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The Influence of Media Violence on Youth
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The Influence of Media Violence on Youth

In the era of technological progress the internet, television, video game systems, and entertainment media became very popular among children and adolescents. They play an important role in the development and education of today’s youth. But along with positive influence they have negative side expressed by media violence. Most of the video materials consumed by children contain considerable amounts of violence. This is a huge problem of today’s youth as almost every family, technologically equipped, spends a lot of time playing video games or watching movies with inappropriate content. Scientists are concerned about the problem. They examine the influence of violent video materials on children and the changes media violence develops in the behavior of the youth. As a result, numerous researches show that exposure to violence on television or video games causes increases in aggression. So, how does media violence influence our youth? Such factors as psychological level, family, friends, and school can help explain the problem.

Playing video games and watching movies take a huge time period of children’s everyday life.

American children spend over five hours a day consuming various types of media. The same situation is in Europe and Asia. Children perceive everything they watch or hear very closely and literally. They act as monkeys, trying to repeat every word or gesture as in the movie or video game. When a child is watching educational or entertaining movie, copying certain behavior is positive, the same cannot be said about video materials that contain violence. In this case a child has more positive attitudes regarding aggressive solutions to problems. He perceives aggression as a normal way of behavior. For him a game is a model of social world, where people act and think in a hostile way, and the more aggressive and cruel you are, the more success you have in life. After regular review of media materials, a child or adolescent has a wrong, negative conception of the world and starts thinking aggressively, which can greatly influence child’s behavior in future. Usually, when people are watching video containing violence they experience a negative emotional reaction to cruelty and aggression, expressed by increased heart rate, blood pressure, or a headache. Repeated consumptions of such materials dull people’s negative feelings, increase pleasure and interest, making violent actions normal. As a result, repeated consumptions of violence lead to learning the aggressive actions or ways of thinking on the automatic level. And, when a similar situation occurs in reality, a child will act as he learned in the movie – aggressively. So, media violence has a huge psychological influence on children. They cannot distinguish real and virtual worlds yet, hence, wrongly perceive the situations from videos as such that can be used in real life. It primarily concerns children that have inclination to aggressive behavior since their birth. The combination of “bad” genes and media violence can have crucial effect on a child. So, it is very important to pay special attention to the child’s psychological state and select such video materials that will not be harmful for him. This can only be achieved with the help of parents.

Parents play an important role in the life of their children.

They bring them up, educate, and show how to live the life in a right way. But sometimes instead of showing the right way they show the wrong one. It concerns, first of all, the atmosphere in the family and style of life of parents. They can have a habit of watching television programs or movies containing violence and aggressive scenes. Very often parents emotionally, even violently, discuss programs, argue without paying attention to a child. If it happens from time to time a child has an impression of how the adults live and thinks that cruelty on television as well as ill atmosphere in the family is a right way of life. This wrong perception of the world and relationships can change a child’s attitude toward violence. He will act as his parents and will think that doing harm is the best way

of solving problems. Parents can actively participate in the development of the aggression in children by allowing them playing violent video games. These games attract youth greatly. In comparison to movies or television programs they are more interactive and immersive. Players of violent video games are engaged in virtual violent world, where they act in an aggressive way. Usually players have a control over other characters, receive rewards for cruel actions, and perfect their violent behavior. Children love this way of entertainment because they feel their advantages and strengths. When children play violent games every day cruel methods, used in games, become a part of their behavior in real life. The older they become the more convinced they are that violence is the best way to achieve something in life. Parents do not just allow violent video games, but play them together with their kids, making the situation even worth. Children perceive their parents as authority, model of behavior. That is why it is so important when adults control inappropriate material in the house and keep it far away from their children.

Along with parents, friends and neighborhood influence children when dealing with media violence. Friends spend a lot of time together and have a lot of common ways of entertainment. One of them is playing video games and watching movies containing violence. Children are more enthusiastic and inspired when they play or watch something in a company of friends. In this way they can transfer the game life into reality and repeat the actions of favorite video heroes with friends. It enhances a bad influence of media violence. Instead of making friendship stronger and getting the best things out of it children practice fighting and violent competition. They often aggressively communicate, develop brutal traits of character, and treat themselves not as friends but as enemies. Besides, not all the children are interested in violent video games or movies. There are a lot of children and adolescents who devote their free time to books, educational videos, and other useful ways of entertainment. But being in a company with children who adore violent video games, they come under their influence. This situation is very popular among teenagers who usually do what others seem cool or popular. And if somebody, for example, will not play a violent video, he will just fall out of the company. Usually children are afraid to be rara avis and try to match their friends’ interests. This is the biggest mistake. It is necessary to continue one’s own way and do what you, not others, like the most. In this way a child shows his personality. He is not afraid to lose the authority among his friends. On the contrary, he is developing his best qualities which will help to go through life without anger and violence. Real friends do not obtrude their interests in playing violent video games on others.

The company that influences a child can be not only in his neighborhood but also at school. A place where children get knowledge can be a source of spreading media violence and influence adolescents greatly. During classes children can watch videos or read materials which contain violence. Teachers are to explain each material with special attention as it may contain violent moments which kids can interpret too literally. Besides, violence can be present in teacher’s behavior. In all schools it is forbidden to use any violent actions toward children, otherwise a teacher will take the responsibility for doing harm. But still there are exceptions. Also aggressive behavior takes place among schoolmates. Very often children at school are divided into groups that have leaders. Not all the leaders behave in a proper way and use their authority humiliating others. So, school can have a big influence on the development of cruelty and violence in children.

Nowadays video game systems and entertainment media are very popular and accessible among youth. Entertainment material that contains violence is of special interest and that is why is considered dangerous for children who devote a lot of their free time to it. The negative influence of media violence can be explained with the help of such factors as psychological level, family, friends, and school. Each factor shows that video materials that contain violence and cruelty greatly change children’s behavior, making it aggressive and brutal. While a child does not have his character developed yet, it is very easy to affect this process and direct it to the wrong way. That is why it is so important when parents and friends control inappropriate material, protecting a child from the influence of media violence.

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Violence and Media Essay

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Keywords: media violence essay, violence in media essay

The effects of Media violence can cause physical aggression to the people, especially the youth. Media violence is described as the portrayal of physical action that hurts or kills. It might draw thoughts that lead one to believe that aggressive behavior might be attained in certain situations and might bring certain benefits. Violent entertainment is not only gained through television shows, but also in music lyrics and videos, commercials, video games, and movies. Most people are into violent movies, especially the adults. There are three reasons why people are attracted to violent entertainment. First, violent entertainment may hold an interest for some individuals. Second, people may experience post viewing enjoyment from viewing events, characters, and themes that appear in violent contexts. Lastly, violent media may contain themes that the audience may enjoy.

Teenagers who become violent adults are those who are aggressive and involved in some forms of antisocial behavior. There were two different reasons on the effects of media violence on aggressive behavior. First, the harmful effects of media violence are probably learned by the individual through multiple exposures. Second, short-term effects are highly linked to the imitation of violent visual images.

People witness, read, or hear of an event through the mass media. There are many effects of media violence that not all people know of. These effects can damage a human being’s thinking, especially a child’s.

I. Violent messages in the media

Violence in the media occurs in music videos, television shows, video games, and movies. Entertainment media contains a stabilized amount of violence. Good drama revolves around conflict, and violence is one of the most common consequences of conflict.

A study made by Armstrong in 2001 analyzed 490 gangsta rap songs released between 1987 and 1993. The results show that 22 percent are comprised of violent lyrics. Eminem’s top-selling album in 2000, named Marshall Mathers LP was reported to have contained violent lyrics in eleven out of the fourteen songs in the album. Furthermore, research on music videos was more focused on the images rather than the lyrics.

A study was conducted by Smith and Boyson in 2002 that analyzed 1,962 videos that were drawn randomly from three channels, namely BET, MTV, and VH-1. The results showed that only 15 percent of the videos featured physical aggression. However, rap (29 percent) and heavy metal (27 percent) were more likely than other genres (rock, 12 percent; rhythm and blues, 9 percent; adult contemporary, 7 percent) to contain violence. In conlusion, rap or hiphop is usually more violent than other music genres.

Furthermore, there were a series of five experiments reported recently by Anderson, Carnagey, and Eubanks (2003) about the effects of music lyrics on mass media violence. In their studies, there were seven aggressive songs by seven artists, and eight nonviolent songs by seven artists, utilized to be certain that the results were not because of one or two specific songs, artists, or genres.

The experimental studies propose that comprehensible violent lyrics can increase the violent thinking and affect the youth, but there were no published studies of the effects aggressive violent lyrics without video or the violent music videos.

In the study of children growing up, Huesmann et al. (2003), there were differences in the types of violence affiliated with early childhood exposure to media violence. Indirect aggression in children increases, because of early exposure to violence. An example of this is telling lies to get others in trouble and taking other people’s things because of anger.

George Gerbner found out that prime-time TV contains a large amount of violence. Children’s shows contain more violence than any other type of programming. The shows designed for kids have about 32 violent acts per hour. In relation, American Psychological Association (APA) reported that in the course of a lifetime, an average child will view more than 8000 murders and over 10000 acts of TV violence. Nearly 60 percent of all television programming contains an amount of violence. From the ages of 3 to 16, children spent more time in front of the television set than they spent in school.

Heavy television and media use leads people to identify reality as consistent with the portrayals they see on television.

Furthermore, annual reports of television status done by Gerbner and his colleagues were consistent over time. Approximately, 70 percent of primetime programs contained some violence. 94 percent of children’s shows contained violence. In other words, programs targeted to young viewers have the most violent content. Another study done by the National Television Violence Study (NVTS), documented that 69 percent of children’s programs contained more violence than that of non children’s programs, which only contained 57 percent of violence.

Approximately 100 percent of slapstick programs like Road Runner and Bugs Bunny contained violence, and almost all of superhero programs which contained only 57 percent.

Advertising has in its dynamics no motivation to seek the development of the individual or to convey qualities of social usefulness. It has no social goals and no social responsibility for its influence will affect (According to Potter). According to the report of the Federal Trade Commission, the average child sees 20,000 commercials a year, or about 3 hours of TV advertising a week. Many children regard advertising as just another form of programming and do not tell the difference between programs and ads.

In an advertisement for Domino’s Pizza, they invented a cartoon character named Noid. He finds ways to make pizza cold before people could eat it. Domino’s Pizza boasts of their fast delivery and special packing method that guaranteed the delivery of hot pizza. Their ad slogan was: One could avoid the Noid by ordering from Domino’s. One thing they didn’t know is that there was a man named Mr. Noid, he was a troubled person and he didn’t find yet find out what TV was all about. When Mr. Noid saw the pizza commercial that told the whole world to avoid the Noid, he was furios. The next thing people knew is that a man whose last name is Noid, held hostage the customers and employees at one of the Domino’s Pizza stores. He demanded to discontinue the avoid the Noid commercial.

Moreover, fictional violence is escalated day after day, program after program. Television is full of violence and it has not changed since the early 1970s. TV violence is a cause of aggressiveness, not the cause of aggressiveness.

Movies on the other hand are quite violent compared to other types of media content. According to the NTVS, approximately 90 percent of movies contain more violence whereas drama series only contain 70 percent, 35 percent of comedy series, and 35 percent of reality series. A study made by Yokota and Thompson in 2000 examined G-rated (General-rated) films showed between 1937 and 1999. The results showed that 74 movies at least contained one act of violence. Youths watching aggressive scenes display more violent behavior, violent thoughts, or violent emotions than others (Anderson, Berkowitz, Donnerstein, Huesmann, Johnson, Linz, Malamuth & Wartella).

Bjorkqvist (1985) let a 5 year old and a 6 year old Finnish child to watch either a violent or nonviolent films. Conversely with the children who had watched the nonviolent films, those who had viewed the violent film were assessed much higher on physical assault (hitting other children, wrestling, etc), as well as other types of violence. The exposure to media violence can cause to increase physical assaults who watched violent movies.

To summarize, movies frequently feature aggression, and there is some evidence that they are becoming more violent over time. Movies feature more violence than television programs do. Even comedy and horror films contain violence. Many theatrically released movies target male adolescents, and, therefore are highly likely to contain action, adventure, and violence.

Over the years, graphics have evolved. It has become so advanced that it is almost hard to tell whether a person on the screen is an animated image or a real human character. The game characters move in ways that are close to human movement. Many of the games seem to be more than exercises in virtual killing.

The media have trained children to associate violence and killing with delight. Video games that require a player to shoot a gun and react reflexively with the shooting response are teaching the entire generation of children to associate shooting with pleasure. Violent video games are transforming young people into homemade sociopaths who kill reflexively. Some teenagers are being influenced by video games, because they can’t separate the fiction they see on TV from the reality. Furthermore, playing aggressive video games can have short-term negative effects on the game-player’s emotional state.

The outcome the studies showed that playing violent games increased the adolescent’s violent behavior. Pinching, kicking, hitting is considered as physical violence between boys who had just played either a nonviolent or violent video game.

The rate of violence per minute is much higher in video games than in most violent TV programs or movies. For instance, Funk and Buchman (1996) found no difference in gender in overall preference for violent video games because girls and boys preferred violence. Girls chose the fantasy violence, whereas the boys chose the human violence. There was also a report of Cantor (1998) that males were more affiliated to justice restoring violent programming like Batman than females, but both was equally attracted to comedic violence.

In conclusion, violence is more persuasive in video games (68 percent) than on television (60 percent), it is commonly found in movies (90 percent), and rarely seen in music videos (15 percent). However, certain genres in each medium are more aggressive in nature. These are children’s cartoons, animated movies, rap or hiphop music, and Teen and Mature-rated video games. Many of these genres are targeted to the youth.

II. Factors that contribute to the effects of media violence

Gerbner has noted that portrayals of violence on TV are not violence, but just mere violent messages. When violence is portrayed by an attractive character, it is more likely to be learned and imitated, when violence appears to be condoned, when it is realistic, when it is rewarded, and when it results in giving small consequences to the victim.

Both males and females are influences by media violence, although the effects may be stronger for males (Paik & Comstock, 1994). Children who had seen more TV violence can be adults who commit more serious crimes, but not all children child who watched large amounts of violence on TV end up getting involved in a crime. Rowell Huesmann pointed out:

Aggressive habits seem to be learned in early life, and once established, are resistant to change and predictive of serious adult antisocial behavior. If a child’s observation of media violence promotes the learning of aggressive habits, it can have harmful lifelong consequences. Consistent with this theory, early television habits are in fact correlated with adult criminality. (Sparks, “Effects of media violence” 89)

Furthermore, the amount of TV violence children viewed enabled researchers to account for less than 10 percent of the crimes committed by children as they matured over the 22-year period.

Children must really see violent content in order to influence their behavior. Angry people and media violence is a volatile mix. If angry people always watch violence on TV, then they are more likely to act aggressively. Children and teenagers with aggressive personality may search for violent content because it helps them to justify their behaviors. People live in a world in which there is more violence than there might be without mass media. People are less trusting of their neighbors and more accepting of violence in their core.

Children from middle-to-upper socioeconomic status (SES) watch less TV violence than those children from households of a lower SES. The more television violence a person watches, the more that person can become aggressive. Parents who are violent in the home are encouraging and aggressive behaviors for their children. The risk of a child behaving aggressively can be heightened especially if there is violence in the home (Bauer et al, 2006). Moreover, a national study of more than 1000 children aged 6 to 12 found that violent television viewing and violent electronic game playing are associated to family conflict (Vanderwater, Lee, & Shim, 2005).

In addition, children who had troubled relationships with their parents and children who were classified as aggressive were more likely to turn to television for fantasy. TV violence can induce an aggressive effect only for the most susceptible individuals like boys from disadvantaged homes. Perhaps there was something else about the families of the children that predisposed them to watch either violent or non-violent programs at an early age. This may lead the children to either a life of crime or a life of civic responsibility. Moreover, children’s early TV viewing very likely did contribute to the criminal activity later in life.

III. Media violence and aggression

Early experiments were criticized for applying fabricated measures of aggression, for setting up situations in which adult models seem to condone aggression. Since then, field experiments have been conducted in more naturalistic settings and have found that watching television can increase the children’s real-life aggression against peers in social situations like playgrounds (Friedrich & Stein, 1973). TV shows like cartoons and non-animated programs can stimulate youth aggression at once after viewing, and that this effect can happen after exposure to even a single episode of a violent television show (Boyatzis, Matillo, & Nesbitt, 1973).

