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Evening Programs

Home / Academic Programs /Evening Programs

Evening Programs WCC Admin 2018-07-18T15:43:13+00:00

Earn an associate degree or certificate at night…

Associate in Arts

Associate in Science

A.A. – Associate in Arts

A.S. – Associate in Science

  • Classes meet two nights a week for 2-3 hours each night
  • Students take four courses per semester (12 credit hours)
  • Classes are hybrid classes with instruction split between face-to-face and online
  • Degree can be completed in two years (6 semesters including summers)

See the Evening Program flyer for more information.

Complete this form to request information about the A.A. or A.S. Evening Program.

For more information contact:

Dr. Morgan Daughety

Dean of College Transfer and Public Services

Faculty Schedule

Department:
Faculty

Phone: (252) 246-1309

Email: [email protected]

Office: C203a

Business Administration

A.A.S. in Business Administration

  • Classes meet two nights a week for 2-3 hours each night
  • Students take four courses per semester (12 credit hours)
  • Classes are hybrid classes with instruction split between face-to-face and online
  • Degree can be completed in two years (6 semesters including summers)

See the Evening Program flyer for more information.

Complete this form to request information about the A.A.S. in Business Administration Evening Program.

For more information contact:

Wes Hill

Dean of Business and Applied Technologies

Faculty Schedule

Department:
Faculty

Phone: (252) 246-1339

Email: [email protected]

Office: G207a

Associate Degree Nursing

A.A.S. Associate Degree Nursing

  • Students must have all co-requisites complete.
  • Classes are T/Th evening
  • Beginning in the second semester add Wednesdays and every other Saturday and Sunday.

For more information contact:

Becky Strickland

Interim Dean of Allied Health/Instructor

Faculty Schedule

Department:
Faculty

Phone: (252) 246-1333

Email: [email protected]

Office: G222

Air Conditioning, Heating, and Refrigeration Technology

Welding Technology

Air Conditioning Heating and Refrigeration Technology Certificate – C35100

  • Can be completed in 2 fall and 2 spring semesters

Basic Welding Certificate – C50420B

For more information contact:

Margie Norfleet

Dean of Industrial Technologies

Faculty Schedule

Department:
Faculty

Phone: (252) 246-1210

Email: [email protected]

Office: Lee Technology Center -W102

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NCC Students Examine Human Cadavers

August 28, 2018

NCC Anatomy and Physiology Instructor Nahel Awadallah reviews plastinated cadavers with students Nash Community College’s Natural Sciences Department hosted an exhibition of plastinated cadavers Tuesday,…

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NCC to Offer Distillation 101

August 22, 2018

Scott Meyer Nash Community College will offer Distillation 101 beginning in September. The class will meet on September 26, October 3, October 10 and October 16 from 6-9 PM on the NCC campus. Space is…

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NCC Brewing Program Welcomes New Instructors

August 20, 2018

Nash Community College welcomes new Brewing, Distillation and Fermentation instructors for the fall semester. Nathan McLaughlin serves full time as Pitt Street Brewing Company’s head brewer. He is a…

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Boddie-Noell Foundation Names NCC Vet Tech Lobby

August 16, 2018

Nash Community College has announced the naming of the future lobby in the Veterinary Medical Technology facility by the Boddie-Noell Foundation. Organization leaders said they are proud to support NCC’s…

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NCC Welcomes Early College Super Seniors

August 13, 2018

2018 ECHS Super Seniors Backpack Nash Community College President Dr. Bill Carver and NRM-Early College High School Principal Jennifer Sharpe distributed laptops and backpacks to Nash-Rocky Mount Early…

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How to Write a Business Plan

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Sep
11
2018

How to Start a Nonprofit Business

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Sep
13
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Financing Your Business with NC Rural Center Funding

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Sep
18
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Email Marketing: A Crash Course for Your Small Business

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Sep
20
2018

How to Write Bylaws for Your Nonprofit

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25
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Basics of Bookkeeping for Your Small Business

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27
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Using Online Sources to Sell a product or Service for Your Small Business

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Oct
2
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Twitter – The Surprising Tool for Enhancing Your Small Business

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Wilson Community College WCC Campus – Building E Room E102

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2
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Using Pinterest, Instagram & Snapchat for Small Business Owners

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4
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Know the Lifetime Value of Your Small Business Customer

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9
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How to do the 501(c)3 Thing

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Oct
11
2018

Content Marketing: What to Say, How to Say It for Your Small Business

Thu 6:00 PM to 7:30 PM


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Oct
16
2018

Contracting 101 – How to do Business with the Federal Government

Tue 6:00 PM to 8:30 PM


Wilson Community College WCC Campus – Building E Room E101

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Oct
18
2018

Sales and Use Tax Workshop for Small Business Owners

Thu 6:00 PM to 8:00 PM


Wilson Community College WCC Campus – Building E Room E101

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Oct
30
2018

Grant Writing 101 for Nonprofits

Tue 4:30 PM to 6:30 PM


Wilson Community College WCC Campus – Building E Room E101

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Oct
30
2018

Grant Writing 102 – How & Where to Find Grant Money for Your Nonprofit

Tue 7:00 PM to 9:00 PM


Wilson Community College WCC Campus – Building E Room E101

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Nov
1
2018

The Cost of Pricing for Small Business Onwers

Thu 6:30 PM to 8:45 PM


Wilson Community College WCC Campus – Building E Room E101

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Nov
13
2018

Finding and Understanding Federal Solicitations for Your Small Business

Tue 4:00 PM to 7:00 PM


Wilson Community College WCC Campus – Building E Room E102

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Nov
15
2018

Get Your Small Business Online with Google

Thu 6:00 PM to 7:30 PM


Wilson Community College WCC Campus – Building G Room G234

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Nov
20
2018

Government Contracting: Introduction to Proposal Writing for Your Small Business

Tue 4:00 PM to 7:00 PM


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Nov
27
2018

Government Contracting: Getting Paid as a Federal Contractor

Tue 6:00 PM to 7:30 PM


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Nov
30
2018

The Business of Agriculture – Regional Business Opportunities for Growth – Full Day Summit

Fri 8:30 AM to 3:15 PM


Wilson Community College

Dec
4
2018

Allowable Business Deductions for Small Business Owners

Tue 6:00 PM to 8:30 PM


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UW Undergraduate Advising: Dentistry

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Pre-Dental Program

What does Walsh’s Pre-Dentistry program entail?

Students in our Pre-Dental program major in either Biology or Chemistry. Most choose Biology as their major and minor in Chemistry. Those with a strong math background may choose to major in Chemistry with a minor in Biology. Choosing to major and minor in these sciences strengthens our students’ application portfolios. Advisors work with them to recommend the concentration that suits them best.

Like medical schools, Pre-Dentistry colleges also look for individuals who are diverse and academically strong. Students in this program should maintain a minimum 3.3 to 3.5 GPA and be involved in volunteer service, internships and leadership roles on campus.

What type of career can I look forward to with a Pre-Dentistry degree?

Nearly 100% of students in Walsh’s Pre-Dentistry program attend the post-graduate schools of their choice. Upon completion of their post-graduate programs, Walsh graduates are practicing dentistry throughout Ohio and across the country. Many completed the DDS program at The Ohio State University or Case Western Reserve University.

What makes Walsh’s Pre-Dental program unique?

Pre-Dentistry students take the DAT, a standardized test for entry into dental school, at the end of their junior year. Their courses and lab work prepare them for this exam, as well as the rigors of dental school training.

Generally speaking, what Pre-Dental courses will I need to take?

Courses vary depending on whether the student chooses to major in Biology or Chemistry. Some specific courses for Biology majors include:

  • Microbiology
  • Anatomy and Physiology
  • Organic Chemistry
  • Physics
  • Molecular Pharmacology
  • Biochemistry

What experiential learning or internship opportunities are available?

Students gain real-world experience through:

  • Summer research initiatives at Walsh or other organizations in our community.
  • Opportunities to take their studies abroad.

Kristine Byrum – Class of 2018

Majors: Biology Pre-Dental, Interdisciplinary Studies
Minors: Psychology, History

Walsh has really pushed me outside my comfort zone and taken me places that I did not expect. I came to Walsh as a Biology Pre-Medicine student and a member of the Honors program. My freshman year that was all I was – a student. I was able to do well in school, but I did not really explore any clubs or activities on campus.

