Category: write

What Is It About Swimming That We Love? An Essay By Jennifer J.


VARSITY SWIM COACH


Athletics

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The Agnes Irwin School



Rosemont
,

Pennsylvania

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Job Details

  • Job ID:

    2922899
  • Application Deadline:

    Posted until Filled

  • Re-posted

    :

    July 18, 2018

  • Starting Date:

    November 2018

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Job Description

The Agnes Irwin School, a pre-K through 12 all girls’ school in Rosemont, PA, is looking for an experienced Varsity Swim Coach, for the 2018-19 Winter Season. This part-time position will be responsible for the continuing development of the highly competitive swimming and diving program and student-athletes, overseeing the Assistant Swim Coach and Diving Coach, and working closely with the Middle School Coaches and Middle School Athletic Director to ensure program continuity.

Responsibilities:
• Coordinate practice sessions and training programs with an emphasis on athletic growth and development, as well as safety
• Attend all practices and games
• Promote a positive attitude, academic achievement, and personal growth
• Comply with all Agnes Irwin procedures and policies
• Assist student-athletes in the college recruiting process
• Supervise Assistant Swim Coach and Diving Coach, including coordinating diving practice schedule

Qualifications:
• Bachelor’s Degree or equivalent combination of education and experience
• Experience coaching swimming and teaching swimming skills and strategies that apply to the skill level of the student-athletes
• Experience developing swimming and diving programs and athletes, leading/coordinating a team of coaches, and developing and advancing a long-term program vision and plan
• Evidenced ability to maintain and consistently exemplify the highest standards of professionalism, leadership, sportsmanship and respect
• Proven organizational and motivation al skills
• Demonstrated abilities in communication and community relations
• Demonstrated ability to effectively work with students, staff, administration, and parents
• Professional dedication to athletic development and expertise in coaching
• Knowledge of appropriate safety measures to ensure the well-being of student-athletes
• Experience working with an Athletic Trainer, ensuring student=athletes receive proper medical and physical training services
• CPR/First Aid certification, Lifeguard certification

·
·

  • Position Type:

    After school/Evening
  • Positions Available:

    1

  • Job Category :


    Athletics & Activities > Coaching

  • Equal Opportunity Employer

    The Agnes Irwin School does not discriminate in any term or condition of employment on the basis of race, color, religion, sex, sexual orientation, ancestry, citizenship, national origin, age, disability, veteran status, genetic information or any other characteristic or status protected by federal, state or local law.

    Application Instructions

    The Agnes Irwin School does not require applicants to submit transcripts, and you need not enter this information on the SchoolSpring application. However, depending on an applicant’s experience, transcripts may be requested later in the recruitment process.

    To apply for this position, candidates must complete the SchoolSpring online application. Please do not email candidate information directly to The Agnes Irwin School. Employment consideration is only given to candidates who complete the SchoolSpring online application.

    Application Questions

    This employer has requested that ALL applicants answer the following questions. It IS

    highly recommended

    that you type ANY essays IN a word processing program, save them, AND THEN paste them ON the proceeding job application page.

    • 1.

      Why are you interested in this position? What makes you a strong candidate?


      Long Essay


      (Answer limited TO 4000 characters, including spaces)

    • 2.

      Have you ever been previously employed by The Agnes Irwin School?


      Yes/No

    • 3.

      Are you related to anyone who is or has been employed by The Agnes Irwin School?


      Yes/No

    • 4.

      Have you ever applied for a position at The Agnes Irwin School?


      Yes/No

    • 5.

      How did you learn about this position?


      Brief Response


      (Answer limited TO 200 characters, including spaces)

    • 6.

      Are you age 18 or older?


      Yes/No

    • 7.

      Are you able to perform, with or without reasonable accommodation, the essential functions of this position for which you are applying?


      Yes/No

    • 8.

      Are you legally authorized to work in the U.S. on a full-time or permanent basis? (Consistent with federal laws, applicants who are offered employment will be required to produce documentation confirming their identity and United States employment eligibility.)


      Yes/No

    • 9.

      So that we may verify the information which you have provided in this application, have you ever been known by any other name which might identify you on employment, education, military or other records? Please list the names and indicate the dates when they applied.


      Short Essay


      (Answer limited TO 600 characters, including spaces)

    Contact Information

    • The Agnes Irwin School
    • Ithan Avenue and Conestoga Road
    • Rosemont,
      Pennsylvania 19010


    Click here FOR Application Procedures

    The content you submit, offer, contribute, attach, post, or display (each a “Submission”) will viewed by other users of the service who may or may not be accurately representing who they are or who they represent. Do not include any sensitive data in your submissions. Any submission or any use or reliance on any content or materials posted via the service or obtained by you through the use of the service is at your own risk. “Sensitive data” for purposes of this section means social security or other government-issued identification numbers, medical or health information, account security information, individual financial account information, credit/debit/gift or other payment card information, account passwords, individual credit and income information or any other sensitive personal data as defined under applicable laws.

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    Thursday, June 26, 2014

    46 Good SPM English Model Essays / Free Essay Samples for O-level, IELTS, TOEFL & MUET Writing

    Panduan MUET Guide Tips
    Panduan MUET

    46 Model Essay Samples for SPM English, O-level, IELTS, TOEFL & MUET Writing

    Preparing for the upcoming MUET writing test and want to read some good essay examples? Read Free MUET Tips & Essential MUET Guide . Want to read some samples of good essays for IELTS writing? Or simply looking some ideas and inspiration for your SPM English writing homework? Below is the list of 46 free model essays for SPM English, O-level, IELTS, TOEFL & MUET Writing.

            Descriptive Essays

    1. Friend
    2. Friends
    3. My Best Friend
    4. Describe an afternoon at the bus station
    5. A Horrifying Swim
    6. A Prominent Malaysian Leader
    7. A Demonic Gold
    8. My Mother
    9. My Favourite TV Programme
    10. The Night Market
    11. Malaysia, a Unique Country

      Narrative Essays

    12. A Horror / Tragic Story
    13. Finally, A Voice Message
    14. Forgiven
    15. Home
    16. Race
    17. That is the reward for my patience and hardwork
    18. A Holiday I Would Never Forget
    19. Couple Foils Robbery Attempt
    20. Write a story starting with: “The widow had to work hard to bring up her little son alone…”
    21. My Most Embarrassing Situation
    22. A Road Accident
    23. Autumn on Sugarbush Street
    24. Of Bombs and Ice-Cream
    25. After All, It Isn’t That Bad

      Argumentative / Persuasive Essays

    26. Haze: A Danger to Health
    27. Money
    28. Cell phones – One of Our Greatest Technologies Misused
    29. Importance of Studying English
    30. Faith
    31. Thoughts On Sharing

      Reflective Essays

    32. Are undergraduates ready for the real world?
    33. Does School Prepare Us for Life
    34. What would you do if you had a lot of money
    35. Which do you prefer, living in the countryside or living in the city?

      Factual Essays

    36. Pollution
    37. Social Networking Website
    38. The Kuala Lumpur International Airport (KLIA)

      Directed Writing

    39. Anti-Smoking Campaign Speech
    40. Informal Letter
    41. Informal Letter Sample
    42. Formal Letter: Letter of Application
    43. Formal Letter: Letter of Complain
    44. Complain Report About School Canteen
    45. Book Report
    46. Police Report on Accident

    Want even more good sample essays for your SPM English writing, MUET writing or IELTS writing preparation? Enter email address now to get them!



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    Comments

    34 Comments

    34 comments:

    1. lau Monday, July 28, 2014 4:05:00 pm

      Is there any chinese language essay??
      can recommend??

      Reply Delete

      Replies

      1. Anonymous Wednesday, September 07, 2016 2:24:00 pm

        lol u retarded?

        Delete

      2. Anonymous Saturday, September 10, 2016 11:44:00 pm

        Why are you so mean? Which part of it is retarded?

        Delete

      3. Anonymous Thursday, August 17, 2017 11:10:00 pm

        Maybe he lack of attention in his life

        Delete

      4. Anonymous Thursday, September 21, 2017 12:31:00 pm

        Dude, there are really chinese essay in spm. What’s wrong with you guys

        Delete

      5. Anonymous Friday, October 27, 2017 9:21:00 pm

        Are you lost mate? This webpage is for english essays, not chinese

        retard

        Delete

      6. Syahrul Thursday, January 04, 2018 11:30:00 pm

        Cmon he just asking if theres any chinese language essay… nothing wrong with it… sorry i think u are the one who is retarded here… no one r supporting ya…

        Delete

      7. Anonymous Sunday, March 25, 2018 11:37:00 am

        what is naratif composition

        Delete

      8. JLTan Monday, April 09, 2018 6:54:00 pm

        Lol retarded 9 yr olds hating over a single question

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      9. Anonymous Sunday, May 20, 2018 11:57:00 am

        WTH????? He is just asking. FGS he is not even asking u man..That question were asked to the admin. Pls just mind your own bussiness..

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      10. Anonymous Thursday, June 21, 2018 9:26:00 pm

        Senyap ar semua

        Delete

      11. Anonymous Monday, July 23, 2018 8:24:00 pm

        Ahaha. Retarded indeed.

        Delete

      12. Reply

    2. nancy Friday, September 26, 2014 3:00:00 pm

      The test score works as a proof of their language proficiency and knowledge. Finding the Best TOEFL Coaching it self is a task because the objective of TOEFL classes is to give you interactive examples of TOEFL test questions.

      Reply Delete

    3. KHai Sunday, October 12, 2014 3:51:00 am

      Salam sejahtera rakan2 semua…

      Ada berita baik buat anda yang baru nak ambil peperiksaan MUET, yang GAGAL dan nak ambil semula, yang TAK PERNAH LULUS serta yang nak memperbaiki band yang diperoleh dalam peperiksaan MUET yang lalu. Rakan saya Saudara Shamsul Ariffin telah menerbitkan sebuah panduan khas untuk anda lulus cemerlang dalam peperiksaan MUET…

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      Replies

      1. cik yayaa Wednesday, April 08, 2015 11:46:00 pm

        klau tuk repeat bi spm ngan st ada x ?

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      2. cik yayaa Wednesday, April 08, 2015 11:46:00 pm

        klau tuk repeat bi spm ngan st ada x ?

        Delete

      3. Reply

    4. Anonymous Tuesday, February 24, 2015 6:19:00 pm

      Good Work for English learnes

      Reply Delete

    5. nancy Tuesday, February 24, 2015 10:57:00 pm

      This is important to remember while you are browsing IELTS or TOEFL preparation course, if you are planning on applying for citizenship or collage and intend to use your results as an entry requirement.

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    10. type an essay online Wednesday, September 09, 2015 7:13:00 pm

      That’s really huge list of sample essays for students those need to write essay and facing difficulties. I am sure that will be very helpful for students studying in various level.

      Reply Delete

    11. Anonymous Saturday, September 26, 2015 2:00:00 pm

      To be honest
      All the 46 Model essays are uncomparable to the O level English Standard.
      In fact,writing such a essay in o level english will guarantee a fail

      Reply Delete

      Replies

      1. Anonymous Monday, November 06, 2017 6:58:00 pm

        Agreed

        Delete

      2. Reply

    12. Jamil Corazzo Sunday, October 04, 2015 1:54:00 am

      totally useful for me

      Reply Delete

    13. Zizy Zizy Sunday, February 07, 2016 10:00:00 pm

      thank you much for the God’s sake who had done this blog 🙂 You pretty had aid me much in essays

      Reply Delete

    14. Husna Lovatics Thursday, May 05, 2016 6:20:00 pm

      thanks for the essay samples! I was struggling what I want to write about for my mid term examination.. But not anymore 🙂

      Reply Delete

    15. da ruey Saturday, June 04, 2016 3:35:00 pm

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      1. Anonymous Saturday, June 04, 2016 4:09:00 pm

        Click here for email address to submit your article.

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    16. Randy Friday, July 29, 2016 3:50:00 pm

      Thank you for sharing. This is a good material for the development of creative thought. I’m writing an essay for more than five years. Sometimes creative crisis comes. In this moment you need to distract yourself with other thoughts. Good luck to all with essay writing.

      Reply Delete

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    Malaysia Students Blog is a team blog on Malaysian major examinations, secondary, pre-university & tertiary education, scholarship Malaysia , student resources, students’ thoughts and everything relating to students & undergraduates at schools, colleges & universities in Malaysia – Student Education Malaysia

    Comment Policy: Comments posted at Malaysia Students blog should be on-topic, constructive and add value to the discussion. Comments that are off-topic, one-sentence, abusive or offensive will be removed. Please use proper English with correct spelling and grammar in your comment. For general questions, please post them at SPM Student Malaysia . For enquiries, please email the administrator of this blog: Student at Malaysia-Students dot com.


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    19 June 2014


    Write a story beginning with: “It had been raining all day…”

    It had been raining all day. I sat next to the fireplace, my toes curled up and a book in my hands. I was listening to music via my iPod and tapping my toes to the rhythm. I was about to … (read more)

    5 June 2014


    Write a story that ends with: “… and so I became a better person.”

    It was a hot afternoon as the scorching sun was shining brightly in the sky. I was about to take a nap but the heat from the sun was unbearable. I sat on my bed, feeling sleepy. I turned around … (read more)

    2 June 2014


    Friends

    It all started at boarding school. I was sent to boarding school at the age of 13 in the hope that I would excel in my studies. But I was quiet and always got bullied by older kids. Only one person … (read more) “

    28 May 2014


    Write a story beginning with: “Kim was nervous when the door opened…”

    Kim was nervous when the door opened. In the doorway stood Zack. Who would have thought that of all the girls, Zack would pick Kim as his dance partner? Kim was red with nervousness … (read more)

    26 May 2014


    Write a story with the following title: A Narrow Escape.

    “It was a sunny day and a few clouds were seen floating across the blue sky. I had reached 20,000 feet when my friend, Mike, reached me by radio. “Hey Dean, after this test flight, why don’t … (read more) “



    SPM English 1119 Past Year Papers


    24 May 2014


    2013 Paper 1 Section B (Continuous Writing) Essay Questions



    Latest SPM Model Essays

    23 May 2014


    Peace

    “Life was perfect. I had a girlfriend, a great family and I was about to enter Harvard University. But then there was a disease outbreak. The human race was almost wiped out as most humans were transformed into zombies. I fled … (read more) “

    20 May 2014


    A day I wished had never happened

    “It was late at night. James and I were walking in a field near our base camp. The stars were out and suddenly, James covered my eyes with his hands. “Tada!” he said, removing his hands to … (read more) “

    6 May 2014


    Write a story that ends with: “… If only I had listened to his/her advice.”

    “I had never felt so much regret in my whole life. I was standing in a graveyard looking at a headstone. The headstone read ‘Marie Sanders. Born 21 May 2040. Died 13 February 2072. No sister was … (read more) ”

    2 May 2014


    A famous person you admire

    “There are many famous people in the world who are in the entertainment line, science field and so on. The person I admire in particular is actor Tom Hiddleston. He was born in … (read more) ”

    25 April 2014


    Write a story ending with: “If only I had been more careful, that wouldn’t have happened.”

    “It was dark. My partner Jack and I were doing our usual rounds around the palace grounds, talking among ourselves softly. As we walked, I looked around. The night air was still and the palace … (read more) ”

    3 April 2014


    Memories

    “Last December, my family and I went to Pulau Tioman for our holidays. We stayed there for three days. On the first day, we left our house at six in the morning in my father’s car and headed for … (read more) ”

    18 February 2014


    Write a story beginning with: “Is it really you? Where have you been all these years?”

    “Is it really you? Where have you been all these years?” I yelled at the guy at the door. He was shuffling his feet nervously and staring at the ground. “Lily, I can explain,” he started to say but I … (read more)



    Students’ Stories


    27 January 2014


    Lost love found

    “The night was extremely chilly as it had been snowing a lot here in Rome. The lovebirds, Matt and Lily, had just finished watching a romantic film. While their car stopped at the … (read more) ”



    Latest SPM Model Essays


    23 January 2014


    Childhood reminiscences and the present

    “When I was at a very young age, I remember playing with the kid next door named Ramlee, the girl from across the street – Tina with her shy little brother, Jonah, who was always tagging along. All … (read more) ”

    22 January 2014


    Memories

    “It happened a few years ago at work. I worked as a physiologist at a Wellness Centre for soldiers in New Jersey, USA. One day, I was assigned to James who had a leg injury from a battle … (read more) ”

    13 January 2014


    Describe an unforgettable incident that you saw on your way home from school.

    “The last period had ended and after bidding the teacher goodbye, our class started to disperse. After mounting my mountain bike, I started pedalling along the concrete path. Soon, I was out … (read more) ”

    4 November 2013


    Colours

    “What do colours mean to you? Colours can express ones’ feelings and it can also represent ones’ sexual orientation. Colours can determine what type of person … (read more) ”


    Write a story ending with: “…They looked at each other and smiled meaningfully.”

    Janet and Siew Ling were best friends. They loved to do good to other people. Their acts of kindness to others made them happy and gave them satisfaction … (read more) ”



    Latest Questions & Answers


    1 October 2013


    Hello Doctor Grammar, I was assigned by my teacher to complete two essays during the holidays. I have completed one, but I am worried that this essay may be not so good and I wanted to… Yap Choon Meng

    “Hello Choon Meng, Thank you for your requests. I have edited your essay. Seen below are your original essay and my explanations (the red text in italics below each paragraph)… (read more) ”

    22 September 2013


    Hi Dr Grammar, I have some questions: What is the difference between ‘could’ and ‘would’, and when to use them? Is it before past tense or present tense? Libra Nytestar

    “Hi Libra Nytestar, Thanks for your questions. The use of could was explained earlier and I’ll repeat it here: The modal verb could is used:… (read more) ”


    Hi Dr Grammar, I would like to ask you some questions: 1. Should we use ‘besides that’ or ‘beside that’ ? 2. If a text or essay is in past tense…

    “Hi Herman Lim, 1. Since ‘beside’ is a preposition to show position, the correct phrase should be besides that. 2. Apart from dialogues, we use the simple present tense when we talk about facts and universal truths… (read more) ”


    Dear Dr Grammar, Fill in the blanks with correct collective noun: We saw __________ of tigers in Africa. Shruti


    “Dear Shruti, Thank you for your request. The right collective nouns for tigers are ‘ambush’, ‘streak’ and ‘hide’. an ambush of tigers… (read more) ”


    Latest SPM Model Essay


    12 September 2013


    My future plans

    “Almost everyone in the world has future plans. A person without any plans is likened to a ship sailing the ocean aimlessly without any destinations. Having plans help us know our objectives in life … (read more) ”

    8 September 2013


    Mobile phones should be allowed in schools. Do you agree?

    “Mobile phones are one of the great inventions and high technology items in this modern era. They have become some of the most indispensable objects in our daily life as … (read more) ”



    Students’ Stories


    7 September 2013


    An old photograph!

    “It was the wettest December I had ever experienced. The torrential rains had ruined my holiday plans as floods continued to wreak havoc in several states. I had pleaded with dad to allow … (read more) ”

    6 September 2013


    Love keeps a relationship alive

    “In the east beyond the city, the sun rose. It resembled a red gold ball. A ray of light shone through the window of my bedroom. I woke up and opened the window. Some birds … (read more) ”



    Latest Questions & Answers


    31 August 2013


    Dear Dr Grammar, Please give me the complete lists of collective nouns for people, animals and things. Thanks. Jacky Chan


    “Dear Jacky Chan, Thank you for your request. The lists of collective nouns for people, animals and things are available on this page . The list for animals has just been updated. Though not … (read more) ”

    27 August 2013


    Dear Dr Grammar, I was or I were? Darcy

    “Dear Darcy, Thank you for your question. We use I was and I were in different circumstances. In normal circumstances, we use I was as ‘was’ is the past tense of the verb / auxiliary verb ‘am’ … (read more) ”



    Latest SPM Model Essays


    9 July 2013


    Describe an outing with your friends.

    Last year during the first semester holidays, I went on an outing with my classmates and best friends, Ariff and Adam. Adam’s father won a trip to Penang, which came with a hotel suite stay for … (read more) ”

    8 July 2013


    Write a story ending with “… I realised that good-hearted people are always there in this world.”

    “Class, our lesson has almost come to an end. Your homework for today is to do exercise 12 on page 45 of your textbook,” said our mathematics teacher, Mdm Wong. Not long after, the … (read more) ”

    5 July 2013


    Write a story with the following title: Pride Goes Before A Fall.

    Having held the interschool storytelling championship for the past three consecutive years, I was the star of my school. When it came to choosing the right candidate to participate in… (read more) ”

    24 June 2013


    Describe the best holiday trip you made

    During the last Chinese New Year holidays, my family and I made a trip to Kuala Lumpur. A few months before we went on the trip, my parents booked the air tickets. They also booked a room at … (read more) ”



    Latest Questions & Answers


    21 June 2013


    Hi Dr Grammar, Thank you for answering my questions a few days ago. I would like to ask you some more questions here: I wonder what the difference is between… Jia Sin

    “Hi Jia Sin, Thank you for your questions. to play – the infinitive marker to is often used before the base form of a verb to show purpose or intention … (read more) ”



    Latest SPM Model Essays


    21 June 2013


    Write a story ending with: “…How will I explain everything to my father?”

    “Son, turn off the computer now and do your revision immediately. Your second terminal exams are approaching,” said my father, as he was getting ready for work that morning… (read more) ”



    Latest Questions & Answers


    17 June 2013


    Hello Dr Grammar, I’m glad to visit this site. I have found that English312 is great and helpful to me. Thus, I have a question to ask, that is … Jia Sin

    “Hello Jia Sin, I’m glad to know that you find english312.com a great and helpful site. Here are the answers to your questions: Have been / has been is combined with a present participle… (read more) ”



    Latest SPM Model Essays


    21 June 2013


    Write a story beginning with: “The teacher walked into the classroom. It was the first period …”

    “The teacher walked into the classroom. It was the first period that morning. Our English teacher, Puan Maimunah, greeted us and we greeted her back. Then, the lesson began… (read more) ”



    Latest Questions & Answers


    25 May 2013


    Hello Dr Grammar, What is the difference between ‘did not’ and ‘do not’? Can you explain how to use didn’t and don’t? Thank you. BMA

    “Hello BMA, Thank you for your questions. Do is a plural auxiliary verb (singular: does) used with not before a full verb to form negative… (read more) ”



    Latest SPM English 1119 Updates


    21 May 2013


    Tips for scoring high marks in examinations


    Marking band for SPM English 1119


    17 May 2013


    SPM English 1119


    SPM English 1119 Past Year Papers


    Latest Questions & Answers


    9 May 2013


    Dear Dr Grammar, I have a question: how to use the words ‘can’ and ‘could’? Thank you. AHTO879

    “Hi AHTO879, Thanks for your question. The modal verb ‘can’ means ‘be able to’ or ‘to know how to do something’. Examples: I can drive well… (read more) ”


    8 May 2013


    Hello Sir, I need to know how to use the word ‘omnipotent’ in a sentence. Can I use it in essays? is it suitable? Thank you 🙂 Justin

    “Hello Justin, Thank you for your questions. The adjective ‘omnipotent’ carries 2 meanings: (1) (of a deity) having unlimited power and therefore able to do anything. Examples: … (read more) ”


    7 May 2013


    Dear Dr Grammar, I have a problem using the phrase ‘first things first’. Is it true that it can only be used in the first paragraph of an article or something like that? Thank you. Timothy

    “Dear Timothy, Thank you for your question. The phrase ‘first things first’ means ‘the more important things should be done or dealt with first’. Examples: … (read more) ”



    Latest SPM Model Essays


    6 May 2013


    Write a story with the following title: A Narrow Escape.

    “Billy was extremely overjoyed. He had just got his SPM examination results and he scored straight A’s. His parents promised to take him to Taiwan … (read more) ”


    30 April 2013


    Write a story beginning with: “The teacher walked into the classroom. It was the first period …”

    “The teacher walked into the classroom. It was the first period of the school day. After our class had exchanged greetings with our English teacher, Mdm Lucy, … (read more) ”


    26 April 2013


    Describe the biggest challenge in your life.

    “I had a pampered and protected childhood. As the youngest daughter, I was the princess and prima donna of our family … (read more) ”


    22 April 2013


    A day I wished had never happened.

    “Every time I see my pet dog Lucky’s picture, I feel sad. I had always wished Lucky good health and longevity. I … (read more) ”


    18 April 2013


    A day I wished had never happened.

    “My eyes are filled with tears as I look at a photo. It is a family photo taken three years ago, showing my parents … (read more) ”



    Latest Question & Answer


    17 April 2013


    Dear Dr Grammar, How do I use “is filled” or “is fulled”? Thank you. Elaine_Ling

    “Dear Elaine_Ling, Thank you for your question. The phrase ‘is filled’ is often used with the preposition ‘with’… (read more) ”



    Latest SPM Model Essays


    17 April 2013


    Write about a person who has succeeded in life.

    “It is lunch hour. A large restaurant located in the heart of Kuala Lumpur city is packed with regular customers … (read more) ”


    16 April 2013


    Write a story ending with: “… Now I realise the value of a true friend.”

    “I had never taken my studies seriously. In fact, I was the happy-go-lucky type of person. Compared to me, my classmate … (read more) ”


    My Pet Dog

    “Of all the animals on earth, only human beings keep other animals as pets. Among the various types of animals … (read more) ”


    12 April 2013


    Write a story ending with: “If only I had been more careful, that wouldn’t have happened.”

    “One Saturday afternoon, I had to babysit my three-year-old little sister. My mother was going out and my father had to work overtime … (read more) ”


    11 April 2013


    Write a story beginning with: “It had been raining all day …”

    “It had been raining all day and I was feeling bored that evening. As the single child of my family, I had no one to play with. My mother was ironing clothes downstairs and my father … (read more) ”


    10 April 2013


    Moving into a new house

    “We were all very excited and happy when my father announced that we were going to move to a new house located in a new housing estate. My father had wished … (read more) ”

    Model English Essays for SPM, GCE ‘O’ Level, IELTS,
    MUET and other Similar Examinations


    Narrative

    Descriptive

    Argumentative

    Factual / Expository

    One Word / Open

    Imaginative

    Students’ Stories

    Students’
    Essays

    Narrative

    Write a story beginning with: “The teacher walked into the classroom. It was the first period …”

    Write a story with the following title: A Narrow Escape.