Moreover, a concern about copycat violence focuses on the effects of televised wrestling events. Lionel Tate, a 13-year old boy, was convicted in 2001 for killing a 6-year old girl by lifting her in the air and dropping her onto the table. If a child watched a person on TV who seemed very appealing and who received rewards for acting aggressively, then the child will more likely follow the character’s behavior. On the other hand, if a child saw a character who received punishment for acting aggressively, then the child might abstain from showing any aggressive actions in real life.

There is a tendency for children who watched higher levels of TV violence to also have a higher score on the ratings of aggressive behavior. There are certain things about TV violence and children that need to be understood. First, viewing TV violence could cause children to act more aggressively, particularly if the violent characters were appealing and receive awards for their actions. Second, the effects appeared most strongly for boys, not for girls. Boys turn out to be more sensitive to the effects of media violence. Lastly, the presence of appealing characters who receive awards for acting aggressively seems to advocate more aggressive behavior in children.

Video games have produced a controversy in the public arena after the Killings at Columbine High School in Colorado. This was done by two teenagers that attacked their classmates and teachers. They soon found out that the two teenagers were fond of playing Doom. In relation, a study was made back in 1988. It reported that children who played Jungle Hunt, a game involving a character who would jump from one vine to another in such a way that he would not fall, tended to play with a jungle swing toy. On the other hand, those who played Karateka, a game involving a protagonist who was controlled by the player and had a mission to hit, kick, and kill enough villains to save a damsel in distress, tended to play in an aggressive way with the karate bobo doll.

Rod Serling’s movie, The Doomsday Flight (1966), was about a jet plane which took off and established its flight path, a report then came in that the plane was carrying an altitude bomb. A terrorist had set the bomb to explode if the plane descended below 5,000 feet. In the end, the plane managed to land in Denver, which was barely 5,000 feet above sea level. The plan averted disaster and everyone lived happily ever after. Well not everyone, because even before the movie ended a bomb threat was phoned to one of the major airlines. Four more threats were phoned in during the next day, and eight more were reported by the weekend. In some cases the callers threatened to use exactly the same kind of altitude bomb motive depicted in the movie. Fortunately, none of these threats turned out to be real. The callers had been the victims of the copycat phenomenon, where people imitate the exact behaviors that they see depicted in the media. When these behaviors are violent or illegal, this becomes a significant social problem.

Another example of the copycat phenomenon is when The Burning Bed, a movie in 1984, starred Farrah Fawcett Majors as a battered wife who felt so desperately trapped by an abusive husband that she soaked her husband’s bed with gasoline while he slept.

Then, she set the bed and her husband ablaze. The film triggered some copycat consequences. Days after the movie was aired, several women around America who were victims of abuse decided to copy the behavior of the main character. They murdered their husbands by dousing the beds of their husbands with gasoline and setting it on fire.

Furthermore, children who were exposed early to television violence predicted subsequent adult aggression (Huesmann, 1986). It has been associated with an increased risk of adult aggression, even after for controlling family income, childhood neglect, psychiatric disorders, neighborhood violence, and parental education. An illustration by Ostrov, Gentile, and Crick (2006) asked 60 parents about their preschooler’s exposure to television programs, movies, and videogames over a two-year period. For boys, exposure to violent media predicted an increase in observed physical, verbal, and relational aggression four months later. For girls, violent media exposure was associated with a subsequent increase in verbal aggression only.

Conclusion

The harmful effects of media violence bring psychological impact to the minds of the youth especially in today’s generation. They do not know that these things can greatly affect their attitude and behavior as a person which might be a result of violence. They try to imitate what they see and what they hear from televisions, music lyrics or videos, movies, and video games, because of their curiosity.

Most scientists agreed that parents can be a strong force in reducing such media violence. They should let their children share their thoughts and fears about killings or death. Parents should also know the main risk factors of media violence to the youth and familiarize the programs and video games their children watched and played. They should avoid exposing their children to too much video games and television so that it would it would reduce violent behavior of their children.

No matter how strong the tendency to think otherwise, it is important to know that content does not equal to the effect. Media violence is certainly not the sole cause or even the most important contributor to youth aggression. Parents can actually reduce the risks associated with media violence by reducing exposure to television and videogames.


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Essay on Violence in mass media making children more violent

Essay on Violence in mass media making children more violent

The media has long been established as one of the most powerful means that can be used to influence behaviors. More and more families around the world are increasingly possessing televisions sets and radios. As a result, most children are adopting the media as their favorite pass time. With increased incidences of crime, several researches have been commissioned to identify the correlation between the media and violent behavior in children. Social theories have been employed to try and understand the link. However, not everyone agrees with the correlation media violence and violent behavior.

II.Argument 1

Critics have sought to dispel the argument that violence in the media results into more violent children. Several points have been put forth to advance their argument. First, they presuppose that males are intrinsically violent and, therefore the media violence does not do anything to aggravate this fact (Debate.org, par. 3). According to them wars and violence have always been part of life, and it’s the media that has copied that and not the other way round. In fact they are for the view that violent media helps male discharge their intrinsic violence in a safe manner (in the case of video games). 

The second point put forward is that media has contained violence for a very long time, and, therefore, older generations should have been impacted in the same way as the younger ones (Debate.org, par. 5).

The third point is aimed at the nature of research conducted to reach at a conclusion that media causes violent behavior in children. According to opponents, the aggression measures used do not really measure aggression (Ferguson, par. 8). Studies employ measures such as popping balloons, giving of noise bursts to opponents and completing fairy tales (Ferguson, par. 8). Research has shown that such predictors are not valid and cannot be used to depict aggression in the real world.

Even with some researches establishing weak links, there have been a lot of inconsistencies that are contrary to what is suggested by proponents. Negative effects are not consistently shown in the research as some studies actually do not show any negative effects (Ferguson, par. 9).

In the view of the critics, violence has more to do with underlying family personality problems. This is due to the fact that there are a good number of children who are exposed to same levels of violence in the media and do not exhibit violent tendencies.

III.Points to consider

According to the opponents’ views, people, especially males, are intrinsically violent and, therefore, the media does nothing to change the fact. If this is the case, then the violence in the media only aggravates the situation in children as it seems to validate their violent nature. The same applies to children that are born in families that have excessively violent personalities. Such, children can hold back their violence but they are inspired by the violence they witness in the media. Therefore, as per the argument advanced by critics, limiting the amount of violence exposed to children through media will reduce the amount of violence witnessed in kids.

 IV.Argument 2

Several studies have pointed towards the media for the increased incidences of violence in children. The increase in the amount of violence in films, television programs, and music has coincided with increased violent behaviors in children. Unlike the 60s and 70s when TV shows depicted happy families, today’s shows have more racy, violent, and sexual themes aimed at catching viewers’ attention (Bushman 538). The liberalized society has failed to question the use of sex and violence as a way promoting films and television shows. In most cases, the themes are used at the producers’ advantage.

Social learning theory has emphasized that children may learn aggression by viewing others do it. A study conducted by Bandura showed that many children model their behaviors based on what they see in the videos (Study Mode, par. 1). Indeed various studies have shown that children may become ‘immune” to the horror created by violence and, therefore, accept violence as a way of solving problems (Study Mode, par. 1). They may go as far as imitating the violence they see on television and identify with various characters (Study Mode, par. 1).

Clinical behavioral researches have shown valid connections between playing video games and aggression issues in children. This is not surprising as previous studies had shown that there was an increase of between 10 to 12 percent in aggressive behavior of children who are exposed to violent television (Ferguson, par. 1).

The combined findings of these researches have led to a wide range of conclusions. The American Psychological Association has arrived at three conclusions regarding the influence of media violence on children: first, children exposed to media violence tend to be less sensitive to pain experienced by other people; children exposed to violence in the media have tended to be more a lot more fearful in their immediate surroundings; and finally, children exposed to violence in the media tend to exhibit more aggressive behaviors towards other children (Study Mode, par. 4).

These arguments are valid in the sense that children are largely in the developmental stages of their lives. Children between 2 to 5 years are still trying to conceptualize their world through everything that they see. Therefore, when such children are exposed to violent media; they may tend to believe that its real and this could affect their development (Bushman 539).

V.Benefits to the society

It is clear to everyone that violence has increased to alarming rates in the current society. Violence is not good for anyone and, therefore, it should be the responsibility for everyone to identify ways of reducing violence. There is a lot of violence in the media, and everyone agrees to this. Given the fact that children are in the developmental stages of their lives, one cannot simply say that the violence they see in the television does not have any impact on them. If the findings of studies are not that convincing, then that should not be used as a reason to rule out the effects of violent media on children. It is true that man naturally violent but then it takes other factors to bring out the violence and the violent media might be playing a role in that.

VI.Compromise

I strongly believe that there is a link between violence in mass media and children becoming more aggressive or violent. Studies in this area has attracted sharp debates with critics stating that such studies are not valid as they don’t portray a real world scenario or simply stating that man is naturally violent.

It is indeed true that studies in this area have led to mixed findings and, therefore, critics should look at the various dynamics in play when such studies are being conducted. The randomized experiments employed often capture children with different personalities and backgrounds and, therefore, they will obviously not be affected in the same way. Then critics have also tended to misinterpret or selectively look at some studies while ignoring others. It is important that the two sides highlight similar studies in order to make meaningful gains.

It is also acceptable that there other factors that might contribute to violent behaviors in children. Researchers have acknowledged that fact and there point is that the violence exhibited is a confluence of those factors. The contribution of the media can thus be looked at as a mediator variable, meaning that it plays a role in actualizing violence.

All the two sides can agree then it will be possible to implement measures that will limit the exposure of children to violence through mass media. This would include measures such as encouraging parents to monitor and supervise video and television viewing by their children; empowering children on how to critically interpret violence in the media; and requesting the media industry to cut down on the amount of violence in their programs and films (American Psychological Association, par. 1-7).

 VII.Conclusion

If all the opposing parties in the debate regarding the effect of mass media violence on children can come to an agreement, them the world will be in a better position to reduce the increasing incidences of violence in the society. It is important to fast track the compromise for the future generations to live in a safer world.

Works Cited

http://www.apa.org/about/policy/media.aspx. 1 April 2013.

Bushman, Brad. “Priming Effects of Media violence on the Accessibility of Aggressive Constructs in Memory.” PSPB (1998): 537-545. Electronic.

. 24 August 2008. http://www.debate.org/debates/Violent-media-causes-people-to-be-violent-and-should-therefore-be-banned-or-censored./1/. 1 April 2013.

. 20 February 2013. http://www.familydoctormag.com/childrens-health/1529-media-violence-effect-on-children-experts-debate.html. 1 April 2013.

. October 2008. http://www.studymode.com/essays/Effects-Media-Violence-Children-172986.html. 1 April 2013.

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                 Racial profiling is the tactic of stopping someone because of the color of his or her skin and fleeting suspicion that the person is engaging in criminal behavior. This practice can be conducted with routine traffic stops, or can be completely random based on the car that is driven, or the number of people in the car and the race of the driver and the passengers. Racial profiling has been a part of the criminal justice system for a long time now, and is nothing new. The only reason why you hear a lot more about this topic is because the use of media has brought this very controversial topic to the public's attention a lot more than in the past. The question that remains unanswered is, is racial profiling good or bad, and does it really have an effect on the way police fight crime effectively
                
    Racial profiling can be broken down into two meanings, hard profiling and soft profiling. A case of hard profiling would be when a officer sees a black person and without more to go on, pulls him over for a pat-down on the chance that he may be carrying drugs or weapons. Soft profiling would a case like when the state police get a tip off that a certain nationality is trafficking drugs down a certain highway and like to drive a certain type of vehicle, and from this intelligence the trooper pulls over a person matching this stereotype in a hope to find drugs.
                
    The racial profiling debate focuses primarily on highway stops. The police are pulling over a disproportionate number of minority drivers for traffic offenses in order to look for drugs. The driver may have been speeding, but the reason why he pulled over that car, and not the car next to him, might have to do with the color of his skin. Highway stops should almost always be color blind, unless the officer has clues to go on to make the stop. The DEA taught state troopers come common identifying signs of drugs carriers. Nervousness was the number one trait seen, with o…

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    Discrimination

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    “Othering” redirects here. For the concept in phenomenology, see Other .
    This article is about the prejudicial treatment. For other uses, see Discrimination (disambiguation) .
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    Disclogo1.svg Discrimination portal
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    In human social affairs , discrimination is treatment or consideration of, or making a distinction towards, a person based on the group, class, or category to which the person is perceived to belong. These include age , colour , convictions for which a pardon has been granted or a record suspended, disability , ethnicity , family status , gender identity , genetic characteristics , marital status , nationality , race , religion , sex , and sexual orientation . [1] Discrimination consists of treatment of an individual or group, based on their actual or perceived membership in a certain group or social category, “in a way that is worse than the way people are usually treated”. [2] It involves the group’s initial reaction or interaction going on to influence the individual’s actual behavior towards the group leader or the group, restricting members of one group from opportunities or privileges that are available to another group, leading to the exclusion of the individual or entities based on illogical or irrational decision making. [3]

    Discriminatory traditions, policies, ideas, practices and laws exist in many countries and institutions in every part of the world, including in territories where discrimination is generally looked down upon. In some places, controversial attempts such as quotas have been used to benefit those who are believed to be current or past victims of discrimination—but they have sometimes been called reverse discrimination .

    Contents

    • 1 Etymology
    • 2 Definitions
    • 3 Types
      • 3.1 Age
      • 3.2 Caste
      • 3.3 Disability
      • 3.4 Language
      • 3.5 Name
      • 3.6 Nationality
      • 3.7 Race or ethnicity
      • 3.8 Region
      • 3.9 Religious beliefs
      • 3.10 Sex, sex characteristics, gender, and gender identity
      • 3.11 Sexual orientation
      • 3.12 Drug use
      • 3.13 Reverse discrimination
    • 4 Legislation
      • 4.1 United Nations documents
    • 5 Theories
      • 5.1 Labeling theory
      • 5.2 Game theory
    • 6 State vs. free market
    • 7 See also
    • 8 References
    • 9 External links

    Etymology[ edit ]

    The term discriminate appeared in the early 17th century in the English language. It is from the Latin discriminat- ‘distinguished between’, from the verb discriminare, from discrimen ‘distinction’, from the verb discernere. [4] Since the American Civil War the term “discrimination” generally evolved in American English usage as an understanding of prejudicial treatment of an individual based solely on their race, later generalized as membership in a certain socially undesirable group or social category. [5] “Discrimination” derives from Latin, where the verb discrimire means “to separate, to distinguish, to make a distinction”.

    Definitions[ edit ]

    Moral philosophers have defined discrimination as disadvantageous treatment or consideration. This is a comparative definition. An individual need not be actually harmed in order to be discriminated against. They just need to be treated worse than others for some arbitrary reason. If someone decides to donate to help orphan children, but decides to donate less, say, to black children out of a racist attitude, then they would be acting in a discriminatory way despite the fact that the people they discriminate against actually benefit by receiving a donation. [6] In addition to this discrimination develops into a source of oppression. It is similar to the action of recognizing someone as ‘different’ so much that they are treated inhumanly and degraded. [7]

    Based on realistic-conflict theory [8] and social-identity theory, [9] Rubin and Hewstone [10] have highlighted a distinction among three types of discrimination:

    1. Realistic competition is driven by self-interest and is aimed at obtaining material resources (e.g., food, territory, customers) for the in-group (e.g., favouring an in-group in order to obtain more resources for its members, including the self).
    2. Social competition is driven by the need for self-esteem and is aimed at achieving a positive social status for the in-group relative to comparable out-groups (e.g., favouring an in-group in order to make it better than an out-group).
    3. Consensual discrimination is driven by the need for accuracy[ clarification needed ] and reflects stable and legitimate intergroup status hierarchies (e.g., favouring a high-status in-group because it is high status).

    The United Nations stance on discrimination includes the statement: “Discriminatory behaviors take many forms, but they all involve some form of exclusion or rejection.” [11] International bodies United Nations Human Rights Council work towards helping ending discrimination around the world.