The following summer I realized that being a dentist would be a perfect fit for me, a great way to combine my love for both creativity and health care.When I returned to school the following year, I began to get involved. I joined Pre-Dental Club, Pre-Health Club, Intramurals and Dance Marathon. I also started a book club and became an Orientation Leader and a Teaching Assistant for the Anatomy and Physiology labs. Getting involved expanded my horizons so much that I even signed up for a Global Learning trip to Uruguay.

Read More of Kristine’s Story Here

Photo of Kristine Byrum - Class of 2018

Who to contact…

Dr. Mike Dunphy

Michael Dunphy, Dean, School of Arts and Sciences; Professor of Biochemistry

Fr. Matthew Herttna Counseling Center, 254
330.490.7201
Find out more about Michael Dunphy

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Home > Pre-requisites & Requirements for Admission

Learning

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Pre-requisites & Requirements for Admission

In order to be considered for the 4-year DDS program at the UCLA School of Dentistry, all applicants must have at least three years of coursework with the majority of applicants having four years of coursework. Likewise, applicants must have at least 90 semester units or 135 quarter units.

* Limitations on accredited community college course work – 
   (Only 70 semester or 105 quarter units will be accepted.)
** Online classes for web-based education are not accepted.
*** All required courses must be passed with a grade of “C” or higher.

Required courses with 1-year of a laboratory component (2 sem./3 qtr.)

Semester Hours

Quarter Hours

Inorganic/General Chemistry

8

12

Organic Chemistry

6

8

Physics

8

12

Biology

8

12

 

Required courses with no laboratory component

Semester hours

Quarter hours

English Composition

6

8

Introductory Psychology

3

4

Biochemistry

3

4

 

All required courses must be completed no later than June 30th of the year you are seeking admission for.

Other recommended courses that will be considered in an application are histology, physiology, human or comparative anatomy, social sciences, microbiology, communication, business, composition, technical writing, fine arts, philosophy, engineering and classics.

Applicants must take their Dental Admission Test (DAT) no later than December 31 and within a 3-year period, including the current year applying. Canadian DATs are not accepted. Official score reports from the American Dental Association will be imported through the AADSAS application. Please do NOT fax or email unofficial score reports to the office.

Non-Discrimination Policy

The School of Dentistry adheres to and supports the UCLA non-discrimination policy related to admissions. Click here for full policy details.

http://catalog.registrar.ucla.edu/ucla-catalog2017-930.html

International students who are eligible for a student visa must meet the regular requirements for admission to the School of Dentistry and complete all pre-dental pre-requisites at an accredited U.S. college or university.

It should be noted that financial aid is limited to U.S. citizens and permanent residents so international applicants should not apply unless they have adequate funding for their educational and living expenses. The School participates in the  Western Interstate Commission for Higher Education (WICHE) .

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Local Services » New Jersey »Singing Lessons

List of Best Singing Lessons & Music Classes in New Jersey

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1. Veda School Of Performing Arts

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Plainsboro Township, NJ, USA
267-XXX-XXXX View phone number
Singing Lessons – Vocal Music Classes +5 more
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From the Business: New-age Carnatic vocal lessons! I provide a systematic approach to Carnatic music lessons through IndianRaga certifications in beginners, intermediate and advanced categories for all age groups. Customized interactive lesson plan for kids as well as individual lessons for adults. We provide music lessons, then feature you in high-quality video pro…

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2. Swaravali Music School

  • (5/5 – 1 review)
13 Petunia Drive, North Brunswick, NJ, United States
732-798-7219
Singing Lessons – Film Songs Singing Lessons +5 more
Closed now
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From the Business: Swaravali Music School in North Brunswick in Carnatic Music and Classical Singing Lessons, Devotional and Bhajans Singing Lessons and Vocal Music Classes. They are located in New Jersey area. They are well versed in training Carnatic Vocal, Hindi Bhajans, Hindustani Vocal Classical Music and Light Music Genres. The classes and lessons are conducte…

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3. Gitanjali Music Academy

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812 Margaret court, Edison, NJ
609-337-6462
Singing Lessons – Vocal Music Classes +6 more
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From the Business: Gitanjali Music academy is founded by Geetha Chundi. She is a professionally trained Carnatic Classical music teacher and Singer. She is Certified in Carnatic Classical Music from Potti Sriramulu University based at Hyderabad, India. She studied at a professional music school in India for over 7 years and has learned Carnatic Music for over 16 yea…

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4. Singing Lessons At Geet Sudha Music School

  • (5/5 – 2 reviews)
3490 State Route 27, Kendall Park, New Jersey, United States
347-657-6121
Singing Lessons – Film Songs Singing Lessons +6 more
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Direction Website Services More info

From the Business: Singing Lessons at Geet Sudha Music School in Kendall Park is specialized in Devotional or Bhajans Singing Lessons, Film Songs Singing Lessons, Fusion Singing Lessons, Ghazals Singing Lessons, Bhajans Class, Vocal Music Classes, Hindustani Classical Music Lessons, Eclectic Mix of Hindi and Bengali Sings. They are a Unique Music School who are serv…

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5. Sargam Music Classes

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197 Tyroler Avenue, Edison, NJ 08820, United States
732-860-1167
Singing Lessons – Film Songs Singing Lessons +5 more
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From the Business: Bollywood and Hindustani Classical Training, prepare for live performances
The classes will be structured to cover all aspects of Indian Music For children, the focus will be preparing them for Stage Performances and Global Talent Shows-both Hindustani Classical and Bollywood music. They will also learn about their Indian cultural roots through m…

6. Bhajan Classes By Hema

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Somerset, NJ, United States
Singing Lessons – Bhajans Class
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From the Business: Hema Murali conducts bhajan classes for adults in Somerset, NJ. Kindly contact Hema to know about pricing and schedule your classes.

7. Sandhya Anand Carnatic Music

  • (5/5 – 1 review)
North Jersey , NJ, United States
Singing Lessons – Sloka Class +2 more
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From the Business: Sandhya Anand is a professional AIR graded musician having performed over 1200 concerts (vocal and violin) in all major sabhas in India and abroad. Having trained by maestros Sri T V Gopalakrishnan, Sri R Swaminathan and Smt Suguna Varadachary, she imparts traditional training rooted in sampradaya to aspiring students. As a violinist she has accom…

8. Carnatic Music Classes By Chandra Gopalan

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125 McKinley Ave, Lodi, NJ 07644, United States
Singing Lessons – Bhajans Class +1 more
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From the Business: Classes conducted in Lodi by Chandra Gopalan – Vocal Carnatic Music, Semi classical, Bhajans. He has given vocal support for various dance arangetrams in New Jersey and around. Skype classes and Individual and group classes under taken.

9. Carnatic Vocal Classes – Academy Of Indian Music

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902 Oak Tree Avenue, South Plainfield, NJ, United States
Singing Lessons – Vocal Music Classes +1 more
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From the Business: Music can be learnt at any age and therefore we have options to learn it as an academic course or simply to fine-tune your bathroom singing. Perhaps you are a professional singer who wants to further fine tune your voice or a mother whose children are now in school, giving you an opportunity to fill your life with some music – either ways, The Aca…

10. Irmi Kapoor Indian Classical Music

  • (5/5 – 1 review)
New Jersey, United States
Singing Lessons – Folk Singing Lessons +2 more
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From the Business: I hold a masters in Indian Classical music and have learnt under Kishori Amonkar from Jaipur Gharana and Ghazal maestro Jagjit Singh. Stage presence, Self-confidence and much more. Adults and Children above 4 yrs welcome. All students get opportunities to perform on stage and also in the Annual Recital with Certificates and trophies.

11. Vijayadhwani Music School

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North Brunswick, New Jersey, United States
Singing Lessons – Vocal Music Classes
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From the Business: Vijayadhwani Music School kids are trained by Guru Smt. Vijayasri Chandrasekaran at North Brunswick, NJ. Mrs. Vijayasri is from Neyveli, TamilNadu, hailing from a family with a musical background. Gifted with a mellifluous, captivating voice, and abundant musical talent, Vijayasri started her training in Carnatic music at a very young age with her…

12. Carnatic Music Classes For Beginners And Public Speaking Classes For Students And Adults

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32 Spencer St, Somerset, NJ, United States
Singing Lessons – Sloka Class +5 more
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From the Business: I offer Carnatic music classes for beginners – kids age 6 and above and for adults. I am also a trained speaker and offer Public speaking classes for students and adults (professionals, housewives, for those looking for jobs). Available during day and evening times on weekdays and weekends. Flexible with schedules. I have 15 years+ experience in m…

13. Krishnan Music Classes

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Bridgewater, NJ, United States
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From the Business: I am a disciple of Sri T M Thyagarajan. I am an exponent of trinities Kritis and I am willing to teach them to advanced students of Carnatic Music.