    A day I wished had never happened.

    Write a story ending with: “… Now I realise the value of a true friend.”

    Write a story ending with: “If only I had been more careful, that wouldn’t have happened.”

    Write a story beginning with: “It had been raining all day …”

    Write a story that ends with: “… We said our goodbyes and went our separate ways.”

    Write a story that ends with: “… They looked at each other and smiled meaningfully.”

    Write a story beginning with: “Kim was nervous when the door opened…”.

    Write a story beginning with “It had been raining all day…”.

    Write a story with the title: “An Unexpected Visitor”.

    Write a story with the following title: Pride Goes Before A Fall.

    Descriptive

    Describe an enjoyable weekend you have experienced.

    Describe an important family celebration and how you felt about it.

    �Honesty is the best policy.� Describe an experience when this was true for you.

    �Truly Malaysian.� Describe what this means to you.

    Describe what makes you happy and explain why.

    �A friend in need is a friend indeed.� Describe how a friend helped you in difficult time.

    Describe an outing with your friends.

    Describe the biggest challenge in your life.

    Write about a person who has succeeded in life.

    Describe an unforgettable incident that you saw on your way home from school.

    Describe an embarrassing experience in your life.

    Argumentative

    There is a lack of freedom given to teenagers today. Do you agree?

    �The Internet is mostly a good thing.� Do you agree? Support your opinion.

    Examinations – good or bad?

    School children should not have long holidays. Do you agree?

    Factual / Exlpository

    What is the best way for teenagers to stay fit and healthy?

    Why are animals important to human beings?

    How to keep oneself healthy.

    Why is having good neighbours important?

    One Word / Open

    The best things in life are free. (A reflective essay)

    Beauty

    Imaginative

    My perfect future husband or wife

    (More to come)

    Students’ Essays


    Narrative

    Descriptive

    Argumentative

    Factual / Expository

    One Word / Open

    Others


    Click here for star writer – Abigail Shannon Chua’s essays

    Narrative

    The day I lost my temper
    – by Brian Shu Pui Hong, SMK Sungai Maong, Kuching, Sarawak

    Write a story ending with: ‘…We had never laughed so much in our lives.’
    – by Brian Shu Pui Hong, SMK Sungai Maong, Kuching, Sarawak

    Write about your experience helping Puan Ramlah, an elderly lady who lives alone. End your story with �… I learnt a lot about myself by helping Puan Ramlah.�
    – by Waverly Kong, SMK Chung Hua, Miri, Sarawak

    A Road Accident
    – by Muhammad Muhibbudin Bin Mohd Fauzi, SMK Seksyen 4, Kota Damansara, Petaling Jaya, Selangor

    Write a story about being alone.
    – by Wesly Kong, SMK Taman Tunku

    Write a story ending with: “… They looked at each other and smiled meaningfully.”
    – by Abigail Shannon Chua, Wesley Methodist School Melaka, Melaka

    Write a story of an old man returning to his home he left many years ago.
    – by Abigail Shannon Chua, Wesley Methodist School Melaka, Melaka

    Write a story beginning with: “The teacher walked into the classroom. It was the first period…”
    – by Abigail Shannon Chua, Wesley Methodist School Melaka, Melaka

    Write a story ending with: “… Now I realise the value of a true friend.”
    – by Abigail Shannon Chua, Wesley Methodist School Melaka, Melaka

    Write a story beginning with: “I could tell by his face that he was angry…
    – by Abigail Shannon Chua, Wesley Methodist School Melaka, Melaka

    Write a story ending with: “… Now I realise the value of a true friend.”
    – by Abigail Shannon Chua, Wesley Methodist School Melaka, Melaka

    Write a story beginning with: “It had been raining all day…”
    – by Abigail Shannon Chua, Wesley Methodist School Melaka, Melaka

    Write a story that ends with: “… and so I became a better person.”
    – by Wesly Kong, SMK Taman Tunku

    Write a story beginning with: “Kim was nervous when the door opened…”
    – by Abigail Shannon Chua, Wesley Methodist School Melaka, Melaka

    Write a story with the following title: A Narrow Escape.
    – by Abigail Shannon Chua, Wesley Methodist School Melaka, Melaka

    Write a story that ends with: “… If only I had listened to his/her advice.”
    – by Abigail Shannon Chua, Wesley Methodist School Melaka, Melaka

    Write a story ending with: “If only I had been more careful, that wouldn’t have happened.”
    – by Abigail Shannon Chua, Wesley Methodist School Melaka, Melaka

    Write a story beginning with: “Is it really you? Where have you been all these years?”
    – by Abigail Shannon Chua, Wesley Methodist School Melaka, Melaka

    Write a story ending with: “… They looked at each other and smiled meaningfully.”
    – by Wesly Kong, SMK Taman Tunku, Miri, Sarawak

    Write a story ending with “… I realised that good-hearted people are always there in this world.”
    – by Wesly Kong, SMK Taman Tunku

    Write a story ending with: “… How will I explain everything to my father?”
    – by spmcandidate, Kuala Lumpur

    Write a story beginning with: “The teacher walked into the classroom. It was the first period …”
    – by earthling, Penang

    Write a story beginning with: “It had been raining all day …”
    – by lioncity, Singapore

    Write a story ending with: “…he left and closed the door behind him quietly.”
    – by galaxy17, Petaling Jaya

    Write a story ending with: “… Now I realise the value of a true friend.”
    – by carnation97, Kuala Lumpur

    Write a story ending with: “If only I had been more careful, that wouldn’t have happened.”
    – by Wesly Kong, SMK Taman Tunku

    Write a story entitled “A Frightening Experience”.
    – by Wesly Kong, SMK Taman Tunku

    Descriptive

    Describe the first time you went on a camping trip. You should write about the activities at the camp and explain how you felt about the experience.
    – by Wesly Kong, Curtin University

    Describe an enjoyable stroll in a park.
    – by Edwin Fong Zhong Yi, SMK Sungai Maong, Kuching, Sarawak

    Describe your experience participating in a singing competition.
    – by Waverly Kong, SMK Chung Hua, Miri, Sarawak

    Describe the most terrifying experience in your life.
    – by Nur Syafika Binti Ruslan, SMK Agama (P) Alawiyah Kangar, Kangar, Perlis

    A perfect life
    – by Nur Syazwana Arbae, SMK Sungei Besi, Kuala Lumpur

    A day I wished had never happened
    – by Abigail Shannon Chua, Wesley Methodist School Melaka, Melaka

    A famous person you admire
    – by Abigail Shannon Chua, Wesley Methodist School Melaka, Melaka

    Childhood reminiscences and the present
    – by JYanne, Klang, Selangor

    Describe an unforgettable incident that you saw on your way home from school.
    – by Brian Chong, SMK St Paul’s Institution, Seremban, Negeri Sembilan

    My future plans
    – by Kanagavalli D/OF Gunasekharan, SMK Ayer Keroh, Ayer Keroh, Melaka

    Describe the best holiday trip you made
    – by stargazer, Sarawak

    A day I wished had never happened.
    – by Wesly Kong, SMK Taman Tunku

    My Pet Dog
    – by Wesly Kong, SMK Taman Tunku

    Moving into a new house
    – by Wesly Kong, SMK Taman Tunku

    Describe an enjoyable weekend you have experienced.
    – by Wesly Kong, SMK Taman Tunku

    Describe an unforgetable incident that you saw on your way home from school.
    – by Wesly Kong, SMK Taman Tunku

    Argumentative

    The Internet is mostly a good thing. Do you agree? Support your opinion.
    – by Caryn Ooi Su Li, SMJK Chung Hwa Confucian, Penang

    Social networking has caused a lot of problems. How far do you agree?
    – by Wesly Kong, Curtin University

    Are loyalty and membership cards for shoppers really worth it?
    – by Alib Har

    Spending time in shopping centres has become a culture in our country. Do you agree?
    – by Alib Har

    The simple steps to happiness
    – by Alib Har

    Are smartphones a necessity?
    – by Alib Har

    Is tuition necessary? Discuss.
    – by Wesly Kong, SMK Taman Tunku

    Mobile phones should be allowed in schools. Do you agree?
    – by Lee Hui Yee, SMJK Kwang Hua, Kangar, Perlis

    Examinations – good or bad?
    – by Siti Jamaluddin, SMK Seri Bintang

    The Internet is mostly a good thing. Do you agree? Support your opinion.
    – by Emily Lau, SMK Chung Hua

    Factual / Expository

    What are the ways to cultivate reading habits among students?
    – by Zachary Cassidy, Kuching, Sarawak

    The number of elderly people in the world is increasing. What do you think are the positive and negative effects of this trend?
    – by Wesly Kong, Curtin University

    Friends / The Qualities of True Friends
    – by Jeannette Ng, SMK Dato’ Penggawa Timur, Masai, Johor

    One Word / Open

    Tomorrow
    – by Wesly Kong, SMK Taman Tunku

    Water
    – by Abigail Shannon Chua, Wesley Methodist School Melaka, Melaka

    Clothes
    – by Abigail Shannon Chua, Wesley Methodist School Melaka, Melaka

    Home
    – by Abigail Shannon Chua, Wesley Methodist School Melaka, Melaka

    Friends
    – by Abigail Shannon Chua, Wesley Methodist School Melaka, Melaka

    Peace
    – by Abigail Shannon Chua, Wesley Methodist School Melaka, Melaka

    Memories
    – by Nirshantini, Bukit Mertajam High School, Bukit Mertajam, Penang

    Memories
    – by Abigail Shannon Chua, Wesley Methodist School Melaka, Melaka

    Colours
    – by Victor Choo, SMK USJ 4, Subang Jaya, Selangor

    Others

    There are many things to do after your SPM examination. Write about your plans for the next three months and the challenges you might face.
    – by Wendy, Kwang Hua Private High School, Klang, Selangor

    SPM – My Emotions and Advice
    – by Cheong Kah Yan, Johor Bahru

    • Back to the top
    • Back to SPM English 1119
    • Tips for scoring high marks in examinations
    • SPM past year papers
    • SPM marking band
    • Students’ stories

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      Students taking high school photography qualifications such as A Level Photography or NCEA Level 3 Photography often search the internet looking for tips, ideas and inspiration. This article contains well over 100 creative techniques and mixed media approaches that Fine Art / Photography students may wish to use within their work. It showcases student and artist examples along with brief descriptions of the techniques that have been used. Approaches relate specifically to mixed media photography techniques, technical / trick photography ideas and interesting, fun or unique compositional strategies.

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      100+ creative photography ideas

      Note: The creative photography ideas listed in this article should not be explored haphazardly within a Photography course, but rather selected purposefully, if appropriate for your topic or theme. These approaches may or may not be relevant for your own photography project and should be chosen only in conjunction with advice from your teacher. The techniques listed here are created using a range of different cameras and devices, such as a digital SLR/DSLR camera, traditional camera, pinhole camera and/or camera phone. 

      Stain, smudge and erode photographs using water, like  Matthew Brandt :  

      Water photography ideas - Matthew Brandt
      Matthew Brandt has created unexpected and dramatic running of coloured ink by submerging printed photographs in water. After photographing lakes or reservoirs from around the United States, Brandt collects samples of water and brings them back to his studio. He then soaks the c-prints in water from the location that the image represents. Over time, the surface begins to degrade, creating images that are relics of this process. This is a great example of how creative photography techniques can (and should) be driven by the subject or theme that is explored.

      Print photographs onto a flexible surface and stretch or distort them, as in these works by  Michal Macku : 

      ripped photography by Michal Macku
      Michal Macku has invented his own technique, which he named ‘Gellage’, whereby photographic emulsion is removed from its paper backing, leaving an image that is semi-transparent and flexible. This allows the image to be stretched and reformed – sometimes combined with other images to make imaginative, distorted and/or surreal scenes – before the artwork is adhered to durable paper.

      Burn photographs, as in these examples by  Lucas Simões :  

      Burned photographs by Lucas Simoes
      High school Photography students are able to experiment with burning or scratching negatives prior to printing or once the photo is printed. In these dramatic photographs, Lucas Simões purposefully targets the faces, leaving a single eye. As when using any dangerous technique, burning should be attempted with adult/teacher supervision and care.

      Sew or embroider photos, as in the stitched vintage photography of  Maurizio Anzeri : 

      Maurizio Anzeri photography
      Maurizio Anzeri offers a wealth of inspiration for students who are looking for portrait photography ideas. The brightly embroidered patterns and delicately stitched veils cross the faces with sharp lines and dramatic glimmering forms. Note: Although Anzeri sews directly into found vintage photographs (often from flea markets and car boot sales) it is usually recommended that most high school students use their own photographs for this purpose.

      Stitch photographs together, like  Lisa Kokin : 

      Lisa Kokin photography
      Lisa Kokin takes found, unrelated photographs and stitches them together, fabricating a relationship between them; creating an imagined life from the nostalgic shots.

      Wrap torn plastic or other materials around the edge of your camera to create hazy edges, as in the photographs of Jesse David McGrady  (via  PetaPixel ): 

      plastic bag photography technique
      This clever photography trick produces soft, hazy edges around with a photograph, helping to create a seductive, ethereal or other-worldly atmosphere. Jessy David McGrady achieves this effect using a plastic sandwich bag, with a hole torn in the side. He places the ring of plastic around his camera lens, secured in place with a rubber band, leaving rough, torn, slightly crunched edges visible through the viewfinder (but not obscuring the image completely). The intention is that the middle of the image remains well-focused and sharp, while the edges become misty. You can experiment with using marker pens to colour the plastic or increasing the number of layers of plastic.

      Use a hand-held glass lens or prism, to create blurred, abstract forms, like this photograph by Sam Hurd :

      handheld lens photography effect
      A convex lens or prism held in front of your camera lens can create stunning reflections, distortions and ‘bokeh’ (see below) within and around your image. The results are unexpected and unpredictable, often creating beautiful abstracted shapes and colours that are not easily replicable using Photoshop. A hand-held glass lens or prism enables you to quickly add variety to an image, bending and directing light and colour from the scene itself. Sam Hurd has used this technique to create a strong focal point: a magical environment with attention swiftly focused upon the two figures in the centre. This technique takes practise, but can generate some spectacular results.

      Deliberately unfocus lights to create ‘bokeh’, as in this beautiful landscape by Takashi Kitajima :

      Bokeh photography by Takashi Kitajima
      Takashi Kitajima stands on high-rise buildings and photographs Tokyo city at night, capturing radiant semi-abstract urban landscapes. This composition contains a single focused area, surrounded by circular, glowing ‘bokeh’ – shimmering orbs that appear when a camera lens attempts to record unfocused points of light. Bokeh is created in different ways by different lenses – typically appearing unintentionally in the background of a scene. In this image, Kitajima has used a narrow depth of field (so the area in focus is very small). In addition to being an exciting part of outdoor night photography, bokeh can occur in dimly lit interiors, such as when photographing sequinned fabric, glitter sparkle or Christmas lights etc.

      Photograph scenes through visible hand-held lenses, as in this A Level Photography work by Freya Dumasia :

      handheld lens used in photography
      Identity photography ideas: these photographs were created by distorting and inverting crowd scenes through circular lenses. The frame of the lens becomes a dominant compositional element, containing blurred and abstracted figures that are reduced to smears of unidentifiable colour.

      Abstract an image completely through three mirrors, creating a vortograph, like Alvin Langdon Coburn :

      Alvin Langdon Coburn vortograph
      A vortograph is the abstract kaleidoscopic photograph taken when shooting an object or scene through a triangular tunnel of three mirrors. Alvin Langdon Coburn’s images were some of the first abstract photographs taken.

      Fold a photograph and make a installation, still life or sculpture, as in this example by Joseph Parra :

      Joseph Parra photography sculpture
      Joseph Parra has cut and folded three identical prints with meticulous precision, creating transfixing, distorted portraits. Entitled ‘Oneself’, this work references the ‘fractured, multiple, and twisted ways we often view ourselves’. Many students search endlessly for still life photography ideas: this is a reminder that sometimes the photograph itself can become the still life.

      Create 3D photography collages, as in these works by Midori Harima :

      3D photography collage sculpture
      Midori Harima makes black and white Xerox copies of photographs on archival paper and uses these to create hollow papier-mâché sculptures, with methyl cellulose paste, archival tape and paperclay (clay that has paper fibres added to it, resulting in a stronger, light-weight modelling product that can make thinner more delicate forms and easily bonds with other mediums when dry). The final works are formed from tiny pieces of the images, exploring ideas about childhood senses and our fragmented absorption of data in an ‘information intensive society’.

      Collage mixed media materials onto images, as in Vasilisa Forbes’ photography :

      Vasilisa Forbes photography
      This series of contemporary photographs, entitled ‘You were there we were all there’, have precise, analytical strips of coloured paper collaged onto black and white photographs, removing the human presence from an image. Her work explores popular culture and the ‘conditions of living in a commercial system’.

      Splash, smear or throw mixed media upon photographs, as in this A Level Photography sketchbook example by  Jemma Kelly :

      a level mixed media photography sketchbook
      This is a richly textural high school Photography sketchbook, completed for an AS Photography project. It explores the theme: ‘Unknown and Forbidden’. Collaged, mixed media photography techniques can add another dimension to photographs, and can help with the exploration of conceptual photography ideas.

      Simulate the effect of the wet collodion process used by Sally Mann  via Edwynn Houk Gallery :

      photography series ideas
      Photographer Sally Mann is a fan of antique photography technology, often using a bellows camera (one that has a pleated, expandable box to extend the lens). She has produced a significant body of work using the platinum printing process, which results in high quality monochrome images with a very wide tonal range, as well as the bromoil printing process, which involves making an oil print from a bleached and hardened print on silver bromide paper. Bleaching makes the darkest areas of the print become hardest, so when soaked in water, more water is absorbed in the highlights. Due to oil and water not mixing, when the bromide image is inked with oil paint, the oil adheres to the darker areas only. This can then be printed using a printing press, resulting in a soft paint-like image, with no two images exactly the same. Sally Mann has also created many works using the collodion wet plate process, which can result in images that appear to be a hybrid of photography and painting. This is a laborious historical printmaking method in which the final image is created onsite using a portable darkroom. It has seen a revival in popularity amongst contemporary photographers, with photography equipment now available to simulate this practise. As in the examples above, colours are not true-to-life. It should be noted that these techniques involve complex processes and chemical mixing and are thus not suitable for most beginner Photography students (unless guided by a particularly enthusiastic teacher). The stunning images above, however, suggest many creative ways in which paint, ink and photography can be combined as part of a high school Photography project.

      Paint developer sporadically onto photo paper to expose only parts of the work, as in these portraits by Timothy Pakron :

      Timothy Pakron photography
      Visual artist Timothy Pakron uses experimental darkroom techniques to create ‘silver drip portraits’ of his close friends and family, including his mother and twin sister. Rather than immersing the paper entirely, Pakron hand-paints developer solution onto the photo paper, revealing key elements of the face, such as eyes, nose and mouth, communicating emotion via a few selected features. The dripping chemical solution creates a stream of drips across the image, revealing further details of the face in unexpected and unpredictable ways. The drips suggest tears, exhaustion and despair: the feeling of being submerged in a storm. This aptly communicates the struggle of separation and loss in his family, which are specifically represented in the portraits of his twin sister and mother.

      Paint directly onto photographs, as in these works by Gerhard Richter :

      Gerhard Richter overpainted photographs
      Gerhard Richter has painted over 500 of his own photographs (with many more works discarded): commercially printed images that are overpainted with spontaneous gestural smears, using leftover oil paint applied with palette knives, squeegees or doctors’ blades. In the examples above, the thick painted lines divide the composition and inject colour into what is otherwise a rather drab interior scene. The paint disturbs the viewer – shatters the illusion that we are quietly observing a scene – pulling our attention to the tactile surface and smear of texture in front of our eyes.

      Combine paint and photographs digitally, like Fabienne Rivory ‘s LaBokoff project:

      Fabienne Rivory photography
      This project by Fabienne Rivory explores interactions between imagination and reality. Selecting photographs that represent a memory, Fabienne digitally overlays a gouache or ink painting, introducing an intense vibrant colour to the work. Students might like to experiment with this idea by creating a photocopy of a work and applying ink or watercolours directly (watery mediums will not ‘adhere’ to an ordinary photography surface).

      Redraw part of a scene with paint, as in these works by Aliza Razell :

      Aliza Razell photography
      Although similar to the above technique, this involves more than applying painterly colours or textures to a work. In the example on the left, part of a digital image has been erased and replaced with a hand painted image. Many high school photography students have superb painting and drawing skill. Adopting a technique such as this can be a great way to flaunt multiple strengths.

      Paint onto objects and then photograph them, as in this IGCSE Photography piece by Rachel Ecclestone :

      igcse photography project
      This IGCSE Photography portrait submission incorporates imaginative face painting with dramatic lighting and well-composed images. This approach is growing in popularity amongst contemporary online photographers and provides students with another avenue for expressing a wide range of artistic skill.

      Mark or scratch negatives or photos, as in this 100 year old vintage print by Frank Eugene :

      scratched photogravure etching by Frank Eugene
      This image was created using photogravure – a photographic printmaking technique that was used to create some of the first photographs. It uses a treated, light-sensitive gelatin tissue that is exposed to the image and adhered to a copper plate. After the areas of unexposed gelatine are washed away (leaving different depths of hardened gelatine in darker and lighter areas) ferric chloride is used to etch the image into the copper plate beneath (the ferric chloride soaks in more in the shadowed / darker areas etc), allowing a fully tonal photograph to be produced when printed using a printing press. In this example, Frank Eugene has scratched away background details with a retouching knife, so the horse remains the dominant element in the composition. The resulting image is a combination of drawing, etching and photography (an unorthodox approach for the time, which was influenced by his experience as a painter). Photogravure is now a largely discontinued method of printing a photograph (it has been replaced by laser etching machines – see below) however, it inspires a range of contemporary photography ideas, such as scratching the surface of a photograph with a fine point or scratching a negative prior to printing.

      Use a CNC or Laser Engraving Machine to etch a photographic image onto glass, wood, aluminium or another similar material:

      As technology progresses, it is possible for digital images to be engraved upon various surfaces (such as stone, timber, fabric or leather); on or within glass, as in a 3D crystal engraving; or around cylindrical items, such as a rotating bottle. A laser is used like a pencil, with a controlled beam moving in different directions, intensities and speeds, delivering energy to the surface, heating up and vaporises areas or causing small pieces to fracture and flake away. Although the majority of laser photo engraving examples online seem to be uninspiring commercial shots, laser engraving offers new possibilities for high school Photography students – not just in terms of printing images onto exciting materials, but as a way of creating a textured plate which can then be printed from. It should be noted that although most high school Art Departments are not in a position to purchase a 3D laser engraving machine to experiment with (although this may change in the future) some Design and Technology Departments are beginning to. Many companies also offer a custom laser engraving service that students may make use of. Remember that those who must post work away for assessment are not able to submit heavy, bulky or fragile pieces (such as laser wood engraving or laser engraving on glass).

       

      Use an ink transfer method to print photograph images onto other materials, as in this video by Crystal Hethcote:

      This video shows a simple image transfer technique using gel medium, which could be useful for applying a digital image to any number of creative surfaces.

       

      Add sculptural elements that protrude from the photograph, as in this example by Carmen Freudenthal & Elle Verhagen :

      Sculptural 3D photo illusion
      This photograph blurs the boundary between a 2D representation and reality, integrating photography with 3D elements. Some of the works by Carmen Freudenthal and Elle Verhagen include videos projected onto photos and images printed onto draped sheets.

      Take photos using a scanner, like Evilsabeth Schmitz-Garcia :

      scanography artists example
      Scanography is the art of recording a subject using a flatbed scanner. It is created in the same way that Xerox art is created using a photocopier, however scanners typically have the ability to create larger, higher quality digital files, as opposed to an immediate black and white print. Scanography artists arrange objects upon the scanner screen (sometimes covering these with a layer of paper or draped fabric) and create a ‘scanogram’; or capture movement in exciting ways, such as Evilsabeth Schmitz-Garcia’s ‘Borderline Personality Disorder’ portraits above, which have been distorted and stretched as the scanner arm moves across the screen. Scanners can also be used to take scans of objects place upon existing photographs, as per the example below.

      Place objects on top of a photograph and scan it, like this example by Rosanna Jones :

      scan objects in photography
      This image was created in response to the topic ‘Concealment’. A strip of folded tape was placed upon a blurred photograph and then scanned to create a subsequent digital image. This creates the illusion of a piece of tape floating in midair, in front of a ghost-like figure.

      Put objects on top of photographs and rephotograph them, like these images by Arnaud Jarsaillon and Remy Poncet of Brest Brest :

      brestbrest photography
      Retaking photographs of photographs – similar to the scanning of photographs above – is another technique that is becoming more popular. Retaking photographs is particularly suitable when the nature of the added objects cannot be scanned (as in a wet liquid) or when you wish to use alternative angles and other photography techniques to manipulate the image further. In these examples by Brest Brest, the raw egg and tomato ketchup provide an unexpected contrast to the formal portraits, creating images that command attention.

      Project images onto textured surfaces and rephotograph them, as in these experimental images by Pete Ashton :

      scratched photos
      These urban landscape photographs were created using a homemade camera that projects an image onto a piece of scratched plastic and then photographs this. A similar effect could be achieved by projecting images via an overhead projector or slide projector onto a textured or decorative surface, such as an eroding wall, ripped wallpaper and stained concrete.

      Project images onto people or scenes, as in these examples by freelance photographer Lee Kirby :

      Lee Kirby photography
      Although images can be combined digitally, projecting one image across a three-dimensional form creates a close interaction between the two scenes. The projected image distorts and becomes obscured as it bends around a 3D form and falls within shadowed crevices. Projecting images onto people can be a great way to experiment with ideas relating to identity and portraiture, or as mechanism for moving towards abstract photography. It can also become a creative photography lighting technique – a way of introducing mottled, coloured light to a scene.