    Types[ edit ]

    Age[ edit ]

    Main article: Ageism
    Main article: Adultism

    Ageism or age discrimination is discrimination and stereotyping based on the grounds of someone’s age. [12] It is a set of beliefs, norms, and values which used to justify discrimination or subordination based on a person’s age. [13] Ageism is most often directed towards old people, or adolescents and children. [14] [15]

    Age discrimination in hiring has been shown to exist in the United States. Joanna Lahey, professor at The Bush School of Government and Public Service at Texas A&M , found that firms are more than 40% more likely to interview a young adult job applicant than an older job applicant. [16] In Europe, Stijn Baert, Jennifer Norga, Yannick Thuy and Marieke Van Hecke, researchers at Ghent University , measured comparable ratios in Belgium. They found that age discrimination is heterogeneous by the activity older candidates undertook during their additional post-educational years. In Belgium, they are only discriminated if they have more years of inactivity or irrelevant employment. [17]

    In a survey for the University of Kent , England, 29% of respondents stated that they had suffered from age discrimination. This is a higher proportion than for gender or racial discrimination. Dominic Abrams , social psychology professor at the university, concluded that ageism is the most pervasive form of prejudice experienced in the UK population. [18]

    Caste[ edit ]

    See also: Caste

    According to UNICEF and Human Rights Watch , caste discrimination affects an estimated 250 million people worldwide. [19] [20] [21] Discrimination based on caste, as perceived by UNICEF , is mainly prevalent in parts of Asia , ( India , Sri Lanka , Bangladesh , China , Pakistan , Nepal , Japan ), Africa and others. [19] As of 2011 [update] , there were 200 million Dalits or Scheduled Castes (formerly known as “untouchables”) in India. [22]

    Disability[ edit ]

    Main article: Disability discrimination

    Discrimination against people with disabilities in favor of people who are not is called ableism or disablism . Disability discrimination, which treats non-disabled individuals as the standard of ‘normal living’, results in public and private places and services, education, and social work that are built to serve ‘standard’ people, thereby excluding those with various disabilities. Studies have shown, employment is needed to not only provide a living but to sustain mental health and well-being. Work fulfils a number of basic needs for an individual such as collective purpose, social contact, status, and activity. [23] A person with a disability is often found to be socially isolated and work is one way to reduce isolation.

    In the United States, the Americans with Disabilities Act mandates the provision of equality of access to both buildings and services and is paralleled by similar acts in other countries, such as the Equality Act 2010 in the UK.[ citation needed ]

    Language[ edit ]

    This section needs additional citations for verification . Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources . Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (January 2012) ( Learn how and when to remove this template message )
    Main article: Linguistic discrimination

    Nationalists in Corsica sometimes spray-paint or shoot traffic signs in French .

    Diversity of language is protected and respected by most nations who value cultural diversity.[ dubious – discuss ] However, people are sometimes subjected to different treatment because their preferred language is associated with a particular group, class or category. Notable examples are the Anti-French sentiment in the United States as well as the Anti-Quebec sentiment in Canada targeting people who speak the French language. Commonly, the preferred language is just another attribute of separate ethnic groups .[ dubious – discuss ] Discrimination exists if there is prejudicial treatment against a person or a group of people who either do or do not speak a particular language or languages.

    Another noteworthy example of linguistic discrimination is the backdrop to the Bengali Language Movement in erstwhile Pakistan, a political campaign that played a key role in the creation of Bangladesh . In 1948, Mohammad Ali Jinnah declared Urdu as the national language of Pakistan and branded those supporting the use of Bengali , the most widely spoken language in the state, as enemies of the state. [24]

    Language discrimination is suggested to be labeled linguicism or logocism.[ by whom? ] Anti-discriminatory and inclusive efforts to accommodate persons who speak different languages or cannot have fluency in the country’s predominant or “official” language, is bilingualism such as official documents in two languages, and multiculturalism in more than two languages.[ citation needed ]

    Name[ edit ]

    Discrimination based on a person’s name may also occur, with research suggesting the presence of discrimination based on name meaning, pronunciation, uniqueness, gender affiliation, and racial affiliation. [25] [26] [27] [28] [29] Research has further shown that real world recruiters spend an average of just six seconds reviewing each résumé before making their initial “fit/no fit” screen-out decision and that a person’s name is one of the six things they focus on most. [30] France has made it illegal to view a person’s name on a résumé when screening for the initial list of most qualified candidates. Great Britain, Germany, Sweden, and the Netherlands have also experimented with name-blind résumé processes. [31] Some apparent discrimination may be explained by other factors such as name frequency. [32] The effects of name discrimination based on name fluency is subtle, small and subject significantly to changing norms. [33]

    Nationality[ edit ]

    Discrimination on the basis of nationality is usually included in employment laws [34] (see above section for employment discrimination specifically). It is sometimes referred to as bound together with racial discrimination [35] although it can be separate. It may vary from laws that stop refusals of hiring based on nationality, asking questions regarding origin, to prohibitions of firing, forced retirement, compensation and pay, etc., based on nationality.

    Discrimination on the basis of nationality may show as a “level of acceptance” in a sport or work team regarding new team members and employees who differ from the nationality of the majority of team members. [36]

    In the UAE and other GCC states, for instance, nationality is not frequently given to residents and expatriates. In the workplace, preferential treatment is given to full citizens, even though many of them lack experience or motivation to do the job. State benefits are also generally available for citizens only. [37]

    Race or ethnicity[ edit ]

    Main articles: Racism , Discrimination based on skin color , and Ethnic penalty

    Anti-Arab sign in Pattaya Beach , Thailand

    German warning in German-occupied Poland 1939 – ” No entrance for Poles !”

    Antisemitic graffiti in Lithuania . The signs read “Jews out” and “Hate”

    An African-American child at a segregated drinking fountain on a courthouse lawn, North Carolina , US 1938.

    Racial and ethnic discrimination differentiates individuals on the basis of real and perceived racial and ethnic differences and leads to various forms of the ethnic penalty . [38] [39] It has been official government policy in several countries, such as South Africa during the apartheid era. Discriminatory policies towards ethnic minorities include the race-based discrimination of ethnic Indians and Chinese in Malaysia [40] After the Vietnam war , many Vietnamese refugees moved to the United States , where they face discrimination. [41] Many studies report lower private sector earnings for racial minorities, although it is often difficult to determine the extent to which this is the result of racial discrimination. [42]

    As of 2013 [update] , aboriginal people ( First Nations , Métis , and Inuit ) comprise 4 percent of Canada ‘s population, but they account for 23.2 percent of the federal prison population. [43] According to the Australian government’s June 2006 publication of prison statistics, Aborigines make up 24% of the overall prison population in Australia . [44]

    In 2004, Māori made up just 15% of the total population of New Zealand but 49.5% of prisoners. Māori were entering prison at eight times the rate of non-Māori. [45] A quarter of the people in England ‘s prisons are from an ethnic minority. The Equality and Human Rights Commission found that in England and Wales as of 2010 [update] , a black person was five times more likely to be imprisoned than a white person. The discrepancy was attributed to “decades of racial prejudice in the criminal justice system”. [46]

    In the United States, racial profiling of minorities by law-enforcement officials has been called racial discrimination. [47]
    Within the criminal justice system in the United States, minorities are convicted and imprisoned disproportionately when compared to the majority. [48] [49] As early as 1866, the Civil Rights Act and Civil Rights Act of 1871 provided a remedy for intentional racism in employment by private employers and state and local public employers. The Civil Rights Act of 1991 expanded the damages available in Title VII cases and granted Title VII plaintiffs the right to a jury trial.

    Racial discrimination in hiring has been shown to exist in the United States and in Europe. [50] [51] Using a field experiment, Marianne Bertrand and Sendhil Mullainathan showed that applications from job candidates with white-sounding names received 50 percent more callbacks for interviews than those with African-American-sounding names in the United States at the start of this millennium. [52] A 2009 study by Devah Pager , Bruce Western , and Bart Bonikowski found that black applicants to low-wage jobs were half as likely as identically qualified white applicants to receive callbacks or job offers. [53] More recently, Stijn Baert, Bart Cockx, Niels Gheyle and Cora Vandamme replicated and extended their field experiment in Belgium, Europe. They found that racial discrimination in the labour market is heterogeneous by the labour market tightness in the occupation: compared to natives, candidates with a foreign-sounding name are equally often invited to a job interview in Belgium if they apply for occupations for which vacancies are difficult to fill, but they have to send twice as many applications for occupations for which labor market tightness is low. [54]

    Region[ edit ]

    See also: Regional discrimination in China

    Regional or geographic discrimination is discrimination based on the region in which a person lives or was born. It differs from national discrimination in that it may not be based on national borders or the country the victim lives in, but is instead based on prejudices against a specific region of one or more countries. Examples include discrimination against Chinese born in countryside far from city within China, and discrimination against Americans from the southern or northern regions of the United States. It is often accompanied by discrimination based on accent, dialect, or cultural differences.[ citation needed ]

    Religious beliefs[ edit ]

    Main article: Religious discrimination
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    In the 1990s, Bhutan expelled or forced to leave its Hindu population in the name of preserving its Buddhist culture and identity.

    Religious discrimination is valuing or treating a person or group differently because of what they do or do not believe or because of their feelings towards a given religion. For instance, the indigenous Christian population of the Balkans , known as the “rayah” or the “protected flock”, was discriminated against under the Ottoman Kanun–i–Rayah. The word is sometimes translated as ‘cattle’ rather than ‘flock’ or ‘subjects’ in order to emphasize the Christian population’s inferior status to that of the Muslim rayah. [55] [ further explanation needed ]

    Restrictions upon Jewish occupations were imposed by Christian authorities. Local rulers and church officials closed many professions to religious Jews, pushing them into marginal roles considered socially inferior, such as tax and rent collecting and moneylending , occupations only tolerated as a “necessary evil”. [56] The number of Jews permitted to reside in different places was limited; they were concentrated in ghettos and were not allowed to own land.

    In a 1979 consultation on the issue, the United States commission on civil rights defined religious discrimination in relation to the civil rights guaranteed by the Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution . Whereas religious civil liberties, such as the right to hold or not to hold a religious belief, are essential for Freedom of Religion (in the United States secured by the First Amendment ), religious discrimination occurs when someone is denied “the equal protection of the laws, equality of status under the law, equal treatment in the administration of justice, and equality of opportunity and access to employment, education, housing, public services and facilities, and public accommodation because of their exercise of their right to religious freedom”. [57]

    In 2015, attorney and author Roberta Kaplan stated that Kentucky county clerk Kim Davis “is the clearest example of someone who wants to use a religious liberty argument to discriminate”. [58]

    Sex, sex characteristics, gender, and gender identity[ edit ]

    Main article: Sexism
    See also: Misogyny , Misandry , Discrimination against intersex people , Transphobia , and Discrimination towards non-binary gender persons

    Though gender discrimination and sexism refer to beliefs and attitudes in relation to the gender of a person, such beliefs and attitudes are of a social nature and do not, normally, carry any legal consequences. Sex discrimination, on the other hand, may have legal consequences. Though what constitutes sex discrimination varies between countries, the essence is that it is an adverse action taken by one person against another person that would not have occurred had the person been of another sex. Discrimination of that nature is considered a form of prejudice and in certain enumerated circumstances is illegal in many countries.

    Sexual discrimination can arise in different contexts. For instance, an employee may be discriminated against by being asked discriminatory questions during a job interview, or by an employer not hiring or promoting, unequally paying, or wrongfully terminating, an employee based on their gender.

    The gender gap in median earnings of full-time employees according to the OECD 2015. [59]

    Sexual discrimination can also arise when the dominant group holds a bias against the minority group. One such example is Wikipedia. In the Wikipedian community, around 13 percent of registered users are women. [60] This creates gender imbalances, and leaves room for systemic bias . Women are not only more harshly scrutinized, but the representation of women authors are also overlooked. Relative to men, across all source lists, women have a 2.6 greater odds of omission in Wikipedia. [61] In an educational setting, there could be claims that a student was excluded from an educational institution, program, opportunity, loan, student group, or scholarship because of their gender. In the housing setting, there could be claims that a person was refused negotiations on seeking a house, contracting/leasing a house or getting a loan based on their gender. Another setting where there have been claims of gender discrimination is banking; for example if one is refused credit or is offered unequal loan terms based on one’s gender. [62] As with other forms of unlawful discrimination, there are two types of sex discrimination – direct discrimination and indirect discrimination. Direct sex discrimination is fairly easy to spot – ‘Barmaid wanted’, but indirect sex discrimination, where an unnecessary requirement puts one sex at a disproportionate disadvantage compared to the opposite sex, is sometimes less easy to spot, although some are obvious – ‘Bar person wanted – must look good in a mini skirt’. [63] Another setting where there is usually gender discrimination is when one is refused to extend their credit, refused approval of credit/loan process, and if there is a burden of unequal loan terms based on one’s gender.
    Socially, sexual differences have been used to justify different roles for men and women , in some cases giving rise to claims of primary and secondary roles. While there are alleged non-physical differences between men and women, major reviews of the academic literature on gender difference find only a tiny minority of characteristics where there are consistent psychological differences between men and women, and these relate directly to experiences grounded in biological difference. [64] [ not in citation given ] However, there are also some psychological differences in regard to how problems are dealt with and emotional perceptions and reactions that may relate to hormones and the successful characteristics of each gender during longstanding roles in past primitive lifestyles.

    Median weekly earnings of full-time wage and salary workers, by sex, race, and ethnicity, U.S., 2009. [65]

    Unfair discrimination usually follows the gender stereotyping held by a society. [66]

    The United Nations had concluded that women often experience a ” glass ceiling ” and that there are no societies in which women enjoy the same opportunities as men. [67] The term “glass ceiling” is used to describe a perceived barrier to advancement in employment based on discrimination, especially sex discrimination. [68] In the United States in 1995, the Glass Ceiling Commission, a government-funded group, stated: “Over half of all Master’s degrees are now awarded to women, yet 95% of senior-level managers, of the top Fortune 1000 industrial and 500 service companies are men. Of them, 97% are white.” In its report, it recommended affirmative action , which is the consideration of an employee’s gender and race in hiring and promotion decisions, as a means to end this form of discrimination. [69] As of 2010 [update] , women accounted for 51% of workers in high-paying management, professional, and related occupations. They outnumbered men in such occupations as public relations managers, financial managers, and human resource managers. [70]

    In addition, women are found to experience a sticky floor . While a glass ceiling implies that women are less like to reach the top of the job ladder, a sticky floor is defined as the pattern that women are, compared to men, less likely to start to climb the job ladder. A sticky floor is related to gender differences at the bottom of the wage distribution. It might be explained by both employer discrimination and gender differences in career aspirations. [71]

    Intersex persons experience discrimination due to innate, atypical sex characteristics . Multiple jurisdictions now protect individuals on grounds of intersex status or sex characteristics . South Africa was the first country to explicitly add intersex to legislation, as part of the attribute of ‘sex’. [72] Australia was the first country to add an independent attribute, of ‘intersex status’. [73] [74] Malta was the first to adopt a broader framework of ‘sex characteristics’, through legislation that also ended modifications to the sex characteristics of minors undertaken for social and cultural reasons. [75] [76]

    Transgender individuals, whether male-to-female, female-to-male, or genderqueer , often experience transphobic problems that often lead to dismissals, underachievement, difficulty in finding a job, social isolation, and, occasionally, violent attacks against them. Nevertheless, the problem of gender discrimination does not stop at transgender individuals or with women. Men are often the victim in certain areas of employment as men begin to seek work in office and childcare settings traditionally perceived as “women’s jobs”. One such situation seems to be evident in a recent case concerning alleged YMCA discrimination and a Federal Court Case in Texas. [77] The case actually involves alleged discrimination against both men and black people in childcare, even when they pass the same strict background tests and other standards of employment. It is currently being contended in federal court, as of fall 2009.

    Discrimination in slasher films is relevant. Gloria Cowan had a research group study on 57 different slasher films. Their results showed that the non-surviving females were more frequently sexual than the surviving females and the non-surviving males. Surviving as a female slasher victim was strongly associated with the absence of sexual behavior. In slasher films, the message appears to be that sexual women get killed and only the pure women survive, thus reinforcing the idea that female sexuality can be costly. [78]

    Sexual orientation[ edit ]

    LGBT activists at Cologne Pride carrying a banner with the flags of over 70 countries where homosexuality is illegal .

    Protests in New York City against Uganda’s Anti-Homosexuality Bill .