14. Savitha Balasubramaniam Carnatic Music Lessons

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18 Devon Rd, Edison, NJ, United States
Singing Lessons – Vocal Music Classes +1 more
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From the Business: I have been teaching Carnatic Music for the past 30 years in Mumbai. I am associated with Mulund Fine Arts for a long time now. I have taught students of all ages (5 through 70). More recently I have started teaching long distance students through skype. I am in the US for a couple of months every year and would continue the classes through skype …

15. Jayanta Banerjee Classical Musician

  • (5/5 – 1 review)
Washington Township, NJ, United States
Singing Lessons – Bhangra Singing Lessons +4 more
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From the Business: Jayanta Banerjee Classical Musician, Bansuri Flute Player/Teacher, Only ganda-bandh disciple of Bansuri of Aftab-e-Sitar Ustad Vilayat Khan, Surmani, AIR Artist, Performing 30 years India / Abroad, Concerts with Jazz legend David Liebman. Only Bansuri Player to learn from Great Masters of Three Great Gharanas of Hindustani Music : Imdadkhani Itaw…

16. Suranjan Choudhury Indian Music Classes

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Monmouth Junction, NJ 08852, United States
Singing Lessons – Bhajans Class +1 more
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From the Business: Performer and Teacher of Indian Music (Vocal). Categories are: Raag Based Classical & Modern Songs Bhajan and Thumri Nazrulgeeti Rabindrasangeet Raagprodhan Voice and Taal Training Theory of Indian Music Reading & Writing Indian Music Notations Trainings for Digital Audio Recording Techniques, Audio Restoration and Manipulation. Please con…

17. Suresh Wadkars Ajivasan Music Academy

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1969 Oak Tree Road, Edison, New Jersey, United States
Singing Lessons – Hindustani Classical Music Lessons
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From the Business: Suresh Wadkar’s Music School for Indian Semi /Classical singing. For further inquiries please contact via email or phone.

18. Ragamthalam

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Edison, NJ, United States
Singing Lessons – Vocal Music Classes
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From the Business: Art is part of life. It gives peace, pleasure to mind and heart. Especially Carnatic Music is an excellent art. So spending time to learn Carnatic music is to get peace, pious, happiness in our life. I am K. Sundarrajan. I have been taking classes since 2000 and I had taken training from my father Madurai T.Krishnamoorthy for Vocal and Miruda…

19. Vocal Classes By Lakshmi Sarangapani

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404 Timberbrooke Dr, Bedminster, NJ 07921, United States
Singing Lessons – Vocal Music Classes +1 more
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From the Business: Lakshmi Sarangapani teaches Hindustani and Carnatic Music (Vocal) lessons. Both private and group lessons are taken.

20. Sloka Class By Usha Saripella

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Morganville, Marlboro Township, NJ, United States
Singing Lessons – Sloka Class
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From the Business: Usha Saripella conducts sloka class in Morganville, NJ. Kindly contact Usha to schedule your classes.

21. Singing Lessons By Swagata Chakraborty

  • (5/5 – 1 review)
2 Inverness Lane, East Windsor, NJ, United States
Singing Lessons – Film Songs Singing Lessons +4 more
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From the Business: Swagata maiden name Mukherjee is a recognized musical talent from Calcutta, West Bengal. She has performed extensively throughout India and in the US. She has an extensive repertoire that extends from the traditional classical such as Kheyal to light classicals such as Thumri, Kajri, Hori, Bhajan etc. to geets such as Nazrul-geets, Rabindra-sangee…

22. Asha Janardhan Carnatic Musician

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16 Allenby Lane, Scotch Plains, NJ, United States
Singing Lessons – Vocal Music Classes
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From the Business: I have completed Junior and Senior in Carnatic Instrumental music Veena and have been playing Veena since 20 years. I teach and give various concerts as well. And have given several concerts including. I would pay individual attention to each of my students and would love to teach cultural Veena, which lord Saraswathi plays. For people who stay in…

23. Nandini Carnatic Music

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Livingston, NJ, United States
Singing Lessons – Bhangra Singing Lessons +2 more
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From the Business: I have students who have participated in several competitions and have won several of them. I also teach a little bit of theory associated with every music lesson so they know what they are singing. I also teach them bhajans, light music and sloka to keep classes entertaining and fun for them.

24. 100Strings – Santoor Music School

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Plainsboro, NJ, United States
Singing Lessons – Vocal Music Classes +1 more
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From the Business: 100Strings a school of Hindustani (North Indian) Classical Music providing instruction on the Santoor to a varied age group of students in New York and New Jersey area. It is founded by Deepal Chodhari. Deepal Chodhari has been pursuing the santoor since the past 20 years from her guruji, Shri Dineshkumar Sampat (immediate disciple of Shri Kartik …

25. Swar Music School

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812 State Rd, Princeton, NJ, United States
Singing Lessons – Hindustani Classical Music Lessons
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From the Business: SWAR Music School is a Hindustani Classical Music School that focuses on bringing alive our heritage and Indian Culture in its purest form.Different cultures and races have left their mark on Indian music through several thousand years. Hindustani Classical Music is mainly comprised of improvisation and style that is unique to each individual sing…

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Customer Reviews for Singing Lessons inNew Jersey Area

Rated 5/5 based on 3reviews
A
Singing Lessons At Geet Sudha Music School
ArYan Shekhar rated5.0
2 yrs ago

Good

R
Singing Lessons At Geet Sudha Music School
Reena Gupta Pratihar rated5.0
2 yrs ago

Excellent

p
Swaravali Music School
palanivel rated5.0
3 yrs ago

palanivel felt thatAmazing! Highly recommend it!

Did you know

All time to learn and practicing, enjoying singing. During the singing, class controls your voice, confidence which will help your singling capacity. In New Jersey lots of singing lessons and classes available ,through this class you can learn the extend vocal range and develop a secure breathing techniques, important thing is to learn the body awareness through posture and alignment, as well learning to build the vocal techniques, to improve your voice in a safe and healthy manner. First, they teach the singling foundation course, performance skills, and audition techniques. Various classes are Ghazals Singing Lessons, Hindustani Classical Music Lessons, Devotional / Bhajans Singing Lessons, Fusion Singing Lessons, Carnatic Music/Classical Singing Lessons, Film Songs Singing Lessons, Vocal Music Classes, Bhajans Class. For best world class training find the best Indian singing trainers in Sulekha.

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Sargam Music Classes

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197 Tyroler Avenue, Edison, NJ 08820, United States
732-860-1167
Singing Lessons – Film Songs Singing Lessons +5 more
Direction More info
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Singing Lessons At Geet Sudha Music School

  • (5/5 – 2 reviews)
3490 State Route 27, Kendall Park, New Jersey, United States
347-657-6121
Singing Lessons – Film Songs Singing Lessons +6 more
Direction Website Services More info
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Gitanjali Music Academy

  • (Write a Review)
812 Margaret court, Edison, NJ
609-337-6462
Singing Lessons – Vocal Music Classes +6 more
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Swaravali Music School

  • (5/5 – 1 review)
13 Petunia Drive, North Brunswick, NJ, United States
732-798-7219
Singing Lessons – Film Songs Singing Lessons +5 more
Direction Website Services More info
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Veda School Of Performing Arts

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Plainsboro Township, NJ, USA
Singing Lessons – Vocal Music Classes +5 more
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Singing Lessons Providers yet to be reviewed in New Jersey Area

Hindustani Classical Music Vocal Classes

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Reading Road, Edison, NJ, United States
Singing Lessons – Film Songs Singing Lessons +4 more
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Carnatic Music Classes For Beginners And Public Speaking Classes For Students And Adults

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32 Spencer St, Somerset, NJ, United States
Singing Lessons – Sloka Class +5 more
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Singing Lessons For Indian Music By Pradip Patel

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810 Columbia Avenue, North Bergen, NJ, United States
Singing Lessons – Harmonium Lessons +9 more
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Srikar

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Plainsboro Township, NJ, USA
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Meetkalakar Online Vocal Classes

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Edison, New Jersey, United States
Singing Lessons – Film Songs Singing Lessons +4 more
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Types of Singing Lessons