      Create a photogram, as in this example by Joanne Keen :

      cool photogram ideas - lemons make great objects!
      Photography students often begin the year experimenting with the simplest type of photographic image – a photogram, also known as a ‘cameraless photograph’. This is created by placing objects directly onto photo paper in a darkroom and then exposing the arrangement to light for a set period of time. The objects create shadows on the paper in various intensities, depending upon the strength and duration of the light as well as the transparency of the items. Translucent items can be particularly successful, as in the slices of lemons and limes shown in Joanne Keen’s photogram above. Once the paper has been exposed to light, it is processed in the darkroom as per normal.

      Create pinhole photography, making your own pinhole camera from scratch like Matt Bigwood  (via The Phoblographer ):

      pinhole photography ideas
      This awesome experimental photograph was created by Matt Bigwood during a six month exposure, using a homemade pinhole camera, made out of an aluminium can (the light proof box). The top of the can was removed and a pinhole was punctured in the side (the smaller the hole, the sharper the image – although the longer exposure time is needed, as less light is let in). Photographic paper was then inserted into the can (in the dark), with a cardboard lid placed back over the opening, before it was positioned in place. As the pinhole was uncovered, light entered the ‘camera’, creating an inverted view of the scene on the photographic paper (film can also be used) positioned inside the camera. Although pinhole cameras often create unpredictable photographs, they are a great way for understanding how photographs were originally created. This example by Matt Bigwood captures the movement of the sun (a type of photography known as solargraphy) across a suburban sky.

      Note: some teachers purchase a make-at-home pinhole camera set for their students, such as this one from  Amazon US  or  Amazon UK  (affiliate links).   Matt Bigwood ‘s DIY pinhole cameras are made from ordinary aluminium drink cans:

      DIY pinhole camera can

      Deliberately overexpose a shot, creating ‘high-key’ photography, like this portrait by Gabi Lukacs :

      high-key photography by Gabi Lukacs
      High-key photography is the result of letting too much light into the camera (having the shutter open for longer than the light conditions would normally require). Although overexposure usually occurs by accident, this can be used as a deliberate stylistic technique. A high-key photograph is typically taken in a bright location (extreme sunshine or under special photography lighting) with a white background or surroundings. A high-key photo often has a minimal, sleek and/or futuristic appearance: smooth flawless surfaces, pale shadows, few minor details, and light areas ‘blown out’ (whitened).

      Experiment with underwater photography like Elena Kalis :

      underwater photography Elena Kalis
      Students who are looking for creative portrait photography ideas will be inspired by the compositions of Elena Kalis. The dreamlike, other-worldly quality of shooting underwater can trigger many abstract or literally ‘cool’ photography ideas.

      Use a homemade light box to create uncluttered backdrops for photography, as in this YouTube video by Auctiva:

      Art teachers and students frequently take photographs upon cluttered classroom tabletops, often with less than optimal lighting conditions. Light box photography can be especially useful in this situation, helping those who wish to create professional product shots (Graphic Design students creating promotional material, for instance) or those who want to photograph sculptural or design pieces, create composite works from several elements or just to have a simple backdrop for their images. Tabletop photography becomes infinitely easier when you can light a subject well, and capture true colour and details, in a reliable, uniform way. If you are looking for other less time-intensive tabletop photography ideas or backdrop ideas, it is possible to purchase inexpensive light box kits and light tents from Amazon.com and Amazon UK  (affiliate links).

      Experiment with camera filters, like the neutral density filter that was used to photograph this beautiful seascape by Salim Al-Harthy :

      camera filters effects
      Many students assume that tweaking of the colour or light in a photograph takes place digitally, after the image is taken. Although digital editing tools are great, there are many benefits to starting with a higher quality image. Camera lens filters – optical filters which typically screw or clip to the camera lens – can help with this. The lens filter shown (above left) is a neutral density filter, which reduces the amount of light that enters the camera. This allows long exposure shots in brightly lit scenes, such as in Salim Al-Harthy’s beautiful seascape photography, to occur without becoming over exposed. Other filters affect the brightness or hue of a colour, reduce reflections, distort or diffuse a scene. Camera filters can be added and used in combination as needed.

      Use specialised photography lighting to achieve dramatic contrasts, as in this portrait of two brothers by dankos-unlmtd :

      high contrast lighting photography
      Many high school photography classes have a set of lighting equipment, tripods and backdrops which can be shared among students and used for demonstration purposes. Although expensive lighting is not necessary to create a great shot (indeed, daylight is all that is needed in many cases), experimenting with photography lighting techniques can be helpful, especially in staged, indoor shots. Lighting is particularly important in black and white photography, where the removal of colour means greater emphasis upon light and shadow. In this portrait, backlighting creates a dramatic highlight around the contour of the face, emphasising the similarities and differences between the older and younger brother.

      Use a transportable photography reflector (i.e. this one from  Amazon.com  or  Amazom UK  – affiliate links) to create better lighting within your shots, such as in this outdoor portrait by  Toni Lynn :

      photography reflector before and after
      Most transportable reflectors for photography are inexpensive, lightweight and easy to carry. They come in a range of sizes and colours and are usually made from reflective fabric, held taut by a wire ring (although you can make your own silver version using tinfoil taped onto a cardboard sheet or use reflective insulation board from a hardware store). The primary function of a photography reflector is to lighten a subject naturally, eliminate harsh shadows and/or add a sparkle to the eyes by directing, absorbing or diffusing light. Different coloured reflectors can also be used to change the mood of an image, such as a gold reflector for warmth and silver for increasing highlights. Black and translucent ‘reflectors’ are not technically reflectors at all – and instead absorb, scatter or diffuse light. In the example above, Toni Li demonstrates how a natural backlit portrait can be improved dramatically by reflecting light back onto the subject’s face.

      Take unfocused shots and create semi-abstract photographs, like those by  Bill Armstrong :

      unfocused photography by Bill Armstrong
      Bill Armstrong sets his camera’s focus ring at infinity and takes purposefully unfocused photographs. He makes collages – photocopying, cutting and painting over images – and then retakes these as blurred photographs, so that the resulting scene appears to be a photograph of reality. Exact identities and objects remain mysterious. This photographic technique allows the emphasis to be placed upon light, tone and colour, resulting in intriguing, suggestive images.

      Create 360 degree 3D panoramic photography, as in this image by Nemo Nikt :

      panoramic photography 360 degrees
      As technology progresses, more cameras and digital image manipulation programs offer the ability to combine multiple shots from different angles into spherical 360 degree photographs (usually with the appearance of little planets or floating worlds). Some cameras use two different lenses to achieve the 3D photography effect, while others use one. Students should be especially careful when using techniques such as this, as the temptation to experiment can overwhelm good judgment, but for certain themes or compositional approaches, 3D panoramic photography may be appropriate, especially if this is used in an artistic, experimental way.

      Use kites to create aerial photography, as in this image by Pierre Lesage :

      kite aerial photography
      Kite aerial photography (KAP) is a technique for only the particularly dedicated and experimental Photography student. It involves lifting a camera via a kite using a purpose-built or DIY rig, with the shutter triggered remotely or automatically. Although one of the more complex (and potentially risky) photography techniques listed here, it can allow exciting experimentation with camera angles and height, creating beautiful images like the one by Pierre Lesage above, which would never otherwise be able to be achieved. With fast shutter speeds, motion blur can often be avoided. Students who are inexperienced using kite aerial photography are best to trial this using an inexpensive camera!

      Produce High Dynamic Range Imaging (HDR Photography), as in this example by Karim Nafatni :

      HDR photography by Karim Nafatni
      In certain situations, part of a normal photograph may appear too dark or too light. For example, when photographing a figure before a brightly lit window, the portrait and interior may appear as a dark silhouette – or the window scene may appear bright white. What is HDR photography? HDR is a way of solving this, by combining two or three photographs of the same scene taken at different exposures, so that all areas of the photograph have the right ‘dynamic range’ or brightness. As is demonstrated in this stunning photograph of an aeroplane flight deck by airline captain Karim Nafatni, even shadows and very bright areas in HDR photography are perfectly exposed and full of detail. This results in a captivating, almost illustrative effect. Wondering how to do HDR photography? Shots taken at different exposures can be combined using HDR photography software; the HDR mode in-camera or the HDR Camera setting on some smartphones (see the list below). In-camera modes do all the work for you and simply spit out the final image. HDR Photography tips: avoid movement (of both the subject and your camera) for the duration of the shots (use a tripod!); avoid this technique if you desire strong contrasts between dark and light areas; and do not use when a scene that is already vivid and well exposed.

      SmartPhones with HDR Camera include (affiliate links):

      • Samsung Galaxy S5 – see on Amazon.com  or Amazon UK
      • iPhone 5s – see on Amazon.com or Amazon UK
      • Sony Xperia Z1 – see on Amazon.com or Amazon UK

       

      Use tilt-shift photography to make real things look miniature, as in this example by  Nicolas :

      tilt shift photography - rugby field
      Tilt-shift photography is a technique that makes real objects appear small, as if they were part of a miniature scale model. This is achieved through blurring and distortion – either with special camera lenses (such as the Nikon or Canon tilt shift lens); lens adaptors (such as the Hasselblad Tilt Shift adapter) which convert traditional lenses to tilt shift lenses; digital manipulation after the image is taken; or using a free smartphone app or Photoshop. There are also websites that convert images to tilt-shift photos, such as http://tiltshiftmaker.com. A quick tilt-shift photography tutorial: start with a high quality, well-lit, in-focus photograph; take the photo from above and to the side (as if looking down upon a scale model); choose a relatively simple scene; and make sure people are small (realistic people don’t appear in models). Remember that exciting techniques such as this are fun and tempting to use to excess: integrate only those which are beneficial and relevant to your high school Photography project.

      Use a tilt-shift effect to make paintings or drawings appear real, as in these photographs of Vincent van Gogh artworks by Serena Malyon :

      tilt shift van gogh paintings
      Third year Art student Serena Malyon achieved some draw-dropping results when applying the tilt-shift technique to famous van Gogh paintings using Photoshop. Flat, two-dimensional images took on the illusion of three-dimensional scenes, casting the viewer suddenly back in time. This tilt-shift approach may be more suitable for high school students who specialise in Painting, but there may be ways in which digital distortion of painted scenes can form an integral part of a senior Photography project.

      Photograph things with extreme macro lenses, like these photos of water drops by Andrew Osokin :

      macro photography water drops
      These ethereal photographs of frozen water drops on plants are at such an extreme scale that they seem to be of a miniature, undiscovered worlds. Students looking for macro photography ideas often do not have to look far. At an extreme close-up, a whole other realm of detail and possibility emerges.

      Photograph things without contextual information, so objects become almost unrecognisable, as in this example by Peter Lik :

      Peter Lik photography of canyons
      The subject matter of this dramatic photograph is not immediately clear. At a first glance, it could be a swirling sheet in air, sand dunes at sunset or thick layers of impasto paint smeared across a canvas. In fact, Peter Lik is a renowned landscape photographer and this work is from his Hidden Canyon’s series – photographs of America’s beautiful canyon landscapes. Rather than seeking to distort or manipulate a scene, students looking for abstract photography ideas may wish to take this approach: zoom in until all contextual information is missing from a shot, capturing a beautiful fragment of the world that no one else has seen.

      Take photos from uncommon or unexpected viewpoints, like these birds eye view photographs commissioned by the human rights organization Society for Community Organization :

      birds eye view photography
      Photographing something from an uncommon angle can often result in fresh, unexpected images. This bird’s eye view shows a tiny apartment in Hong Kong, where 1.3 million people live below the poverty line. The image was taken via a camera installed in the ceiling and aims to illustrate the unsafe living conditions of people crammed into small spaces.

      Use frames within frames to create intriguing compositions, such as these photographs by Chen Po-I :

      frames within frames photography
      ‘Frames within frames’ is an age-old compositional strategy that helps to direct vision, create depth and emphasise certain areas of a photograph. In these examples, from Chen Po-I’s series ‘Outlook’, urban growth in Taiwan is framed by windows in nearby derelict, abandoned buildings. This helps to contextualise the scenes and introduces ideas related to industrial expansion.

      Photograph forms inside other forms, like Per Johansen :

      Per Johansen photography
      Per Johansen has taken captivating photographs of organic meat and vegetable squeezed inside clear plastic containers. These examples show a sausage and eel coiled within mass produced synthetic bottles. Many students search aimlessly for creative still life ideas: the notion of arranging objects inside other objects may have potential for a wide range of different themes.

      Emphasise reflections, rather than the objects themselves, as in the urban landscape photography of Yafiq Yusman :

      puddle reflection photography
      There are many opportunities for students to explore reflections within their work – such as those that occur upon metal, glass or water. Yafiq Yusman has created a great series of bustling Singaporean landscapes photographs showing scenes from his home town reflected in puddles.

      Play with shadows, like Russ and Reyn Photography :

      shadow photography ideas
      Another creative approach is to place emphasis upon the shadows created by a subject. This can lend itself to trick photography ideas or illusions, as in the example above, or provide a way for creating dramatic lighting conditions within a photographic work.

      Create illusions using forced perspective, like these photographs by Laurent Laveder :

      forced perspective photography of the moon
      Forced perspective is an optical illusion that occurs when deliberately tricking the viewer into thinking that an object is larger or smaller than it actually is. The illusion is created through careful staging of viewpoints and camera angles. Most forced perspective photographs involve cliche scenes that are best avoided within a high school Photography project, but there are some beautiful examples, such as these evocative works by Laurent Laveder.

      Arrange compositions as if they were a beautiful still life painting, such as these food photographs styled by Maggie Ruggiero  and photographed by Martyn Thompson (left) and Marcus Nilsson (right):

      still life photography ideas - Maggie Ruggiero
      Every shape, texture, colour and form within these photographs has been considered, selected and positioned with care. Those looking for out-of-the-box indoor photography approaches or unusual still life photography ideas can find it helpful to remind themselves that Photography students have the same level of compositional control as do Painting / Fine Art students. Understanding how to balance and link different elements of a composition might be all that is needed for you to create unforgettable still life photography.

      Create candid documentary photography, like these emotion-filled black and white football fan shots by  Christopher Klettermayer :

      candid documentary photography
      Documentary photography – or reportage photography, as it is sometimes known – involves candid photographs of unstaged, unmanipulated scenes (usually involving people) such as might be taken by a photo journalist. Emphasis is often upon movement, expressions and emotions of the subjects, with images left in a mainly raw, unprocessed state. Looking around for opportunities in your local environment can be all that is needed for students to find documentary photography project ideas, however it is worth remembering that capturing well-balanced innovative compositions in an unfolding situation takes practise and skill.

      Create a composition that tells a narrative or story, like Dan Winters’ photography featuring Brad Pitt :

      Dan Winters photography of Brad Pitt
      Narrative photography involves communicating a story through visual clues: a frozen moment in time. Students looking for narrative photography ideas can learn a lot from looking at Dan Winters’ photography. In the celebrity portrait above, props, backgrounds, the dimmed lighting and Brad Pitt’s pose all work together to suggest a particular backstory. Unlike documentary photography, where the photographer carefully selects an angle and cropping of the scene that already exists, narrative photography involves precise staging and careful manipulation of the ‘characters’ within the story.

      Capture the same scene at different times, as in this photography series by Clarisse d’Arcimoles :

      photography time travel
      Clarisse d’Arcimoles has taken a series of photographs mimicking old family photographs, creating identical compositions of family members at different stages in their lives. The series explores ideas such as the ‘irretrievability of the past and photography’s strength to make memories tangible’. Facial expressions, body angles, clothes, hairstyles, props and background settings are recreated entirely, so that family members sense that they travel back in time while the shoot takes place. Once taken, the shot is manipulated digitally, adding grainy textures and changing the light and tone to mimic the contrast within the old photograph. This image is an archival injet print of d’Arcimole’s sister, aged 13 and 35.

      Photograph things that are submerged in coloured liquid or milk bath, such as these shots by Rosanna Jones :

      milk bath photography
      These images by Art student Rosanna Jones show a figure lying in a lukewarm bath of powdered milk. This results in beautiful, semi-translucent, ghostly images, with dramatic focal areas and a high-key effect (see above).

      Use mirrors to create illusions, as in this self-portrait by 18 year old photographer Laura Williams :

      mirror illusion photography
      Mirrors hold much potential for students and can be useful for directing light as well as reflecting images. This photograph was digitally enhanced using Photoshop, so that the mirror appears transparent or invisible, showing the landscape behind the figure.

      Create a complex ‘unrealistic’ setting and photograph it, as in this composition by Cerise Doucède :

      imaginative interior photography
      When so many photographers insist upon using digital manipulation to create bizarre and unexpected scenes, it is refreshing to see Cerise Douède string inanimate objects from the ceiling, positioning these as if they are exploding outwards from a central figure. Creating this extraordinary still life took Doucède three days. The strings are left visible in the final photograph, adding an element of awe to the work, as the viewer becomes aware that this is not digital fantasy.

      Collect many similar items and produce typology photography, like  Sam Oster ’s apparatus series:

      typology photography ideas
      These silver gelatine prints consist of electrical consumer goods arranged in a grid format. Each item is photographed formally, within an identical setting: a typology of kettles and electrical fans. This is part of Samantha Oster’s ‘Short Circuit’ series; a photo-media investigation of the electrical consumption of modern society. The items were collected from dumps and rubbish collections and photographed using black and white film, before being processed by hand.

      Organise subject matter into patterns, like Jim Golden :

      pattern photography examples
      Photography students sometimes get caught up in ‘finding’ a perfect scene, environment or moment to photograph and forget that they have direct compositional control. Objects or scenes can be deliberately arranged and composed, creating meaningful installations or repeating patterns. A reminder of the price of progress, Jim Golden purchases obsolete technology at yard sales and thrift stores and arranged these into dramatic patterns. Placing hundreds of near identical objects next to each other forces viewers to notice and observe tiny differences.

      Digitally create patterns, as in this artwork by  Misha Gordin :

      Misha Gordin photography
      Whereas the above example depicts a physical arrangement of subject matter, this photograph shows how digital manipulation can be used to create a powerful and moving image.

      Overlay multiple photos from slightly different angles, like these experimental photographs by Stephanie Jung :

      experimental digital manipulation photography by Stephanie Jung
      Stephanie Jung creates stunning urban landscapes, overlaying near-identical city scenes that have been taken from slightly different angles, at different transparencies and colour intensities. The repeated forms (buildings / vehicles / street signs) suggest echoed memories, vibrations of life; the ebb and flow of time.

      Digitally erase parts of objects, as in this A Level Photography work by  Leigh Drinkwater :

      A Level Photography examples and ideas
      The mouth of this A Level Photography portrait has been digitally removed using photography editing software. Rather than erasing the image entirely, a ‘rubber stamp tool’ or the equivalent can be used to duplicate a surface. In this case, facial skin has been imitated, concealing the mouth.

      Colour select areas, as in this example by  Locopelli :

      colour select technique used in photography
      This photograph uses colour to draw attention to a certain area of the composition and create a focal point. Photography editing software is used to create a duplicate black and white copy of an artwork as a separate layer beneath the original photograph. The coloured layer is then partially erased, cropped or selected, leaving colour visible in certain areas only.

      Apply a digital filter to create an illustrative effect, as shown in this Adobe Photoshop tutorial :

      Adobe Photoshop filter effects tutorial
      Many Art teachers and examiners have a fervent dislike of Adobe Photoshop filters. This is because many students seem to believe that spending ten seconds applying a garish filter to a mediocre photograph transforms it into ‘art’. Digital filters do have a place, however, and can provide enormous value (such as in the example above, when several Photoshop filters have been applied, manipulated, erased and tweaked before arriving at the final image). Using digital filters may be particularly appropriate for students who incorporate photography within graphic design or illustrative projects.

      Digitally overlay textures onto photos, as illustrated in this tutorial by PhotoshopStar :

      texture photography ideas - Photoshop tutorial
      Textured layers can be digitally added to part or all of a photograph to impart the illusion of texture. There is a huge range of possible textures that are suitable for photographic overlays; the opportunities are endless. Students should find and photograph these themselves – for example, decaying timber surfaces, peeling paint or stained concrete. Ideally a student’s theme or topic should inspire a suitable textural surface to explore.

      Digitally combine paintings with photos, as in these examples by Dennis Sibeijn and Iwona Drozda-Sibeijn of Damnengine :

      Damnenging art
      Damnengine uses photography editing software to combine stunning painted textures with photographic images, creating an exciting graphic illustration. The repetitive element in this portrait and the surrounding paint splatters helps to express movement and energy. This technique suggests numerous ideas for portrait photography, as well as a development path for students who wish to move towards abstract photography ideas.

      Digitally draw over photographs, as in these portraits by May Xiong :

      drawing over photographs using Photoshop
      These haunting photographs show painted figures overlaid with a web of linear structures. The images explore the human mind; the interconnected maze of human thought.

      Repeat or stretch pixels, as in these examples by Maykel Lima :

      creative photography techniques gallery
      In these digitally manipulated works by Maykel Lima, lines of pixels have been stretched to the edge of the image – a promising approach for those who wish to create abstract or partially abstract photographs. This is a relatively simple process using image manipulation software, yet it requires careful selecting and balancing of space, form, line and colour.

      Digitally superimpose photographs onto other products, as in these watches by John Rankin Waddell :

      John Rankin photography watches
      Contemporary photographer Rankin has helped design the new Swatch watches, which are adorned with his close up photographs of human eyes. In this example, eyes become unusual, captivating patterns that adorn a product.

      Digitally merge images to play with scale, as in this photograph by Katherine Mitchell :

      people in boxes by Katherine Mitchell
      Merging images using photography editing software such as Adobe Fireworks or Photoshop and exploring surreal photography ideas can result in exciting and striking images. This beautiful photograph by Katherine Mitchell depicts people in boxes.

      Create fantasy scenes like Lorna Freytag :

      surrealist photography by Lorna Freytag
      Lorna Freytag is a photographer, children’s book illustrator and author. She creates commissioned portraits, like the works above, merging children into imaginative, fantasy situations. Students often want creative portrait photography ideas and to integrate stories and fairytales within their work; these examples combine both.

      Combine objects in unexpected ways, to create something new, as in Carl Warner’s foodscapes :

      Carl Warner foodscapes
      Students often become adept at using digital software to erase or enhance parts of scenes, forgetting that objects themselves can be used to construct entirely new scenes. In this case, a landscape has been physically crafted from food, with vegetables superglued and pinned in position upon a tabletop in Carl Warner’s studio: celery stem trees; mushrooms for rocks etc. A series of different photographs are taken of the miniature landscape, using a combination of tungsten and flash lighting equipment to simulate daylight. These images are then assembled digitally, post production.

      Make sculptural installations and then photograph them, as in this A Level work by Kim Seymour :

      example of a creative a level photography theme
      This A Level Photography work explores themes about the of exploitation of women, using a sculptural installation. Lights behind greaseproof paper windows draw attention to certain parts of the photograph. Moving beyond an ordinary photography still life, the sculpture becomes a conceptual art form in its own right.

      Photograph things pressed against transparent surfaces, as in these photograph details by Jenny Saville :

      jenny saville photography of bodies
      These Jenny Saville photographs show a woman’s body pressed up against glass. Well known for her shocking contemporary paintings, Jenny Saville’s photography is just as captivating – a superb example of creative portrait photography ideas.

      Photograph things through transparent sheets, as in these works by  Flóra Borsi :

      creative portrait photography by Flora Borsi
      Flóra Borsi combines photographic elements with painting techniques in these creative portraits. The images depict a model holding a painted transparent sheet, so that the painterly marks semi-obscure her body. This could be a great approach for students investigating identity, for example.

      Photograph objects through mottled or translucent screens, like this work by  Matthew Tischler : 

      Matthew Tischler screen series
      Matthew Tischler takes photographs through window screens, netting and scrims, using these to dissect, pixelate and filter his images. This removes the fine detail from his work and creates ‘faceless characters whose identities are defined by their surroundings’.

      Overlay tracing paper, obscuring parts of an image, like this photograph by Gemma Schiebe :

      photography tracing paper overlays
      This work by Fine Art student Gemma Schiebe emphasises our loneliness within cities and explores the idea that people often move around a busy urban space without any connection or interaction with those around them. The central figure has been cut out of the tracing paper, so that the surrounding scene is washed out and obscured.

      Cut, fold and manipulate photos, like these examples by Joseph Parra :

      Joseph Parra photography
      In Joseph Parra’s ‘Braided’ series, portraits are sliced into strips and plaited, obscuring the faces. Manipulating the paper that photography is printed upon holds exciting potential for students.

      Rip and layer photographs, as in this example by  Mark Jacob Bulford :

      ripped and torn photograph layers
      Aiming to replicate the effect of peeled layers of skin, the Stratum series was created by distressing and ripping Xerox copies of portraits (photocopies fold and tear more easily than photo paper) layering and overlapping these, before rephotographing. The resulting images were digitally manipulated further, to produce a three dimensional effect.

      Cut through photographs to expose other layers of photographs below, as in these images by Lucas Simões :

      abstract photography ideas by Lucas Simoes
      These images are created by layering a similar photograph on top of another and then cutting precise holes into the top layer to expose the images below. This is repeated many times, creating a semi-abstract final work that is composed of fragmented and disassembled forms. The forms can be neatly cut using a craft knife or – as in the case of Lucas Simões’ latest work – a laser cutter.

      Note: If you are interested in laser cut work, you may wish to see the excellent  A Level Art project by Lucy Feng , which has been featured on the Student Art Guide.

       

      Create layered handmade collages, like these works by Damien Blottière :

      creative photography collage ideas
      After taking initial photographs, Damien Blottière cuts, layers and pastes these, extending the lines and curved organic forms of the human body – the bones, muscles, face, features and limbs – as well as the designer garments that clothe them, creating fantasy/futuristic images. The cuts become the act of drawing, with shadows between the layers adding depth.

      Cut out shapes and insert coloured paper, as in these photographs by Micah Danges :

      photography with cut coloured paper layers
      These landscape photographs by contemporary photographer Micah Danges have separate photographic layers and incorporate stylised abstract elements. The simple strategy of cutting pieces out of a photograph and adding layers of different paper can be a great technique for high school photography students.

      Collage photographs and found materials together, creating mixed media art like Jelle Martens :

      photography collage art
      These precise, analytical works by Jelle Martens, combine geometric blocks of colour with photographs, creating perfectly balanced patterns

      Make a photomontage, as in these examples by  David Hockney :

      david hockney photo montage
      This photography collage of a chair by David Hockney shows how several viewpoints can be combined within the one photomontage, creating an image that is intriguing and cohesive, despite the distorted perspective. This approach might be suitable for those looking for still life photography ideas or those who wish to move towards a more fragmented or abstracted photographic image.

