artist. Think of it this way: if the rest of the essay was the journey, the conclusion is the destination.

                      Some institutions, like Hussian College, ask for a short statement of 200-500 words. Despite its short length, you should still approach it in a methodical way, with an engaging introduction, clear conclusion, and body that supports the conclusion. Treat it no differently than you would a lengthier essay!

                      Personal Statement Essay Do’s and Don’ts

                      While many schools encourage creativity when it comes to crafting your personal statement, it is important to incorporate best writing practices to ensure a piece that is easy to read, thorough, and engaging. Here are a few art school essay writing tips you may wish to adopt to ensure that you put your best foot forward.

                      Personal Essay Do’s

                      • Answer all the parts of the question. A common mistake that students make when writing a personal statement is to simply list all the positive things about themselves. Make sure that you understand what the question is asking. Sometimes the college wants to see your creativity; other times, they are looking for more fact-based responses. It can be helpful to make an outline or map out the question on a sheet of paper prior to actually writing. This helps to ensure you are touching upon every part of the question(s).
                      • Focus on your strengths. You are, after all, trying to persuade the reader that you are the candidate they want to admit. You want them to understand that you have much to offer their program. Unless you are being specifically asked about a weakness, concentrate your writing on your best facets.
                      • Use specific, personal examples. Not only do these allow the reader to really get to know you, but it will give you a bit more credibility. Instead of vague claims, you will be better able to explain why you think you deserve to be part of their program. You can demonstrate the impact something has had on you, and how you were shaped by it. You may even be showing some out-of-the-box, innovative thinking, which is usually a sought-after trait in an artist.
                      • Make your essay easy to read and follow. Use line breaks to break up paragraphs. Where appropriate, use headings and subheadings. Members of an art school admissions staff often have to read dozens, even hundreds, of personal statements and art essays. Ideally, you want reading your essay to be a pleasant experience, one that is easy to follow and to the point.

                      Personal Essay Don’ts

                      • Don’t recycle personal statements. If you are applying to multiple art schools, it may be tempting to use the same application or personal essay. However, it’s a good idea to refrain from doing this. What you think of for your graphic design personal statement ideas could be quite different from what you would include in a fine art essay sample, for example. It’s best to treat each personal statement as a separate essay with different focuses.
                      • Don’t lie or embellish. Personal statements are just that… personal! Embellishments or lies can often be sensed by the reader, especially if you are not entirely familiar with a particular topic. Keeping your writing personal and true only adds to the passion, something that admissions teams often look for in an art student. In addition, some colleges conduct interviews. They are free to ask you about the statements you have made in your essay, and if it is full of embellishments, you may find yourself stuck when responding.
                      • Don’t speak in generalities. Very general phrases about what you like or dislike do nothing to actually convey what inspires or influences you. Instead, explain the why. Rather than simply state, “I like bold colors,” you might say: “I prefer the attention that is drawn to bold and saturated colors, often utilized to emphasize a contrast between objects and subject matter.” Ideally, a personal statement is your opportunity to really differentiate yourself as an applicant, not blend into a sea of overly general, unengaging essays.
                      • Don’t get too “avant-garde”, political, or humorous. Even though the essay is an excellent opportunity to give the admissions team a glimpse of your personality, do it strategically. Overdoing the bubbliness may make you appear to not be taking the statement seriously while going overboard with political themes may come off as uninviting to opposing viewpoints. Incorporate your personality, but do so mindfully.
                      • Don’t rely on lists. Unless you are specifically asked to list technical qualifications, lists can be awkward within an application essay and don’t really add to the narrative of your personal statement. As important as the content is, the admissions team is trying to get a sense of how you communicate and what your thought process is. A bullet-style list of art class experience or your favorite artists doesn’t necessarily give them any such insight.
                      • Don’t make excuses. Just as you should be focusing on your strengths, try not to bring up the negative. Why your grade in a certain class was low, for example, may not have been a question in the mind of the reader. If anything, this will only draw attention to this anomaly. The admissions team are only interested in your life events to the extent that they are relevant to what they have asked you to write.

                      Personal Statement Prompts

                      Often, a school will provide very broad guidelines for their requested personal statement or application essay. If your forte isn’t writing, very general requirements may be challenging to handle. Where do you start? In these instances, it may be helpful to practice with personal statement writing prompts, which can offer some guidance. There are a few directions that writing prompts ma