  • Vocal Music Classes
  • Hindustani Classical Music Lessons
  • Film Songs Singing Lessons
  • Bhajans Class
  • Fusion Singing Lessons
  • Ghazals Singing Lessons
  • Sloka Class
  • Folk Singing Lessons
  • Pop Singing Lessons
  • Rap Singing Lessons
  • Rock & Roll Singing Lessons
  • Tribal Singing Lessons
  • Bhangra Singing Lessons
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Singing Lessons Nearby Locality

  • Avenel, NJ
  • Bayonne, NJ
  • Bedminster, NJ
  • Belle Mead, NJ
  • Bloomfield, NJ
  • Bridgeton, NJ
  • Bridgewater, NJ
  • Clementon, NJ
  • Closter, NJ
  • Cranbury, NJ
  • Cranford, NJ
  • East Brunswick, NJ
  • Eatontown, NJ
  • Edison, NJ
  • Freehold, NJ
  • Hightstown, NJ
  • Hillsborough, NJ
  • Irvington, NJ
  • Iselin, NJ
  • Jersey City, NJ
  • Kendall Park, NJ
  • Lakewood, NJ
  • Livingston, NJ
  • Lodi, NJ
  • Monmouth Junction, NJ
  • Monroe Township, NJ
  • Morganville, NJ
  • Morristown, NJ
  • New Brunswick, NJ
  • Newark, NJ
  • North Bergen, NJ
  • North Brunswick, NJ
  • Nutley, NJ
  • Parsippany, NJ
  • Passaic, NJ
  • Perth Amboy, NJ
  • Piscataway, NJ
  • Plainfield, NJ
  • Plainsboro, NJ
  • Princeton, NJ
  • Randolph, NJ
  • Scotch Plains, NJ
  • Somerset, NJ
  • South Plainfield, NJ
  • Toms River, NJ
  • Union City, NJ
  • Voorhees, NJ
  • Washington, NJ
  • Wayne, NJ
  • West New York, NJ
  • West Orange, NJ
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Most Popular States

  • New Jersey

Related Categories Nearby

  • Veena Lessons
  • Violin Lessons
  • Sitar Lessons
  • Tabla Lessons
  • Bhajan Singers
  • Ghazal Singers
  • Singers
  • Wedding Singers
  • Karaoke Singers
  • Wedding Band Singers
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    Indian Music (Vocal & Instrumental)

    Indian Music (Vocal & Instrumental)

    Learn Harmonium, singing, Tabla, Sitar, Keyboard, Violin, Mandolin, Guitar, Flute & voice training. Geet, Ghazals, Bolywood singing & Bhajans. Classical & semi Classical

    < 21 hours ago
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    Indian Music Lessons in Mississauga

    Indian Music Lessons in Mississauga

    Learn Indian Classical Vocal Music and many other semi-classical genres such as Thumri, Dadra, Bhajan, Ghazals, Raaga based songs from a highly experienced Indian classical vocalist, performer and …

    04/09/2018
    Mississauga / Peel Region

    Lessons of Indian Classical as well as Light Music in Brampton.

    Lessons of Indian Classical as well as Light Music in Brampton.

    Masters in Music ( Vocal ) from Punjabi University Patiala, India. Learn to sing with Harmonium, Lessons in Classical, – Classical, Bhajan, geet, gajals, Shabad and Bollywood Songs.Offering beginners …

    03/09/2018
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    Indian Vocal Carnatic music and Bhajan Classes

    Indian Vocal Carnatic music and Bhajan Classes

    South Indian Carnatic Vocal and semi classical Bhajan lessons from a professional musician who is a performing artist with teaching experience.Classes are conducted in Milton and skype classes can …

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    Indian Singing Lessons In Mississauga

    Indian Singing Lessons In Mississauga

    MASTERS IN MUSIC (CLASSICAL VOCAL) FROM ALLAHABAD UNIVERSITY INDIA. Learn singing with Harmonium – Classical, Semi classical, Bhajans, Geet, Ghazals, Bollywood songs and more…… ( learn from basic …

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    North Indian classical (Vocal) music lessons

    North Indian classical (Vocal) music lessons

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    Indian Music Classes (Vocal &amp; Instrumental) Guitar/ Keyboard

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    Indian Vocal/Singing Lessons at your home!

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    Indian Vocal/Singing Lessons at your home!

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    Music Lessons/Classes Contact 647-904-8788

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    Micdoll Music Academy belongs to Patiala Gharana, where Indian Classical Music Vocal and Harmonium lessons are provided in respect of all genres- Gazal/ Suffi/ Bollywood/ Shabad- Kirtan/Devotional …

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    Indian Classical Music Lessons in Toronto, North York

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    I am a certified Indian classical singer rendering Private Coaching classes in Indian Classical vocal (Hindustani Music – Banaras Gharana), Bada Khayal, Chota Khayal, Light Music like BHAKTI SANGEET, …

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    Indian Classical Music Lessons In toronto

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    I am a certified Indian classical singer rendering Private Coaching classes in Indian Classical vocal (Hindustani Music – Banaras Gharana), Bada Khayal, Chota Khayal, Light Music like BHAKTI SANGEET, …

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      Indian Classical Music

      Classical Music

      Singing

      Existence Question

      Music

      Is there any way to learn Indian classical singing online?

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      10 Answers

      Namrata Rao

      Namrata Rao , lives in Mumbai, Maharashtra, India

      Im going to answer your question a bit differently. Im sure if you do a quick search you will find a few (in this space, not many) platforms to learn Indian classical music online. So, the real question is – can you (or any one who has other commitments-full time job, etc) learn online? Yes, absolutely. All you need are three things – 1. Passion (which Im sure you already have), 2. Carved out time and 3. Sustained interest. In my opinion, the last two are most critical.

      My dad, Chandramohan Rao, founder Rao Vocals (an e-learning platform for Hindustani Vocals) has been training singing enthusiasts from across the globe for more than 7 years. His students carve out time to train online with him for at least 2 days a week (for 45 mins) and do further riyaaz in their free time. Two of his students (one from Canada and the other from Singapore) have taken forward their passion through consistent training & practice and are now doing their own stage shows! Dad has also trained them on the nuances of performing for a crowd. It has been a very rewarding experience, for both the guru and the shishyas. :))

      A quick background on him – He has done his Masters in Music from Gandharva Mahavidyalaya after training under N.K.Karhade & S.B. Deshpande (disciples of Pt. Paluskar). He has both Skype classes and e-modules that allow individuals to train at their convenience. You can check it out here – www.raovocals.com or visit his YouTube channel for free Learner Series – www.youtube.com/user/ChandramohanRao

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      Aarav Sahni

      Aarav Sahni , studied Hindustani Classical Music Theory and Concepts

      Good question. There are ways to learn music online through free videos and online music learning sites. But there are also problems in learning music online.

      1. Internet has lots of music videos and but those are not enough for learning Indian classical music for advanced level
      2. The music tutorial videos are not reliable always
      3. If you have any doubt on Hindustani classical music lessons taught online, you may not get the opportunity to ask a teacher to resolve your queries.

      Fortunately for your music learning need, there is a new website called Ipassio.com , where you can find a guru for learning Indian classical music. Some of the gurus on the site ipassio are:

      ● B C Manjunath

      ● Abhishek Borkar

      ● Shantanu Arora

      ● Anuj Malhotra

      ● Alpesh Moharir

      ● Subrata De

      ● Gaurav Mazumdar

      ● Pandit Abhik Kumar Sarkar

      ● Sharat Chandra Srivastava

      ● Monojit Datta

      ● Sadashiv Sawant

      For Hindustani classical music learning , visit ipassio website today.

      Anuja Jaganathan

      Anuja Jaganathan

      There are lot of institutes as well as individual teachers who offer online classes. I’d suggest individual teachers as their main objective would be to get your vocal skill heightened rather than to finish a course content or prepare you for an exam. I’ll anyway suggest a mixture of both.

      1. Shankar Mahadevan Academy
      2. Divya Music Divya music school | Online instrumental music | Children dance lessons | Vocal music classes
      3. Benaras Music Academy Academy of Indian Classical Music
      4. Sangeetshala: SangeethShal a

      Teachers:

      1. Smita Bellur
      2. Anagha Hindlekar
      3. Aparna Gurav
      4. Koushik Aithal
      5. Mowna Ramachandra
      6. Sushma Shyam Prasad: Sushma ShyamPrasad
      7. Barnali Dutta

      These are few suggestions. Try searching via urbanpro-you’ll be able to find a class more tailored to your requiremnts. All the best.