      Make a photographic assemblage combining foreground, middleground and background, as in this example by Matthew Chase-Daniel :

      Matthew Chase-Daniel photomontage
      Matthew Chase-Daniel explores the way we look at the world. Rather than taking a single snapshot, he collects a ‘group of moments’, simulating the way we look in different directions and focus upon essential details. He takes a collection of photographs over a few hours or days, sometimes moving around the landscape; other times remaining still. Once he returns to his studio he selects, edits and arranges the photographs digitally, so they communicate the essence of a place. The final composite work is printed at a large scale on rag paper.

      Make an photography collage using masking tape, like Iosif Kiraly :

      masking tape collage
      Whereas the previous photomontage montages involve precise trimming and arrangement of forms, this collage has an informal aesthetic, with visible pieces of masking tape holding it together. This can be a great method for shifting and moving pieces until the work is well balanced and cohesive. Iosif Kiraly’s work explores the relationship between perception, time and memory.

      Photograph a single scene over time and join the pieces in sequence, like these composite photographs by Fong Qi Wei :

      Fong Qi Wei photography
      These photographs are from Fong Qi Wei’s ‘Time is a Dimension’ series, and show digital slices of photographs taken over several hours at one location. The shots above show a seaside in sunrise, with the images organised together in a way that shows the changing light conditions.

      Cut and Overlap a sequence of photos to create a sense of movement, as in this A Level Photography project by Harriet James-Weed :

      motion photography ideas
      Many students who explore motion photography ideas leap towards flashy digital manipulation tricks, without first making use of hand-generated collage techniques. This photomontage has been manually assembled upon a wooden surface, with images overlapped in sequence to imply movement. It was inspired by the great photography series of Edward Muybridge and is an excellent way of investigating conceptual ideas for subsequent works.

      Create sequence photography by combine multiple exposures, as in the high speed photography of Ray Demski:

      Sequence photography Ray Demski
      Quick release shutter speeds allow photographers to create an exciting sequence of photographs. Ray Demsky captures athletes in motion: digitally combining a series of high speed photographs in a single composite work.

      Combine multiple exposures to create the illusion of repeated objects, like these creative compositions by Lera :

      how to combine multiple exposures in photography
      Combining multiple exposures within one photograph (the same technique that is used for sequence photography above) makes it possible to create the illusion that there are many identical elements within a composition. In these great examples, a imaginative fantasy concept is created – several mystical figures moving dramatically within the frame.

      This video by Ultimate PhotoGuide shows one method of easily combining multiple exposures:

       

      Superimpose two different but related scenes over the top of each other, like in this photograph by Adam Goldberg :

      superimposed photographs
      Traditional photographers have long been able to create two exposures on a single piece of film. This technique is now also easily achieved digitally – overlaying images using a multiply or transparency filter, for example. This example shows how the integration of two different scenes can help to strengthen the ideas communicated within an artwork.

      Photograph an artwork within a scene to create illusions, as in these images by Gregory Scott via Catherine Edelman Gallery :

      painting photography illusion by Gregory Scott
      Many high school Photography students have skills in a wide range of other art disciplines. If you are looking for photography portrait ideas or still life photography ideas and are also a strong painter or drawer, you may wish to use trick photography to create surreal, distorted or unexpected illusions. Greg Scott takes photographs of large painted self-portraits, suspended within a real life setting. The final shots are black and white photographs (the elimination of colour helps to conceal the boundary between the painted and ‘real’ worlds) with careful organisation of perspective helping to merge the boundary between the painted and photographic image.

      Add photography cuttings to real life situations, like the surrealist scenes created by Yorch Miranda :

      photography cut out
      This image has been created by hanging a cut out photographic figure above a laundry basket. The change in scale results in an inventive, surrealist scene, with the shadow cast by the figure becoming an integral part of the work.

      Inset scenes within other scenes, as in these photographs by Richard Koenig :

      richard koenig photography
      Richard Koenig hangs a print and rephotographs this in its new location, creating intriguing illusions of space within space. Perspective lines within the two images are aligned to create optical confusion, so the viewer is disconcerted and unsure about the separation of the two spaces. His work often features intimate, private moments inset within generic, impersonal, public environment.

      Poke or cut holes in photos and shine light through, like Amy Friend :

      vintage photography by Amy Friend
      Using an unconventional photography lighting technique, Amy Friend pokes holes in photographs, so that pinpoints of light cast a magical glow over portraits that have faded and darkened with age. Although many students looking for vintage photography ideas resort to copying this approach exactly, there are many other possibilities, such as cutting and folding images in different ways, shining different coloured lights through gaps, rephotographing images at unusual angles and scales, distorting images and deliberately creating bokeh.

      Photograph scenes through small gaps or holes, as in these photographs by Reina Takahashi :

      photograph through cut paper
      Photographing a scene through holes holds exciting promise for students. In these examples, Reina Takahashi creates an intricate paper cut and then photographs a room interior behind this. This fragments and abstracts the image, and casts beautiful shadows.

      Experiment with night photography and create a light painting or drawing, as in A Level Photography example by Georgia Shattky:

      light painting photography
      ‘Light painting’ is the act of illuminating another object or scene using a moving hand-held light, such as a flashlight or laser pointer. ‘Light drawing’ involves shining the lights at the camera and drawing or painting with light in much the same way as an artist might draw or paint with ink. The spectacular night landscape above was created using a torch at twilight upon New Zealand sand dunes, as part of a high school Photography project. Tips: use a long exposure in a dark setting, with the camera mounted upon a tripod. An alternative light painting technique involves moving the camera around stationary lights (this is sometimes known as kinetic light painting or camera painting). This is a less predictable method and results in vibrant, abstract photographs. As with many of the ideas listed in this article, rather than reading a complex light painting tutorial outlining exact camera settings for night photography, sometimes the best approach is simply to dive in and experiment, test and explore.

      Note: If you are interested in light painting you may also wish to view this high school  NCEA Photography project by Jessica Louise . Jessica uses a range of night photography techniques, including using a laser to paint with light.  

      Use a fast shutter speed to freeze motion, like the action photography of Justin Grant :

      high speed action photography
      A fast shutter speed gives us the option to capture action that might not normally be visible with the naked eye. Although many students fall for the trap of recording cliche high speed movement, such as splashing water, shattering wine glasses or racing cars, there are many ways in which high speed / action photography can be integrated within a high school Photography project. This shot by Justin Grant provides a great example. The emphasis is not just upon capturing the athletic movement of the human body, but upon composing a polished and well-balanced piece of art.

      Move the camera horizontally, so a moving subject is in focus but the background is blurred, as in the panning photography of Mr Bones (via My Modern Met ):

      panning photography ideas
      Panning is often one of the first ‘tricks’ that Photography students are introduced to. Using a slower shutter speed, the camera follows the motion of a moving object, ensuring that the panning movement is as smooth and steady as possible (sometimes this can be achieved by rotating the camera atop a tripod). This results in the background appearing blurred, with the moving object sharp, as in the example of a cat chasing a mouse above.

      Use slow shutter speeds to create blurred movement, as in this beautiful water photo by Antti Viitala :

      amazing seascape photography
      This amazing seascape by Antti Viitala shows overcast and stormy skies above crashing waves in South Africa. Long exposures blur the boundary between the sand and sea, creating an eerie and almost other-worldly effect.

      Zoom in while shooting with a slow shutter speed, like A Level Photography student Freya Dumasia :

      camera zoom photography technique
      This image was created by zooming the lens in and out at a slow pace, in a relatively low-light setting, with a slow shutter speed (low-lit situations help to avoid over exposure). The model stood still and the camera was on a tripod (the aim is to minimise any movement aside from the zoom of the lens). This photography technique creates a sense of movement and creates a dramatic focal point. It usually takes practise and experimentation to achieve the desired effect. Those without a zoom function on their camera can attempt to manually move their camera towards or away from a scene, however this can makes things challenging, as it introduces movement and camera shake.

      Experiment with slow shutter speeds at night, blurring lights, as in the abstract ‘Sightseeing Tunnel’ series by Jakob Wagner :

      long exposure night photography
      Photographer Jakob Wagner took a five minute tunnel ride in an automated car through a tunnel in China, creating vibrant, abstracted, long exposure, night photography that conveys the motion and changing light conditions along the journey.

      Photograph slow moving objects over a long period of time, as in this photograph by Paul Schneggenburger :

      Paul Schneggenburger, sleep of the beloved
      Paul Schneggenburger photographs couples sleeping. Taken during a single six hour exposure, the images contain many overlapping forms, reflecting a ‘nocturnal lovers dance’ in candlelight. Students looking for night photography ideas often assume that their options are limited to bright moving lights: Schneggenburger’s work is an excellent reminder of the potential that exists in other low-light settings.

      Swing the camera while taking photos to achieve a swirling effect, as in this photo by  Lucasbenc :

      intentional camera shake to create a blurring effect
      Swinging of the camera while shooting can help to create a sense of movement in a photograph or create spontaneous, unpredictable blurred, generating unexpected abstract photography ideas.

      Shake or jiggle the camera to create an impressionist effect, like these examples by Gerald Sanders (via Apogee Photo Magazine ):  

      shake camera photography
      After focusing upon a scene, deliberate shaking of a camera with small, controlled movements (making sure that the shake reduction feature is turned off on a DSLR camera) can result in painterly impressionistic scenes. It can help to start with slower movements, adjusting the aperture and exposure settings until the desired appearance is achieved.

      Photograph moving subjects to create blurred, painterly forms, as in these examples by Mirjam Appelhof :

      blurred photographs by Mirjam Appelhof
      Whereas most photographers capture a frozen moment, Mirjam Appelhof aims to express the ongoing passage of time. Rather than create an ordinary static image, she photographs herself moving, using a self-timer. Sometimes she works over the images with paint or different materials.

      Create abstract photography from blurred motion, as in the ‘Revolution’ series by Yvette Meltzer :

      Yvette Meltzer
      Yvette Meltzer takes photographs in Chicago laundromats, closely cropping the images of driers in motion so that they become abstract pieces. Meltzer quotes Picasso: ‘There is no abstract art. You must always start with something. Afterward you can remove all traces of reality.’

      Digitally add abstract elements to an image, such as these architectural photographs by Nick Frank :

      architectural photography by Nick Frank
      Nick Frank creates sharp, stylised photographs of architectural details, zooming and framing a scene so that surface claddings appear to be vibrant two-dimensional paintings or designs, finding beauty and grace in spectacular and sometimes ‘ordinary’ architectural form.

      Take close-up, tightly cropped scenes, creating abstract photography from surfaces and pattern, like these works by Frank Hallam Day :

      abstract photography by Frank Hallam Day
      Frank Hallam Day carefully selects pieces of hulls from wrecked ships in West African harbours. Peeling paint, eroding metal and horizontal water lines take on the linear and textural qualities of an abstract painting: a commentary about the influence of time upon humanity’s technical achievement.

      Finally, forget all fancy techniques. Open your eyes. Produce an unflinching record of what you see, as in this example by Gianfranco Meloni :  

      close up hand photography
      There are moments when it is best to forget outrageous techniques, enticing accessories and photography trickery, and instead concentrate upon the world in front of you. Find the beauty that is overlooked and bring it to the forefront. Find the magic and hold it still for others to see.

       

      This collection is a work in progress. It is continually updated with creative photography ideas and examples. If you are looking instead for photography theme ideas or project ideas for your entire high school or college photography course, please read our article about how to select a great subject or theme for your Art project .

      You may also wish to view our collection of Featured Photography Projects by high school students from around the world.

      Amiria Gale

      Amiria has been an Art & Design teacher and a Curriculum Co-ordinator for seven years, responsible for the course design and assessment of student work in two high-achieving Auckland schools. She has a Bachelor of Architectural Studies, Bachelor of Architecture (First Class Honours) and a Graduate Diploma of Teaching. Amiria is a CIE Accredited Art & Design Coursework Assessor.

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      A Compare and Contrast Essay Outline to Beat Writer&#39

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      Essay

      From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

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      This article needs additional citations for verification . Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources . Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (October 2017) ( Learn how and when to remove this template message )

      For other uses, see Essay (disambiguation) .
      For a description of essays as used by Wikipedia editors, see Wikipedia:Essays .
      “Essai” redirects here. For other uses, see Essai (disambiguation) .

      Essays of Michel de Montaigne

      An essay is, generally, a piece of writing that gives the author’s own argument — but the definition is vague, overlapping with those of a paper , an article , a pamphlet , and a short story . Essays have traditionally been sub-classified as formal and informal. Formal essays are characterized by “serious purpose, dignity, logical organization, length,” whereas the informal essay is characterized by “the personal element (self-revelation, individual tastes and experiences, confidential manner), humor, graceful style, rambling structure, unconventionality or novelty of theme,” etc. [1]

      Essays are commonly used as literary criticism , political manifestos , learned arguments , observations of daily life, recollections, and reflections of the author. Almost all modern essays are written in prose , but works in verse have been dubbed essays (e.g., Alexander Pope ‘s An Essay on Criticism and An Essay on Man ). While brevity usually defines an essay, voluminous works like John Locke ‘s An Essay Concerning Human Understanding and Thomas Malthus ‘s An Essay on the Principle of Population are counterexamples.

      In some countries (e.g., the United States and Canada), essays have become a major part of formal education . Secondary students are taught structured essay formats to improve their writing skills; admission essays are often used by universities in selecting applicants, and in the humanities and social sciences essays are often used as a way of assessing the performance of students during final exams.

      The concept of an “essay” has been extended to other media beyond writing. A film essay is a movie that often incorporates documentary filmmaking styles and focuses more on the evolution of a theme or idea. A photographic essay covers a topic with a linked series of photographs that may have accompanying text or captions .

      Contents

      • 1 Definitions
      • 2 History
        • 2.1 Europe
        • 2.2 Japan
      • 3 Forms and styles
        • 3.1 Cause and effect
        • 3.2 Classification and division
        • 3.3 Compare and contrast
        • 3.4 Descriptive
        • 3.5 Dialectic
        • 3.6 Exemplification
        • 3.7 Familiar
        • 3.8 History (thesis)
        • 3.9 Narrative
        • 3.10 Argumentative
        • 3.11 Economic
        • 3.12 Reflective
        • 3.13 Other logical structures
      • 4 Academic
      • 5 Magazine or newspaper
      • 6 Employment
      • 7 Non-literary types
        • 7.1 Film
        • 7.2 Music
        • 7.3 Photography
        • 7.4 Visual arts
      • 8 See also
      • 9 References
      • 10 Further reading
      • 11 External links

      Definitions

      John Locke ‘s 1690 An Essay Concerning Human Understanding .

      An essay has been defined in a variety of ways. One definition is a “prose composition with a focused subject of discussion” or a “long, systematic discourse”. [2]
      It is difficult to define the genre into which essays fall. Aldous Huxley , a leading essayist, gives guidance on the subject. [3] He notes that “the essay is a literary device for saying almost everything about almost anything”, and adds that “by tradition, almost by definition, the essay is a short piece”. Furthermore, Huxley argues that “essays belong to a literary species whose extreme variability can be studied most effectively within a three-poled frame of reference”.
      These three poles (or worlds in which the essay may exist) are:

      • The personal and the autobiographical: The essayists that feel most comfortable in this pole “write fragments of reflective autobiography and look at the world through the keyhole of anecdote and description”.
      • The objective, the factual, and the concrete particular: The essayists that write from this pole “do not speak directly of themselves, but turn their attention outward to some literary or scientific or political theme. Their art consists of setting forth, passing judgment upon, and drawing general conclusions from the relevant data”.
      • The abstract-universal: In this pole “we find those essayists who do their work in the world of high abstractions”, who are never personal and who seldom mention the particular facts of experience.

      Huxley adds that the most satisfying essays “…make the best not of one, not of two, but of all the three worlds in which it is possible for the essay to exist.”

      The word essay derives from the French infinitive essayer, “to try” or “to attempt”. In English essay first meant “a trial” or “an attempt”, and this is still an alternative meaning. The Frenchman Michel de Montaigne (1533–1592) was the first author to describe his work as essays; he used the term to characterize these as “attempts” to put his thoughts into writing, and his essays grew out of his commonplacing . [4] Inspired in particular by the works of Plutarch , a translation of whose Œuvres Morales (Moral works) into French had just been published by Jacques Amyot , Montaigne began to compose his essays in 1572; the first edition, entitled Essais , was published in two volumes in 1580. For the rest of his life, he continued revising previously published essays and composing new ones. Francis Bacon ‘s essays , published in book form in 1597, 1612, and 1625, were the first works in English that described themselves as essays. Ben Jonson first used the word essayist in English in 1609, according to the Oxford English Dictionary .

      History

      Globe icon.
      The examples and perspective in this article may not represent a worldwide view of the subject. You may improve this article , discuss the issue on the talk page , or create a new article , as appropriate. (January 2011) ( Learn how and when to remove this template message )

      Europe

      English essayists included Robert Burton (1577–1641) and Sir Thomas Browne (1605–1682). In France, Michel de Montaigne ‘s three volume Essais in the mid 1500s contain over 100 examples widely regarded as the predecessor of the modern essay. In Italy, Baldassare Castiglione wrote about courtly manners in his essay Il Cortigiano. In the 17th century, the Jesuit Baltasar Gracián wrote about the theme of wisdom. [5] During the Age of Enlightenment , essays were a favored tool of polemicists who aimed at convincing readers of their position; they also featured heavily in the rise of periodical literature , as seen in the works of Joseph Addison , Richard Steele and Samuel Johnson . In the 18th and 19th centuries, Edmund Burke and Samuel Taylor Coleridge wrote essays for the general public. The early 19th century, in particular, saw a proliferation of great essayists in English – William Hazlitt , Charles Lamb , Leigh Hunt and Thomas de Quincey all penned numerous essays on diverse subjects. In the 20th century, a number of essayists tried to explain the new movements in art and culture by using essays (e.g., T.S. Eliot ). Whereas some essayists used essays for strident political themes, Robert Louis Stevenson and Willa Cather wrote lighter essays. Virginia Woolf , Edmund Wilson , and Charles du Bos wrote literary criticism essays. [5]

      Japan

      Main article: Zuihitsu

      As with the novel , essays existed in Japan several centuries before they developed in Europe with a genre of essays known as zuihitsu — loosely connected essays and fragmented ideas. Zuihitsu have existed since almost the beginnings of Japanese literature. Many of the most noted early works of Japanese literature are in this genre. Notable examples include The Pillow Book (c. 1000), by court lady Sei Shōnagon , and Tsurezuregusa (1330), by particularly renowned Japanese Buddhist monk Yoshida Kenkō . Kenkō described his short writings similarly to Montaigne, referring to them as “nonsensical thoughts” written in “idle hours”. Another noteworthy difference from Europe is that women have traditionally written in Japan, though the more formal, Chinese-influenced writings of male writers were more prized at the time.

      Forms and styles

      This section describes the different forms and styles of essay writing. These forms and styles are used by an array of authors, including university students and professional essayists .

      Cause and effect

      The defining features of a “cause and effect” essay are causal chains that connect from a cause to an effect, careful language, and chronological or emphatic order. A writer using this rhetorical method must consider the subject , determine the purpose , consider the audience , think critically about different causes or consequences, consider a thesis statement, arrange the parts, consider the language , and decide on a conclusion. [6]

      Classification and division

      Classification is the categorization of objects into a larger whole while division is the breaking of a larger whole into smaller parts. [7]

      Compare and contrast

      Compare and contrast essays are characterized by a basis for comparison, points of comparison, and analogies. It is grouped by the object (chunking) or by point (sequential). The comparison highlights the similarities between two or more similar objects while contrasting highlights the differences between two or more objects. When writing a compare/contrast essay, writers need to determine their purpose, consider their audience, consider the basis and points of comparison, consider their thesis statement, arrange and develop the comparison, and reach a conclusion. Compare and contrast is arranged emphatically. [8]

      Descriptive

      Descriptive writing is characterized by sensory details, which appeal to the physical senses, and details that appeal to a reader’s emotional, physical, or intellectual sensibilities. Determining the purpose, considering the audience, creating a dominant impression, using descriptive language, and organizing the description are the rhetorical choices to consider when using a description. A description is usually arranged spatially but can also be chronological or emphatic. The focus of a description is the scene. Description uses tools such as denotative language, connotative language, figurative language , metaphor , and simile to arrive at a dominant impression. [9] One university essay guide states that “descriptive writing says what happened or what another author has discussed; it provides an account of the topic”. [10]
      Lyric essays are an important form of descriptive essays.

      Dialectic

      In the dialectic form of the essay, which is commonly used in philosophy , the writer makes a thesis and argument, then objects to their own argument (with a counterargument), but then counters the counterargument with a final and novel argument. This form benefits from presenting a broader perspective while countering a possible flaw that some may present. This type is sometimes called an ethics paper. [11]

      Exemplification

      An exemplification essay is characterized by a generalization and relevant, representative, and believable examples including anecdotes . Writers need to consider their subject, determine their purpose, consider their audience, decide on specific examples, and arrange all the parts together when writing an exemplification essay. [12]

      Malthus’ Essay on the Principle of Population

      Familiar

      An essayist writes a familiar essay if speaking to a single reader, writing about both themselves, and about particular subjects. Anne Fadiman notes that “the genre’s heyday was the early nineteenth century,” and that its greatest exponent was Charles Lamb . [13] She also suggests that while critical essays have more brain than the heart, and personal essays have more heart than brain, familiar essays have equal measures of both. [14]

      History (thesis)

      A history essay sometimes referred to as a thesis essay describes an argument or claim about one or more historical events and supports that claim with evidence, arguments, and references. The text makes it clear to the reader why the argument or claim is as such. [15]

      Narrative

      A narrative uses tools such as flashbacks , flash-forwards , and transitions that often build to a climax. The focus of a narrative is the plot . When creating a narrative, authors must determine their purpose, consider their audience, establish their point of view, use dialogue, and organize the narrative. A narrative is usually arranged chronologically. [16]

      Argumentative

      An argumentative essay is a critical piece of writing, aimed at presenting objective analysis of the subject matter, narrowed down to a single topic. The main idea of all the criticism is to provide an opinion either of positive or negative implication. As such, a critical essay requires research and analysis, strong internal logic and sharp structure. Its structure normally builds around introduction with a topic’s relevance and a thesis statement , body paragraphs with arguments linking back to the main thesis, and conclusion. In addition, an argumentative essay may include a refutation section where conflicting ideas are acknowledged, described, and criticized. Each argument of argumentative essay should be supported with sufficient evidence, relevant to the point.

      Economic

      An economic essay can start with a thesis, or it can start with a theme. It can take a narrative course and a descriptive course. It can even become an argumentative essay if the author feels the need. After the introduction, the author has to do his/her best to expose the economic matter at hand, to analyze it, evaluate it, and draw a conclusion. If the essay takes more of a narrative form then the author has to expose each aspect of the economic puzzle in a way that makes it clear and understandable for the reader

      Reflective

      A reflective essay is an analytical piece of writing in which the writer describes a real or imaginary scene, event, interaction, passing thought, memory, or form — adding a personal reflection on the meaning of the topic in the author’s life. Thus, the focus is not merely descriptive. The writer doesn’t just describe the situation, but revisits the scene with more detail and emotion to examine what went well, or reveal a need for additional learning — and may relate what transpired to the rest of the author’s life.

      Other logical structures

      The logical progression and organizational structure of an essay can take many forms. Understanding how the movement of thought is managed through an essay has a profound impact on its overall cogency and ability to impress. A number of alternative logical structures for essays have been visualized as diagrams, making them easy to implement or adapt in the construction of an argument. [17]

      Academic

      University students , like these students doing research at a university library, are often assigned essays as a way to get them to analyze what they have read.

      Main article: Free response

      In countries like the United States and the United Kingdom , essays have become a major part of a formal education in the form of free response questions. Secondary students in these countries are taught structured essay formats to improve their writing skills, and essays are often used by universities in these countries in selecting applicants (see admissions essay ). In both secondary and tertiary education, essays are used to judge the mastery and comprehension of the material. Students are asked to explain, comment on, or assess a topic of study in the form of an essay. In some courses, university students must complete one or more essays over several weeks or months. In addition, in fields such as the humanities and social sciences,[ citation needed ] mid-term and end of term examinations often require students to write a short essay in two or three hours.

      In these countries, so-called academic essays also called papers, are usually more formal than literary ones.[ citation needed ] They may still allow the presentation of the writer’s own views, but this is done in a logical and factual manner, with the use of the first person often discouraged. Longer academic essays (often with a word limit of between 2,000 and 5,000 words)[ citation needed ] are often more discursive. They sometimes begin with a short summary analysis of what has previously been written on a topic, which is often called a literature review .[ citation needed ]

      Longer essays may also contain an introductory page that defines words and phrases of the essay’s topic. Most academic institutions require that all substantial facts, quotations, and other supporting material in an essay be referenced in a bibliography or works cited page at the end of the text. This scholarly convention helps others (whether teachers or fellow scholars) to understand the basis of facts and quotations the author uses to support the essay’s argument and helps readers evaluate to what extent the argument is supported by evidence, and to evaluate the quality of that evidence. The academic essay tests the student’s ability to present their thoughts in an organized way and is designed to test their intellectual capabilities.

      One of the challenges facing universities is that in some cases, students may submit essays purchased from an essay mill (or “paper mill”) as their own work. An “essay mill” is a ghostwriting service that sells pre-written essays to university and college students. Since plagiarism is a form of academic dishonesty or academic fraud , universities and colleges may investigate papers they suspect are from an essay mill by using plagiarism detection software, which compares essays against a database of known mill essays and by orally testing students on the contents of their papers. [18]

      Magazine or newspaper

      Main article: Long-form journalism

      Essays often appear in magazines, especially magazines with an intellectual bent, such as The Atlantic and Harpers . Magazine and newspaper essays use many of the essay types described in the section on forms and styles (e.g., descriptive essays, narrative essays, etc.). Some newspapers also print essays in the op-ed section.

      An 1895 cover of Harpers , a US magazine that prints a number of essays per issue.