    See also: Heterosexism , Heteronormativity , Biphobia , and Homophobia

    One’s sexual orientation is a “predilection for homosexuality, heterosexuality, or bisexuality”. [79] Like most minority groups, homosexuals and bisexuals are vulnerable to prejudice and discrimination from the majority group. They may experience hatred from others because of their sexual preferences; a term for such hatred based upon one’s sexual orientation is often called homophobia . Many continue to hold negative feelings towards those with non-heterosexual orientations and will discriminate against people who have them or are thought to have them. People of other uncommon sexual orientations also experience discrimination. One study found its sample of heterosexuals to be more prejudiced against asexuals than to homosexuals or bisexuals. [80]

    Employment discrimination based on sexual orientation varies by country. Revealing a lesbian sexual orientation (by means of mentioning an engagement in a rainbow organisation or by mentioning one’s partner name) lowers employment opportunities in Cyprus and Greece but overall, it has no negative effect in Sweden and Belgium . [81] [82] [83] [84] In the latter country, even a positive effect of revealing a lesbian sexual orientation is found for women at their fertile ages.

    Besides these academic studies, in 2009, ILGA published a report based on research carried out by Daniel Ottosson at Södertörn University College, Stockholm, Sweden. This research found that of the 80 countries around the world that continue to consider homosexuality illegal, five carry the death penalty for homosexual activity, and two do in some regions of the country. [85] In the report, this is described as “State sponsored homophobia”. [86] This happens in Islamic states, or in two cases regions under Islamic authority. [87] [88] On February 5, 2005, the IRIN issued a reported titled “Iraq: Male homosexuality still a taboo”. The article stated, among other things that honor killings by Iraqis against a gay family member are common and given some legal protection. [89] In August 2009, Human Rights Watch published an extensive report detailing torture of men accused of being gay in Iraq , including the blocking of men’s anuses with glue and then giving the men laxatives. [90] Although gay marriage has been legal in South Africa since 2006, same-sex unions are often condemned as “un-African”. [91] Research conducted in 2009 shows 86% of black lesbians from the Western Cape live in fear of sexual assault. [92]

    Further information: LGBT rights by country or territory

    A number of countries, especially those in the Western world , have passed measures to alleviate discrimination against sexual minorities, including laws against anti-gay hate crimes and workplace discrimination. Some have also legalized same-sex marriage or civil unions in order to grant same-sex couples the same protections and benefits as opposite-sex couples. In 2011, the United Nations passed its first resolution recognizing LGBT rights.

    Drug use[ edit ]

    Global Marijuana March , Paris.

    Main article: Discrimination against drug addicts
    See also: Responsible drug use

    Drug use discrimination is the unequal treatment people experience because of the drugs they use. [93] People who use or have used illicit drugs may face discrimination in employment, welfare, housing, child custody, and travel, [94] [95] [96] [97] in addition to imprisonment, asset forfeiture, and in some cases forced labor, torture, and execution. [98] [99] Though often prejudicially stereotyped as deviants and misfits, most drug users are well-adjusted and productive members of society. [100] [101] Drug prohibitions may have been partly motivated by racism and other prejudice against minorities, [102] [103] [104] and racial disparities have been found to exist in the enforcement and prosecution of drug laws. [105] [106] [107] Discrimination due to illicit drug use was the most commonly reported type of discrimination among Blacks and Latinos in a 2003 study of minority drug users in New York City, double to triple that due to race. [108] People who use legal drugs such as tobacco and prescription medications may also face discrimination. [109] [110] [111]

    Ideas of self-ownership and cognitive liberty affirm rights to use drugs, whether for medicine [112] [113] [114] recreation , [115] [116] [117] or spiritual fulfilment . [118] [119] [120] Those espousing such ideas question the legality of drug prohibition and cite the rights and freedoms enshrined in such documents as the Declaration of Independence , the U.S. Constitution and Bill of Rights , [121] [122] the European Convention on Human Rights , [123] [124] and the Universal Declaration of Human Rights , [125] as protecting personal drug choices . They are inspired by and see themselves following in the tradition of those who have struggled against other forms of discrimination in the past. [126]

    Drug policy reform organizations such as the Drug Policy Alliance , [127] the Drug Equality Alliance , [128] the Transform Drug Policy Foundation , [129] and the Beckley Foundation [130] have highlighted the issue of stigma and discrimination in drug policy. The Partnership for Drug-Free Kids also recognizes this issue [131] and shares on its website stories that “break through the stigma and discrimination that people with drug or drinking problems often face.” [132]

    A report issued by the Global Commission on Drug Policy , critical of the global war on drugs, [133] states, under “Undermining Human Rights, Fostering Discrimination”:

    Punitive approaches to drug policy are severely undermining human rights in every region of the world. They lead to the erosion of civil liberties and fair trial standards, the stigmatization of individuals and groups – particularly women, young people, and ethnic minorities – and the imposition of abusive and inhumane punishments. [134]

    Although still illegal at the federal level, about half of U.S. states have legalized marijuana for medical use and several of those states have laws, or are considering legislation, specifically protecting medical marijuana patients from discrimination in such areas as education, employment, housing, child custody, and organ transplantation. [135] [136] [137]

    Reverse discrimination[ edit ]

    Main article: Reverse discrimination
    See also: Bumiputera (Malaysia)

    Students protesting against racial quotas in Brazil: “Quer uma vaga? Passe no vestibular!” (“Do you want a spot? Pass the entrance exam!”)

    In the US, a government policy known as affirmative action was instituted to encourage employers and universities to seek out and accept groups such as African Americans and women, who have been subject to discrimination for a long time. [138]

    Some attempts at antidiscrimination have been criticized as reverse discrimination. In particular, minority quotas (for example, affirmative action ) may discriminate against members of a dominant or majority group or other minority groups. In its opposition to race preferences, the American Civil Rights Institute’s Ward Connerly stated, “There is nothing positive, affirmative, or equal about ‘affirmative action’ programs that give preference to some groups based on race.” [139]

    Legislation[ edit ]

    Globe icon.
    The examples and perspective in this section may not represent a worldwide view of the subject. You may improve this article , discuss the issue on the talk page , or create a new article , as appropriate. (May 2010) ( Learn how and when to remove this template message )
    Main article: List of anti-discrimination acts

    Australia

    • Sex Discrimination Act 1984

    Canada

    • Ontario Human Rights Code 1962
    • Canadian Human Rights Act 1977

    Hong Kong

    • Sex Discrimination Ordinance (1996)

    Israel

    • Prohibition of Discrimination in Products, Services and Entry into Places of Entertainment and Public Places Law, 2000
    • Employment (Equal Opportunities) Law, 1988

    Netherlands

    • Article 137c, part 1 of Wetboek van Strafrecht prohibits insults towards a group because of its race, religion, sexual orientation (straight or gay), handicap (somatically, mental or psychiatric) in public or by speech, by writing or by a picture. Maximum imprisonment one year of imprisonment or a fine of the third category. [140] [141]
    • Part 2 increases the maximum imprisonment to two years and the maximum fine category to 4, [142] when the crime is committed as a habit or is committed by two or more persons.
    • Article 137d prohibits provoking to discrimination or hate against the group described above. Same penalties apply as in article 137c. [143]
    • Article 137e part 1 prohibits publishing a discriminatory statement, other than in formal message, or hands over an object (that contains discriminatory information) otherwise than on his request. Maximum imprisonment is 6 months or a fine of the third category. [140] [144]
    • Part 2 increases the maximum imprisonment to one year and the maximum fine category to 4, [142] when the crime is committed as a habit or committed by two or more persons.
    • Article 137f prohibits supporting discriminatory activities by giving money or goods. Maximum imprisonment is 3 months or a fine of the second category. [145] [146]

    United Kingdom

    • Equal Pay Act 1970 – provides for equal pay for comparable work
    • Sex Discrimination Act 1975 – makes discrimination against women or men, including discrimination on the grounds of marital status, illegal in the workplace.
    • Human Rights Act 1998 – provides more scope for redressing all forms of discriminatory imbalances

    United States

    • Equal Pay Act of 1963 [147] – (part of the Fair Labor Standards Act ) – prohibits wage discrimination by employers and labor organizations based on sex
    • Civil Rights Act of 1964 – many provisions, including broadly prohibiting discrimination in the workplace including hiring, firing, workforce reduction, benefits, and sexually harassing conduct [148]
    • Fair Housing Act of 1968 prohibited discrimination in the sale or rental of housing based on race, color, national origin, religion, sex, familial status, or disability. The Office of Fair Housing and Equal Opportunity is charged with administering and enforcing the Act.
    • Pregnancy Discrimination Act , which amended Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 – covers discrimination based upon pregnancy in the workplace [149]
    • Violence Against Women Act
    • Racism is still rampant in real estate [150]

    United Nations documents[ edit ]

    Important UN documents addressing discrimination include:

    • The Universal Declaration of Human Rights is a declaration adopted by the United Nations General Assembly on 10 December 1948. It states that:” Everyone is entitled to all the rights and freedoms set forth in this Declaration, without distinction of any kind, such as race, colour, sex, language, religion, political or other opinion, national or social origin, property, birth or other status. [151]
    • The International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination (ICERD) is a United Nations convention. The Convention commits its members to the elimination of racial discrimination . The convention was adopted and opened for signature by the United Nations General Assembly on 21 December 1965, and entered into force on 4 January 1969.
    • The Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW) is an international treaty adopted in 1979 by the United Nations General Assembly. Described as an international bill of rights for women, it came into force on 3 September 1981.
    • The Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities is an international human rights instrument treaty of the United Nations. Parties to the Convention are required to promote, protect, and ensure the full enjoyment of human rights by persons with disabilities and ensure that they enjoy full equality under the law. The text was adopted by the United Nations General Assembly on 13 December 2006, and opened for signature on 30 March 2007. Following ratification by the 20th party, it came into force on 3 May 2008.

    Theories[ edit ]

    Social theories such as egalitarianism assert that social equality should prevail. In some societies, including most developed countries, each individual’s civil rights include the right to be free from government sponsored social discrimination. [152] Due to a belief in the capacity to perceive pain or suffering shared by all animals, “abolitionist” or “vegan” egalitarianism maintains that the interests of every individual (regardless its species), warrant equal consideration with the interests of humans, and that not doing so is ” speciesist “. [153]

    Labeling theory[ edit ]

    Discrimination, in labeling theory , takes form as mental categorization of minorities and the use of stereotype . This theory describes difference as deviance from the norm, which results in internal devaluation and social stigma [154] that may be seen as discrimination. It is started by describing a “natural” social order. It is distinguished between the fundamental principle of fascism and social democracy.[ clarification needed ] The Nazis in 1930s-era Germany and the pre-1990 Apartheid government of South Africa used racially discriminatory agendas for their political ends. This practice continues with some present day governments. [155]

    Game theory[ edit ]

    Economist Yanis Varoufakis (2013) argues that “discrimination based on utterly arbitrary characteristics
    evolves quickly and systematically in the experimental laboratory”, and that neither classical game theory nor neoclassical economics can explain this. [156] Varoufakis and Shaun Hargreaves-Heap (2002) ran an experiment where volunteers played a computer-mediated, multiround hawk-dove game (HD game). At the start of each session, each participant was assigned a color at random, either red or blue. At each round, each player learned the color assigned to his or her opponent, but nothing else about the opponent. Hargreaves-Heap and Varoufakis found that the players’ behavior within a session frequently developed a discriminatory convention, giving a Nash equilibrium where players of one color (the “advantaged” color) consistently played the aggressive “hawk” strategy against players of the other, “disadvantaged” color, who played the acquiescent “dove” strategy against the advantaged color. Players of both colors used a mixed strategy when playing against players assigned the same color as their own.

    The experimenters then added a cooperation option to the game, and found that disadvantaged players usually cooperated with each other, while advantaged players usually did not. They state that while the equilibria reached in the original HD game are predicted by evolutionary game theory , game theory does not explain the emergence of cooperation in the disadvantaged group. Citing earlier psychological work of Matthew Rabin , they hypothesize that a norm of differing entitlements emerges across the two groups, and that this norm could define a “fairness” equilibrium within the disadvantaged group. [157]

    State vs. free market[ edit ]

    It is debated as to whether or not markets discourage discrimination brought about by the state. One argument is that since discrimination restricts access to customers and incurs additional expense, market logic will punish discrimination. Opposition by companies to “Jim Crow” segregation laws is an example of this. [158] An alternative argument is that markets don’t necessarily undermine discrimination, as it is argued that if discrimination is profitable by catering to the “tastes” of individuals (which is the point of the market), then the market will not punish discrimination. It is argued that microeconomic analysis of discrimination uses unusual methods to determine its effects (using explicit treatment of production functions) and that the very existence of discrimination in employment (defined as wages which differ from marginal product of the discriminated employees) in the long run contradicts claims that the market will function well and punish discrimination. [159] [160]

    See also[ edit ]

    • Discrimination portal
    • Sociology portal
    • Ableism
    • Adultism
    • Affirmative action
    • Ageism
    • Allport’s Scale
    • Anti-discrimination law
    • Antisemitism
    • Antiziganism
    • Apartheid
    • Apostasy in Islam
    • Arab Slave Trade
    • Colorism
    • Cultural assimilation
    • Dignity
    • Discrimination against people with HIV/AIDS
    • Economic discrimination
    • Employment discrimination
    • Egalitarianism
    • Equal opportunity
    • Equal rights
    • Ethnic penalty
    • Favortism
    • Genetic discrimination
    • Genocide
    • Heightism
    • Ingroups and outgroups
    • Institutionalized discrimination
    • Intersectionality
    • Intersex human rights
    • List of countries by discrimination and violence against minorities
    • Microaggression theory
    • Persecution
    • Racial segregation
    • Racism
    • Realistic conflict theory
    • Replication crisis
    • Reverse discrimination
    • Second-class citizen
    • Sexism
    • Sizeism
    • Slavery
    • Social conflict
    • Speciesism
    • State racism
    • Statistical discrimination (economics)
    • Stereotype
    • Stigma management
    • Structural violence
    • Xenophobia