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      Suthap Klomrod

      Suthap Klomrod , We want to be part of your success story with this superior singing method singi

      Anyone can learn how to sing better if they have the drive and determination to improve. Regardless of what anyone may tell you, no one comes out of the womb with a 5 octave range sounding like Mariah Carey. You might not be able to become the next big superstar, but with some practice and a few tips you can certainly learn how to sing better.you are interest in learning more about these options, [ How To Sing Better With Online Singing Lessons] can give you all of the information that you need.

      Preeti Vatnani

      Preeti Vatnani , Online Hindustani Classical Music Trainer

      Hi

      If you are interested in learning Hindustani Callsical music online with some guru, you can find one on quikr, urban pro etc.

      You can contact me on [email protected] for inquiry of online classes.

      Alternatively, you can also use youtube videos to learn music. However, a small guidance of any personal teacher is always recommended

      Atul Nene

      Atul Nene , Software Technologist, Musicologist, Performer – Hindustani Classical Music

      Yes, teachers at the Gandharva Mahavidyala in Pune as well as some other artists do teach online via skype etc. See online learning section on their site: Music/Singing, Dance Classes Academy Pune, Tabla/Harmonium, Bharatnatyam, Kathak Classes Pune, India

      There are other organizations like Shadja-Madhyam running concepts like iGurukul where you can associate yourself with a teacher of your choice. See: i-Gurukul | ShadjaMadhyam

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      Bellato Classes:

      Ranger

      Desperado (Lv30)

      Desperado take advantage of both long range and close range skills to dominate the battle. They are looked at as the damage-dealing junior ranger class.

      Class Bonus

      • Range PT 91,714
      • Defense PT 51,589
      • Basic Range Skill 2,500 (to all)
      • Lv30 Intense Firearm

      Gain 1 skill

      • Strength – increases ranged attack power (self, FP=60, Recharge=10s, Duration=120s)
       

      Sniper (Lv30)

      Snipers specialize in long range combat, making close-range attacks very risky. They do have sneaky class abilities that make them great for scouting or laying traps.

      Class Bonus

      • Range PT 91,714
      • Defense PT 51,589
      • Basic Range Skill 2,500 (to all)
      • Lv30 Intense Bow
      • 2x Blasting Powder Trap

      Gain 3 skills

      • Shadow Walker – allows player to become cloaked/invisible (self, FP=60, Recharge=10s, Duration=120s)
      • Trap Skill – allows player to set a bomb trap (ability, FP=0, Recharge=0, Duration=N/A)
      • Detector – allows player to detect enemy traps (self, FP=60, Recharge=10s, Duration=120s)
       

      Sentinel (Lv40)

      Special defense force of the Bellato Union. Their unique skills can render their opponent’s force ability powerless, and they use holy force in order to protect themselves.

      Class Bonus

      • Range PT 826,286
      • Defense PT 300,467
      • Basic Range Skill 13,044 (to all)
      • Expert Range Skill 19,566 (to all)
      • [30,000] Terra Advanced Beam Cell

      Gain 3 skills

      • Divinity – removes all applied skills/force buffs/debuffs (self, FP=90, Recharge=20s, Duration=N/A)
      • Force Leach – increases FP cost and decreases max FP (enemy, FP=90, Recharge=50s, Duration=?)
      • Scamper – doubles speed (self, FP=90, Recharge=60s, Duration=30s)
       

      Hidden Soldier (Lv40)

      They are the secretive Desperado unit of the Bellato Union. They are best with firearms and are positioned at the rear of the battle lines to attack from a distance.

      Class Bonus

      • Range PT 944,327
      • Defense PT 225,350
      • Basic Range Skill 13,044 (to all)
      • Expert Range Skill 19,566 (to all)
      • [30,000] Terra Ammunition

      Gain 2 skills

      • Eagle Crusher – rapidfire attack combo using firearms (enemy, FP=90 + SP=120, Recharge=20s, Duration=N/A)
      • Mind Retort – decreases skill cooldown time (self, FP=90, Recharge=10s, Duration=240s)
       

      Infiltrator (Lv40)

      A secretive force! Using stealth, their mission is to infiltrate enemy lines and demoralize them using their trapping skills or stealth attack.

      Class Bonus

      • Range PT 550,857
      • Defense PT 450,701
      • Basic Range Skill 13,044 (to all)
      • Expert Range Skill 19,566 (to all)
      • Lv40 Throwing Knife (white/normal)
      • 3x Advanced Blasting Powder Trap

      Gain 2 skills

      • Fatal Step – stealth attack skill from cloaked state (enemy/mob, FP=90 + SP=120, Recharge=30s, Duration=N/A)
      • Trap Box – Increases amount of traps you can set (ability, FP=0, Recharge=0, Duration=N/A)
       _________________________________________________________________________________

      Spiritualist

      Psyper (Lv30)

      Psypers have greater force power than all other classes. They make use of this great force to overcome their enemies, and rarely use supporting force skills.

      Class Bonus

      • Fire/Aqua/Earth/Air Basic 10,000
      • Lv30 Staff

      Gain 1 skill

      • Edian’s Soul – increases force attack power (self, FP=60, Recharge=10s, Duration=120s)
       

      Chandra (Lv30)

      Chandras do not focus on battle. They make use of their abilities to help their allies instead. Their abilities are made up of holy force.

      Class Bonus

      • Holy Basic 30,000
      • Lv30 Staff

      Gain 2 skills

      • Recall – recall all party members to your current location (party, FP=60, Recharge=10s, Duration=N/A)
      • Wind Heal – heals multiple targets (self, FP=60, Recharge=6s, Duration=N/A)
       

      Astralist (Lv40)

      They usually support their allies rather than fight on the front lines. Their unique abilities allow them to flee the danger of battle to safety with their party members.

      Class Bonus

      • Dark/Fire/Aqua/Earth/Air Basic 58,696
      • Dark/Fire/Aqua/Earth/Air Expert 58,696
      • 1 Elite debuff spell of choice

      Gain 3 skills

      • Ice Guard – makes you invincible but motionless (self, FP=90, Recharge=60s, Duration=30s)
      • Return Gate – set up a portal back to your binding location (party, FP=90, Recharge=300s, Duration=?)
      • Deliverance – teleport to your binding location (self, FP=90, Recharge=10s, Duration=N/A)
       

      Wizard (Lv40)

      These are the most offensive spiritualists in the Union. They make great use of the staff and dish out very effective damage.

      Class Bonus

      • Fire/Aqua/Earth/Air Basic 58,696
      • Fire/Aqua/Earth/Air Expert 58,696
      • 1 Elite fire spell of choice.

      Gain 3 skills

      • Sage Force – increases long range force attack ability (self, FP=90, Recharge=10s, Duration=240s)
      • Deadly Staff – a melee attack with the staff which stuns the target (enemy/mob, FP=90, Recharge=20s, Duration=N/A)
      • Impact Force – attack spell that strikes from long distances (enemy/mob, FP=90 + SP=120, Recharge=30s, Duration=N/A)
       

      Holy Chandra (Lv40)

      They are at the peak of mastering the holy force. They can blind their opponents and have maximum healing abilities. A valuable support class for any party.

      Class Bonus

      • Holy Basic 117,393
      • Holy Expert 117,393
      • 1 Elite holy spell of choice.

      Gain 3 skills

      • Recovery Circle – recover your party members’ HP (party, FP=120, Recharge=8s, Duration=N/A)
      • Optic Palsy – blinds the target, making all enemies and monsters invisible (enemy, FP=90, Recharge=60s, Duration=?)
      • Acuteness – decreases force cooldown time (self, FP=90, Recharge=10s, Duration=240s)

      __________________________________________________________________________________

      Warrior

      Commando (Lv30)

      Commandos are a typical type of warrior. They prefer to use 2-handed weapons to crush their enemies and focus on close-range combat with an effective skill that increases their attack power.

      Class Bonus

      • Melee PT 91,714
      • Defense PT 51,589
      • Basic Melee Skill 2,500 (to all)
      • Lv30 Intense Melee Weapon

      Gain 1 skill

      • Howl – increases attack power (self, FP=60, Recharge=10s, Duration=120s)
       

      Berserker (Lv40)

      Berserkers are the most specialized in close-range combat. The name “Berserker” comes from a legendary warrior of ancient times who only focused on offense.