      Employment

      Employment essays detailing experience in a certain occupational field are required when applying for some jobs, especially government jobs in the United States. Essays known as Knowledge Skills and Executive Core Qualifications are required when applying to certain US federal government positions.

      A KSA, or “Knowledge, Skills, and Abilities,” is a series of narrative statements that are required when applying to Federal government job openings in the United States. KSAs are used along with resumes to determine who the best applicants are when several candidates qualify for a job. The knowledge, skills, and abilities necessary for the successful performance of a position are contained on each job vacancy announcement. KSAs are brief and focused essays about one’s career and educational background that presumably qualify one to perform the duties of the position being applied for.

      An Executive Core Qualification, or ECQ, is a narrative statement that is required when applying to Senior Executive Service positions within the US Federal government. Like the KSAs, ECQs are used along with resumes to determine who the best applicants are when several candidates qualify for a job. The Office of Personnel Management has established five executive core qualifications that all applicants seeking to enter the Senior Executive Service must demonstrate.

      Non-literary types

      Film

      A film essay (or “cinematic essay”) consists of the evolution of a theme or an idea rather than a plot per se, or the film literally being a cinematic accompaniment to a narrator reading an essay.[ citation needed ] From another perspective, an essay film could be defined as a documentary film visual basis combined with a form of commentary that contains elements of self-portrait (rather than autobiography), where the signature (rather than the life story) of the filmmaker is apparent. The cinematic essay often blends documentary , fiction , and experimental film making using tones and editing styles. [19]

      The genre is not well-defined but might include propaganda works of early Soviet parliamentarians like Dziga Vertov , present-day filmmakers including Chris Marker , [20] Michael Moore ( Roger & Me (1989), Bowling for Columbine (2002) and Fahrenheit 9/11 (2004)), Errol Morris ( The Thin Blue Line (1988)), Morgan Spurlock ( Supersize Me: A Film of Epic Portions ) and Agnès Varda . Jean-Luc Godard describes his recent work as “film-essays”. [21] Two filmmakers whose work was the antecedent to the cinematic essay include Georges Méliès and Bertolt Brecht . Méliès made a short film ( The Coronation of Edward VII (1902)) about the 1902 coronation of King Edward VII , which mixes actual footage with shots of a recreation of the event. Brecht was a playwright who experimented with film and incorporated film projections into some of his plays. [19] Orson Welles made an essay film in his own pioneering style, released in 1974, called F for Fake , which dealt specifically with art forger Elmyr de Hory and with the themes of deception, “fakery,” and authenticity in general. These are often published online on video hosting services . [22] [23]

      David Winks Gray’s article “The essay film in action” states that the “essay film became an identifiable form of filmmaking in the 1950s and ’60s”. He states that since that time, essay films have tended to be “on the margins” of the filmmaking the world. Essay films have a “peculiar searching, questioning tone … between documentary and fiction” but without “fitting comfortably” into either genre. Gray notes that just like written essays, essay films “tend to marry the personal voice of a guiding narrator (often the director) with a wide swath of other voices”. [24] The University of Wisconsin Cinematheque website echoes some of Gray’s comments; it calls a film essay an “intimate and allusive” genre that “catches filmmakers in a pensive mood, ruminating on the margins between fiction and documentary” in a manner that is “refreshingly inventive, playful, and idiosyncratic”. [25]

      Music

      In the realm of music , composer Samuel Barber wrote a set of “Essays for Orchestra,” relying on the form and content of the music to guide the listener’s ear, rather than any extra-musical plot or story .

      Photography

      “After School Play Interrupted by the Catch and Release of a Stingray” is a simple time-sequence photo essay .

      A photographic essay strives to cover a topic with a linked series of photographs . Photo essays range from purely photographic works to photographs with captions or small notes to full-text essays with a few or many accompanying photographs. Photo essays can be sequential in nature, intended to be viewed in a particular order — or they may consist of non-ordered photographs viewed all at once or in an order that the viewer chooses. All photo essays are collections of photographs, but not all collections of photographs are photo essays. Photo essays often address a certain issue or attempt to capture the character of places and events.

      Visual arts

      In the visual arts , an essay is a preliminary drawing or sketch that forms a basis for a final painting or sculpture, made as a test of the work’s composition (this meaning of the term, like several of those following, comes from the word essayJA’s meaning of “attempt” or “trial”).

      See also

      • Abstract (summary)
      • Admissions essay
      • Body (writing)
      • Book report
      • Thesis
      • Essay thesis
      • Five paragraph essay
      • Introduction
      • List of essayists
      • Plagiarism
      • SAT Essay
      • Schaffer paragraph
      • Treatise
      • Writing

      References

      1. ^ Holman, William (2003). A Handbook to Literature (9 ed.). New Jersey: Prentice Hall. p. 193. 
      2. ^ Gale – Free Resources – Glossary – DE Archived 2010-04-25 at the Wayback Machine .. Gale.cengage.com. Retrieved March 23, 2011.
      3. ^ Aldous Huxley, Collected Essays, “Preface”.
      4. ^ “Book Use Book Theory: 1500–1700: Commonplace Thinking” . Lib.uchicago.edu. Archived from the original on 2013-08-01. Retrieved 2013-08-10. 
      5. ^ a b essay (literature) – Britannica Online Encyclopedia Archived 2009-12-04 at the Wayback Machine .. Britannica.com. Retrieved March 22, 2011.
      6. ^ Chapter 7: Cause and Effect in Glenn, Cheryl. Making Sense: A Real-World Rhetorical Reader. Ed. Denise B. Wydra, et al. Second ed. Boston, MA: Bedford/St. Martin’s, 2005.
      7. ^ Chapter 5: Classification and Division in Glenn, Cheryl. Making Sense: A Real-World Rhetorical Reader. Ed. Denise B. Wydra, et al. Second ed. Boston, MA: Bedford/St. Martin’s, 2005.
      8. ^ Chapter 6: Comparison and Contrast in Glenn, Cheryl. Making Sense: A Real-World Rhetorical Reader. Ed. Denise B. Wydra, et al. Second ed. Boston, MA: Bedford/St. Martin’s, 2005.
      9. ^ Chapter 2: Description in Glenn, Cheryl. Making Sense: A Real-World Rhetorical Reader. Ed. Denise B. Wydra, et al. Second ed. Boston, MA: Bedford/St. Martin’s, 2005.
      10. ^ Section 2.1 of the Simon Fraser University CNS Essay Handbook. Available online at: sfu.ca
      11. ^ “How to Write an Ethics Paper (with Pictures) – wikiHow” . Archived from the original on 2016-08-28. Retrieved 2016-07-01. 
      12. ^ Chapter 4: Exemplification in Glenn, Cheryl. Making Sense: A Real-World Rhetorical Reader. Ed. Denise B. Wydra, et al. Second ed. Boston, MA: Bedford/St. Martin’s, 2005.
      13. ^ Fadiman, Anne . At Large and At Small: Familiar Essays. p. x. 
      14. ^ Fadiman, At Large and At Small, xi.
      15. ^ History Essay Format & Thesis Statement, (February 2010)
      16. ^ Chapter 3 Narration in Glenn, Cheryl. Making Sense: A Real-World Rhetorical Reader. Ed. Denise B. Wydra, et al. Second ed. Boston, MA: Bedford/St. Martin’s, 2005.
      17. ^ Mission Possible’ by Dr. Mario Petrucci” (PDF). Archived from the original on 2014-10-26. Retrieved 2014-10-25. 
      18. ^ Khomami, Nadia (20 February 2017). “Plan to crack down on websites selling essays to students announced” . The Guardian. Archived from the original on 27 April 2017. 
      19. ^ a b Cinematic Essay Film Genre Archived 2007-08-08 at the Wayback Machine .. chicagomediaworks.com. Retrieved March 22, 2011.
      20. ^ ( registration required ) Lim, Dennis (July 31, 2012). “Chris Marker, 91, Pioneer of the Essay Film” Archived 2012-08-03 at the Wayback Machine .. The New York Times . Retrieved July 31, 2012.
      21. ^ Discussion of film essays Archived 2007-08-08 at the Wayback Machine .. Chicago Media Works.
      22. ^ Kaye, Jeremy (2016-01-17). “5 filmmakers that have mastered the art of the Video Essay” . Medium. Archived from the original on 2017-08-30. Retrieved 2017-07-05. 
      23. ^ Liptak, Andrew (2016-08-01). “This filmmaker deep-dives into what makes your favorite cartoons tick” . The Verge. Archived from the original on 2017-08-30. Retrieved 2017-07-05. 
      24. ^ Gray, David Winks (January 30, 2009). “The essay film in action” . San Francisco Film Society . Archived from the original on March 15, 2009. 
      25. ^ “Talking Pictures: The Art of the Essay Film” . Cinema.wisc.edu. Retrieved March 22, 2011.

      Further reading

      • Theodor W. Adorno , “The Essay as Form” in: Theodor W. Adorno, The Adorno Reader, Blackwell Publishers 2000.
      • Beaujour, Michel. Miroirs d’encre: Rhétorique de l’autoportrait’. Paris: Seuil, 1980. [Poetics of the Literary Self-Portrait. Trans. Yara Milos. New York: NYU Press, 1991].
      • Bensmaïa, Reda. The Barthes Effect: The Essay as Reflective Text. Trans. Pat Fedkiew. Minneapolis: Univ. of Minnesota Press, 1987.
      • D’Agata, John (Editor), The Lost Origins of the Essay. St Paul: Graywolf Press, 2009.
      • Giamatti, Louis. “The Cinematic Essay”, in Godard and the Others: Essays in Cinematic Form. London, Tantivy Press, 1975.
      • Lopate, Phillip. “In Search of the Centaur: The Essay-Film”, in Beyond Document: Essays on Nonfiction Film. Edited by Charles Warren, Wesleyan University Press, 1998. pp. 243–270.
      • Warburton, Nigel . The basics of essay writing. Routledge, 2006. ISBN   0-415-24000-X , ISBN   978-0-415-24000-0

      External links

      This article’s use of external links may not follow Wikipedia’s policies or guidelines. Please improve this article by removing excessive or inappropriate external links, and converting useful links where appropriate into footnote references . (February 2015) ( Learn how and when to remove this template message )
      Wikibooks has a book on the topic of: How to write an essay
      Wikimedia Commons has media related to Essays .
      • Essay writing category on EnglishGrammar.org
      • What is an Essay? from Wikidot
      • Essay eTexts at Project Gutenberg
      • The Dialectical Essay: A detailed writing guide  – Sewanee University
      • In Praise of the Undergraduate Essay by Dan Edelstein, Stanford University
      • The Age of the Essay  – Criticism of the modern essay, by Paul Graham
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          Dr A.P.J. Abdul Kalam Essay, Biography, Speech, Article [Missile Man of India]
          Biography

          Dr A.P.J. Abdul Kalam Essay, Biography, Speech, Article [Missile Man of India]

          Shruti Bhalla
          July 25, 2017

          Table of Contents

          Dr A.P.J. Abdul Kalam Essay, Biography, Speech, Article [Missile Man of India]

          4 (79.66%) 59 votes


          Dr A.P.J. Abdul Kalam Essay, Biography, Speech, Article [Missile Man]

          Dr. A.P.J Abdul Kalam Profile

          Abdul Kalam Personal details

          BornAvul Pakir Jainulabdeen Abdul Kalam
          ஆவுல் பக்கிர் ஜைனுலாபுதீன் அப்துல் கலாம்

          15 October 1931
          Rameswaram, Ramnad District, Madras Presidency,British India
          (now in Ramanathapuram District, Tamil Nadu, India
          Died27 July 2015 (aged 83)
          Shillong, Meghalaya, India
          Cause of deathCardiac arrest (Stroke)
          NationalityIndian
          Alma materSt. Joseph’s College, Tiruchirappalli
          Madras Institute of Technology
          ProfessionProfessor
          Author
          Aerospace scientist
          ReligionIslam
          Awards Bharat Ratna 1997
          Padma Vibhushan 1990
          Padma Bhushan 1981

          Biography of Abdul Kalam

          A. P. J. Abdul Kalam’s full name was Avul Pakir Jainulabdeen Abdul Kalam. He was born on 15th October 1931 in Rameswaram, Ramnad district, Madras Presidency, British India and died on 27 July 2015 in Shillong, Meghalaya at the age of 83 years old due to cardiac arrest when he was giving a lecture on the topic “Creating a Livable Planet Earth”. His father’s name was Jainulabdeen Kalam who was an imam of a local mosque and a boat owner. Kalam has three brothers and a sister and Kalam was the youngest of his four brothers and a sister. The ancestors of Kalam were rich at their times and Kalam’s family was also rich and wealthy, therefore his family got a title of “Mara Kalam Iyakkivar” which means wooden boat steerers and the name was then shortened to “Marakier”. But later on due to some reasons the family of Kalam became poor and to supplement his family’s income Kalam started selling newspapers.

          Article on Abdul Kalam

          In the school times, Kalam was being considered a hard-working child and a child who has a desire to learn even though he did not get good grades and marks. Kalam spent most of his time in studying mathematics. He studied physics and aerospace engineering at St. Joseph’s College, Tiruchirappalli and Madras Institute of Technology. Kalam always had a dream of being a fighter pilot but he was not able to fulfil his dreams because he stood ninth position in IAF, whereas only eight positions were available.

          Missile Man of India

          By profession, he was a professor and taught Information Technology at the International Institute of Information Technology, Hyderabad, and technology at Banaras Hindu University and Anna University, an author and an Aerospace scientist. A. P. J. Abdul Kalam spent his four precious decades as a science administrator and a scientist at the Defense Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) and also at Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO). He started his career by designing a small hovercraft. Kalam in 1970s directed two projects named Project Valiant and Project Devil. These projects were disapproved by the Union Cabinet but still, Prime Minister Indira Gandhi provided secret funds for this aerospace project. He was also involved in military missile development efforts and India’s Civilian Space Programme and after the missile development efforts, he was popularly known as “The Missile Man of India” because he was so focused and concentrated on the development of ballistic missile and the launch vehicle technology. When the Pokhran-II nuclear tests were held in 1998 which was the first original nuclear test by India, Abdul Kalam played a very major role as pivotal organizational, political and technological role.

          My Favorite President Dr. APJ Abdul Kalam

          With the support of both Bhartiya Janta party as well as the opposition party of Indian National Congress, A. P. J. Abdul Kalam was selected as a former president of Indi in the year of 2002. He remained President of India till 2007. After his presidency, A. P. J. Abdul Kalam was appointed as the visiting professor at Indian Institute of Management Shillong, Indian Institute of Management Ahmadabad and Indian Institute of Management Indore. He was also appointed as professor of Aerospace Engineering at Anna University and chancellor at Indian Institute of Space Science and Technology, Thiruvananthapuram. A. P. J. Abdul Kalam was an honourable man and has received various awards such as Bharat Ratna Award in 1997, Padma Vibhushan in 1990 and Padma Bhushan in 1981.

          Books Of Abdul Kalam

          A. P. J. Abdul Kalam wrote various novels and books. Some of his famous books are India 2020, Wings of Fire, Ignited Minds, Mission India, Inspiring Thoughts, Turning Points, You are Born to Blossom, Advantage India, Forge your Future, Reignited etc.

          A. P. J. Abdul Kalam was an honourable and intelligent person and succeeded in life. One should always follow his paths and make him your ideal.

          Abdul Kalam Quotes

          Dr Kalam is recognised for his inspirational speeches and relations with the students in India. Some of the most moving and one of my favourite quotes by him are:

          “If a country is to be corruption free and become a nation of beautiful minds, I strongly feel there are three key societal members who can make a difference. They are the father, the mother and the teacher.”

          “We will be remembered only if we give to our younger generation a prosperous and safe India, resulting out of economic prosperity coupled with civilizational heritage.”

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          You are at: Home » Lex Bulletin » Competition »1st Dr. A P J Abdul Kalam National Legal Essay Competition – 2016

          1st Dr. A P J Abdul Kalam National Legal Essay Competition – 2016

          0

          By
          Riya Attri

          on


          Competition

           

          Probono India’s 1st Dr. APJ Abdul Kalam

          National Legal Essay Competition 2016

          Prizes: Worth Rs. 8000

          Last date of Submission: Jan 5, 2017

          1st-dr-a-p-j-abdul-kalam-national-level-essay-competition-2016-with-skillfull-india

          About

          Topic for first competition aptly chosen looking at present situation of legal education in India. There is an urgent need to have reform in legal education by way of formalizing and implementing different robust policies. This competition will result in some of very good quality essay on legal education in India.

          Theme

          Legal Education In India: Issues & Challenges

          Eligibility

          • The Competition is open only for L.L.B, L.L.M & Ph.D. students studying in any of the recognized Law Schools / Colleges / Departments of the University in India.
          • No Co-authorship is allowed

          Prizes

          • Certificate, Cash prizes & Memento will be given to best three essay.
          • First Rank: Rs.4000
          • Second Rank: Rs.2000
          • Third Rank: Rs.1500
          • In case of tie, essay will be sent for further evaluation to experts.

           

          Guidelines

          • All contributors will be given a certificate of participation for submission of essay.
          • Essay should be original (not published earlier or extracted from other sources) in English, 4000 to 6000 thousand words (New Times Roman, font size 12, 1.5 spacing) including footnotes and references.
          • Title of the page should carry all details like name, affiliation, email id, mobile no. of the participants.

          Deadline

          On or before 5th January, 2017.

          Submission

          • Essay to be sent to email id  [email protected]
          • Students should also send scanned copy of a bonafide certificate from the Principal or Head of the institution along with the essay. The participants will be informed other details or subsequent changes, if any. If there is any change in the e-mail address of the participants, it may be informed to the above address.
          • All good quality essay will be published in the form of a book / journal/ magazine/electronic resource or in any other manner as it may deem appropriate, subject to sufficient number of essays. All entries shall be deemed to be the property of the organizer.
          • Organizer has complete discretion about publication of essay in any form. Essay will be judged by faculties from elite law institutions in India based on parameters like contents, flow of presentation, critical &amp; innovating thinking , reference, language etc.

          Results

          Result of the competition will be declared on 26th January, 2017.

          Contact

          Kalpesh kumar L Gupta, Founder- Pro Bono India, Surat 394221, Gujarat

          Mobile: 9924897691

          E-mail: [email protected]

           

           

          2016 DR. A P J ABDUL KALAM NATIONAL LEGAL ESSAY COMPETITION

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          Home » Languages » English (Sr. Secondary) » Essay on “Abdul Kalam” Complete Essay for Class 10, Class 12 and Graduation and other classes.

          Essay on “Abdul Kalam” Complete Essay for Class 10, Class 12 and Graduation and other classes.

          Essay No. 01

          Our President Shri Abul Pakir Jainulabddin Kalam

          In  the Pilgrimage town of Rameshwaram in Tamil Nadu, Shri A.P.J. Abdul Kalam was born on Oct. 15, 1931 in a middle class Tamil Family. He received his primary education in a local school. His father was not a formally educated man. But he could read and write English. His mother was a kind and generous lady. His parents inspired him to achieve his highest aim of life, Moreover he was also influenced by Shri Lakshman shastri, the head priest of Rameshwaram temple and Shri Shiv Subramanya Aiyer, his science teacher.

                      After finishing his primary education he was sent to Schwartz school for further studies. After finishing his school education he was sent to St. Joseph’s College at Trichirapalli for higher education.

                      He passed his B.Sc from their college. Then he joined Aeronautical Engineering at Madras Institute of Technology. In 1958, A.P.J. Abdul Kalam joined the directorate of Technical Development and Production in Minister of Defense. He got fame and name will S.L.V.-3 project at the Indian Space and Research Organization. He had a strong determination to make India a strong and rich nation. Kalam himself has noted four mile stones in his career. The year at ISRO. When Agni missile met its mission requirements in 1994. The nuclear tests which made feel proud as arm Indian and when he made light weight calipers for children at the orthopedic centre at the Nizam Institute of Medical Science in Hyderabad. The man who led the nuclear weaponization programmed and believed only strength respects strength. He is now popularly known as Indian’s Missile Man’ a technology.

                      Dr. Kalam was awarded Padam Bhushan in 1931 and in 1990 he was honored with Padam Vibhushan. The highest civilian honor of Bharat Ratnas was conferred on him in 1994. He has been elected as the President of Indian Republic and is known for his simplicity and beginners. He is strict vegetarian, teetotaler and is a bachelor. He hexes full authority to quite for Kuran and the Bhagwad Gita. He wants India to become a leading developed nation in the years to come.

           

          Essay-02

          President A.P.J. Abdul Kalam

                    The 12th President of India. Dr. Avul Pakir Jainulabdeen Abdul Kalam, was born on October 15, 1931 at Dhanushkothi in the temple town Rameshwaram in Tamil Nadu.

                    He was born in the poor family of a boat maker. But he was an exceptionally brilliant child. He became the first graduate in the large family when he passed the B.Sc. examination from Saint Joseph College, Thiruchirapalli.

           

                    The Madras Institute of technology had newly been established in those days. He joined it and thus his whole course of life was changed.

                    He was not interested in going abroad. He wanted to serve his motherland first. As such before becoming President of India. He went abroad only once. That was his visit to NASA in the USA. He says that he thinks his first and foremost duty is to serve his motherland.

           

                    His further knowledge in the field got upgraded when he joined Defence Research and Development Organization (DRDO) in 1963. Today, he is known as the Missile Man of India. The various Indian Missiles of world order like Prithvi, Trishul, Akash, Agni, etc. are mainly the result of his efforts and caliber.

           

                    He is mainly interested in work. He is a bachelor. He is fond of music and the Koran and the gait. He is a great lover of people, children in particular. Ever since becoming the head of the Indian State. He has been having interaction with children all over the country. May he live long!

           

          Essay No. 03

           

           

          Missile Man of Indian Dr. A.P.J. Abdul Kalam

           

          `Dreams float on an impatient wind,

          A wind that wants to create a new order.

          An order of strength and thundering of fire.’

          — Dr A.P.J. Abdul Kalam

          It was quite a long journey from remote Rameshwaram Island in Tamil Nadu to New Delhi’s imposing Rashtrapati Bhawan. For the President, Dr. Abdul Kalam. Dr. Kalam was born in simple tamil family on 15th october, 1931. His father name was Jainulabdeen, and his mother name was Aasyama. Avul Pakir Jainulabdeen Abdul Kalam studied at Schwartz High School in Ramanathapuram, where he was fortunate to study under some inspiring teachers that he remembers to this day with gratitude. He completed his B.Sc. degree at St Joseph’s College, Tiruchirapalli. It was here when his interest in engineering soared and he enrolled for a course in Aeronautical Engineering at the Madras Institute of Technology from 1954 to 1957. Then he joined Hindustan Aeronautics Limited (HAL) as a trainee in 1958.

          Later Kalam joined Directorate of Technical Development and Production (DTD&P) as Senior Scientific Assistant. Then he was transferred to the Aircraft and Armament Testing Unit (A&ATU) at Kanpur to get shop-floor exposure to aircraft maintenance. Three years later, the Aeronautical Development Establishment (ADE) was set up in Bangalore and he was posted there.

          At ADE, Kalam worked as a senior scientific assistant, heading a small team. His team developed a prototype hovercraft. Despite the then, Defence Minister V K Krishna Menon’s interest in the project, it remained incomplete. In 1962, he joined Indian Committee for Space Research (INCOSPAR), a fledgling Indian space institute, which would later be renamed as Indian Space 

          Research Organisation (ISRO). Soon he was given posting at newly established Thumba Equatorial Earth Launching Station (TERLS) in the vicinity of Thiruvananthapuram. Here Kalam initiated Fibre Reinforced Plastics (FRP) activities, then, after a stint with the aerodynamics and design group, he joined the satellite launch vehicle team at Thumba, near Trivandrum and soon became Project Director for SLV-3. During the tenure, the Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) started developing its own indigenous surface-to-air missile, project to which Kalam was shifted in 1975, as a rocket specialist to assess the progress made in aerodynamics, structure, design and propulsion of the missile. Three goals are set for the SLV project, firstly development and flight qualification of all subsystems through sounding rockets by 1975, secondly sub-orbital flights by 1976 and finally orbital flight in 1978. After years of dedicated effort by Dr. Kalam and his team, the first 23-metre, 17-ton, 4 stage SLV was ready for launch, but it failed.

          The team undeterred by the failure went ahead, and on July 18, 1980, India’s first Satellite Launch Vehicle, SLV-3, successfully lifted off from SHAR. Amidst widespread acclaim, the team set itself new goals, including development of Augmented Satellite Launch Vehicles (ASLVs). The year 1981 saw the launch of the next SLV-3, SLV-D. With the launch of SLV-3 India became the fifth country to achieve satellite launch capability.

          In February 1982, Dr. Kalam was appointed as Director, DRDL. Kalam was entrusted with the development of Integrated Guided Missile Development Programme (IGMDP), India’s most successful military research programme. The programme comprises five major projects for establishing missile re-entry technology. These five projects scheduled for completion in 10 years comprises development of Prithvi, Trishul, Agni, Nag and Akash

          On September 16, 1985, the first phase of the Missile Programme      was conducted, when Trishul blasted off from the test range at Sriharikota. An even greater one, the successful testing of Agni in 1989, followed this achievement. He was later honoured by pad Vibhushan in 1990, the year that also saw the successful test firing of Akash. The establishment of the Research Centre inla (RCI), a campus 8 km from DRDL, in 1988 was perhaps the rrinra,t, satisfying achievement for Kalam during the missile years.

          The Missile Council declared 1991, the year of Initiative for DRDL. In recognition for his great contribution to Indian Defence he was awarded the Bharat Ratna in 1997. Soon after the nude: tests of 1998, Kalam was nominated Principal Scientific Advisor to the Government of India with the rank of a Union Cabinet Minister in November 1999, a position he held till November 2001 On December 8, 2000, the Deputy Chairman of Planning Commission, Shri K.C. Pant conferred the ‘Lifetime Contribution Award. Since then he has been teaching at the Anna University. A.P.J. Abdul Kalam took oath as President of India on July, 25 2002. Nowadays he is Fellow of Indian National Academy of Engineering, Fellow of Indian Academy of Sciences, Bangalore, Vice-President of Astronautical Society of India, Fellow of National Academy of Medical Sciences (India), Honorary Fellow of Institution of Electronics and Telecommunication Engineers and an !SRO Distinguished Professor.