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    77. ^ Noack v YMCA of Greater Houston Area, 132, S. Ct.425 (US, 2011)
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    81. ^ Drydakis, N. (2011) Women’s Sexual Orientation and Labor Market Outcomes in Greece. Feminist Economics, 17, 89-117.
    82. ^ Drydakis, N. (2014) Sexual Orientation Discrimination in the Cypriot Labour Market: Distastes or Uncertainty? International Journal of Manpower, 35, 720-744.
    83. ^ Ahmed, A. M., Andersson, L., Hammarstedt, M. (2011) Are gays and lesbians discriminated against in the hiring situation? Institute for Labour Market Policy Evaluation Working Paper Series 21.
    84. ^ Baert, S. (2014) Career Lesbians. Getting Hired for Not Having Kids? Industrial Relations, 45, 543-561.
    85. ^ ” New Benefits for Same-Sex Couples May Be Hard to Implement Abroad “. ABC News. June 22, 2009.
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      illicit drugs experience discrimination.” “We define drug use discrimination as experiences of rejection and unequal treatment attributed to drug
      use.”
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    99. ^ Dehghan, Saeed Kamali (2012-06-25). “Iranian pair face death penalty after third alcohol offence” . The Guardian. Retrieved 2015-07-01. “Under Iranian Sharia law, certain crimes such as sodomy, rape, theft, fornication, apostasy and consumption of alcohol for the third time are considered to be “claims of God” and therefore have mandatory death sentences.”
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    101. ^ Nicholson, T; White, J; Duncan, D (1998-11-01). “Drugnet: A Pilot Study of Adult Recreational Drug Use via the WWW”. Substance Abuse. 19 (3): 109–121. doi : 10.1080/08897079809511380 . PMID   12511811 . This survey further documents the existence of a nonclinical population of drug users which is generally healthy, well-adjusted, and productive. 
    102. ^ Block, Frederic (2013-01-03). “Racism’s Hidden History in the War on Drugs” . Huffington Post. Retrieved 2015-07-05. A 1914 New York Times article proclaimed: “Negro Cocaine ‘Fiends’ Are a New Southern Menace: Murder and Insanity Increasing Among Lower Class Blacks Because They Have Taken to ‘Sniffing.'” A Literary Digest article from the same year claimed that “most of the attacks upon women in the South are the direct result of the cocaine-crazed Negro brain.” It comes as no surprise that 1914 was also the year Congress passed the Harrison Tax Act, effectively outlawing opium and cocaine. 
    103. ^ Staples, Brent (2014-07-29). “The Federal Marijuana Ban Is Rooted in Myth and Xenophobia” . New York Times. Retrieved 2015-07-05. As the legal scholars Richard Bonnie and Charles Whitebread explain in their authoritative history, “The Marihuana Conviction,” the drug’s popularity among minorities and other groups practically ensured that it would be classified as a “narcotic,” attributed with addictive qualities it did not have, and set alongside far more dangerous drugs like heroin and morphine. 
    104. ^ Sandy, Kathleen R. (2003). “The Discrimination Inherent in America’s Drug War: Hidden Racism Revealed by Examining the Hysteria over Crack” (PDF). Alabama Law Review. 54 (2): 665–693. Retrieved 2015-07-05. Myths about the “superhuman strength, cunning and efficiency” of the Negro on cocaine flourished in the South. Such myths included ideas such as cocaine induced Black men to rape White women, cocaine improved Black marksmanship, and cocaine made Blacks impervious to .32 caliber bullets (“caus[ing] southern police departments to switch to .38 caliber revolvers”). 
    105. ^ McKinley Jr., James (2014-07-08). “Study Finds Racial Disparity in Criminal Prosecutions” . New York Times. Retrieved 2015-07-06. One of the starkest disparities emerged in the prosecution of misdemeanor drug crimes like possession of marijuana or cocaine. The study found blacks were 27 percent more likely than whites to receive jail or prison time for misdemeanor drug offenses, while Hispanic defendants were 18 percent more likely to be incarcerated for those crimes. 
    106. ^ Kurtzleben, Danielle (2010-08-03). “Data Show Racial Disparity in Crack Sentencing” . U.S. News and World Report. Archived from the original on 2015-07-06. Retrieved 2015-07-06. According to U.S. Sentencing Commission figures, no class of drug is as racially skewed as crack in terms of numbers of offenses. According to the commission, 79 percent of 5,669 sentenced crack offenders in 2009 were black, versus 10 percent who were white and 10 percent who were Hispanic. 
    107. ^ Berman, Douglas; Protass, Harlan (2013-07-29). “Obama Can Fix the Race Gap in Sentencing Law” . Slate. Retrieved 2015-07-06. …from 1988 to 1995 not a single white person was charged with crack-related crimes in 17 states, including major cities such as Boston, Denver, Chicago, Miami, Dallas, and Los Angeles. 
    108. ^ Minor, T; Galea, S; Ahern, J; Ompad, D (Fall 2003). “Racial differences in discrimination experiences and responses among minority substance users”. Ethnicity & Disease. 13 (4): 521–7. PMID   14632272 .  500 Black and 419 Latino active substance users.
    109. ^ A. G., Sulszberger (2011-02-11). “Hospitals Shift Smoking Bans to Smoker Ban” . New York Times. Retrieved 2015-07-04. Smokers have been turned away from jobs in the past — prompting more than half the states to pass laws rejecting bans on smokers — but the recent growth in the number of companies adopting no-smoker rules has been driven by a surge of interest among health care providers, according to academics, human resources experts and tobacco opponents.  “Some even prohibit nicotine patches.”
    110. ^ Hargrove, Dorian (2011-01-19). “Antismoking Law: Where Do the Smoker’s Rights End?” . San Diego Reader. Retrieved 2015-07-04. According to the American Lung Association’s Center for Tobacco Policy and Organizing, 12 cities and 1 county in California have adopted ordinances that ban smoking in some percentage of multiunit apartment buildings. 
    111. ^ Katie, Zezima; Goodnough, Abby (2010-10-24). “Drug Testing Poses Quandary for Employers” . New York Times. Retrieved 2015-07-04. What companies consider an effort to maintain a safe work environment is drawing complaints from employees who cite privacy concerns and contend that they should not be fired for taking legal medications, sometimes for injuries sustained on the job. 
    112. ^ Flanigan J (October 2012). “Three arguments against prescription requirements”. Journal of Medical Ethics. 38 (10): 579–86. doi : 10.1136/medethics-2011-100240 . PMID   22844026 . 
    113. ^ Kerry Howley (August 1, 2005). “Self-Medicating in Burma: Pharmaceutical freedom in an outpost of tyranny” . Reason. Retrieved 2015-07-01. 
    114. ^ Daniel Schorn (February 11, 2009). “Prisoner Of Pain” . 60 Minutes. Retrieved 2015-07-01. 
    115. ^ Emily Dufton (Mar 28, 2012). “The War on Drugs: Should It Be Your Right to Use Narcotics?” . The Atlantic. Retrieved 2015-07-01. 
    116. ^ Doug Bandow (2012). “From Fighting the Drug War to Protecting the Right to Use Drugs – Recognizing a Forgotten Liberty”. Towards a Worldwide Index of Human Freedom (PDF). Chapter 10. Fraser Institute. pp. 253–280. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2015-09-24. Retrieved 2015-07-01. 
    117. ^ Thomas Szasz (1992). Our Right to Drugs: The Case for a Free Market . Praeger. ISBN   9780815603337 . Retrieved 2015-07-01. 
    118. ^ Richey, Warren (2005-10-31). “On docket: religious freedom vs. drug laws” . Christian Science Monitor. Retrieved 2015-07-01. 
    119. ^ Muwakkil, Salim (2005-11-07). “Give Me Cognitive Liberty” . In These Times. Retrieved 2015-07-01. 
    120. ^ “What is Cognitive Liberty?” . Cognitive Liberty UK. Retrieved 2015-07-01. 
    121. ^ Timothy Lynch, ed. (2000). After Prohibition: An Adult Approach to Drug Policies in the 21st Century . Cato Institute. ISBN   978-1-882577-93-4 . Retrieved 2015-06-30. 
    122. ^ Hager, Paul. “The Drug War and the Constitution” . paulhager.org. Retrieved 2015-06-30. Transcript of a speech given at the 1991 Indiana Civil Liberties Union Conference at Indiana University.
    123. ^ “Background” . Drug Equality Alliance. Retrieved 2015-06-30. 
    124. ^ “Drug Discrimination and the case against Casey Hardison” . Transform Drug Policy Foundation. Retrieved 2015-06-30. 
    125. ^ “Human Rights and the Drug War” . The November Coalition . Retrieved 2015-06-30. 
    126. ^ Lyons, Daniel (2009-10-14). “Ethan Nadelmann’s Fight to Legalize Marijuana” . Newsweek. Retrieved 2015-06-29. “We’re really following in the footsteps of other movements for individual freedom and social justice in this country.”
    127. ^ “Discrimination Against Drug Users” . Drug Policy Alliance. Retrieved 2015-07-02. 
    128. ^ “Selective Prohibition Equals Discrimination” . Drug Equality Alliance. Retrieved 2015-07-02. 
    129. ^ “Promoting stigma and discrimination” . Count the Costs of the War on Drugs. Transform Drug Policy Foundation. Archived from the original on 2015-07-03. Retrieved 2015-07-02. 
    130. ^ “Human Rights” . Global Initiative for Drug Policy Reform. Beckley Foundation. Retrieved 2015-07-02. 
    131. ^ “Panel Decries Discrimination Against Addicted” . Partnership for Drug-free Kids. Retrieved 2015-07-02. [ permanent dead link ]
    132. ^ “Stories of Hope” . Partnership for Drug-Free Kids. Retrieved 2015-07-02. 
    133. ^ Benjamin, Mark (2011-06-02). “Commission: Drugs Win War on Drugs” . Time . Retrieved 2015-07-01. “End the criminalization, marginalization and stigmatization of people who use drugs but who do no harm to others.”
    134. ^ Taking Control – Pathways to Drug Policies that Work . Global Commission on Drug Policy. September 2014. p. 12. Retrieved 2014-12-29. 
    135. ^ Duarta, Nigel (2015-06-15). “It’s legal to smoke pot in Colorado, but you can still get fired for it” . Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 2015-07-01. “Arizona, Delaware and Minnesota offer the strongest protections for medical marijuana patients.”
    136. ^ “Delaware Legal Information” . Americans for Safe Access . Retrieved 2015-07-02. “Qualifying patients and caregivers are protected from discrimination with employment, education, housing, parental rights, or medical care, including transplants.”
    137. ^ Schwartz, Carly (2015-02-24). “Medical Marijuana Patients In California Are Being Denied Organ Transplants, But That Could Soon Change” . Huffington Post. Retrieved 2015-07-02. Six other states where medical marijuana is permitted have adopted laws that protect transplant-seeking patients from discrimination because they treat their symptoms with cannabis. 
    138. ^ “Bibliography on Race, Gender and Affirmative Action” . Race, Gender, and Affirmative Action. University of Michigan. Retrieved 28 September 2014. 
    139. ^ American Civil Rights Institute | Press Release Archived December 14, 2008, at the Wayback Machine .
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    149. ^ “Pregnancy Discrimination Act” . Retrieved 2008-05-14. 
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    151. ^ The Universal Declaration of Human Rights Archived December 8, 2014, at the Wayback Machine .
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    153. ^ Singer, Peter (1999) [1993]. “Equality for Animals?”. Practical Ethics (Second ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press . pp. 57–58. ISBN   0-521-43971-X . If a being suffers, there can be no moral justification for refusing to take that suffering into consideration. … This is why the limit of sentience … is the only defensible boundary of concern for the interests of others. … Similarly those I would call ‘speciesists’ give greater weight to their own species when there is a clash between their interests and the interests of those of other species. 
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    155. ^ Adam, Heribert (1 July 1996). “Anti-Semitism and Anti-Black Racism: Nazi Germany and Apartheid South Africa”. Telos. 1996 (108): 25–46. doi : 10.3817/0696108025 . 
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    157. ^ Shaun Hargreaves-Heap; Yanis Varoufakis (July 2002), “Some experimental evidence on the evolution of discrimination, co-operation and perceptions of fairness”, The Economic Journal , Royal Economic Society , 112 (481): 679–703, doi : 10.1111/1468-0297.00735  
    158. ^ Jennifer Roback, “The Political Economy of Segregation: The Case of Segregated Streetcars.” Journal of Economic History 56, no. 4 (December 1986): 893–917.
    159. ^ Richard S. Toikka, The Welfare Implications of Becker’s Discrimination Coefficient, 13 J. ECON. THEORY 472, 472 (1976); Glen G. Cain, The Economic Analysis of Labor Market Discrimination: A Survey, in 1 HANDBOOK OF LABOR ECONOMICS 693, 774 (Orley Ashenfelter & Richard Layard eds., 1986).
    160. ^ For review of the literature in regard to the last two points see Menahem Pasternak, Employment Discrimination: Some Economic Definitions, Critique and Legal Implications, 33 N. C. Cent. L. Rev. (2011) 163

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        Specsavers Delivers an Unwanted Arctic Surprise in Hilarious New Ad

        lbbonline.com, 1 year ago


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        Chris Denton and Graham Daldry co-direct new spot from Specsavers’ in-house creative team

        Specsavers Delivers an Unwanted Arctic Surprise in Hilarious New Ad

        Specsavers has applied its much-loved ‘Should’ve Gone to Specsavers’ strapline to the promotion of its free hearing tests in a new TV commercial that breaks during ITV’s X-Factor on Sunday 3rd September. 

        The new ad sees a scientist at a remote research facility in the Arctic awaiting delivery of urgent ‘supplies’. But instead, his HQ sends him a funny ‘surprise’ by mistake – somebody should’ve gone to Specsavers for a hearing test.

        “We want customers to understand that we apply the same values to hearing as to eyecare,” says Specsavers’ Creative Director, Graham Daldry. “That means making services that can often be expensive elsewhere, more accessible and affordable without sacrificing product or service quality. By applying our famous ‘Should’ve’ strapline to our audiology business, the Arctic ad creates an opportunity to extend Specsavers’ brand values. The beauty of the ‘Should’ve Gone to Specsavers’ strapline is that it can be applied anywhere… even to the Arctic!”

        Jointly directed by Mr Daldry and Specsavers’ Head of TV Services Chris Denton, the commercial was produced by Specsavers’ in-house creative team.


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        Creative Agency

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        Classes meet 3 times each week, which facilitates a strong student/teacher rapport. At approximately $5.09 per class session,

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        ‘, FONTSIZE, ’18pt’, TEXTALIGN, ‘center’, CENTERMOUSE, true)” onmouseout=”UnTip()”>no other online math class provider offers more for less .

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        Created by LIVE Online Math. � Copyright 2011. All rights reserved.

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        We are always looking for

        high-quality and affordable

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        our son. Although we didn’t

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        thought we would give it a try. We have been very

        satisfied with LIVE Online

        Math. Our son’s interest

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        See a detailed comparison  of the LIVE Online Math programs:
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        classes_final_bookless_version001005.gif

        Full access to the Infinite Math�

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        Fill-in-the-blank notes templates provided ( Sample )

        minimum level of notes a student should be taking during the lesson. Extra space is provided for other notes
        the student deems important or more examples. This allows students to take more complete notes and gives
        lots of examples of how to organize information. Additionally, students will be able to better concentrate on
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        Finally, having the students fill in the template (instead of providing them a pre-filled-in copy) will help them
        retain knowledge better and also gives them the opportunity to enhance their note-taking skills.’)” onmouseout=”UnTip()”>
        classes_final_bookless_version001002.jpg

        In place of a traditional text book, there is now a searchable glossary/reference tool and
        online lesson assignments. Please select one of those course pages for more details on
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        Geometry, Algebra II, and Pre-Calculus still have a book associated with them. Keep in
        mind that the role of the book is not instructional. Instruction happens via LIVE sessions.
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        LIVE Online Math Homeschool Math Made Easy

        I don’t know about you, but 80% of my homeschooling struggles revolve around math. What program should I use with each child? Are our struggles because of the curriculum I have or something else? Are they really understanding the content? Do they really have their math facts memorized? What do we do next? Am I smart enough to teach advanced math? 

        (Imagine me waking up out of a dead sleep to stress over these things. It’s totally happened… especially when I was trying to teach long division.) 

        Earlier this year, one of my friends sent me a link to LIVE Online Math and asked me if I had heard of the program. She knew I had been relying heavily on online programs recently due to taking on extra obligations at work, and I really needed something that would help keep the kids on track and ease some of the stress and worry on my plate during the school year. 

        Bug, my oldest, is right in the in-between of math. He’s completed elementary math with little issue, but I was not convinced he was ready for pre-algebra, and all the advanced math that would follow. LIVE Online Math offered both video courses , and live teacher-led math courses , starting with a pre-pre-algebra class. 

        The class I signed Bug up for meets three times a week for an hour each. It’s a solid middle school level math course, intended to prepare a child for pre-algebra… how perfect is that?

        img_5343

        What is the class like?

        These classes meet on a video platform. When your child logs in they are able to see the instructor, and a blackboard space, as well as a chat box. During class, they can ask and answer questions in the chat box, verbally or on the whiteboard. The instructor can have the kids work in “breakout rooms” which are basically small groups. You can see the classroom set up here on the LIVE Online Math website to get a better feel for how it works.

        Between classes, kids work on their textbook homework, which is listed online, and on the Infinite Math program online. Infinite Math has practice problems for the kids to review concepts online.

        I had planned on having Bug miss class this past week while we traveled, and ultimately, we did everything we could to make sure he could attend the live lecture. Math class is just something that your child shouldn’t miss whenever possible. Lectures are recorded so kids can make them up in case of illness or travel, but it’s not ideal. You want them to be able to ask questions and participate in order to have a clear understanding of the concepts. 

        **What impressed me most about LIVE Online Math**

        I love how the instructor, John, interacts with the students in class. He’s basically exactly like my middle school math teacher- he jokes when appropriate, and is firm and strict when he needs to be. I feel like it takes a special kind of person to enjoy teaching middle school math, and John absolutely does a beautiful job with his students. Bug clearly has a respect for his instructor, and has a desire to do well in his class. He doesn’t want to let his teacher down, and he works hard to be sure he’s completed his homework so he can participate in class. I love seeing him motivated and encouraged. John has a kind but no-nonsense approach, and it clearly works with my middle school boy.