      Class Bonus

      • Melee PT 826,286
      • Defense PT 300,467
      • Basic Melee Skill 13,044 (to all)
      • Expert Melee Skill 19,566 (to all)
      • 99 “Bust Potion” (+50% attack for 5 minutes)

      Gain 3 skills

      • Full Swing – crashing spin combo attack (enemy/monster, FP=90 + SP=120, Recharge=5s, Duration=N/A)
      • Laboring Breath – decreases target’s speed (enemy, FP=90, recharge=60s, duration=?)
      • Beast Eye – Avoids enemy attacks and counters with great strength (self, FP=90, Recharge=10s, Duration=240s)
       

      Miller (Lv30)

      Millers are warriors focused on defense. They are commonly seen wielding a sword and shield combination rather than 2-handed weapons. They play an important role in the Bellato ranks.

      Class Bonus

      • Melee PT 61,143
      • Defense PT 34,393
      • Shield PT 34,393
      • Basic Melee Skill 2,500 (to all)
      • Lv29 Intense Shield

      Gain 2 skills

      • Defender – increases defense (self, FP=60, Recharge=10s, Duration=120s)
      • Taunt – Lures monsters (2 dot or less) to attack you (mobs, FP=60, Recharge=10s, Duration=N/A)
       

      Shield Miller (Lv40)

      Shield Millers are at the forefront of every battle. They specialize in defensive power and stand to protect their allies with deadly abilities such as absorbing their opponent’s HP.

      Class Bonus

      • Melee PT 413,143
      • Defense PT 300,467
      • Shield PT 300,467
      • Basic Melee Skill 13,044 (to all)
      • Expert Melee Skill 19,566 (to all)
      • 99 Protect Potion (+50% def for 5 minutes)

      Gain 2 skills

      • Fortification – increases defense and shield abilities (self, FP=90, Recharge=10s, Duration=240s)
      • Blood Suck – absorbs enemy’s HP (enemy, FP=90, Recharge=20s, Duration=N/A)
       

      Armsman (Lv40)

      Armsmen specialize in using the Mace as their primary weapon. They have a very good balance of offensive and defensive abilities.

      Class Bonus

      • Melee PT 550,857
      • Defense PT 450,701
      • Basic Melee Skill 13,044 (to all)
      • Expert Melee Skill 19,566 (to all)
      • 99 Bust Potion (50% atk) or Protect Potion (50% def)

      Gain 3 skills

      • Judgement – creates a small earthquake (mace skill) (enemy/mob, FP=90, Recharge=20s, Duration=N/A)
      • Stamina Drain – depletes target’s SP (enemy, FP=90, Recharge=40s, Duration=?)
      • Perfect – increases accuracy by 50 points (enemy, FP=90, Recharge=60s, Duration=?)

      __________________________________________________________________________________

      Specialist

      Craftsman (Lv30)

      The Craftsman’s duty is to mine and process ore to produce weapons and armor for the race. They have proven invaluable to guilds and an essential element to the success of the Bellato Union. They do not focus on combat.

      Class Bonus

      • Weapon/Shield 500
      • Armor 500
      • Ammo 4500
      • Light Guard Tower (x3)
      • Ruby (x6) and Crystal (x6)

      Gain 2 skills

      • Armor Mastery – Increases MAU attack and defense abilities durability gauge (ability, FP=0, Recharge=0, Duration=N/A)
      • Repair Discount – Decrease MAU repair costs (ability, FP=0, Recharge=0, Duration=N/A)
       

      Driver (Lv30)

      The Driver’s main focus is on handling the MAU. Drivers are feared in the field of battle.

      Class Bonus

      • Lv30 Bow

      Gain 1 skill

      • Driving – ability to pilot a MAU (ability, FP=0, Recharge=0, Duration=N/A)
       

      Mental Smith (Lv40)

      These soldiers bear the task of supplying armor to their race. They spend their time crafting and perfecting their skills of trade. They have a unique ability to revive their allies but only limited combat capabilities.

      Class Bonus

      • Weapon/Shield 600
      • Armor 600
      • Ammo 10,000
      • Defense PT 180,280
      • Choice of amulet* (12% HP/FP increase) or 10 high-grade gems of choice. (*Amulets cannot be traded or removed from the character.)

      Gain 2 skills

      • Gauge Recovery – restores a player’s defense durability gauge (ally/self, FP=90, Recharge=20s, Duration=N/A)
      • Revival – Resurrect an ally (ally, HP=240 + FP=240 + SP=480, Recharge=60s, Duration=N/A)
       

      Armor Rider (Lv40)

      Masters of the MAU. Only the best MAU pilots may join the Armor Rider unit. They are qualified to pilot the all-new B.MAU – feared in battle and glorified at home.

      Class Bonus

      • Unit PT 10,000,000
      • Defense PT 90,140
      • Choice of amulet* (12% HP/FP increase) or 10 high-grade gems of choice. (*Amulets cannot be traded or removed from the character.)

      Gain 3 skills

      • Sage Force – increases long range force attack ability (self, FP=90, Recharge=10s, Duration=240s)
      • Deadly Staff – a melee attack with the staff which stuns the target (enemy/mob, FP=90, Recharge=20s, Duration=N/A)
      • Impact Force – attack spell that strikes from long distances (enemy/mob, FP=90 + SP=120, Recharge=30s, Duration=N/A)

       

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      Descriptive Essay on My Mother

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      Category: Descriptive Essay Examples

      See our collection of descriptive essay examples. These example essays are to help you understanding how to write this type of papers. More than many other types of essays, descriptive essays strive to create a deeply involved and vivid experience for the reader. Great descriptive essays achieve this affect not through facts and statistics but by using detailed observations and descriptions.

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      Essay Examples

      Descriptive Essay Example: My Room

      My room is what everyone calls “The Chill Room”. In this room there are all kinds of items that been collected throughout the years. There are several black lights, posters, and a bumping stereo. And even though my room is small it easily holds everything to make it …
      Essay Examples

      Descriptive Essay Example: Wrestling

      When a person walks into a building to see a live wrestling event they do not know what to expect. They wonder who will be wrestling. They wonder where their seats are. All of the suspense gets them ready for the show. The suspense gets them pumped and …
      Essay Examples

      Descriptive Essay Example: A Bass Guitar

      You can describe an object a few ways. Depending on what that object is, you have to decide on the best manner of analyzing it. If you were describing a musical instrument like a bass or guitar, the physical description might be sufficient. However, to a musician there’s …
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      Descriptive Essay Example: Livestock Sale at the County Fair

      Every year I get this feeling. The knots in my stomach are pulled tighter every time I pass through the narrow rock arch labeled with an aged sign reading, Welcome to the Delta County Fair Grounds. My eyes peer into the distance, and like every year, the park …
      Essay Examples

      Descriptive Essay Example: My First Surprise Party

      I am the one in the picture with the sloppy bun in my hair and the bright red cheeks. The one who can’t stop smiling. With all my friends surrounding me, it was one of the best days of my life. All fifteen of us look happy; it …
      Essay Examples

      Descriptive Essay Example: The Roller Skating Rink

      Adolescents like to have a place they can call their own. In the fifties, teenagers hung out at the malt shop, sipping cherry cokes and rockin’ with Elvis. Today, in small town USA, they’re jam skating while listening to the favorite group of the month. I was amazed …
      Essay Examples

      Descriptive Essay Example: The Good Old Truck

      My dad bought his red Dodge Dakota truck in 1995. When he got the truck it had already hit a deer and two cows. Since he has owned it, its value has gone down considerably, even though he has spent more money fixing it than he paid for …
      Essay Examples

      Descriptive Essay Example: The Football Game

      One one thousand. The stands are filled with men, women, and children waving their hands and homemade signs. The cheers coming from the crowd make it hard for me to hear. I smell the hot dogs, popcorn, and pizza being sold at the concession stand. The marching band …
      Essay Examples

      Descriptive Essay Example: The Oak Tree

      Looking back, I remember running through the long lush grass pretending we were at battle andtrying to take cover. I would always find myself behind the old oak tree in our back yard. This was my favorite spot. The thick trunk, like a bodyguard, protected me from the …
      Essay Examples

      Descriptive Essay Example: The Haunted House

      Pushing the heavy gates open the touch of the iron bars, as cold as ice, seized up my hand completely. Even though I could feel the unevenness of the old cobbled path beneath me, they were smooth in contrast to the crunching of the odd dead leaf that …
      Essay Examples