          He wrote three books very famous books, Ignited Minds, Wings of Fire and India 2020 a vision of the New Millennium. The Wings of Fire is an autobiography of Kalam wherein he describes the story of his rise from obscurity and his personal and professional struggles. Dr. Kalam has spent the past few years developing the concept of India 2020: a Vision of the New Millennium – a blueprint for transforming India into a developed, nation by the year 2020. He calls it ‘the second vision of the nation.n and says he wants to focus on the children of India to create their minds a love for science and the nation’s mission- a developed India. What remains to be seen is whether Kalam, who has my to to keep a perfect balance between the limelight and shadosu; remaining backstage through his stints as scientist until todtasYie_nis now represent India the wining smile and halo of genius that e to hover over him.


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          56 Compare and Contrast Essay Topics to Inspire College Students

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          56 Compare and Contrast Essay Topics to Prevent the Writer’s Block




          Table of Contents

          56 Compare and Contrast Essay Topics to Prevent the Writer’s Block
          How to Write a Compare and Contrast Essay?

          Compare and Contrast Essay Example Proposed by Expert

          What Are Some Good Compare and Contrast Essay Topics to Consider?

          Compare and Contrast Essay Topics for College Students

          Compare and Contrast Essay Topics for High School

          Compare and Contrast Topics for Middle School

          Compare and Contrast Essay Topics for 6th Grade

          AP World History Compare and Contrast Essay

          Things to Compare and Contrast

          Easy Compare & Contrast Topics

          56 Compare and Contrast Essay Topics to Prevent the Writer’s Block

          “World War II was more terrifying and tragic than World War I regarding the number of sacrifices and loss of resources.”

          That is how a thesis statement or an opening sentence of the compare and contrast essay topics on history may look like. The article explores how to write a compare and contrast essay. Read it if your teacher asks to find differences and similarities between 2 or more objects.

          WRITE MY ESSAY FOR ME

          If you don’t, the smartest thing to do is to contact online academic writers of MA and PhD level and order custom academic paper of any type.

          How to Write a Compare and Contrast Essay?

          Before we share some of the best ideas to include in your writing, we should discuss how to write a compare and contrast essay in several stages.

          1. Consider 2 or more objects/events/people to detect similarities & differences. The primary goal is to read the assignment’s prompt, analyze it, highlight the keywords , brainstorm, and prepare an action plan called outline . Take notes while reading the materials – it is a solid head-start!
          2. Prepare a list of the core things that the objects have in common, and then specify what makes them different from each other. Experts recommend developing separate columns to include the results there.
          3. Exclude the most significant ideas and create a thesis statement based on them. Cherry-pick the points that underline the differences & similarities between the target objects in the most persuasive way . Think about the major themes, characters, and the messages of every topic.
          4. Make a final draft of the outline to ground the paper. An outline breaks down the primary points to discuss. In case of this type of homework assignment, it is better to avoid developing papers larger than 6 paragraphs in length (approximately 2-3 pages).
          5. Add textual elements to come up with the final draft. After writing a plan, everything left to do is to involve a credible evidence to support the main points of the text. To collect such information, a detailed primary research is required.
          6. Proofread & edit once you are done. Even if you are sure in the quality of work, dedicate some time to re-reading and checking the final draft before turning it into the final paper and submitting. Remember: once the teacher receives the paper, a student cannot get it back to fix something. Do not miss the chance to scan the text for the common mistakes such as grammar, spelling, punctuation errors, and even small typos that can affect the final grade. Another great idea is to ask someone to read & analyze the paper.

          Compare and Contrast Essay Example Proposed by Expert

          In short, here are the parts a student should include in his work:

          • Introduction. Lay out the overall idea behind the main point; it might sound something like, “I believe the way these works draw parallels and gaps between these elements are significant as…” The next thing to step in is the body.
          • Body paragraphs. A student is encouraged to prepare 4 body paragraphs for a paper of this type: list and describe minimum 2 similarities & 2 differences when it comes to discussing the offered ideas. A student may choose one of the possible body structures.

          1st scenario:

          Paragraph 1 – Issue 1 Compare

          Paragraph 2 – Issue 2 Compare

          Paragraph 3 – Issue 1 Contrast

          Paragraph 4 – Issue 2 Contrast

          2nd scenario:

          Paragraph 1 – Issue 1 Compare

          Paragraph 2 – Issue 1 Contrast

          Paragraph 3 – Issue 2 Compare

          Paragraph 4 – Issue 2 Contrast

          Some students prefer standing out form the rest of their classmates by offering a hybrid model.

          • Conclusion. In a concluding part, sum up the offered opinions and reword a thesis statement.

          What about a good differences & similarities essay example? Professional online writing services like the one mentioned in the opening paragraph of this article provide thousands of free essay samples to enjoy. As for the in-text examples, the experts say the following:

          “It is not necessary to have a lot of examples as a single killer example based on personal experience or real-life situation can prove the writer’s point. Depending on the depth of work, a student may bring in outside criticism to back up the arguments. The second set of eyes may help to review the work from a critical perspective. Parents or peers can decide whether the essay is easy and interesting to read.”

          Linda Strong, a certified academic & business writer at EssayClick.

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          What Are Some Good Compare and Contrast Essay Topics to Consider?

          Look for the best ideas shared by the top students in the lists below.

          Compare and Contrast Essay Topics for College Students

          A freshman may start from one of these essay topics for college students. You may also relate some to the years spent on a college campus.

          1. Mineralogy & geography
          2. Several different theories of Albert Einstein
          3. Political regime in the United States today as to the one 50 years ago
          4. Volcano eruption or tsunami: Which natural disaster is more threatening?
          5. How has the fashion changed since the early 90s?
          6. Would you prefer to stay miserable in a mansion or happy in a shanty?
          7. The life on campus is better than life with family
          8. Netball versus basketball rules

          Compare and Contrast Essay Topics for High School

          What about compare and contrast essay topics for high school? Youth today s technologically advanced – focus on this perspective.

          1. Samsung on Android or Apple iOS devices
          2. Linux or Windows operating system
          3. Flat & private houses
          4. Chemistry and Biology: Differences & Similarities
          5. Kennedy and Obama: Comparing 2 American presidents
          6. Money or gifts make people happier when it comes to holidays
          7. Which of the 2 date scenarios is better to implement?
          8. Do aliens exist or not?

          Compare and Contrast Topics for Middle School

          A list of the comparison topics for middle school is a bit less complicated than the one for high school & college students. Focus on the fun!

          1. Purchasing goods online against buying products in traditional shops
          2. Cinema or traditional theater
          3. Fiction plus non-fiction
          4. Holidays in Orthodox church versus those celebrated in Buddhism
          5. Which type of activity is more effective when it comes to losing weight: sports or diets?
          6. Wearing pants or dresses in the office
          7. Were mythological Gods real?
          8. Wearing uniform or having no school uniform at all

          Compare and Contrast Essay Topics for 6th Grade

          We recommend choosing something fun to discuss in essay topics for 6th grade. Pick several heroes from comics or popular ways of online communication.

          1. E-mails versus traditional posting
          2. Various concepts of beauty in modern world
          3. Heavy metal & hip-hop music
          4. Fruits vs. Vegetables
          5. Superman versus Batman
          6. Summer or winter
          7. Sailor Moon or Pokemon
          8. Toys & cookies

          AP World History Compare and Contrast Essay

          Have you heard about the Advanced Placement exam? Here are some AP world history essay topics!

          1. Draw a parallel between 2 or more distinguished leaders in history
          2. What did World War I and WW II have in common?
          3. How is the development of Ancient Greece different from the development of Ancient Rome?
          4. What is the difference between Southern & Northern states?
          5. Cleopatra & Margaret Thatcher
          6. Christianity & Islam
          7. Sparta & Athens
          8. Mesopotamia differences

          Things to Compare and Contrast

          Observe the list of common things to analyze. Those are simple ideas for this type of paper.

          1. Playing video games against reading: more preferred pastime
          2. Messaging is killing live communication: Pros & cons
          3. A personal lifestyle versus the lifestyle of the target role model
          4. Hollywood & Bollywood
          5. Similar & different traits children share with their parents
          6. Several quotations of famous people
          7. SEO or traditional approaches to marketing
          8. Comedy or drama movies

          Easy Compare & Contrast Topics

          1. Active or passive leisure
          2. Having a long hair versus having a short haircut
          3. Driving a car or a plane
          4. Pick 2 plays of William Shakespeare to discuss (more authors are listed here )
          5. Select any 2 books from the epoch of Romanticism
          6. Gothic and Baroque art in history of mankind
          7. MacDonald’s & Burger King
          8. US English & UK English comparison

          Choose one of the offered topics or come up with your own unique idea! Teachers would appreciate the creative approach. After reading several valuable tips, a student may still have no idea how to start a paper or attract reader’s attention. It is a separate art. If you are not ready to master the art of academic writing alone, there is no need to – go the website of an official writing service for students and buy a cheap paper written from scratch to stand out from the rest of your peers!


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          Compare and Contrast Essay Topics

          Compare and Contrast Essay Topics

          It’s no wonder that students like to write contrast and compare essays because they leave a lot of space for creativity and own opinion. Such an essay allows the student to put in his own thoughts on the subjects compared and it can be quite fun to compare two entities rather just analyzing one and composing an essay on that. Of course, this doesn’t make it a very easy job and there are some rules and tips you should be aware of before starting to write a comparative essay.

          Main Parts of Writing a Compare Essay

          Before you even start writing it is very important to choose the topic that will put you in advantage. In most of the situations, you should look for items to compare that have some differences but similarities as well. For example, you can’t go on writing a comparative essay between a stone and rock and roll. So focus on comparison items that will give you the chance to talk about things they have in common but as well on how one is better than the other at certain aspects.

          After you establish the comparison items you needs to do some proper research so that you have enough information on both to be able to perform a proper comparison. There are several sources from where you can gather information on your subjects but make sure that you always go with facts. Your text will need some proper back-up and sources to be cited. You can use sources like:

          • Books
          • Magazines
          • Documentaries
          • Scientific magazines
          • Academic journals
          • Official Reports
          • Newspapers

          How to Write a Comparative and Contrast Essay

          If you think that you can simply use the basic essay tips you learned in class or for other types of essays, you’re wrong. The thing with comparative and contrast essays is that you’re not just focusing on one item and anything you write has to be constructed in such a way that it can be used to compare it with the other one.

          You can start with the type of topic you choose for your compare and contrast essay. Usually, the topics are divided into 4 categories:

          • Events
          • Situations
          • People and Fiction
          • Places

          No matter what category you choose to go with, you will have to always follow the structure of any academic paper. If you’re not sure how that goes, let us refresh your memory a bit.

          Introduction

          Here is the place where you have to try and get your readers to listen and hook them with your story. You need to present your topic, of course, and also your thesis statement which has the role of indicating to your readers what is the probable course of the entire work. The thesis statement usually goes in the first paragraph, somewhere around the last sentence of it.

          Emphasizing on your arguments

          After you’ve done the research, it’s time to develop the arguments that you make when comparing one thing to another. Makes sure to include reliable sources and don’t overdo it, just make it enough for your comparison to look well-researched.

          Refuting arguments

          In this section things will go the other way around. You need to research the selected topic and find facts to contradict your initial thesis. Again, choose at least one example and expand it into a paragraph at least that contains the counter-argument and as well as sources you used to reach that conclusion.

          Conclusion

          Obviously, this is the part where you draw your conclusions. You can restate your thesis statement and point out some of the arguments used over the entire essay that backs it up.

          More Tips on Writing a Comparative and Contrast Essay

          Always check for possible examples of essays when working on your hook sentence. This sentence has a great influence on a first-time reader of your work decision to keep reading or simply pass. There’s a wide variety of hooks you can use such as:

          • Literary queotes
          • Anecdotes or jokes
          • Quotes of important persons
          • Setting scenes
          • Quotes from poetry
          • Scientific arguments
          • Rhetorical questions

          Never stop brainstorming since it’s the best way to make a decision regarding the two items you’re going to write about. Make sure to write them down so you can go over them later and finally decide what you’re going to focus on. You can even start to sketch a few similarities and differences between the topic you brainstormed so that you have an idea on how complicated it will be to write the essay.

          If needed, you can always turn to professionals to give you a nudge or help you with your topics or sources. You can appeal to books, movies or articles that are discussing the same topic you’re going to approach in your essay.

          Make sure you don’t forget about in-text citations and formatting since you’re writing an academic paper. You have to use all the correct citations, including indirect and direct quotes to make your text even more believable.

          We are trying to keep the part on how to write a comparative and contrast essay as brief as possible as we already approached this subject, in full, in another article. This article puts more focus on subjects and topic for these types of essays since without a good topic, you might end up getting stuck and have to start over and over again. So here are the best 150 topics you can elaborate a compare and contrast essay on.

          Topics for Compare and Contrast Essays That Can be Used by College Students

          As you can see, the topics are divided into multiple categories so that it would be easier for you to select one. We chose to start this list of categorized topics with what’s most relevant for college students and that’s obviously college itself and how to handle it. So, here we go:

          1. College vs Schools – what’s changed?
          2. Unemployed students compared to students that work. Who’s having the right approach.
          3. Essays vs research papers – what’s the best choice?
          4. British English or American English – what are the major differences?
          5. Are there any similarities between employment and education?
          6. TOEFL and SAT – what are the similarities and differences?
          7. Ph. D and Master Degree – main differences
          8. Argumentative papers vs persuasive paper – same or different
          9. Traditional Education or remote education – what works best?

          6th Grade Compare and Contrast Essay Topics

          1. Summer or Winter – what’s the best season?
          2. Christmas at home vs Christmas traveling
          3. Wolves and dogs – differences and similarities
          4. Flowers and Weeds – why do we need both?
          5. Novels or comic books – what’s more interesting to read?
          6. Ping-pong vs tennis – what’s your favorite game?
          7. Reading a book vs watching TV
          8. Female friend or male friends – which ones are best?
          9. Western USA vs Eastern USA

          Middle School Essay Topics

          1. Zeus vs King Arthur – which one is cooler?
          2. Role models of 1950s compared to modern role models
          3. Watching a move at home compared with going to the cinema
          4. Is there a link between school bullies and dictators?
          5. Is a hurricane worse than a tsunami or the other way around?
          6. Christmas, Halloween or Prom night – which one is the most fun?
          7. Bicycle or car driving – which one is more difficult?
          8. 5-star hotels vs 3-star ones – why should you choose each of them?
          9. Parents or celebrities – who influences a teenager most of all?

          High School Compare and Contrast Essay Themes

          1. Historic literature or fiction – which one appeals most to college students?
          2. College Tests vs High School examinations – what is the most important of the two?
          3. E-learning versus traditional learning – is science and technology really helping with the learning process?
          4. New England Patriots vs Atlanta Falcons – who has more fans?
          5. Printed books vs e-books – what is the most appealing form of reading for colleague students?
          6. Story buildings or wooden houses – what type of construction is best?
          7. Portugal and Spain – what are the main similarities and differences?
          8. Japanese concept of beauty compared with the American one – what are the standards?
          9. Modern rock music compared with rock from the early 20th century – what are the differences and how did this genre evolve?

          Day-to-day Compare and Contrast Essay Themes

          1. Buffy or Twilight – similarities and differences in characters
          2. Macbeth vs Julius Caesar – what do they have in common?
          3. Modernism vs realism – main differences and similarities
          4. Prose vs poetry – what are the literary elements that differentiate these genres
          5. Rural vs urban living – what are the similarities and differences
          6. Hillary Clinton vs Donald Trump – who should have won and what do they have in common?
          7. Barcelona vs Real Madrid – differences and things the two clubs have in common
          8. Android vs iOS – benefits of both operating systems
          9. Textbooks or tablets in schools – what are the advantages and disadvantages of each in the process of learning?
          10. Asylums vs Jails
          11. Star Trek vs Star Wards
          12. Family Guy vs American Dad
          13. Pineapple vs Apple
          14. Scandinavian Mythology vs Greek Mythology

          Politics and History Compare Essay Topics

          1. Washington’s Ideas compared with Lincoln’s way of action
          2. Baroque vs Renaissance epochs
          3. Religious Studies vs Anthropology
          4. Soviet Government opposed to the American Government
          5. UK Prime Minister vs US President
          6. South and North Before the events of the Civil War in the United States
          7. King Louis XIV compared with Henry VIII
          8. Nazism and fascism: are there any differences?
          9. Difference in the events of World War II and World War I

          Easy to Approach Compare and Contrast Essay Topics

          1. Comparing an orange to an apple
          2. Day Time vs Night Time – what are the advantages of each time frame?
          3. What are the main differences between animals and people
          4. Being rich opposed to living in poverty
          5. Tea or Coffee – What are the similarities and contrasts?
          6. Living in a small village opposed to living in a big city
          7. The differences between feeling sad or lonely
          8. Main differences and similarities between British and American traditional dishes
          9. Camping sites – seashore or in the woods?

          Opposite Compare Essay Topics

          1. Males vs Females
          2. Pepsi or Coke?
          3. White vs Red
          4. Peace vs War
          5. Riding the bus or driving a car?
          6. Hatred and love
          7. Positive and negative aspects of working a lot
          8. Sun and the Moon
          9. Soft toys or dolls – what are the most appropriate toys?

          Compare and Contrast Topics for Teenagers

          1. Adulthood vs Childhood
          2. Living on Campus opposed to living at home
          3. Watching a movie or reading the book that the movie was made after?
          4. Freelancing or working in an office?
          5. Scientific writing vs academic writing
          6. Radio shows or TV show?
          7. Professional career or education – what should you focus on?
          8. Roman and Greek culture – what are the main similarities and differences
          9. Science Classes compared with Art Classes

          Social Media and IT Compare and Contrast Essay Topics

          1. Traditional Mailing vs email
          2. Traditional Commerce vs e-commerce
          3. Real-life dating vs online dating sites and apps
          4. Video Computer games vs smartphone games
          5. Forbes or New York Times?
          6. MySpace or Facebook? What’s the best social network?
          7. Online job application vs traditional methods
          8. Traditional writing services compared with online writing services
          9. Online advertising compared with traditional advertising

          Music and Movie Compare and Contrast Essay Themes

          1. Charmed or Buffy?
          2. Movies against books: Reading is the best way to explore a novel?
          3. Rock vs Jazz
          4. Frodo vs Sam – Which Lord of the Rings character is more important?
          5. Dumbledore vs Gandalf
          6. Soviet cinematography vs American films
          7. Loki and Thor – Brothers or Enemies?
          8. Thriller or horror films – what do they have in common
          9. Draco Malfoy vs Harry Potter

          Literature-Inspired Compare and Contrast Essay Ideas

          1. Drama vs Comedy
          2. Roman vs Greek Mythology
          3. Lessons learned from Beauty and the Best
          4. Lyrics of Prose – what students prefer?
          5. Nowadays Lyrics compared with poetry of the 13th century
          6. Non-fiction vs fiction literature
          7. Harry Potter vs Lord of the Rings
          8. Literature of the past compared with the one of the future

          Scientific Topics for Compare and Contrast Essays

          1. Microwave vs Oven
          2. Chemistry vs Physics
          3. Andromeda and Milky Way
          4. What are the differences between Mars and Earth
          5. Differences and similarities of the two moon missions
          6. DaVinci vs Thomas Jefferson
          7. Tsunami vs Earthquakes – what’s the worse natural phenomenon
          8. Two different chemical reactions formulas
          9. Limited control software vs full access navigation

          Popular Compare Essay Themes

          1. Football vs Soccer
          2. Korean vs Chinese
          3. Personal point of view vs public opinion
          4. Water or juice
          5. Dark beer vs light beer
          6. Obesity and Anorexia – what is the most dangerous
          7. Divorce and marriage
          8. Linux or Windows – Paid vs free OS
          9. Capitalism vs Marxism

          Philosophical Compare and Contrast Essay Topics

          1. Is Miami Beach a better place to live rather than home?
          2. Life and Death
          3. Anchored in reality or dreamy – what are the pros and cons?
          4. Friends or more – where’s the limit?
          5. Mental and physical needs of humans
          6. Fantasy world or reality?
          7. Macbeth and Hamlet – a philosophical approach
          8. Humans and dogs – similarities
          9. Free access compared with reserved rights – how intellectual property should be treated?
          10. Roman philosophers vs Greek ones
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          Home / Nursing Articles / Free Online Nursing Courses  Classes You Can Take Right Now

          Free Online Nursing Courses  Classes You Can Take Right Now

          If you are a nurse or or studying to be a nurse, you need to always work on keeping your nursing skills sharp and up to date. These days, it is quite easy to do so with the many free, online nursing and related health courses that you can take from the comfort of your own home. These courses will help you to become a better nurse, which will help to improve your career prospects over time. Click here for top Online nursing degree programs from accredited schools .

          Some of the best free classes include:

          1. Empire State Public Health Training Center – Public Health Nurse Ready – Public Health Nurse Ready (PHN Ready) is an online certificate program for RNs working in public health, or desiring to know about how public health works. LPNs and other RNs may find the certificate of interest as well. All courses are self-paced and on-line, with most courses providing continuing education credits.
          2. Biology of Water and Health : Offered by Tufts University, this course will train you to think outside of the box when dealing with problems related to water. The class will deal with the many ways that human health and water are related. It also will deal with social, economic and behavioral dimensions related to drinking water in a global context.
          3. Fundamentals of Oncology for Public Health Practitioners : Offered by Johns Hopkins University, this class consists of a series of lectures of cancer prevention control in clinical oncology that covers the treatment, diagnosis and prevention and screening measures that are used for cancers that include lung, breast, prostate and colon. After you take this course, you will be able to discuss disease presentation, treatment approaches for cancers, and be able to explain the big differences in prevention studies, compared to treatment studies.
          4. Utilization of Nursing Research in Advanced Practice : Offered by the University of Michigan, this course will present you with an evidence-based approach to advanced nursing practice. Research findings for nursing practice will be provided in terms of racial, ethnic and socioeconomic importance. You will gain a good understanding of the research processes, applicable theories and organizational dynamics and leadership functions that are applied to design and process of implementing the latest research in a health care setting.
          5. Human Growth and Development : Offered by Tufts University, the study of development and growth can help nurses to become better caregivers. In this course, you will learn about diseases, conditions and disabilities that are directly related to the disruption of the development of mental and physical processes. You also will learn about growth and development and how it provides a framework to understand who a patient is. You will gain more knowledge of the landscape of caregiving and it will improve how you are able to relate in your clinical encounters with patients. This will help to make you a much more skilled nurse in clinical settings.
          6. Critical Analysis of Popular Diets and Dietary Supplements : This course by Johns Hopkins University will analyze the science that is behind the mechanisms of weight control, and how many weight loss diets are designed and how they work in practice. The idea for this course is for the nurse to gain knowledge to be able to appraise a given weight control diet or supplement and to select the one that is most likely to succeed for a certain person.
          7. Introduction to Clinical Pain Problems : Offered by Tufts University, this course will introduce nurses to the principles of biomedical evaluation and management in the most common clinical pain problems. It will provide ways that you can evaluate effectively the biomedical characteristics of the patient pain experience. You will learn about temporal pattern, severity, location, quality, intensity, and exacerbating and relieving factors.

          By taking some of these excellent, free online courses, you will gain the skills, knowledge and empathy that you need to succeed in your nursing career.

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          Featured Programs:

          Capella University – RN-to-BSN Completion and RN-to-BSN/MSN Combined Option, Post Master’s DNP and BSN-to-DNP

           

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          Disclosure: We strive to provide information on this website that is accurate, complete and timely, but we make no guarantees about the information, the selection of schools, school accreditation status, the availability of or eligibility for financial aid, employment opportunities or education or salary outcomes.

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          13
          May 2018

          Nursing Degrees


          by |

          posted in: Uncategorized
          |
          0
          Distance learning nursing degrees.

          Why study nursing online? Studying externally lets you gain a valuable degree with minimal time away from work or family.

          • You can do the academic parts of nursing degree courses from home.
          • Hands-on training can be done during residential schools on campus and at healthcare facilities near to where you live.
          • Diploma courses (not listed here) for becoming an enrolled nurse are now also available through blended learning.

          Nursing is a fulfilling and demanding profession requiring intellectual and ethical knowledge, skills, compassion and stamina. An online nursing degree prepares you for healthcare service. It makes you employable in a growing sector with high job security.

          Nurses are the backbone of healthcare – they’re resourceful and compassionate, and they save lives every day. If you are looking for an important and in-demand career where you make a difference, nursing might just be for you.

          ~ UQ

          Nurse Qualifying Degrees

          The Nursing and Midwifery Board of Australia lists all approved programs of study ( here ). The courses lead to registration, endorsement and notation of applicants for registration as an enrolled nurse (EN), registered nurse (RN) or midwife.

          To become a registered nurse, you need to complete a 3-year Bachelor of Nursing or equivalent degree. Australian universities allow you to do this through a combination of distance learning, residential schools and clinical placements.

          • A Diploma of Nursing can be used as credit towards an online degree. Increasingly, you can study for a diploma using blended (online and on-campus) learning.
          • Universities may allow Endorsed Enrolled Nurses to enter online Bachelor of Nursing degrees in the 2nd year.

          Online nursing degrees equip you with the theoretical, research and practical knowledge required to be a nursing professional.

          In terms of logistics, it helps to live in the same state as the campus of the nursing school. This makes it easier to get to residential schools and can help with organising clinical placements.

          Nurse in scrubs.

          Nursing Careers

          Nursing is a community service career. Nurses help save lives and bring cheer and comfort to those in need. The nursing career is gratifying and rewarding because you help people directly and personally.

          • Registered Nurses are involved in assessing, treating and caring for patients.
          • They monitor patient responses to treatment or pain, administer some medications, and provide advice.
          • They may also do health promotion and education, and supervise enrolled nurses or other health care workers.

          As a group, nursing graduates enjoy consistently high employment rates and strong median salaries after graduating. The nursing field is a growing one and nurses are in high demand.