        I have been so impressed with his management of the classroom, and how he communicates often with me as a parent. We’ve struggled a little this school year (more on that later) and every step along the way, John has emailed and called me and made sure I was aware when grades were slipping or when I needed to keep a closer eye on things. If I were the teacher, I would probably be annoyed at me (just being honest here) because we have experienced a bit of a learning curve into middle school math, but John has been patient, supportive and clear with his expectations. 

        img_9143

        **What did we struggle with?**

        I feel like our struggles will help you have a better idea of what kind of student would do well in LIVE Online Math and what you should look out for if you sign your child up. Bug is almost 11 and is in that fun middle age where he doesn’t always believe me when I tell him what he needs to do or how he needs to do it. This class has (understandably so) required him to be responsible, organized and on top of his studies. He has not always lived up to the requirements. We had a week of class where he was doing other things online rather than paying attention to the lectures. He’s wasted time during homework time and has turned in sub-par work. He’s chosen to not do his best on tests. He has learned that there are consequences for falling behind and I have learned that there are consequences for not always supervising as closely as I should have.

        I feel like this class in particular has been training for us as a family- slacking off isn’t an option, and success is dependent on effort. While Bug needs to learn to be a responsible student, I also needed to learn (and am still learning) that I have to be 100% hands on for him at this point. I’ve spoken to John about our struggles in class, and he assures me that not all kids have as steep of a learning curve as Bug had, and as kids get older and more mature their parents can be more and more hands off. I plan on having Bug continue in this program for a while, and hope that we too get to the sweet spot where I can micromanage a bit less.

        **What else do you need to know?**

        Your child can join LIVE Online Math in the new year if there is space available in the classes- you’ll just need to work closely with John to be sure that you are choosing the correct level and that your child can thrive in the class mid-year. You can join the video based courses at any time, and they are a wonderful option for families who can not commit to attendance on a regular basis. 

        Courses are available from Pre-Pre-Algebra through Geometry and Algebra II. I would recommend these classes for just about anyone who has a child who would thrive with a live math class, and is responsible enough to complete their homework on time and attend regularly. 

        **Save with the code d511a2 for any LIVE Online Math Video Course purchase through Dec. 31, 2016: **

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        Swot analysis of zara clothing

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        Swot analysis of zara clothing

        swot analysis of zara clothing Zara's marketing strategy is well renowned in the world of marketing and branding competitive analysis of zara - the fashion clothing retail industry is highly competitive with various brands such as h & m swot analysis of brands.
        swot analysis of zara clothing Zara's marketing strategy is well renowned in the world of marketing and branding competitive analysis of zara - the fashion clothing retail industry is highly competitive with various brands such as h & m swot analysis of brands.
        swot analysis of zara clothing Zara's marketing strategy is well renowned in the world of marketing and branding competitive analysis of zara - the fashion clothing retail industry is highly competitive with various brands such as h & m swot analysis of brands.

        Mango’s target segment is precisely defined and composed of women who love fashion and want the latest fashion trends enric casi, mango’s ceo stated that 30% of the zara will be an interesting one to keep an eye onunlike zara, mango does not swot analysis. Zara – swot analysis zara topshop specialise in on-trend and high-fashion clothing they sell women’s, baby, and maternity topshop have collaborated with many designers and celebrities like christopher kane and kate moss to create fresh and unique looks. Zara is a spanish clothing and accessories retailer based in arteixo case study zara 1 zara based in spain and has a huge no of stores in europe will dent in revenues swot analysis 16 mis. We are doing swot analysis of brand zara zara swot analysis this has increased the idea of zara as a fashion imitator company and low cost products lack of advertisement is also in contrast to direct competitors such as uniqlo and united colors of benetton. Zara: a marketing analysis case study essay case study: zara: it for fashion background zara, high fashion clothing producer and retailer, opened its first store in galicia, spain in 1975, and by 2003, had grown to 550 stores worldwide.

        Zara zara zara. Zara’s marketing strategy is well renowned in the world of marketing and branding competitive analysis of zara – the fashion clothing retail industry is highly competitive with various brands such as h & m swot analysis of brands. View homework help – swot analysis of zara from bba 1120 at kenya methodist university running head: swot analysis on zara company a swot analysis on zara company name: university swot analysis on. Mango swot analysis, usp & competitors posted in lifestyle and the highly fragmented fashion industry means low brand loyalty and high bargaining power for the emergence of many new designers in this segment could pose a serious threat to the brand competition competitors 1 zara. In a very short span of time, zara has become a well-known name in the world of fast fashion an analysis of zara’s marketing strategy and marketing mix.

        Swot analysis of inditex zara is an international fashion retailing division while pull & bear’s clothing and accessories are analyzing the environment – five forces analysis swot analysis of inditex swot analysis of flir systems, inc. Swot analysis strength 1 1the high end fashion merchandisers can be a major threat to them documents similar to swot analysis of zara skip carousel carousel previous carousel next pestel zara chapter 12 notes zara swot analysis and tows zara value chain analysis. Check out our top free essays on zara swot analysis to help you write your own essay.

        Swot analysis of zara clothing

        Zara case study solution 1 introduction a business vision for specifically zara, a fashion based products offering company is environmental analysis zara is working dominantly in spain till now the working environment, industry.

        ‘fashion is the imitation of a given example and satisfies the demand executive summary this report aims to provide an analysis of the fashion retailer zara, one of the leading brands within the fashion industry swot analysis vertically integrated system. What is a swot analysis it is a way of evaluating the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats that affect something see wikiwealth’s swot tutorial for help. Marketing assignment on zara fashion companies chapter 1 (wwwzaracom) swot analysis strengths this example highlights the feature of economical factor of pestel analysis because strategic partnerships and cost of the production offers competitive advantage to the business of zara.

        The five forces analysis of the fashion industry shows that while there are few threats, it is not good that the market is effectively nearing saturation menu what is pestle analysis pest analysis swot analysis for new business planning. Wikiwealth offers a comprehensive swot analysis of zara our free research report includes zara’s strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats. Marketing plan of zara by kasi | marketing plan zara swot analysis strength the designs made by the company are according to the fashion and if the product is not sold after a month then those clothes are discontinued for selling. Swot is an analysis tool that gives you a way to see how your existing or start-up fashion brand stands up against the competition in a larger sense, swot will help you understand the fashion. Clothing zara sainsburys tu clothing – analysis personality based on their clothing the inditex-zara case zara organizational structure. Zara case study- pestle – swot analysis 1 case study – zara – pestle 2 profileof zara zara is a spain-based clothing and accessories retailer founded by husband- wife duo amancio ortega and rosalia mera under the umbrella of inditex group.

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        The Strategic Management Analysis of ZARA (Relative to the Case in Developing Countries)

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        Starting your own blog is very important for getting a kickstart in your freelancing career. I’m not asking you to thrive to make money out of your blog (if that’s the case, it’s good). The main purpose is to showcase your online presence and maintain your portfolio.

        As a freelancer, the majority of your clients would be bloggers and Saas companies. When they notice that you have your own website, and are writing great content according to the modern web standards, it would be a great first impression.

        The moment your prospect client notices that you are running a website and putting actual content on it, the slim chances of them hiring you will become wide.

        Elna Cain , she is a great example of blogger, freelancer and a mom of two!

        On her blog, she offers courses for guiding thriving freelancers, offers freelancing tips on her blog, and also she is a high paid freelancer.

        Elna Cain

        The moment someone in need of high-quality content comes to her site, they’ll surely hire her if she falls in their budget.

        Reason?

        You can’t get a better writer than one who also teaches other freelancers how to grow their business and how to write. If she teaches other people how to succeed in freelancing, you can bet that she knows her stuff well.

        When people have something to see about you on the internet, their decision will be easy.

        Start Guest Blogging

        People think that guest blogging is only meant for building backlinks and only meant for people who have their own site. It’s untrue.

        It can help you tremendously grow your freelance portfolio and acts as a social proof.

        Let me put this way.

        Suppose, if you want to be a high paid “Fitness” writer, you can approach some top well-known blogs in the fitness space that accept guest posts.

        You can find such blogs by using the following search queries.

        • Fitness “write for us”

        • Fitness “contribute”

        Write for us

        Now you need to reach out these bloggers for publishing guest posts on their site. Many of these sites will be of high authority, so, they will be very strict when it comes to content quality. To begin with, I suggest you reach out small to medium authority sites, and then climb up the ladder.

        When you reach out those sites for guest blogging, you need to be clear about your motives. If you don’t mention any of your motives, they will assume that you are interested in the guest post for SEO purposes, which clearly is not the case.

        Below is the template, you can use to reach out to the guest blogs.

        SUBJECT: Contribution to [THEIR SITE]

        Hi [NAME] what’s up?

        I’m [YOUR NAME] a freelance writer from [LOCATION].

        I recently came across your site. Great work! I liked your blog post on [THEIR AWESOME WORK], good tips.

        I  came to know that you accept guest posts on your site, so I’m reaching out to pitch a topic that I think would resonate with your audience. I myself is a [FITNESS] blogger.

        The article will be insightful and above the 1k word count.

        Waiting for your reply.

        PS: I’m not writing the guest post for SEO purposes. I’m genuinely interested in getting my content published on your awesome site so that I can add it to my website’s portfolio, being a freelancer.

        Regards,

        [YOUR NAME]

        This thing works well.

        After sending the initial email, the key is to follow up. You need to follow them up until they reply you and give up after 3rd attempt. According to my experience, the majority of replies I got are from the 2nd attempt (the one after the initial attempt).

        To make the follow-up process easier, you can make use of tools like Mailshake or simply use the snooze option offered by Streak CRM or your mail client ( I use AirMail for Mac).

        In the blog post, make sure to mention that you are a freelance writer for hire and if possible include a link to your site. Make sure that the article is written with your name on it or else it will be useless.

        Join FB groups

        This is a must-do thing.

        Before this, you need to make sure that your FB profile reflects that you are an amazing freelancer.

        When I say people that you must join FB groups, what they’ll do is they just search for groups like “Freelancing group” and join them. Before doing this, you need to remember that you need to join groups where your prospect clients are there and not other freelancers. Stop being predictably irrational. You need to join groups where Saas founders, niche marketers, bloggers, hangout.

        Now you need to deeply involve in the conversations and add value to the group. When you add massive value to the group by publishing in-depth useful posts, people will definitely check your profile and you also get friend requests from those people. And, there she goes.

        Cold outreach

        This works crazy if done to the right people with the right format. Or else, your email address will be in Gmail’s graveyard.

        How to get people to outreach to?

        Facebook: Once you have joined plenty of groups where you find people who need content on their site, this job is simple. Go to Facebook and search for “Content writers needed” or “[NICHE] content writers needed”. Dig in deep. Go to the profile of the poster, and get their website address and contact them somehow using the template I’ll describe below.

        Also, your prospect clients include bloggers, Amazon affiliate site owners, Saas website owners, etc.

        Before outreaching the people, you need to gather as much data as possible about those people through their FB profile, their website, etc.

        Some crucial data includes:

        • What is their monthly income?

        • How many sites do they run?

        • In what way they can improve the content on their site?

        • What will be the price they are willing to pay for the content or currently paying for their other writers? Look at the content quality.

        You need to use your spidey sense to determine what will be the ideal price they’ll be happy to pay you according to the collected data.

        Before starting cold outreach, you need to know the reasons that lead to get your outreach ignored 80% of the time.

        You won’t be hired if:

        • They feel that your content is not up to the mark

        • They feel that you need more training on their end to suit their workflow.

        • Perhaps you lack knowledge of copywriting, SEO, Gdocs, Trello, Slack, etc.

        • You show them that you will not publish directly in their WordPress account.

        • They feel that you are not trustworthy.

        You need to have all the essential skills that the client will be expecting from you. For example, if I’m looking to hire someone for my Amazon niche content, I expect him/her to have basic knowledge of SEO, copywriting, Google Docs, and Trello. If not, it means I need to train the freelancer a lot – which I won’t prefer as it’s just an outsourcing of work.

        Once you have all the essential data, you need to outreach your clients one by one and tailor content according to their probable needs to more conversion. You should not make use of any automated tools for this unless they offer complete control over individual emails.

        Here’s a template that will work.

        SUBJECT: Need a content writer?

        Hi [NAME]!

        I’m sorry for the cold outreach, but this seems to be a perfect fit.

        I’m [YOUR NAME], a [FITNESS] freelance writer

        I noticed that you are in need of a good content writer, for your [PROJECT].

        I think I will be an ideal for it, as I’m well versed in basic to advanced SEO and can collaborate well using Google Docs, Trello or Slack. If you wish I can also write posts directly in WordPress contributor account so that publishing will be a button ahead.

        I’ve published on many big [FITNESS] sites like A, B, and C on similar content.

        Sample link #1

        Sample link #2

        Sample link #3.

        I also run my own blog at [YOUR BLOG].

        Will it be worth a quick chat?

        Regards,
        [YOUR NAME]

        (+1 PHONENUMBER, Skype: HANDLE)

        Network, network, and network more

        Your network is your net-worth. I can’t emphasize this enough. When it comes to landing on highly paid freelance writing jobs, networking is the key.

        You need to network with fellow freelancers and also people who are in need of content.

        You may ask me why – “Akshay, why I need to network with fellow freelancers?”. The answer is that, you’ll get some field-tested tips from your fellow freelancers and also help you fix ideal rate for the quality of content you offer. Without knowing what other freelancers are charging, you may be getting ripped off by your client.

        And also, busy freelancers get flooded content requests; so much that they can’t bother to open them. When freelancers get more gigs than they could handle, they tend to refer you (if you are their friend) to their prospects. After all, we are all social animals.

        So, networking matters a lot.

        How to start networking? Well, it’s intimidating for a beginner. But now, it is the time to take massive action.

        1. Get some names of freelancers by searching on Google, digging in FB groups, and so on.
        2. Search their blog and involve in a conversation
        3. Get their email and outreach them
        4. Feature them on your blog via expert roundups, interviews or podcasts
        5. Search them on FB and send a friend request
        6. Get involved with their status updates (select them as “see first” in newsfeed), comment on their posts and like them.
        7. Start a chat with any of your doubts or questions. Build a connection on a common ground.
        8. If possible, get a chance to meet them in conferences.

        The network is also very essential to get to know about the new things in the industry. Don’t be an one-man army. The collective experience and knowledge sharing makes you reach highs.

        Proven Upwork strategies

        I usually won’t prefer Upwork for freelancing, because they keep 30% – 20% of what you earn as a commission.

        But the platform has its own pros. You need not to market yourself that aggressively as people search for writers regularly. It’s a go to place for content outsourcers.

        Mention your niche expertise accurately in your Upwork profile: The more specific, the better. People who are willing to pay high for writers also look for expert-written content.

        Upwork profile

        Generally, people with good budget and in need of quality content search for “[fitness] writers” before hiring one. They seldom search for “article writers”. Having keywords related to your expertise in Upwork profile description works well to land good gigs.

        This is the only way to cut through the saturated freelancing world.

        Focus on reputation management: You can offer content at low cost, or you can exceed customer’s expectations initially when you are new to Upwork. By this, you’ll attract good reviews and track records. Once you build a solid track record, you can increase your rates.

        Remember that, once you ruin your profile, you won’t have much control over it.

        So, play smart and only accept gigs from people who have good reputation ratings. By this, your Job success score will be always above 90% or even 100% (yes there are plenty of them!)

        Wrapping up

        With the right strategies in place, you can speed up your success time. When it comes to freelancing, it is the right strategy that matters.

        It’s always great to be an independent freelancer rather than being on platforms like Upwork because the former gives you more control and freedom.

        However, you can also consider growing your Upwork profile too side-by-side, so that you’ll ensure that you’ll get a steady stream of gigs even if you don’t do that hard-lifting promotion part.

        These are some of the best strategies to get freelance writing jobs for beginners.

        I hope you guys found the post greatly helpful. If so, make sure you share this post with your community so that they will benefit a lot from it.

        Make sure you leave a comment below if you have any doubts, suggestions, or want to thank me for this post which I know is awesome.

        DISCLOSURE
        This post may contain affiliate links, meaning that if you click on one of the links and purchase an item, we may receive a commission (at no additional cost to you). All opinions are our own and we do not accept payments for positive reviews.