      Descriptive Essay Example: The Football Field

      The wheels on the bus went round and round, all the way to Paonia. The ten mile trip seemed to last forever. Whoosh, Whoosh was the only sound could be heard as the wheels ran through the new rain puddles that were created earlier that day. It was …
      Essay Examples

      Descriptive Essay Example: The Arena

      Standing here, in this arena that’s larger than five of my houses, I feel like a needle in a haystack. So many people surround me it’s like I’m a little grain of sand in a huge ocean. The people in the round gymnasium all form a crimson, white, …
      Essay Examples

      Descriptive Essay Example: The Courthouse

      When we are young, most of us are somewhat naive. We are inherently taught that good will always triumph over evil. A courthouse is the forum where evil should be dealt with. But, in reality, this is seldom the case. The county courthouse looks like a typical courthouse. …
      Essay Examples

      Descriptive Essay Example: The Photo

      This picture, probably the only one in existence of all my friends together, has more meaning than it seems. At first, it appears to be nothing more than a happy congregation of teenagers, all from the ages of fifteen to sixteen. In the background you can see a …
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      Descriptive Essay Example: A Beautiful Place

      I think we all have a beautiful place in our mind. I have a wonderful place that made me happy a lot of times, years ago. But sometimes I think that I am the only person who likes this place and I’m asking myself if this place will …
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      Descriptive Essay Example: A Mountain Resort

      For those who like winter sports like skiing and snowboarding, we have just the perfect place- the remote yet very popular mountain resort called Balea Lake. It is situated at an altitude of 2,034m, being the highest mountain resort of Romania. The cliffs are covered with snow from …
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      Descriptive Essay Example: The City Dock

      The perfect place in the city is one that is incredibly versatile – it may be bustling with activity one minute and nearly deserted the next. The city dock has been a mainstay of the city for as long as anyone can remember, and it has a different …
      Essay Examples

      Descriptive Essay Example: The Horse Farm

      I am jarred out of a relaxing sleep by a voice yelling my name in a loud whisper, and a light burning through my eyelids. Groggily, I open my eyes to see my father standing in the doorway to my messy room. He tells me that I need …
      Essay Examples

      Descriptive Essay Example: The Final Semester

      I was recently asked by my old college newspaper to write a column about how seniors should approach the final semester of their utopian college existence. Knowing that I could provide a degree of wisdom possessed only by those who have truly enjoyed a diverse post-collegiate experience, I …
      Essay Examples

      Descriptive Essay Example: The Beauty Shop

      Beauty shops are located all over major cities and in small towns. In the small town of Bellow, Oklahoma, there is a beauty shop located in a house; my house. My mother is a beautician and owns her own beauty shop in our house. I like having a …

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      Descriptive Essay on My Mother

      By Lauren Bradshaw

      June 5, 2014

      Sample Essays

      My mother is without doubt the most important person in my life and the most complete individual I know.

      She is very beautiful and has the kindest eyes that I have ever seen. She not only worked hard to ensure that I had a good upbringing, but was also very strict and often punished me whenever I went wrong. Even though I did not like the punishment then, I now look back and realize that it was meant to lovingly correct me and help me to follow the right path when growing up.

      My siblings and I have always taken pride in the appearance of our mother, especially her lovely long hair. I remember whenever my mother came to visit us at school, other pupils would urge us to ask our mother to remove the pins from her hair so they could see the long well-kept hair. Even though I have seen very many beautiful people, very few ladies match the beauty of my mother.

      One of the reasons I and my siblings were especially fond of my mother is the way she used to take great care of us, especially when we were ill. She is a very knowledgeable lady who made a variety of home remedies to help take care of the minor illnesses that we had as children. Her motherly love also extended to the animals in the farm, especially the chickens. My mother would always check on the chickens and give them medicine whenever she determined that they had some ailment.

      My siblings and I did not like to see our mother sad and would do just about anything to bring a smile to her face. Interestingly, even when she was very worried or sad about something, she would always smile to make us stop worrying about her. My mother not only loved those around her, but was also compassionate. We often observed her compassion towards our neighbors, especially when a new neighbor moved in or when one of the neighbors was going through a hard time. My mother would sacrifice her time to go to a needy neighbor with a hot bowl of a soup that would instantly make the neighbor feel appreciated.

      My mother was a good cook who always left us looking forward to the next meal. She knew how to mix the right ingredients to end up with a meal that often left us licking our fingers. Just the memory of the foods that my mother prepared for us makes me salivate to this present day.

      Tips on writing a descriptive essay about mother:
      Since this is a description essay, one is expected to write about the unique attributes that makes the individual or object being described special, which, in this case, is the speaker’s mother. One could begin writing this essay by describing what one’s mother means to one and the unique characteristics that makes one have special thoughts and feelings for the mother. One could also explain what one’s mother does that makes one perceive her to be a special human-being. Moreover, one could also describe how one’s mother used to take care of one.

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      How to Write a Descriptive Essay – What You Should Know Before Start Writing

      Many of you do not know about the existence of different types of essays. Students for the most part cannot distinguish one type of essay from another. For example, let’s say you are assigned to write a descriptive essay. If you are interested in learning how to write a descriptive essay perfectly, then this post is what you need. We will tell you about this type of paper and the correct structure, as well as give advice that will teach you to write such essays in English quickly and competently. Before you understand how to write a descriptive essay, first of all you need to understand what it is. What is a descriptive essay?

      how to write a descriptive essay

      A descriptive essay is a type of essay that allows you to describe something and to paint a picture for the reader in words.

      Detailed Steps to Writing a Descriptive Essay

      1. Before you start writing your essay and come up with a plan, you need to put in the paper everything that you know about the topic. On this stage of gathering the information, you should not worry about its organization. To begin, simply put down each element and the characteristics of the function according to what you are describing.
      2. After you put all the information down, you can start to formulate the subtopics. Simply look at the items and bind them in their logical groups. These groups will be your main topics which you will consider in your body paragraphs. Here is a list of suggested topics for a descriptive essay .
      3. Your next step is to read through your information to come up with one major impression that you get from all that you have written. Brainstorm your information for a while and think whether you can come up with one thought or not. Does it sound difficult for you?
      4. When you are writing an introduction, you should keep in mind that it is your opportunity to impress readers, and you should use this opportunity. It is important to grab readers’ attention. Keep in mind that a reader decides whether to read further into your essay when he or she is reading the introduction. Present brief information of what you will write about in the body paragraphs. You can present here a fun fact, an anecdote, or something else that can interest readers. Remember that you should be direct and brief in your introduction. Include a thesis statement that will be understandable for readers.
      5. A thesis statement is the main idea of your essay that will be described in your essay. Use it to make readers understand the main purpose of your paper. Try not to use cliches in your thesis and make it intriguing.
      6. The body paragraphs should support the thesis statement. Don’t forget to use topic sentences. The main arguments are included in the first sentences of paragraphs. Also, use transition words in order to help readers follow your writing systematically. The number of paragraphs depends on the requirements that you get.
      7. Any essay needs a good conclusion to tie up everything that you have mentioned and make an accurate and full summary. In a descriptive essay conclusion, you should sum up your main thoughts and explain the general impressions or thesis using new words. Your conclusion is the last chance to impress readers.
      8. As a rule, you may ask to write a descriptive essay outline. It is written to detail the main points that will be described in the writing. Before you start writing an outline, it is important to understand the structure of your paper. It will help you to focus on the points that will be included in the descriptive writing outline.

      Descriptive Essay Sample

      Students who are not able to create essays in an interesting subject based on impressions, literary works, pictures, or videos can read through one of the descriptive essay examples to get some ideas on how to write their own papers. A descriptive essay is one of the most complex forms of a student’s activity and our sample will make it easier for you. In this case it is necessary to begin working on your paper by reading though a sample. Our descriptive writing examples are presented only for viewing, and you can’t present them as your own paper. However, you can use them to get some ideas on how to write your essay.