          Featured Bachelor Degrees

          CSU Bachelor of Nursing

          Charles Sturt University’s Bachelor of Nursing covers primary healthcare, health challenges, health optimisation, discipline of nursing, clinical nursing practice, social justice, psychosocial science and bioscience. For some subjects, distance education students attend 1-4 day residential schools at CSU campuses (generally Bathurst and Wagga Wagga).


          Brochure

          CSU.

          UNE Bachelor of Nursing

          The University of New England was the first Australian university to offer distance education for nurses. The bachelor-degree course involves 880 hours of supervised clinical practice over 6 trimesters. Field placements are normally organised in block placements of 2-4 weeks each trimester at health facilities across NSW. Clinical training is available by attending intensive residential schools at Armidale or regular sessions in Tamwworth.


          Brochure

          UNE.

          USQ Bachelor of Nursing

          The University of Southern Queensland’s Bachelor of Nursing degree consists of coursework, clinical simulation in campus laboratories and clinical experience (840 hours) in a variety of healthcare settings. Clinical experience is mainly in the Toowoomba and Fraser Coast Health Districts. For distance students, the on-campus part can be studied in intensive residential schools each semester.


          Brochure

          USQ.

          How to Enrol in Online Nursing Courses

          To enrol in an online nursing course, you first need to work out which nursing school to study with. Location may be the most important factor for bachelor degrees.

          All nursing bachelor courses and some postgraduate courses have residential attendance requirements. That means you need to attend a nurse training facility for blocks of 2 days or longer at a time.

          It’s also important that the university allows you to do any supervised work placements at a convenient location – at a hospital or other health facility near you. Universities are usually better at placing students in regions where they run courses.

          Attendance pattern

          How often you need to visit the campus or nurse training facility depends on your experience, how far into the course you are, and the arrangements of the university.

          For a Bachelor of Nursing degree, 1st-year students (especially those without clinical experience) have to put significant hours into applied training. You may be required to complete a long residential school each semester or even attend regularly throughout the year.

          Nurse Training Centre Locations

          To enrol in an online nursing course, first locate the most convenient provider(s).

          You can use the map to help find the closest nurse training centres.

          Universities with campuses to support external nursing studies include

          • CDU (Alice Springs, Darwin)
          • CQU (Townsville, Rockhampton, and more)
          • CSU (Albury-Wodonga, Bathurst, Dubbo, Wagga Wagga)
          • FedUni (Ballarat, Gippsland)
          • UNE (Armidale)
          • USQ (Hervey Bay, Toowoomba).

          Online Masters Degrees

          Postgraduate study of nursing allows you to go beyond the technical and practical concerns of the profession. It is a pathway into health management and administration and other executive roles.

          Studying by distance education is a convenient way to deepen and broaden your theoretical and practical knowledge. Extra skills and qualifications can lead to greater roles in leadership, research-based practice and advanced decision making.

          By expanding your knowledge base, postgraduate study can help with working in multidisciplinary health teams. It also allows you to develop expertise in areas of interest and shift career paths within nursing.

          Nursing graduate.

          JCU Master of Nursing

          James Cook University Online has a nursing masters that’s suitable for any experienced, division 1 registered nurse. You can major in (i) Leadership and Management (team management in a clinical setting, including business skills) (ii) Education (being an educator in a clinical environment) or (iii) Advanced Practice (build skills to deliver comprehensive care in clinical settings). The 12-unit program is 100% online and gives you the option to start with a graduate certificate (4 units) or graduate diploma (8 units). The courses are ideal if you want to study part-time. They’re also available year-round.


          Brochure

          JCU.

          Deakin Nursing Practice

          Deakin University’s 1.5-year Master of Nursing Practice is a flexible, exclusively online course. The main streams are: leadership and management; advanced clinical practice; perioperative; and specialty practice (intensive care, cardiac care, emergency care or critical care). Specialty practice stream applicants need to secure employment with a collaborating hospital. Graduate certificate and graduate diploma qualifications are available.


          Brochure

          Deakin.

          ECU Master of Nursing degrees

          Edith Cowan University has a range of online postgraduate nursing courses, some of which depend on your current work environment. The longest course is the 2-year Master of Clinical Nursing degree. This allows nurse clinicians to expand skills in selected areas. There are numerous possible specialisations. ECU also has a 1.5-year Master of Nursing coursework degree and a Master of Nursing with a Nurse Practitioner specialisation.


          Brochure

          ECU.

          More Courses

          Counselling.

          Counselling Degrees

          Health administration and management masters.

          Health Administration

          Healthcare.

          Healthcare Degrees

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          13
          May 2018

          Nursing Degrees


          by |

          posted in: Uncategorized
          |
          0
          Distance learning nursing degrees.

          Why study nursing online? Studying externally lets you gain a valuable degree with minimal time away from work or family.

          • You can do the academic parts of nursing degree courses from home.
          • Hands-on training can be done during residential schools on campus and at healthcare facilities near to where you live.
          • Diploma courses (not listed here) for becoming an enrolled nurse are now also available through blended learning.

          Nursing is a fulfilling and demanding profession requiring intellectual and ethical knowledge, skills, compassion and stamina. An online nursing degree prepares you for healthcare service. It makes you employable in a growing sector with high job security.

          Nurses are the backbone of healthcare – they’re resourceful and compassionate, and they save lives every day. If you are looking for an important and in-demand career where you make a difference, nursing might just be for you.

          ~ UQ

          Nurse Qualifying Degrees

          The Nursing and Midwifery Board of Australia lists all approved programs of study ( here ). The courses lead to registration, endorsement and notation of applicants for registration as an enrolled nurse (EN), registered nurse (RN) or midwife.

          To become a registered nurse, you need to complete a 3-year Bachelor of Nursing or equivalent degree. Australian universities allow you to do this through a combination of distance learning, residential schools and clinical placements.

          • A Diploma of Nursing can be used as credit towards an online degree. Increasingly, you can study for a diploma using blended (online and on-campus) learning.
          • Universities may allow Endorsed Enrolled Nurses to enter online Bachelor of Nursing degrees in the 2nd year.

          Online nursing degrees equip you with the theoretical, research and practical knowledge required to be a nursing professional.

          In terms of logistics, it helps to live in the same state as the campus of the nursing school. This makes it easier to get to residential schools and can help with organising clinical placements.

          Nurse in scrubs.

          Nursing Careers

          Nursing is a community service career. Nurses help save lives and bring cheer and comfort to those in need. The nursing career is gratifying and rewarding because you help people directly and personally.

          • Registered Nurses are involved in assessing, treating and caring for patients.
          • They monitor patient responses to treatment or pain, administer some medications, and provide advice.
          • They may also do health promotion and education, and supervise enrolled nurses or other health care workers.

          As a group, nursing graduates enjoy consistently high employment rates and strong median salaries after graduating. The nursing field is a growing one and nurses are in high demand.

          Featured Bachelor Degrees

          CSU Bachelor of Nursing

          Charles Sturt University’s Bachelor of Nursing covers primary healthcare, health challenges, health optimisation, discipline of nursing, clinical nursing practice, social justice, psychosocial science and bioscience. For some subjects, distance education students attend 1-4 day residential schools at CSU campuses (generally Bathurst and Wagga Wagga).


          Brochure

          CSU.

          UNE Bachelor of Nursing

          The University of New England was the first Australian university to offer distance education for nurses. The bachelor-degree course involves 880 hours of supervised clinical practice over 6 trimesters. Field placements are normally organised in block placements of 2-4 weeks each trimester at health facilities across NSW. Clinical training is available by attending intensive residential schools at Armidale or regular sessions in Tamwworth.


          Brochure

          UNE.

          USQ Bachelor of Nursing

          The University of Southern Queensland’s Bachelor of Nursing degree consists of coursework, clinical simulation in campus laboratories and clinical experience (840 hours) in a variety of healthcare settings. Clinical experience is mainly in the Toowoomba and Fraser Coast Health Districts. For distance students, the on-campus part can be studied in intensive residential schools each semester.


          Brochure

          USQ.

          How to Enrol in Online Nursing Courses

          To enrol in an online nursing course, you first need to work out which nursing school to study with. Location may be the most important factor for bachelor degrees.

          All nursing bachelor courses and some postgraduate courses have residential attendance requirements. That means you need to attend a nurse training facility for blocks of 2 days or longer at a time.

          It’s also important that the university allows you to do any supervised work placements at a convenient location – at a hospital or other health facility near you. Universities are usually better at placing students in regions where they run courses.

          Attendance pattern

          How often you need to visit the campus or nurse training facility depends on your experience, how far into the course you are, and the arrangements of the university.

          For a Bachelor of Nursing degree, 1st-year students (especially those without clinical experience) have to put significant hours into applied training. You may be required to complete a long residential school each semester or even attend regularly throughout the year.

          Nurse Training Centre Locations

          To enrol in an online nursing course, first locate the most convenient provider(s).

          You can use the map to help find the closest nurse training centres.

          Universities with campuses to support external nursing studies include

          • CDU (Alice Springs, Darwin)
          • CQU (Townsville, Rockhampton, and more)
          • CSU (Albury-Wodonga, Bathurst, Dubbo, Wagga Wagga)
          • FedUni (Ballarat, Gippsland)
          • UNE (Armidale)
          • USQ (Hervey Bay, Toowoomba).

          Online Masters Degrees

          Postgraduate study of nursing allows you to go beyond the technical and practical concerns of the profession. It is a pathway into health management and administration and other executive roles.

          Studying by distance education is a convenient way to deepen and broaden your theoretical and practical knowledge. Extra skills and qualifications can lead to greater roles in leadership, research-based practice and advanced decision making.

          By expanding your knowledge base, postgraduate study can help with working in multidisciplinary health teams. It also allows you to develop expertise in areas of interest and shift career paths within nursing.

          Nursing graduate.

          JCU Master of Nursing

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          Policing is an essential issue for communities throughout the world (Newborn & Jones, 2007). For the purposes of this discussion: Two police officers are arguing about the policies of community-oriented and problem-oriented policing as opposed to zero-tolerance policing. The research will analyze the advantages and disadvantages of these two approaches to policing. The investigation will also explain the ideologies that support these policy perspectives. The research will also explore whether or not they are completely different or if there are some similarities. The investigation will also explain which approach to policing, or perhaps a different alternative altogether, makes more sense.

          Community-oriented and problem-oriented policing as opposed to zero-tolerance policing

          Community Oriented Policing

          One of the police officers explains that community policing is defined as “a policing strategy that promotes organizational tactics, which support the systematic use of partnerships and problem-solving techniques, to proactively address the immediate conditions that give rise to public safety issues such as crime, social disorder, and fear of crime (“Community Policing Defined”).” According to the United States justice department there are three aspects of community policing. These three aspects are as follows:

          Community Partnerships- these are mutual alliances that are developed between the police and the individuals and the communities they serve. The purpose of the partnership is to create solutions to problems and assist the community in better trusting the police (“Community Policing Defined”).

          Organizational Transformation- this involves the careful positioning of personnel, information systems structure, and organizational management, to sustain the aforementioned community partnerships and practical problem solving (“Community Policing Defined”).

          Problem Solving- the strategy of participating in the proactive and systematic examination of recognized problems to create and thoroughly evaluate efficient outcomes (“Community Policing Defined”).

          Problem-oriented policing

          The other police officer explains the philosophy of Problem-oriented policing. The officer asserted that Cordner & Biebel (2005) explain that problem-oriented policing asserts that law enforcement officers should place a greater amount of emphasis on problems, instead of incidents (Cordner & Biebel, 2005). The authors further explain that

          “Problems are defined either as collections of incidents related in some way (if they occur at the same location, for example) or as underlying conditions that give rise to incidents, crimes, disorder, and other substantive community issues that people expect the police to handle. By focusing more on problems than on incidents, police can address causes rather than mere symptoms and consequently have a greater impact. The public health analogy is often used to illustrate this difference in conceptualizing the police role, with its emphasis on prevention and taking a proactive approach. This analogy is useful, too, because it reminds us that even with a strong public health approach, people still get sick and need medical attention, i.e., police still need to respond to calls and make arrests, even as POP prevents some problems and reduces the demand for reactive policing (Cordner & Biebel, 2005).”

          In addition the officer explains that one of the primary tenets of the problem oriented policing is that the use of criminal law only serves as one means of policing as opposed to serving as the end objective of policing. This aspect of the problem oriented policing means more than just a change in terminology. The approach asserts that law enforcement should pursue large and significant societal objectives such as the protections of citizens, reducing crime, maintaining order and reducing fear. This approach also asserts that law enforcement agents should lawful and ethical methods that produce the most well-organized and successful results. In some cases “this may involve enforcement of the criminal law, and sometimes it may not. Thus, the words “policing” and “law enforcement” are not synonymous, and law enforcement is not the only, or even necessarily the principal, technique of policing (Cordner & Biebel, 2005).”

          Zero-tolerance policing

          The officers argued that either of these policing policies was better than a zero tolerance policy. The zero-tolerance policy associated with policing asserts that all crimes should be punished, even minor offenses (Lum, 2009). That is this policy presents a zero tolerance for crime, while the other policing methods discussed place greater emphasis on building relationships with the community and attempting to understand the problems that create crime.

          Advantages and Disadvantages of Community Oriented Policing and Problem oriented policing

          The advantages of Community Oriented policing are as follows

          Community participation-Community oriented policing is unique in that it involves the forming of alliances between police and the communities that they serve. This gives the community some connection to police officers. The alliance also empowers the community because they understand the role that they play in making the community safer.

          Police officers are able to build trust with the community- the development of trust is of particular importance in communities where police are not trusted by citizens. This mistrust can make it difficult for the police to solve crimes or to keep crimes from occurring (Macguire, 2004).

          Organization Management- this strategy of policing also challenges the management of the overall law enforcement organization. That is this policing strategy provides additional structure where none exists or improves an existing system.

          Overall the community oriented policing philosophy is advantageous because it creates awareness in communities using the following three stategies. “One, a criminal will know the area has a cooperation agreement with the residents and the police to be aware of any suspicious activities. Two, residents can count on each other to look out for their well-being and safety against criminal activity or suspicious persons. Third, public relations between residents and police are developed through these programs which also provides education to the residents about police and court procedures (“The Value of Community Oriented Policing”).”

          Disadvantages

          The primary disadvantage of community oriented policing is that people in the community can overstep boundaries. That is in some cases the residents of a community can take matters into their own hands instead of allowing police to handle the situation. This can occur when officers do not properly define boundaries. This is a major disadvantage because some members of a community can be seriously hurt if they attempt to handle crtain situations instead of allowing the police to handle them.

          Advantages and Disadvatages of Problem Oriented Policing

          Advantages

          Seeks to understand the cause of crime- this particular policing method is aimed at understanding the reasons why crime occurs. In other words it seeks to understand the problem as oppose simply concentrating on the actual crimes being commited. tThis is particularly true of minor crimes.

          Wholistic approach to solving and stopping crimes-Because this particular method focuses on the reason for crime it may be extremely effective in combatting crime.

          Disadvantages

          The primary disadvantage of the problem oriented theory is that it can take a great deal of time to actually make a difference as it pertains to reducing crime levels. That is this strategy demands a longer process that can take time to be effective. Because this is the case crime levels could continue to increase or remain the same in the months following the implementation of this type of policing policy.

          Similarities and Differences

          Both the community oriented approach and the problem oriented approach attempt to build relationships with the community that is being served. Both approaches seemed to be geared toward solving the problem of crime over the long-term. Where as the zero tolerance policy only focuses on the punishment of criminals without confronting the reasons why the crimes are committed. This is true even when the crimes are minor.

          The primary difference between the two approaches is the manner in which they address the issue of crime. The community approach relies a great deal on the community to assist in remedying crime. On the other hand the strategies are similar in that they seek to solve the problem of crime in a way that is all encompassing.

          Which approach… [END OF PREVIEW]

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          Community Policing Evaluation


          Introduction

          For the past decade, IPR researchers have been evaluating Chicago’s Alternative Policing Strategy (CAPS), the nation’s most ambitious experiment in community policing. CAPS was unveiled in April 1993 in five prototype police districts and went citywide a year later. Political scientist Wesley G. Skogan is leading an academic team from Northwestern, DePaul, Loyola, and the University of Illinois at Chicago, which is evaluating the planning, implementation, and impact of CAPS throughout the city. Project Clear (Citizen Law Enforcement Analysis and Reporting) is working on a state-of-the-art integrated criminal justice information system. Working on this project are Susan Hartnett , research associate and project director, and Jill DuBois, project manager.

          CAPS Latest Report

          The newest report on policing in Chicago examines the effectiveness of community policing in reducing crime and solving neighborhood problems. The report: “CAPS at Ten: Community Policing in Chicago – An Evaluation of Chicago’s Alternative Policing Strategy” (PDF) may be downloaded in Adobe Acrobat Reader.

          Reports

          From NIJ:

          Community Policing and the New Immigrants: Latinos in Chicago

          Taking Stock: Community Policing in Chicago

          Problem Solving in Practice: Implementing Community Policing in Chicago

          Public Involvement: Community Policing in Chicago

          From OCOPS:

          Policing Smarter through IT: Learning from Chicago’s Citizen and Law Enforcement Analysis and Reporting (CLEAR) System (complete text) (PDF)

          • Click here for an abridged version of the report (PDF).

          Books on Chicago’s Community Policing Experiment

          Police and Community in Chicago (2006) , by Wesley G. Skogan

          On the Beat: Police and Community Problem Solving (1999), by IPR CAPS evaluation team

          Community Policing, Chicago Style (1997), by Wesley G. Skogan and Susan Hartnett

          Working Papers

          CAPS number: [ 1 ] [ 2 ] [ 3 ] [ 4 ] [ 5 ] [ 6 ] [ 7 ] [ 8 ] [ 9 ] [ 10 ] [ 11 ] [ 12 ] [ 13 ] [ 14 ] [ 16 ] [ 17 ] [ 18 ] [ 19 ] [ 20 ] [ 21 ] [ 22 ] [ 23 ] [ 24 ] [ 25 ] [ 26 ] [ 27 ] [ 28 ] [ 29 ] [ 30 ] [ 31 ]

          IPR has published a series of papers (summarized below) that enlarge on many of the issues raised in the annual reports. Each of these papers may be downloaded from the links below. Printed copies may be ordered directly from the Publications Department, Institute for Policy Research, 2040 Sheridan Road, Evanston, IL 60208-4100, at a cost of $5.00 per paper. Checks should be made payable to Northwestern University. We only accept checks drawn on U.S. bank and payable in U.S. funds. The price includes shipping and handling.

          Adobe Acrobat Reader 3.0 (or higher) is needed to read the Acrobat version. If you need a copy of the Acrobat Reader installer, click the button below. When the installer file has been downloaded, run the installer to put the Reader on your hard drive.

          (CAPS-1): The Public and the Police in the City of Chicago

          By Tabatha R. Johnson

          This paper describes in detail findings from the Spring 1993 citywide resident survey. It examines citizens’ assessments of the police and the impact of variables such as race, class, gender, and experiences with the police. The report suggests that each of these factors has an important effect on how citizens evaluate police performance and activities.

          Click here to see Acrobat version (PDF). PDF icon

          (CAPS-2): Winning the Hearts and Minds of Police Officers: An Assessment of Staff Perceptions of Community Policing in Chicago

          By Arthur J. Lurigio and Wesley G. Skogan

          Findings from the 1993 police officer survey are described in detail. Before the CAPS program began, officers were surveyed about their job satisfaction, their supervisors, and their opinions regarding community policing. Results show they supported some of CAPS-related activities, but not others.

          (CAPS-3): Partnerships for Prevention? Some Obstacles to Police-Community Cooperation

          By Wesley G. Skogan

          This paper examines one aspect of the crime prevention equation, the ability of the police and community members to develop cooperative relationships that focus on problem solving. The data are drawn from the on-going study of Chicago’s adoption of a community policing model . The report examines structural changes made by the Chicago Police Department to encourage the formation of a partnership, as well as launching a massive training effort to ensure that officers and their immediate supervisors understand the new roles and responsibilities they are being called upon to adopt.

          Click here to see Acrobat version (PDF). PDF icon

          (CAPS-4): Community Participation and Community Policing

          By Wesley G. Skogan

          This report focuses on the role of the public in community policing. To gauge public opinion on the eve of the new program, survey interviews were conducted with residents of the areas selected to receive community policing and matched neighborhoods that served as comparison areas for the evaluation. The report focuses on program awareness and program participation of residents.

          Click here to see Acrobat version (PDF). PDF icon

          (CAPS-5): Spring 1994 Supervisor Training Evaluation Report

          By Arthur G. Lurigio, Sheila Houmes, and Sigurlina Davidsdottir

          This paper describes an evaluation of CAPS training for supervisory staff. The training was conducted during the spring of 1994. The evaluation team examined the nature of the training sessions and the performance of the trainers; the background of the training participants and their attitudes toward their jobs, citizens, and CAPS; as well as participants’ reactions to the training. Many recommendations for future training are included.

          Click here to see Acrobat version (PDF). PDF icon

          (CAPS-6): Preparing Police Officers for Community Policing: An Evaluation of Training for Chicago’s Alternative Policing Strategy

          By Gail Dantzker, Arthur J. Lurigio, Susan M. Hartnett, Sigurlina Davidsdottir, Kristin Donovan,and Sheila Houmes

          Findings of a process evaluation of CAPS training for police officers are presented. The study’s approach and instrumentation were adopted from the field of adult education and involved observation and ratings of trainee and trainer behaviors. Additional personal interviews were conducted with sergeants, lieutenants, and trainers. The paper concludes with recommendations on how to implement training for community policing.

          (CAPS-7): Evaluation Design and Survey Methods Report

          By Wesley G. Skogan

          This paper describes in detail the methods for the citizen survey conducted in the areas selected to receive community policing and the matched neighborhoods that served as comparison areas for the evaluation. Research design, sample surveys, and survey weighting are given thorough attention. It also discusses the overall design of the CAPS evaluation, including the selection of control areas of the city.

          Click here to see Acrobat version (PDF). PDF icon

          (CAPS-8): An Analysis of Beat Meeting Participation and Activity

          By Scott Althaus

          This report evaluates the success of beat meetings that were held in the five areas selected to receive community policing from late April 1993, when the program began, through August 1994. Researchers examined beat meeting attendance, the beat meeting process, and the content and structure of beat meetings. Two major questions were whether the beat meetings were evolving toward a community policing model and whether all the interests and immediate problems of the community, as well as the community resources, were represented at these meetings.

          (CAPS-9): District Advisory Committees: The Prototype Experience

          By Jill DuBois

          This paper offers a thorough discussion of the District Advisory Committee meetings in each of the five areas initially selected to receive community policing. These committees were mandated by City Hall and were to be comprised of a representative group of people from the district who could guide the district commander to work on priority problems in the district. A full description of each committee is discussed followed by a recommendation section on the key elements that pointed to the more or less successful committees.

          Click here to see Acrobat version (PDF). PDF icon

          (CAPS-10): Partnerships in Action

          By Dominique Whelan

          Several case studies of problem solving in the areas selected to receive community policing are examined. These represent police and citizen problem-solving initiatives at the grassroots level. Each case study used a variety of data including personal interviews with key informants, observations of neighborhood meetings and court cases, observations of the area under study, and newspaper and other media sources. Both a description and an analysis of the problem-solving process is presented.

          Click here to see Acrobat version (PDF). PDF icon

          (CAPS-11): Community Organization Survey Methods Report

          By Justine H. Lovig and Robert VanStedum

          This is a survey methodological report on our Community Organization study. Data were gathered on hundreds of community organizations in the areas selected to receive community policing. The paper reports in detail about the sample, procedures employed, research questions, instrument development, data collection, coding, and analysis. A copy of the instrument is included.

          Click here to see Acrobat version (PDF). PDF icon

          (CAPS-12): Community Organization Study

          By Justine H. Lovig and Wesley G. Skogan

          One goal of the study was to determine the degree to which community organizations in the prototype areas were involved in CAPS during its first year of implementation. Based on survey interviews with hundreds of organizational informants, this paper examines the roles their organizations played in the community policing program. The survey was designed to elicit the differences in CAPS involvement between various types of organizations, and between the areas of study. The report documents how the organizations mobilized to influence the shape of community policing in their districts.

          Click here to see Acrobat version (PDF). PDF icon

          (CAPS-13): 1995 CAPS Training Evaluation Report

          By Marianne Kaiser

          This paper describes an evaluation of CAPS training for police officers. The purpose of the training was to teach them about their changing roles and responsibilities under CAPS, with an emphasis on learning the skills needed to be an effective team member. The evaluation team employed three different methods to examine the nature of training and the performance of the trainers. The methods included observation of training, police questionnaires, and personal interviews conducted with samples of trainees, trainers, and supervisors. The report concludes with a set of recommendations based on the evaluation.

          Click here to see Acrobat version (PDF). PDF icon

          (CAPS-14): 1995 Joint Community-Police Training: Interim Report

          By Marianne Kaiser

          This paper describes an evaluation of the Joint Community-Police Training (JCPT) program conducted by the Chicago Alliance for Neighborhood Safety (CANS) and the Chicago Police Department (CPD) for Chicago residents. This is the first large-scale attempt in the country to train neighborhood residents to work together with the police to solve crime and disorder problems in their neighborhoods. The goal of the training is to produce better informed and more organized citizens and, as a result, safer neighborhoods. Research methods included observation of the curriculum development, observation of training sessions, resident questionnaires, and personal interviews with the trainers. The report fully discusses the process of implementation and concludes with a comprehensive list of recommendations.

          Click here to see Acrobat version (PDF). PDF icon

          Click here to see Table 1a (PDF) PDF icon

          Click here to see Table 6 (PDF) PDF icon

          (CAPS-16): 1996 Beat Meeting and Citizen Training Participant Study

          By Justine H. Lovig, Jinney Smith and Wesley G. Skogan

          Citizen involvement in neighborhood problem solving is a fundamental part of Chicago’s community policing program. During 1996 we condudcted a survey of two groups of citizens to gauge the extent of their involvement in problem solving efforts. We surveyed particpants in the city’s beat community meetings, and those attending training sessions designed to enhance the public’s role in problem solving. This paper presents a detailed description of the methodology employed in those two studies, and a full set of survey questionnaires.