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        8 thoughts on “7 Proven Ways to Get High-Paying Freelance Writing Jobs for Beginners

        1. thanks for sharing such a nice post keep it up

        2. Hi There!
          Very good and very helpful article for me.
          Thanks for sharing and Keep it up your good work

        3. Networking is one of the most important aspects of business in general, and online business in particular. The internet world is so vast that if you plan to hit it on your own, chances are, you won’t succeed. You need others to help you grow, just as much as they need you to help them grow. It’s a mutual benefit. A freelancer needs to connect with as many people as possible, that way they can get the best opportunities. Also, work of overdelivering as that helps bring in more recurrent and referred clients. At a point, a freelancer won’t need to look for clients as they keep coming on their own. Great article man!

          • Glad you loved the article, Stefan. Your network is your net-worth. People who look for mutual benefit growth-hack their way to success.

            Or else, you only will be limited by what you know. Exchange of experience matters.

            Keep visiting.

        4. Thanks for writing such a great content. This article was very helpful, I really appreciate you for this good content. Thanks Again!

        5. Thanks for the great article.

        6. Very informative and It was an awesome post. I love reading your fantastic content. Thanks for sharing it with us. We are so greatful to your sharing.

        7. This article has some of the best tips for a freelance writers. This is going to be a great career in coming days. I have already noticed people are earning 4-5 figures income just from writing articles.
          Guest post is indeed as you mentioned is the best and quickest way to get more publicity. Email outreach is another great way to create a personal connection. Though I do not have much success; I would love to get more ideas around it.

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        About Akshay Hallur

        Akshay Hallur

        Hi, I’m Akshay Hallur. The founder of this blog GoBloggingTips. I’m a professional full-time blogger, an internet marketer, and a trainer. I’m here to help bloggers like YOU to create an outstanding blog and earn money from it.

        Read my story here

         

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        Make A Living Writing

        Make A Living Writing

        2016 Forecast: Top 12 Great-Paying Freelance Writing Gigs

        Posted by: Carol Tice

        Great Paying Freelance Writing Gigs for 2016. Makealivingwriting.com

        If you think there are no great-paying freelance writing gigs out there anymore and it’s all $5 blog posts, I’m here to spread some sunshine.

        I have the advantage of chatting with hundreds of freelance writers on a regular basis in Freelance Writers Den. That’s allowed me to get a strong sense of what the trends are, and where writers are finding opportunities.

        I’m hearing more and more reports of rising rates in some specific writing niches, and of growing demand for some emerging assignments.

        If you’re hoping to up your game and find great-paying freelance writing gigs this year, check out my list of a dozen top niches.

        All of these niches have two things in common, so let me call out those two key items first:

         

        Look for complex topics

        This one cuts across all the categories below. If you want to earn well, stop writing about parenting/travel/yourself/pets/books and all the other things everyone on earth can easily write about, and tackle difficult topics few writers can manage.

        That continues to be where all the money is. If you can write about surety bonds, advanced washing machine technology, trends in shower-curtain materials, new energy efficiency technology, that sort of thing? You can name your price.

        Bigger is better

        Most starving writers I know write for solopreneurs, local publications, small nonprofits, or local small businesses in their town.

        Want to earn more? You need to start pitching bigger clients who have bigger budgets. Yes, I know you’re scared. But writing for bigger clients is actually easier and more fun. Successful enterprises tend to be less dysfunctional, better planners, and more focused — and they’ve got experience working with freelancers that can make your job easier.

        Start going after bigger fish to bring home bigger paychecks.

        Now that I’ve got you thinking niche topics and bigger prospects, what types of writing are set to earn well this year? Here are my predictions (in no particular order), and a break-in tip for how to get going in each market:

        1. Case studies

        Wherever companies sell a complex product or service, they need customer success stories to help describe why their solution is the best one in the marketplace.

        I’ve seen writers get $1,000 for their first paid case study, after writing a single sample.

        Break-in Tip: Nonprofits and small businesses would always love to have case studies, but can’t afford to hire a writer — volunteer to do one to get a sample.

        2. White papers

        Anywhere you find a business with a complex product or service they sell to other businesses, there are white papers. A study conducted by The Content Marketing Institute and MarketingProfs reported 68 percent of B2B marketers used white papers last year.

        If you’re not familiar with this format, which often runs 5-10 pages or more, it’s worth learning how white papers give buyers useful info while positioning the sponsoring business as the go-to source for a particular solution. Rates range from $.50 a word to $500 a page and up. (Steve Slaunwhite taught a nifty bootcamp we’ve got stashed in Freelance Writers Den on this topic.)

        Break-In Tip: Look for tech startups that couldn’t afford a pro, and propose a brief white paper to help them gain visibility. Then, you’re set with a white paper sample.

        3. Longform blogging 

        Have you noticed blog posts are getting longer and more detailed? Yes, marketers have learned Google hates short posts, and rewards sites that have more in-depth information.

        Fortunately, that means a great opportunity for writers to earn more in blogging, as blog posts increasingly become more like articles.

        The secret of good longform blogging is not to simply take longer to say the same thing (which I’m seeing a lot of). Great long posts are packed with useful information, and often use screenshots, infographics, fresh interviews, and unique research. I’m seeing $200-$400 and more for these, and I believe we’ll see many more markets up their game in the coming year.

        My biggest blogging prediction for 2016 is that it’s the year that recycling stuff you found on other sites will simply no longer cut it. To win these clients, start digging for the new angle that will get their blog noticed.

        Break-In Tip: You can write a longform blog post on your own blog or as a guest post to show what you’ve got.

        4. Brand journalism

        What smells like a sophisticated, online magazine but is run by a company — and pays like copywriting? Brand journalism projects. These articles are usually overseen by an experienced editor, and you report the story like you would for any magazine or newspaper. The catch is the ezine content is there to get the brand name in front of consumers.

        I’ve earned $2,000 an article writing these, and was able to pitch my own topics and write some fun stories.

        Break-In Tip: Watch for brands that feature article-quality content. Many blue-chip brands are into this — I’ve worked on projects for SunTrust Bank, Dun & Bradstreet, American Express, and was recently approached by Intuit.

        You may need to sleuth a little, because many outsource the editorial management to an agency. Try searching on LinkedIn or Twitter to see who’s connected to their content project, and reach out.

        5. Annual reports

        Along with their cousin the corporate social responsibility report, annual reports continue to be fat projects that can pay $5,000-$10,000. I’ve seen annual reports that easily top 100 pages — and if they like your work, this can be a nice repeat gig, every year.

        More and more companies are feeling the need to do social responsibility reports to document their sustainability, human rights record, and more, particularly at public companies, so this is a growing niche.

        Break-In Tip: Small nonprofits need annual reports, too — volunteer and claim a sample.

        6. Big national consumer magazines

        Reports of the demise of print have been widely exaggerated. Yes, there’s a lot of change going on, but some magazines are still going great guns and paying over $1 a word. I did a 1,200-word feature assignment this summer that paid $2,800 plus every dime of my travel expenses, for instance.

        New magazines also continue to be born, though fewer than in the past — there were nearly 100 launches last year, and closures slowed — and new pubs are often more open to new writers than established rags. Crack that Writer’s Market online, dial their search tool up to five dollar signs (signifying highest paying markets), and see who you could pitch!

        Break-In Tip: Start with those newer magazines, or your local ones, but don’t get stuck there. Keep pitching up to the next rung — and if you’re not getting responses, learn more about how to write queries and perfect your pitch.

        7. Trade publications

        These low-glamour industry-news pubs don’t get pitched a lot, and are usually desperate to find someone who can help pharmacists, restaurant operators, or convenience store owners wring another dollar of profit from their business.

        As a result, pay tends to be good — $.30-$.50 a word at the low end, up to $1 a word or so. Trade pubs have survived the magazine fallout fairly well, as each has a niche audience advertisers who sell into that industry are dying to reach.

        Go to tradepub.com and browse for topics you know or are interested in, scan some issues, and write a strong introduction letter that plays up your knowledge of the sector.

        Break-In Tip: Play on your life experience here. Used to be a lawyer? Try one of the state lawyer magazines put out by the state Bar Association. This is a real use-what-you-know situation.

        8. Video scripts

        You’ve probably noticed that video is booming, from internal company announcements to welcome videos on blogs to video sales letters . It’s a great opportunity for you former TV and radio journalists, playwrights, screenwriters, and anyone else who writes for aural media to cash in.

        Break in tip: Make a video for your website that shows your writing skill, or perhaps find a nonprofit that needs to promote one of their programs, write a script, and collaborate with a videographer.

        9. Web content

        If you can write an online sales page that gets your clients more revenue, you will earn well. I know writers who charge $2,000 for a long sales page.

        But if salesy stuff isn’t for you, no worries — there’s plenty of earning opportunity in other static Web content.

        Some of the best projects out there are revamps of big websites with 35-100 informational Web pages or more. I once worked on one of these projects for well over two years, billing $2,000 a month and up, every month.

        As online presence becomes ever more important for companies, and changes like mobile require rethinking, I expect to see steady demand for Web content writing and rewriting. Remember my caveat about complex information — things like writing up hotel descriptions continue to pay poorly, but if you need to explain something like insurance consulting services or environmental engineering projects, pay should be at professional rates (at least $100 a page for under 300 words of copy, $300 and more for longer pages).

        Break-In Tip: Finding starter clients for your Web content writing services is like shooting fish in a barrel. Get a list of prospects together in a particular industry, and then take a look at their websites. Contact the ones that look dated or lack basic info like a strong About page, team bios, or testimonials.

        10. Marketing emails

        All those people who predicted email would die are looking dumb about now, because email marketing continues to be one of the top ways blogs and brands reach customers and sell products and services.

        Maybe at some point they’ll project these messages straight into our brains, but for now, building an email list and sending marketing emails continues to be a key marketing strategy. As with writing online sales pages, if your writing is connected directly to sales, you are golden.

        I know writers getting $250 per email and more for autoresponder sequences or marketing campaigns.

        Break-In Tip: Subscribe to a bunch of email newsletters in niches that interest you. Watch for brands where news turns up only sporadically, or sales angles seem weak — then reach out and offer to help.

        11. Book ghosting for CEOs

        Forget the regular folks who’re hoping you’ll write their life story, or the people advertising on Craigslist that they want an e-book written for $200. There’s real money in ghostwriting for busy, successful CEOs, coaches, motivational speakers, and other thought leaders.

        I auditioned in the past year for several projects in the $15,000-$35,000 range, and $50,000 is not uncommon. If anything, the drumbeat of marketers telling thought leaders they need to build their authority by putting out a book under their byline is only growing — which means the audience that might pay well for a book is, too.

        Break-in tip: Write an e-book yourself, so you’ve got a sample! Then start networking and connecting with the kind of coaches/CEOs who might do a major book.

        12. Online Courses / E-Learning

        This niche is huge — $107 billion globally, plus another $50 billion in self-paced e-learning courses, according to an elearningIndustry.com report. And talk about a global opportunity in every language — the three fastest-growing country markets for online education are India, China, and Malaysia. Much of this work is done by agencies or freelanced directly to writers and designers.

        We’re not just talking online, universities, either — most clients are major corporations with the budgets to pay handsomely. From how to fill out your time sheet on up, companies are saving money and (wo)man-hours by turning trainings into online modules.

        There’s a bottom line that putting training online instead of teaching it in person saves travel expenses for companies, standardizes learning, and creates convenience for learners. Interactivity is making online ed ever more efficient and valuable. Online ed is going to keep growing, as more companies discover the benefits — estimated growth is over 9 percent annually.

        The opportunity for freelance writers in this niche, as He-Who-Must-Not-Be-Named would say, is huuuge.

        Break-In Tip: There are a few moving parts to getting into this niche — but it’s easier to get started than you might think. If you’re interested, it’s worth taking the time to find out more about writing for e-learning. We’ve got a bootcamp in the Freelance Writers Den that can help.

        To sum up, don’t believe the negativity out there, that all freelance rates are through the floor. There are still great-paying freelance writing gigs — if you know the types of writing that are in demand, and the clients that want you.

        What writing niches do you think will pay well this year? Leave a comment and add to my list.

        Get Great Freelance Clients

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        Twitter Marketing for Freelancers: A Simple Strategy That Gets Big Results ›

        Tagged with: blogging , brand journalism , case studies , e-learning , Freelance Writers Den , video , white papers

        Carol Tice

        I started Make a Living Writing because I’m on a mission to help writers grow their income. My name is Carol. Read more…

        New Freelance Writer’s Launchpad: A small-group mastermind for new freelance writers. Presented by: Carol Tice & Angie Mansfield. LEARN MORE

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        Earn Money Online: Monster list of 161 Markets

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        The 3 Types of People Who Fail at Freelance Writing

        Writing for Content Mills: 14 Writers’ True Stories

        How to Become a Freelance Writer — Even if You’re Living Paycheck to Paycheck

        10 Mistakes I Made Publishing My eBook, and How You Can Do It Better

        The Truth About How Much Freelance Writers Make

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          Avery Breyer

          Best-selling author, helping you master your money!

          53 Websites Where You Can Get Paid to Write in 2018 (Even if You’re Brand New to Freelance Writing)

          By 3 Comments
          This post may contain compensated affiliate links. Please read my disclosures for more details.

          As long as you’re willing to do the work, it’s definitely possible to get paid to write – and earn good money – even if you’re starting out with no experience and no credentials. So, if you dream of working from home as a freelance writer, please ignore the naysayers because there are plenty of websites that will pay you to write for them.  The absence of a string of fancy letters after your name (you know, a degree) and your lack of experience doesn’t matter one bit if you can show the right kind of client that you can write!

          53 websites where you can get paid to write in 2018
          ATTENTION: Before I go any further…This article is intended for beginners – people who are starting out like I did, with no experience, no credentials, and no contacts. If you’re already an experienced freelance writer who’s making decent money, then this is NOT the article for you, okay? Alright. Moving on.

          How much can you get paid to write online?

          I’m not going to lie – if you’re brand new to this, odds are your writing could use some major improvement – having the expectation to simply write and get paid instantly may not be realistic. If this is your situation, begin by starting a personal blog – publish content regularly to improve your skills. Practice make perfect, after all.

          Once you get good enough, I recommend you apply for some lower-paid gigs in the hopes of getting paid something while you practice, even if it’s not much. Look at it as getting paid to learn, kind of like a low-wage internship.

          On the other hand, if you’re already a decent writer, you’ll have an easier time landing intermediate-wage gigs.

          And if your writing rocks, then the sky’s the limit – you can get paid to write about anything, within reason!

          Whatever you do, don’t go into this believing the “gurus” who claim everyone can start out making big bucks right from the very beginning. The fact of the matter is that clients aren’t stupid and they won’t pay good money for writing that’s not up to their standards. This is why brand new freelance writers who have no experience typically have to start at the bottom, honing their skills on low-paying gigs until their writing improves enough to command higher pay.

          In summary, start low, improve your skills, then gradually work your way up to the higher paying jobs you’ve been wanting all along.

          Okay, now that THAT’s out of the way, here’s the mother of all lists of websites that will pay you to write for them:

          get paid to write articles at home via best freelance writing jobs for writers with no experience

          1.  UpWork  is a freelancing platform that grew out of the merger of oDesk and Elance- it’s now one of the most popular freelancing sites out there.  Whether you’re a beginner or an expert, you’ll see jobs where you can write articles and earn money.

          This is my top pick for brand new freelance writers trying to build a career from scratch because there are tons of jobs to choose from, and you’re able to create an extremely detailed profile that helps you shine to the max. But don’t be lazy when creating your profile – if you don’t take the time to fill it out completely, UpWork will reject your application to join their site. Done right, your UpWork profile should take at least a full day to complete properly, and potentially even longer.

          There’s no cost to set up, but once you start working, UpWork will take a percentage of your earnings as compensation for allowing you to use their platform. You’re given a limited number of “credits” each month, which you can use to apply for jobs. Once your credits are used up, you can either buy more to continue applying for jobs now, or wait until the next month rolls around and you get more free credits.

          If you’re worried that you don’t have enough experience or lack the right credentials to get a freelance writing job on UpWork, don’t be. I had zero paid writing experience and zero credentials when I got started on their site, yet I was still able to land paying gigs as a total beginner, and increase my rates fast. Read about about my recipe for UpWork success in my best-selling book, Turn Your Computer Into a Money Machine. (I know, the title is rather bold, but I literally felt like I’d turned mine into a money machine after finding success with my methods, and the tactics I wrote about are still relevant today.) Anyhow, give it a read if you’d like to know how I did it.

          website that pays you to write and freelance writing jobs for beginners

          While UpWork has been very good to me, helping me to get my own freelance SEO writing biz off the ground back when I was first starting out, I get asked a lot about what other options are out there. To this day, I always tell people to try UpWork first. But if you have time to manage a profile on multiple freelancing sites – on more than one website that pays you to write – then by all means cast a wider net for jobs and try some of these too.