          Click here to see Acrobat version (PDF). PDF icon

          (CAPS-17): Evaluating Problem-Solving Policing: The Chicago Experience

          By Wesley G. Skogan

          This conference paper describes the evaluation of a community policing program in Chicago. There is a great deal of interest in systematically assessing how well community policing programs work. A thorough assessment of a new program generally calls for two kinds of evaluations. Process evaluations examine program design and implementation, and detail both the program’s “theory” (how was it supposed to have an impact on crime) and its actual implementation (whether or not the police actually adopted different practices). Impact evaluations analyze the effect that the program had on the problems that it targeted. The Chicago study was both a process and impact evaluation, but this paper focuses on what we found about the impact of the program on the lives of the city’s residents. The first section describes the program and the evaluation. The next documents the analytic approach that was adopted that enables us to assess the impact of community policing in five city neighborhoods. The third section presents what we found about the impact of the program. It looks at the impact of community policing on a variety of community problems, and illustrates how different ways of measuring those problems pointed to the same conclusions. The next section deals with geographic displacement; it examines whether crimes were actually prevented, or if they just shifted to another nearby locale. The final section summarizes the findings, and comments on the general features of evaluation projects.

          Click here to see Acrobat version (PDF). PDF icon

          (CAPS-18): Measuring What Matters: Crime, Disorder, and Fear

          By Wesley G. Skogan

          This paper considers two issues: measuring the possible effects of an innovative policing program, and doing so in a framework that could support the inference that the program caused variations that the measurements might reveal. Measurement involves the collection of data that represent — sometimes only indirectly — the problems that are targets of programs. These are the “outcome” measures, and it is vital that they represent as accurately as possible the scope of a program’s intentions. The framework within which these data are collected is evaluation’s research design, and it is crucial that the design account for as many alternative explanations for what is measured as is possible under the circumstances. Arguing that “the program made a difference” over the past month or year involves systematically discounting the potential influence of other factors that might account for changes in the measures, through the use of randomization, matched control groups or time series, and other design strategies. This essay focuses on measurement issues, but it bridges to design issues through some concrete examples of how measures have been used to make judgments about the impact of programs. It examines in sequence some of the experience of the evaluation community in taking the vital signs of a community via measures of crime, disorder, and fear.

          Click here to see Acrobat version (PDF). PDF icon

          (CAPS-19): The Super Block Project

          By Raj C. Udeshi

          This paper reports on a dynamic project aimed at improving the quality of life for residents of one of Chicago’s neediest blocks. The idea was conceived by a police commander who believed that utilizing the abundant human resources of the people living there, as well as those available through city and private agencies, would go a long way toward effecting real change. The report provides a synopsis of the planning and implementation period, successes and obstacles, and implications for future application of the concept.

          Click here to see Acrobat version (PDF). PDF icon

          (CAPS-20): Institute for Public Safety Partnerships: A First Year Evaluation

          By Jennifer Comey and Marianne Kaiser

          This paper evaluates the first year of the new Institute for Public Safety Partnerships (IPSP). The Institute is one of 35 regional community policing institutes funded recently by the U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Community Oriented Policing Services (COPS). IPSP was established as a partnership between the University of Illinois at Chicago, the Chicago Alliance for Neighborhood Safety (CANS), and a number of police and sheriffs’ departments in Illinois. The purpose of IPSP is to provide basic and advanced community-policing training and technical assistance, to advance the state of the art in community-policing education and training, and to advance the application of new and different training and technical assistance delivery systems in small and mid-sized towns throughout Illinois. The report looks in-depth at the development of the Institute and the community-policing curriculum, as well as evaluates the training conducted in six Illinois sites. The report provides trainees’ opinions of the training and evaluators recommendations for the Institute’s second year of operations.

          Click here to see Acrobat version (PDF). PDF icon

          (CAPS-21): 1998 Citywide Beat Meeting Observation Methodology Report

          By Joel F. Knutson and Wesley G. Skogan

          This paper provides documentation for a field observation study of beat community meetings in Chicago. Beat meetings are one of the cornerstones of Chicago’s community policing program. The city has 25 police districts, and they in turn are divided into 279 small police beats. Teams of 8-10 officers from all watches are assigned to each beat, where they work under the supervision of a beat team sergeant. Chicago’s program features regular meetings between these officers and residents of the beats they serve. These beat community meetings are to provide a venue for identifying and prioritizing local problems through a dialog between police and residents that is informed by the regular distribution of crime and arrest information. Residents and police are also supposed to discuss solutions to the problems that are identified at the meetings, and divide the responsibility for specific problem-solving efforts between police, residents and municipal service agencies. Most beats meet monthly, and– except in December–the city held between 225 and 268 beat meetings each month during 1998. Based on department records, 25 residents attended the average beat meeting during 1998, along with about seven police officers. During 1998, more than 67,000 residents attended beat meetings in their neighborhood.

          During 1998, a team of field researchers from the Institute for Policy Research attended 454 beat meetings throughout the city. They recorded what took place at each meeting on lengthy observation forms, and they distributed questionnaires to residents and police who were present. This paper describes the project in detail, and includes as appendices all of the observation forms and survey questionnaires that were employed in the study. Analyses of the data can be found in the forthcoming 1999 report, Community Policing in Chicago, Years Five-Six, which is available on request from the Illinois Criminal Justice Information Authority, 120 South Riverside Plaza, Suite 1016, Chicago IL 60606.

          Click here to see Acrobat version (PDF). PDF icon

          (CAPS-22): CAPS Evaluation Officer Surveys Data Documentation

          By Wesley G. Skogan

          This report provides a brief description of all of the police surveys conducted by the evaluation group between 1993 and 1999. It indicates the number of officers surveyed in each study and provides a brief summary of the major issues touched on in the questionnaires and the demographic measures that were included. Publications that have used these data are cited. All of the data will be available from the Criminal Justice Data Archive at the University of Michigan in 2000.

          Click here to see Acrobat version (PDF). PDF icon

          (CAPS-23): CAPS Citywide Resident Survey Documentation

          By Wesley G. Skogan

          This report provides documentation for all of the citywide resident surveys conducted by the evaluation group between 1993 and 1999. It includes reproductions of all of the survey questionnaires. The data will be available from the Criminal Justice Data Archive at the University of Michigan in 2000.

          Click here to see Acrobat version (PDF). PDF icon

          (CAPS-24): Community Mobilization for Community Policing

          By J. Erik Gudell and Wesley G. Skogan

          This report describes an experiment in Chicago aimed at creating community capacity for self help in neighborhoods where that had been lost. Beginning in 1998, the city deployed a cadre of organizers charged with rebuilding the capacity of some of its most troubled communities. Some worked directly under the supervision of the city while others were on the staff of neighborhood organizations. The evaluation described in this report began at about the same time. Evaluation staff interviewed the participants and monitored the activities of the organizers as they worked in selected beats. A survey was conducted to profile conditions in the beats that were first involved in the program, and a few were re-surveyed to monitor changes that may have taken place there over time. This report summarizes the researchers’ conclusions about a number of the issues the evaluation addressed. These included: What do community organizers do to build community capacity? What were the impediments to their organizing efforts? What projects did they succeed in bringing to fruition? And were there any changes in neighborhood conditions that might be tied to their efforts?

          Click here to see Acrobat version (PDF). PDF icon

          (CAPS-25): The 2002 Problem Solving Study

          By Jason Bennis, Lynn Steiner and Wesley G. Skogan

          This paper documents a field study that produced an independent assessment of the success of Chicago police in solving problems. Problem solving is one of the key components of CAPS, the city’s community policing program. Police and neighborhood residents were trained to tackle these problems using a five-step process, and the department’s new information systems produce data for planning and evaluating their efforts. This study focused on the most commonly identified priority beat problems. Interviews, field observations, and archival data were examined to (a) reconstruct what actions police and residents took at each site, and to (b) assess the success of their problem-solving efforts, on several dimensions. The research was completed in 68 sample beats. A total of 142 interviews were conducted with police officers and 136 with informed residents. A total of 419 forms that systematically assessed the extent of problems and police or resident crime prevention efforts were completed. The observers themselves inspected the problem sites on 428 occasions, spending a total of 569 hours observing events and conditions there. The fieldwork component of the study was supplemented by statistical analyses of quantitative time series data on crime and calls for service. This aspect of the study is described in the forthcoming CAPS-27.

          The paper includes all of the observation forms and survey questionnaires used in the study.

          Click here to see Acrobat version (PDF). PDF icon

          (CAPS-26): The 2002 Beat Meeting Observation Study

          By Jason Bennis, Wesley G. Skogan and Lynn Steiner

          This paper documents a 2002 study of the effectiveness of Chicago’s beat meetings. Beat meetings are one of the most distinctive features of the city’s community policing program. They are monthly gatherings of small groups of residents and officers working in the area. In the city’s plan, beat meetings are to be the principal mechanism for building and sustaining close relationships between police and the general public. The 2002 beat meeting study assessed the extent to which beat meetings are meeting their goals. Observers attended beat meetings to make note of what happened there and to survey residents and police who attended. A total of 291 observations were conducted in 130 sample beats, and 3,706 residents and 643 police officers were surveyed.

          The paper includes all of the observation forms and survey questionnaires used in the study.

          Click here to see Acrobat version (PDF). PDF icon

          (CAPS-27): Statistical Analysis of Timeseries Data on Problem Solving

          By So Young Kim and Wesley G. Skogan

          During the summer of 2002, the CAPS evaluation team conducted a study examining how Chicago police tackle neighborhood problems. The study focused on the problems most often identified by the police as local priorities. The findings of the study can be found in the main project report: Community Policing in Chicago, Years Eight and Nine (PDF) .

          The fieldwork component of the study was supplemented by statistical analyses of quantitative time series data on crime and 911 calls. This paper describes in detail the research design and statistical methods that were employed for the study. Time series trends in appropriate categories of calls for service and recorded crime data were created for each problem site. Comparable time series data were assembled for matched sets of beats in which the sample problem was not identified as a priority. Crime data were aggregated from information on 3.9 million individual crime incidents. 911 call data were aggregated from 23.4 million calls to the City of Chicago’s Office of Emergency Management and Communications. There is an extensive discussion of the use of Box-Jenkins Intervention Analysis to distinguish between gradual and immediate changes in crime, whether those changes were temporary or permanent in nature, and whether trends in the study beats were unique or matched trends in similar areas of the city.

          Click here to see Acrobat version (PDF). PDF icon

          (CAPS-28): The Fall 2003 Police Information Technology Adoption Survey

          By Wesley G. Skogan and Susan M. Hartnett

          This paper documents the methodology used in a telephone survey of Chicago suburban police departments which was conducted during October and November 2003. The study had two purposes. The first was to describe the scope of agency utilization of the data warehouse, which is an information repository developed by the Chicago police department to produce a variety of relational reports using modern, flexible database query software. The second purpose of the study was to explain variations in the timing and extent of data warehouse use. The paper covers questionnaire development, interviewer recruitment and training, samples and completion rates, data organization and reliability, and learning experiences from the field. Two hundred seventy-five interviews were completed at 142 Chicago suburban police agencies. One hundred forty-one interviews were conducted with a primary respondent and 134 interviews were conducted with a secondary respondent at the agencies. The paper includes the two survey instruments.     

          Click here to see Acrobat version (PDF). PDF icon

          (CAPS-29): The Diffusion of Information Technology in Policing

          By Wesley G. Skogan and Susan M. Hartnett

          This study examines the diffusion of innovation among municipal police departments in Northeastern Illinois. The opportunity to adopt an innovation arose when the Chicago Police Department (CPD) opened access to elements of its new centralized Data Warehouse to other criminal justice agencies. There is a long history of research on the diffusion of innovation, and a number of recent projects have applied this work to policing. Like innovation studies generally, this article presents the shape of the diffusion curve that describes the pace of adoption, and it examines factors associated with adoption and the extent to which the innovation was actually used. Adoption and extent of utilization proved to be largely independent processes. Involvement in cosmopolitan networks, experience with using databases for law enforcement, and the human capital capacities of the organizations influenced the adoption decision, while organizational resources and experience in using the system drove the level of actual use. The rapid growth of system utilization was apparently due to three factors: the active role played by the “evangelist” representing the host department; the fact that access to the system was free; and because it primarily empowered detectives – who enjoy a privileged position in policing – and did not challenge the traditional mission and organization of participating agencies.

          Click here to see Acrobat version (PDF). PDF icon

          (Caps-30): Community Policing

          By Wesley G. Skogan

          Community policing is very popular, so much so that few police chiefs want to be caught without some program they can call community policing. In a 1997 survey of police departments conducted by the Police Foundation, 85 percent reported they had adopted community policing or were in the process of doing so. What do cities that claim they are “doing community policing” actually do? This paper goes beyond describing the long list of projects they report, to examine the fundamentals of community policing. At root, community policing involves changing decision-making processes and creating new cultures within police departments. It is an organizational strategy that leaves setting priorities and the means of achieving them largely to residents and the police who serve in their neighborhoods. It has three core elements: citizen involvement, problem solving, and decentralization, although in practice these three dimensions turn out to be densely interrelated, and departments that shortchange one or more of them will not field a very effective program. The paper reviews those three core concepts, describes how they have been turned into concrete community policing programs, and reports some of what we know about their effectiveness. It summarizes some of the claims made for community policing, and some of the realities of achieving them in the real world.

          Click here to see Acrobat version (PDF). PDF icon

          (Caps-31): 2001 and 2003 CAPS Evaluation Citywide Survey Documentation

          By Wesley G. Skogan

          This report documents two citywide sample surveys conducted as part of an evaluation of Chicago’s community policing program, known as “CAPS.” The surveys assessed public perceptions of the quality of police service, their encounters with the police, fear of crime, reports of neighborhood conditions, and awareness and involvement in the city’s policing program. The surveys were conducted by telephone in English and Spanish, using random-digit-dialing samples. Questionnaire responses were used to geocode respondents into police districts and police beats. There were 2,485 completed interviews in 2001, and 3,141 completed interviews in 2004. The surveys were conducted by the Survey Research Laboratory of the University of Illinois-Chicago. This report presents English and Spanish-language versions of the survey questionnaires. A detailed methodological report for each study is presented following the questionnaires.

          Click here to see Acrobat version (PDF). PDF icon

          For more information on Chicago’s community policing initiative, click on Community Policing .

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          Community Policing (Justice Essay Sample)

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          Community policing refers to the process through which law is enforced by recruitment of a large enough team of community members to interact with and support the police force in identifying crime suspects and consequently lead to their arrest. This concept was introduced by the US government and this it did with an aim of bringing justice closer to the citizens and to consequently enhance security for all. The issue of community policing elicited a lot of debate within the US community and it was because of this that researchers and scholars have gained some interest into the issue. Research into this concept has shown that the philosophy of community policing has elicited some criticism from the same community that the government sought to protect. In fact, the concept of having police officials within estates, all eyes over law breakers, has made some people even more rebellious, all in the name of rejecting the idea. However, it is not all gloom because this department of national security has on the other hand experienced quite some tremendous success levels. For example, crime levels in the US have reportedly gone down over the years, compared to the years before the concept was introduced.  Social disorder and fear of crime have consequently been aligned into making the US community a better place to live in. The presence of police and community members as law enforcement figures throws many crime-committers into disarray (Ortmeier, 2008)

          The philosophy of community policing is not yet at its prime and as a suggestion, there are three innovations to the concept that would impact successful implementation of community policing throughout the United States. These are:

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          Assuming all the stakeholders in a community came together and formed a partnership through which they would identify report and help arrest criminals, they would be doing some great justice to themselves because that way, they would be providing a solution to their own problems. Increase trust between the police and members of society, be they individuals or organizations, means a great pathway to the success of community policing. These partnerships can be created among government agencies, social service provides, media and private businesses, not leaving behind individuals (Ortmeier, 2008).

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          Organizational transformation

          As the different structures within the community come into partnership, they all need to address the need for transformation, in that there needs to be an overhaul in the personnel, structure, channels of communication, management practices and information systems. This way, a culture of trust, quick response and mutual responsibility will be cultivated (Ortmeier, 2008).

          The partners within the community policing concept need to come up with strategies for quick and efficient response to reported crime. This can best be achieved if they can come up with a SARA model of problem solving. This refers to scanning, analysis, response and assessment (Ortmeier, 2008). Community policing has come from far and it can still go far when it is given the attention it requires from all who are concerned.

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          Argumentative Essay Structure – Use My Helpful Outline Example

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          Thursday, September 6, 2018
          Just Publishing Advice

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          How To Write An Outline For An Essay Or Book

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          How to write an outline

          Great writing starts with a great outline

          By Lisa Brown

          Once you’ve decided on your topic and wrote down an impactful thesis, it’s time to create the foundation upon which you will write your content.

          Writing an outline for an essay or a book is very similar as the only difference is the length or amount of words.

          With an essay, you are usually required to write an introduction, three paragraphs and a conclusion. As you know, writing a book includes many chapters, but ultimately, you also need a beginning, middle and ending.

          Even though the middle might be where the difference comes in, the process is almost identical.

          Don’t be afraid to use a free paraphrase generator as these tools help us prepare more effectively. Now, let’s get into how you create your outline.

          Start with all the basic information

          Write down the date, name, class or module, and any extra information you feel is necessary. This does not include any information about the essay or book yet, but it’s necessary to have on your outline.

          You might be working on various class essays or projects at the same time, and you want to quickly look at this information and see which one it is you are working with. This is also important for your teacher or publisher to check who is sending the information.

          Thesis / Synopsis

          Your thesis argument should be solid and provide the reader with information on what to expect when they read your essay or book. It does not need to be a long, drawn out statement, but it should communicate a clear message.

          You can find a paraphrasing tool online free of charge, to help you word your thesis better. When you write down your thesis, be sure that you are able to argue your point.

          When writing a book, you might relate to this section more if you think of it as a synopsis. This is a short summary of what your book is about.

          Some publishers will have a set number of words, while others leave it up to the author. Check with the publishing house you want to work with and make sure your synopsis fits their requirements.

          First paragraph / Chapter

          Your opening paragraph is probably one of the most important sections of your writing project. This is where you hook the reader and create the spark.

          Many readers will form an opinion about your writing on the first paragraph, and it is important to convince them that your thesis is correct. Once you have convinced the readers of your thesis, you are able to keep them interested throughout the essay or book.

          Focus on your strongest point in your first paragraph to set all doubts aside. There are times I have to reword my essay if there isn’t enough punch to my first paragraph.

          As this paragraph also stands as your introduction, it is important to introduce the readers to your way of thinking. Once you’ve stated your most valuable fact, you can move on to the rest of your paragraphs or chapters.

          The Body / Middle

          Now that you have started with your most compelling paragraph and fact, it is time to add more information. Do not think that the body of your work does not need to be strong.

          If you are writing an essay or a book, there are always other people competing with you. If you are a student in the class, you want to be one of the top students. Being an author is not any easier because there are many writers out there trying to get published.

          Do proper research to prove your thesis, and this is the section where you will state most of those facts. Seeing as this is just the outline for what will eventually be the final product, you need to make sure you understand the flow and structure. You can jot down ideas or facts and insert it into these paragraphs.

          Your work needs to have a flow to it, and this is where you create that flow. The body is where you organize your thoughts. You already know your thesis and your opening fact, but what else do you want to say and in which order do you want to say it?

          The Conclusion

          After you’ve created an outline for all of your chapters, it is time to start your conclusion. Your conclusion should basically sum up all the facts you stated in the essay or book.

          Do not be afraid to remind the reader of you most impactful facts. This is a summary of what has been discussed and to leave the reader on a high. You cannot start with a bang and then slowly lose your audience at the end.

          Use the hook you started with and let them know why they chose to write your piece till the end.

          Call to Action

          Once you have convinced your readers that your thesis is correct, what actions would you like for them to take? You provided great facts in your writing, and the audience will start thinking about your point of view more. Now you have to direct them to test your theory for themselves.

          There is no difficulty in creating a great outline once you have your structure right. You can also go online and look at some examples and apply it to your own work. There is no right or wrong way to do an outline if you have a flow to your work.

          You do an outline to prevent rambling in your writing or stating random facts that do not create any type of flow. Your final draft will come much later than your outline so do not rush the process. With that being said, your outline also makes writing later much easier.

          You can take each heading as a new project and focus on your transition to the next section. When you write the ending sentence of a paragraph, think about the opening sentence of the next one. This way you know that there will be no sharp endings, but rather a smooth transition between paragraphs.

          Get individual essay writing help on The Pensters, a brand new kind of a custom writing service.

          Lisa Brown  Lisa Brown  works as a content manager. She is specialized on writing useful articles for writers, students and people who want to improve their writing skills. Her hobby is reading, travelling and blogging. Lisa`s life motto is “Never stop learning, because life never stops teaching”.

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          How To Write An Argumentative Essay

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          Posted on

          Writing a Three-Paragraph Essay

          By Guest Blogger

          Sally Baggett holds a master’s in literature. She enjoys inspiring students, cooking with her family, and helping others achieve their dreams.


          Just like there is more than one way to skin a cat (or so they say), there is more than one way to write an essay. One is not required to produce a perfectly formatted five-paragraph essay every time one composes a piece of writing. There is another type of essay you can write that may just be simpler than the traditional style: the three-paragraph essay. This type of essay might be beneficial for beginning writers as it offers the organizational structure of a longer essay without requiring the length. It also offers a challenge to more advanced writers to condense their points.

          The Parts of the Essay and Its Benefits

          As with most essays, the three-paragraph essay has three parts: an introduction, a body, and a conclusion. Yet with this type of essay–unlike its five-paragraph counterpart–each one of these sections has only one paragraph. The three-paragraph essay, therefore, might be ideal for young writers or those who are currently mastering the English language.

          Another benefit to the three-paragraph essay could be that it requires you to condense your supporting points into just one, which can be a good exercise. If you had to choose only one point to convince a reader to agree with you, what would it be?

          After performing some light prewriting, such as brainstorming or writing an outline, students can move right into composing the essay. While this process is similar across the board for writing academic papers, the three-paragraph essay is unique in that the body will take up less space in the finished product.

           

          An outline for this essay might look like this:

          1. Introduction Paragraph
            1. Hook
            2. Background Points
            3. Thesis Statement
          2. Body Paragraph
            1. Topic Sentence
              1. Supporting fact 1
              2. Supporting fact 2
            2. Transition Sentence
          3. Conclusion Paragraph
            1. Re-statement of Thesis
            2. Summary of Main Point
            3. Challenge to the Reader

          Paragraph One: Introduction

          As with most formal essays, the three-paragraph essay begins with an introduction paragraph. Such paragraphs must, obviously, introduce the reader to your idea and, in most cases, convince the reader that this essay is worth reading. To craft a strong introduction, be sure to open with a solid hook. You want to draw in readers so they are compelled to engage with your writing.

          A hook can be something compelling such as a question, a powerful quote, or an interesting fact. Introduction paragraphs also usually contain background information that assists the reader in understanding your topic, perhaps defining it or explaining an important part. Finally, you want to include a thesis statement. Even though your essay only has three paragraphs, there still needs to be a purpose to the writing.

           

          You could structure your introduction paragraph according to this outline:

          1. Introduction Paragraph
            1. Hook: Is there no solution for dumping waste in the ocean?
            2. Background Points
              1. Explain why trash is dumped in the ocean
              2. Statistics about dumping trash in the ocean
            3. Thesis Statement: Dumping waste in the ocean is a problem because it spells disaster for the ecosystem, leading to problems on land.

          This structure is not mandatory, though it might be useful in the long run for organizing your thoughts.

           

          Paragraph Two: Body

          The second paragraph, as we have discussed, is the one and only body paragraph. This paragraph bears the burden of communicating support for the thesis statement all on its own. As such, it may take more than one rough draft to get this paragraph to communicate everything you want it to.

          Your body paragraph needs to underscore the thesis statement. Create a topic sentence for this body paragraph that communicates this and also transitions from the introduction into the body. For example, your body paragraph topic sentence based on the outline above could be:

          One of those problems might play itself out as food scarcity where humans live.

          This topic sentence reiterates the thesis and moves the reader into a body paragraph that contains a supporting point: that damage to the ocean’s ecosystem could lead to food scarcity. Within the body paragraph, you can quote different sources that support this point.

          Again, this paragraph does not have room to contain everything that a full five-paragraph essay might. But that doesn’t mean you can’t fit in some strong evidence to convince your reader to see your perspective, such as is accomplished through quotes and analysis. Don’t forget to end with a strong transition sentence to move the reader seamlessly into the conclusion.

           

          Paragraph Three: Conclusion

          The final paragraph in an essay is usually the conclusion. The three-paragraph essay is no exception. In this essay, the conclusion can be just as long as the other two paragraphs, and it can drive home the point made in the thesis statement and body paragraph. As with most conclusion paragraphs, this paragraph ought to restate the thesis in different words. It should then summarize what was stated in the body paragraph before challenging the reader in some way, whether in thought or action.

          Editing Before Turning It In

          One thing to be sure of in this type of essay (as in any other) is to polish it. Make it flow well. In other words, revise it!

          Before beginning the revision process, take a break from your writing so that you can look at it with fresh eyes. Once you start revising, hunt not only for grammar and punctuation errors but for ways to make the writing flow better. Take a look at the sentences at the beginning and end of each paragraph. Do these sentences contain transition words? Do these paragraphs link to each other? Transition words or phrases like “Likewise,” “In spite of,” or “In addition to” can ensure that your paragraphs are coherent. There are also other services that will automatically proofread you paper.

          If you used any sources (i.e. websites, books, videos, etc.) to help support your points and write your paper, you need to cite them! Most teachers will ask you to create a bibliography in MLA format . Others may have you one in APA format , or create references in Chicago style. Ask your teacher for guidance on what citation style they prefer.

          Final Thoughts

          Don’t forget that you aren’t limited to using this type of essay for just persuasion. You can also use it to relate a narrative tale, using the three parts as the beginning, middle, and end of a story. You can use this to craft an informative essay. See if other types of essays–such as a process analysis or an evaluation–will fit inside the three-paragraph essay format.

          In many ways, the three-paragraph essay is similar to the five-paragraph essay. They both make a solid point using an introduction, body, and conclusion. This simpler essay only requires that you condense your points into one body paragraph, perhaps only one supporting point, before reaching a conclusion. Again, this can make a good exercise for beginning English writers, but can also make a challenge for a more advanced writer to select their strongest supporting points.

           

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