          Types of websites that pay you to write (and/or list freelance writing jobs)

          I’ve divided the websites where you can get paid to write online into four main categories: freelancing platforms, article writing services, job boards, and websites that will hire writers directly. Read the summaries below to figure out which ones are best suited for you.

          i) Freelancing platforms are a more controlled environment that tends to have more clients willing to give writing newbies a chance. For this reason, even if you’re not quite the absolute best freelance writer, websites like these are my first choice if you want to earn some money while improving your writing, negotiating, and client-management skills. Their rules typically require you to get paid through their site – asking a client to pay you offsite via something such as PayPal will be against their terms of service and could get you banned. The nice thing about these is that prior to applying for a job – unlike job listing search engines – you can snoop a bit on the client’s profile and see what other freelancers have said about them. You can cherry pick only those clients who have a track record of being fair to other freelancers, not to mention paying them on time. Additionally, if you do good work, the client can leave you a glowing review. You can then leverage these reviews to help you land even more jobs with new clients in future.

          ii) Article writing services act as a middle man between you and the client and for most people, I don’t recommend them because I find it easier (and more profitable) to deal directly with my clients. These websites will farm out article orders they get from clients to their stable of writers. Wages usually start out low, and writers have to work their way up to higher pay by proving they can produce the kind of articles clients are happy with. After you submit an article that’s accepted by their client, they can usually rate your work – your cumulative ratings help determine what type of pay you’re offered for future articles.

          iii) Job boards  are comparable to the classified ads in your local newspaper. You apply for the jobs you’re interested in, and it’s up to you and the client to figure out payment details – PayPal is the easiest way to invoice and get paid for these types of gigs. Generally speaking, you don’t get to review the client on these platforms after the job is done, and they don’t get to review you either.

          iv) Finally, there are independent websites that will hire writers to create content for their site directly. These range from really established sites that want only the most experienced writers to those who pay less but are willing to give newbie writers a chance provided they can produce content that’s top notch. If your writing is rusty, wait until you improve before pitching these types of websites.

          At the very end of this post, you’ll find a bonus list of sites you can check out once you have some experience as a freelance writer.

          Skip to Freelancing Platforms

          Skip to Article Writing Services

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          where to find freelance writing jobs for beginners - get paid to write about anything

          2.  Freelancer

          Before you sign up, you can browse the jobs listed on their site to help determine if it’s worth your time to set up a profile. Listings can be filtered by things such as rate of pay, skills required, and even language.

          3.  Guru

          You can start out with a free basic membership to test the waters. These free accounts come with a limited number of allowed job applications per year, and high fees compared to their higher tier paid memberships. Similarly to UpWork, they provide optional skills tests you can use to prove your abilities to potential clients. However, depending on your membership level, you may have to pay to take these tests.

          4. Hubstaff Talent

          They don’t charge any fees, which is really nice. As with UpWork, you can either apply for jobs you see listed, or simply leave your profile up for potential clients to find whenever they’re looking for a writer.

          5.  iFreelance

          This site charges a monthly fee to freelancers who wish to be listed on their site. There is no limit on the number of jobs you can apply for per month though, so if you hustle enough to get lots of jobs through them, the monthly fee could be worth it.

          6.  PeoplePerHour

          At first glance it may appear like this site has an advantage over others since they don’t take a cut of your earnings directly. However, they do take a percentage of the client’s deposits for payment – so either way, PeoplePerHour’s cut is factored in and realistically, clients will account for that expense into the amount they’re willing to pay for a job. This is a very high traffic site, so it usually has lots of gigs listed for you to browse.

          All of the above sites have nuances that differentiate them from UpWork, but if you’re brand new to this freelance writing thing, the tactics I used for UpWork (and wrote about in my best-selling book ) can also be applied to sites like Freelancer, HubstaffTalent, iFreelance, and PeoplePerHour.

          Skip to Article Writing Services

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          Skip to Bonus Websites

          how to find freelance writing jobs for beginners

          7.  iWriter

          This site doesn’t accept new writers 100% of the time – for example, at the time of this writing, you can’t apply to join their site. However, that could change at any moment, so if you’re looking for writing platforms that pay, by all means check them out. After you land work through them, iWriter handles the collection and distribution of payments so you don’t have to concern yourself with manually invoicing your clients.

          8.  Textbroker

          Because this is an article writing service, you won’t have direct access to your clients. Before you start working here, you need to submit a sample article for their editors to review and rate. Once this process is complete, they’ll provide you with access to gigs based on that rating. Lower ratings equate with lower pay until you improve your ratings.

          9.  WriterAccess

          At the time of this writing they are only accepting US-based writers. During the application process, you’ll be required to write some skills tests – your results (along with your writing samples and any references you have) will help determine the initial rating on your profile. The higher your rating, the more money per word you can earn.

          10.  WritersLabs

          At the time of this writing, they accept both native and non-native English speakers, but require all writers to have a bachelor’s degree and to pass a test. Wages are rather low with little room for upward movement, but you might find this site useful to get your feet wet in the freelance writing world and build confidence.

          Skip to Freelancing Platforms

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          best freelance writer websites and freelance writing job boards for beginners

          11.  BloggingPro

          Although many of the jobs here call for experience or credentials, there are some gigs that pop up for writers who have neither of those things. Keep an eye on their board and who knows – you might just find the perfect client to work for!

          12.  FlexJobs

          They say they hand-screen all jobs listed on their website, to help avoid scams and provide higher-quality listings.  You’ll find a wide variety of gigs on their site – not just ones that allow you to earn money writing online –  but what they all have in common is that they are flexible and involve either part-time work, telecommuting, or remote work.

          12.  FreelanceWriting

          This site doesn’t have as much traffic as some of the others on this list, but since they specialize only in freelance writing jobs, your profile can be exposed to highly targeted traffic. They include both jobs listed exclusively on their platform, and also listings from job boards all over the internet. Using their site might be more efficient than checking a whole bunch of job boards manually.

          14.  FreelanceWritingGigs

          This is a cool site that posts job listings from a variety of sources in their weekday blog posts, Monday through Friday. They also have a job board that has new listings added regularly.

          15.  Indeed

          Indeed collects job listings from a wide variety of websites. Their search engine is intelligent enough to know where you’re located, and can list jobs near you. This could be particularly helpful if you’re an aspiring freelance writer, but not a native English speaker , and are looking to find writing clients in your home country.

          16.  LinkedIn Jobs

          Although this site is best suited for those who can leverage their past experience to land writing jobs, there are exceptions. To begin with, the majority of writing positions I saw there were looking for someone with experience or credentials (for example, either a degree in English, or a degree in a field related to the topics you’d be writing about for them).

          However, I also saw a job posting where the client was looking to train from scratch a full-time intern at 11.50/hour (which, at the time of this writing is significantly more than the U.S. federal minimum wage). If you’re willing to sift through a bunch of listings that are a no-go to find the hidden gems, this could be a good site to check out. You’ll need a LinkedIn account to use this job board.

          17.  ProBlogger

          This is a well known job-board for writers so if you see a gig on this board that interests you, expect to have lots of competition. The good news is you can find all sorts of freelance writing jobs here, ranging from entry-level to more advanced. You can counteract the effects of high competition a bit by checking the board frequently in the hopes that you’ll be one of the first to notice and apply for any jobs that fit your skills and interests.

          18.  Writers Weekly

          About once a week they put up a new post full of recent job opportunities for writers. If you’re brand new to this and don’t have any experience or credentials, expect to sift through quite a few listings before you find something suitable. But remember, if you’re persistent you’re bound to come across some gems eventually.

          Skip to Freelancing Platforms

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          get paid to write online - blogging sites that pay freelance writers

          When looking for job postings on sites that are outsourcing their content, you almost always have to scroll to the very bottom of their home page and look at their footer menu for a link that says “Careers”, “Jobs”, or “Write for us”. Most of these are individual websites, but when I’ve found a parent company site that lists jobs for a whole bunch of websites they own, I’ve linked to that since you’ll get more bang for your buck (err time) by searching there for opportunities. Keep in mind that these websites aren’t always hiring writers – so if all you see are jobs for programmers, social media managers and that kind of thing, don’t give up – bookmark the page and check back regularly to see what’s new.

          19.  American College of Healthcare Sciences

          They pay industry experts and alumni for top notch blog posts about aromatherapy, holistic nutrition, herbal medicine, natural products, homeopathy, and other health and wellness topics. If your background makes you an expert in any of these areas, their website is worth a look.

          20.  AppStorm

          They’re looking for freelance writers who can produce kick-butt, in-depth tutorials and round-up style pieces about apps for Macs (they also publish content for iOS). If they like your article, they’ll pay about $60 for it.

          21.  Back2College

          This site is looking for writers who can share info geared towards older students who are going back to college to pursue advanced training or professional development. They pay 55 bucks for accepted articles.

          22.  BlogPaws

          They pay decent money for guest blog posts on a variety of pet-related topics. Their mission is to help pet lovers learn about responsible social media usage, and also to help pets in need of help. I like the fact that you won’t have to guess at what kind of content they want because they provide detailed submission guidelines.

          23.  BootsnAll

          This is a travel website that focuses on complicated itineraries, long-term travel, and around-the-world trips – it’s best-suited to writers who have done some of that and are interested in helping others do the same. BootsnAll doesn’t always have openings for writers, but if you’re well-suited to their niche, it’s worth keeping an eye on their website.

          24.  ChangeAgent

          They’re looking for adult learners who are interested in writing about social justice issues. The pay is $50 per article, so not half bad at all considering the fact that their minimum word count is only 200 words.

          25.  Constant-Content

          I wouldn’t put this site in the long-term work category, but if you need some practice honing your skills, and want to get paid while doing it as a ghostwriter, this might be worth a shot.

          26.  Cracked

          This comedy website pays its writers and doesn’t require them to have any prior experience. If you’ve always had a great sense of humor and can transmit it via the written word, give Cracked a look.

          27.  CrazyLeaf Design

          Content on this site is focused on – you guessed it – design. Specifically, they feature informative articles on graphic design, web design, photography, programming, and so on. If you have experience in these areas, send in your pitch for a potential article and see what they think. They specifically say that they don’t care about your level of writing experience – as long as your content is good, you have a shot!

          28.  DollarStretcher

          This is the perfect site to apply to if you have a background in personal finance (and if you don’t, they ask that you find an expert or two to quote in your article). One of the things I like about them is they provide very detailed instructions on what they’re looking for in article submissions, which should make it easier to get your article accepted if you’re good at following directions. 🙂

          29.  DropZone

          Skydiving aficionados can apply to write for DropZone. They’re looking for content on buying guides, safety tips, advice, interviews, reviews, events and other topics of interest to their readers. Contact their editor to discuss compensation, as they don’t share specific figures on their site.

          30.  eCommerceInsiders

          These guys aren’t accepting new submissions right now, but are worth keeping an eye on because when they do, they pay very well. They’re looking for writers who have personal experience with e-commerce, specifically, any topics listed in their website menu and subcategories.

          31.  Elite Personal Finance

          If you know a thing or two about personal finance, you may want to earn money by writing articles for EPF. Topics of interest to their readership include credit cards, business, identity theft, loans, credit reports, and saving money – they pay $100 per article.

          IAC

          IAC is the parent company to numerous blogging sites that pay, since they know content marketing can help spread their message. Here are some of the websites they operate:

          32. CollegeHumor

          33. DailyBurn

          34. HomeAdvisor

          35. OKCupid

          36. Investopedia

          37. TheDailyBeast

          38. DotDash

          …and many more. For a quick and easy way to check which websites are hiring writers, the IAC job postings page is your one-stop shop.

          39.  iWorkWell

          If they accept your pitch, you can get paid over $200 for an article. They’re mainly looking for content in the human resources niche.

          40.  LadyQ’s

          They pay 50 bucks an article and are looking for content geared towards women on a wide range of topics, including marriage and dating, shopping, fashion, personal finance, social media, and more.

          41.  Listverse

          Believe it or not, you can get paid to write lists on this site. And they pay 100 bucks for every “listicle” they accept. It could be a great way to build your portfolio and make some cash while you’re at it.

          42.  Loaded Landscapes

          Photography buffs who can write can pitch an article to this site in exchange for $20-$150 per accepted piece. They’re looking for tips and techniques articles for nature and travel photography, how-to articles about image processing, and other related topics. If they like your work, this could turn into a long-term gig.

          43.  Matador Network

          This is a travel site that seems to be always on the look-out for freelancers to produce content on specific locations. It’s best suited to writers who are well-travelled.

          44.  Metro Parent

          Their content revolves around the parenting scene in SE Michigan. They share lots of great ideas for the types of articles they’re looking for, so if you’re a parent who’s a decent writer, it shouldn’t be too hard to come up with something they’ll like.

          45.  Oyster

          A TripAdvisor company, they periodically have openings for freelance writers who can blog about specific regions of the world. For the right person, this could be a cool site to write for.

          46.  SitePoint

          This site publishes content primarily geared towards web designers and developers. If you have knowledge in these areas, it could be a good fit, particularly since they claim to pay “above industry rates”.

          47.  Smashing Magazine

          This site is looking for people to write top notch tutorials, opinion pieces, or case studies on topics relating to web design and development. They pay an honorarium for any articles they accept, plus, they’ll give you full credit for your work, making this a nice option if you want to expand your freelance writing portfolio.

          48.  The Penny Hoarder

          Writers in the personal finance niche who are located in St. Petersburg, Florida should keep an eye on the Penny Hoarder careers page. They don’t always have jobs available, but are worth watching if this niche is of interest to you.

          49.  UX Booth

          Another website geared towards web designers and developers, this is a great place to share your knowledge if you have a background in that area.

          50.  TutsPlus

          TutsPlus is a website that features written tutorials (and video, in case you’re interested in making one) on a wide range of topics:

          • coding
          • illustration
          • web design
          • photography and video
          • business
          • music and audio
          • 3D motion and graphics
          • game development
          • computer skills

          If your submission is accepted, they’ll pay you.

          Skip to Freelancing Platforms

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          how to find writing jobs for new freelance writers

          51.  Compose.ly

          Category: Article writing service

          If your writing is really rusty, skip this site for now and start on a site that’s much better suited for beginners, such as UpWork. Compose.ly requires that anyone wanting to work for them passes their assessment. At the time of this writing, they say they only accept 1% of writers who apply.

          52.  LinkedIn ProFinder

          Category: Job board

          They only accept freelancers in the U.S., so there will be less competition for jobs compared to sites that are open to anyone in the world. However, they claim to only allow top freelancers to join, so not everyone who applies will be accepted. Wait until you have some experience to give this site a try. And if you do try it, be aware you’ll have to fully fill out your LinkedIn profile since potential clients will be checking it out.

          53.  MediaBistro

          Category: Job board

          This site wouldn’t be my first choice for new writers with no experience and no credentials because it mostly lists jobs suited for applicants with lots of experience and/or degrees. But once in a while something pops up that even a newbie could try for. Use their filter to dig up entry-level jobs – if you’re lucky, you’ll find one that’s a good fit. Don’t spend too much time on this site if you’re brand new to writing though because odds are you’ll have better luck on sites truly intended for beginners such as UpWork.

          Go to Freelancing Platforms

          Go to Article Writing Services

          Go to Job Boards

          Go to Websites

          Next steps…

          If you’re already a seasoned freelancer and you simply wanted ideas for websites that’ll pay you to write, then get going and start applying to the ones on this list!

          But if you’re brand new to freelance writing online or you’re having trouble landing gigs, find out how to starting earning asap in my best-selling book . You’ll learn how to start from scratch and built a lucrative freelance writing biz in an often overlooked niche, even if you have no experience, no contacts, and no credentials.

          Get it now:

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          Comments

          1. Avery, thank you so much for coming up with this list. You’re so generous with your time and talent. Will definitely explore most of the sites in this list. God bless you more. 🙂

            P.S.
            I already have your book in my Kindle. Got tons of learning from it. Thank you.

            Reply
            • Hey Sheila! I’m so glad you found this list, along with the book, useful 🙂

              Reply
          2. Thanks, this is a great list!

            Reply

          Leave a Reply Cancel reply

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