      Click the images to see their full size.

      steps to writing a descriptive essay tips on writing a descriptive essay descriptive writing format

      Useful Tips on Writing a Descriptive Essay

      • Start writing your essay with some general details that pertain to your subject. For example, if you choose to write about your childhood, you have to tell where you lived and who you lived with.
      • A competent introduction is required to determine the general theme and the approximate course of the author’s thoughts. In other words, it is necessary to concisely but completely indicate the direction of the essay, raising several questions on which the writer is going to seek answers.
      • There are several simple and efficient ways to get started. For example, if it is a question of a specific person, it will not be superfluous to devote a couple of sentences explaining what this person means to you, smoothly leading to his or her characteristics. You can use rhetorical questions to make your writing more interesting.
      • The most universal version of the introduction contains the author’s own opinion of what he or she is describing, and some lengthy reflections and assessments which are going to be developed in subsequent parts.
      • Then move on to facts that are more focused, which will help your readers to understand your topic.
      • It is also advisable to pay attention to the order of your thoughts in each paragraph. Be sure that they create a common mental picture of your subject. If you manage to describe it in this way, your essay will be successful.
        Concerning the number of paragraphs: of course five paragraphs (including the introduction and conclusion) is enough, but if you have more than three aspects of your subject to talk about, write more!
      • When writing your description, don’t forget that some information is not known by your readers. Avoid talking about topics in a way that does not communicate well to your reader.
      • The main part should logically follow from the introductory paragraph. In the heart of the work, it is necessary to present details to the reader, confirming the point of view set forth in the introduction.
      • The main task is to convince readers that you know what you are writing about. Therefore, the arguments, details, and descriptions need to be stated competently and consistently, starting from the less convincing to the most reliable.
      • Make sure your spelling and grammar is checked thoroughly. For this reason, read your essay several times and perform all necessary corrections.
      • Make sure that you stick to the descriptive writing format. In any case, it may influence your grade.
      • You can use various facts, links, quotes, folk wisdom, and eyewitness testimonies. In this case, each of the above arguments, details, and descriptions must be given a personal assessment, indicating your own point of view.
      • The final part is obliged to give clearly formulated answers to the questions raised in the introduction. It is important to remember that none of the issues raised should be left unanswered. If the author of the essay feels that some theme cannot be supported by arguments and that he or she is unable to draw a competent conclusion, it is better to remove the whole issue from the introduction.
      • Description is, in other words, the characteristic. It is most often used in texts aimed at verbal portraits, characters, and states of characters or the surrounding reality. In the description, qualitative adjectives and verbs in the present tense are abundantly used, as well as many artistic devices, like metaphors, epithets, and comparisons. The form of writing a descriptive essay is quite free and does not have a rigid structural framework.

      How to Write a Descriptive Paragraph About a Person’s Appearance

      Describing the appearance of a person, his or her face, body, gestures, and clothes, is one of the types of descriptive writing techniques students use. The main thing in this type of description is to find the characteristic features, the main qualities in the appearance of a particular person, and be able to convey them in words. The description of a person’s appearance is one of the most difficult kinds of descriptions.

      According to the source in these descriptions, one can single out the description of a person’s appearance from memory, life experience, special observations, from what he or she has read, according to the imagination, or from a picture. The description of a person’s appearance, as well as other types of descriptions, can be scientific, artistic, or for business.

      Naturally, not all types of descriptions can be dealt with by students easily. Students should have an idea how to deal with scientific description. The business description needs to be given more attention, since in life the ability to indicate the signs of a person’s face can be useful. In addition, this kind of work, requiring the ability to see the characteristic details of a person’s appearance, develops the skill of observation for students. Much attention should also be paid to the artistic description of a person’s appearance, since work on this type of description is of particular importance for enriching students’ speech.

      Work on the description of appearance helps to develop observational skills and increase attention to the people around you, and to enrich the speech of students with “portrait” vocabulary, which they do not know enough. Work on the description of appearances prepares students for writing on literary topics.

      What Places to Write About in a Descriptive Essay

      If you are assigned to write a descriptive essay about a particular place, it may not be a very difficult task, as we all have beautiful places in our minds. You can write about a place that makes you happy for a long period of time. If you can’t recall a particular place from your memory, try to imagine it. You can write about the place in which you grew up. It can be an apartment, a house, a town, even a whole region. Write about the characteristics and features of the place you are describing. Don’t forget to mention the nature: mountains, forests, meadows, and so on. Write about the animals that live in the place you are describing.

      A descriptive piece of writing is like a window into another world. Using creative examples and details, the author can present a scene that can vividly describe a person, place, or thing. The best descriptive paragraph includes all five senses – smell, sight, touch, taste, and hearing. You can see them both in fiction and in scientific literature.

      All such pieces of writing include places, persons, or things that have a special meaning to the author. After defining the places or things, authors describe them in a way that is personal to them. While writing descriptive essays, it is important to bind all paragraphs together mentioning the personal value of the thing that is described.

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      • Indian J Community Med
      • v.35(1); 2010 Jan
      • PMC2888350
      Logo of ijcommed

      Indian J Community Med. 2010 Jan; 35(1): 170–171.
      doi:  10.4103/0970-0218.62591
      PMCID: PMC2888350
      PMID: 20606945

      Biomedical Waste Management: A Study of Knowledge, Attitude, and Practices in a Tertiary Health Care Institution in Bijapur

      MC Yadavannavar , Aditya S Berad , and PB Jagirdar

      MC Yadavannavar

      Department of Community Medicine, Shri B M Patil Medical College, Bijapur, Karnataka, India

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      Aditya S Berad

      Department of Community Medicine, Shri B M Patil Medical College, Bijapur, Karnataka, India

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      PB Jagirdar

      Department of Community Medicine, Shri B M Patil Medical College, Bijapur, Karnataka, India

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      Department of Community Medicine, Shri B M Patil Medical College, Bijapur, Karnataka, India
      Address for correspondence: Dr. Aditya S Berad, Department of Community Medicine, Shri B M Patil Medical College, Bijapur, Karnataka, India. E-mail: [email protected]
      Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer
      Received 2008 Jul 23; Accepted 2009 Oct 10.
      Copyright © Indian Journal of Community Medicine
      This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
      This article has been cited by other articles in PMC.

      Introduction

      Health care waste refers to all the waste generated by a health care establishment. It is estimated that 10-25% of health care waste is hazardous, with the potential for creating a variety of health problems.( 1 ) Bio-medical waste (BMW) collection and proper disposal has become a significant concern for both the medical and the general community.( 2 ) Since the implementation of the Biomedical Waste Management and Handling Rules (1998),( 3 ) every concerned health personnel is expected to have proper knowledge, practice, and capacity to guide others for waste collection and management, and proper handling techniques. Bijapur district in the northern part of Karnataka State has two district hospital and Medical college hospital, including a secondary level health care service. This study was undertaken to assess the knowledge, attitude, and practices (KAP) of the employees of Bijapur liberal district education association (BLDEA’s) Shri BM Patil Medical College and Hospital, Bijapur. This cross-sectional study was carried out in the month of November 2007. A total of 334 employees were surveyed, out of which 180 were non-teaching and 154 were teaching staff. A pretested, self-administered questionnaire containing questions on KAP regarding bio-medical waste management was used. Before administering the questionnaire the purpose of the study was explained to all participating employees. For statistical analysis we calculated percentages and applied the Chi-square test. Anonymity of the participants was maintained throughout the study.

      Results

      The teaching staff of the hospital gave more correct responses (97.4%) to questions on BMW management than the nonteaching staff (80%). This difference was statistically significant (P < 0.01).

      Similar differences were observed between teaching and non-teaching staff with respect to attitude and practices regarding BMW management (P < 0.01).

      Discussion and Conclusion

      The participants involved in this study were assessed knowledge, attitude, and practice of BMW management. Interestingly, this study revealed that the awareness and proper practice of BMW was very satisfactory. Our study showed that the majority of staff (teaching and non-teaching) were conscious of the measures for safe collection and final disposal of BMW; this is in contrast to the finding reported by Pandit et al.( 4 ) Since the Shri BM Patil Medical College and Hospital has its own incineration plant, all the employees of various designations are required to ensure proper collection, segregation, and transport to the final disposal point. Panditetet al.( 4 ) reported that proper hospital waste management was not being practiced. It is possible that the newer employees are being oriented regarding proper collection and transport of hospital waste. Findings similar to that in our study were observed by Rao.( 5 ) In this study a need to periodically acquaint the participants with the updated BMW management and handling rules was felt.

      We recommend that strict supervision and surveillance be followed in day-to-day hospital waste management activities.

      Footnotes

      Source of Support: Nil

      Conflict of Interest: None declared.

      References

      1. Safe management of waste from health care activities. Geneva: WHO; 1999.
      2. Central pollution control board, Environmental standard and guidelines for management of hospital waste. New Delhi: CPCB, Ministry of Environment and Forest; 1996. Jun,
      3. Government of India. Biomedical Waste (Management and Handling) Rules. 1998 Extraordinary, Part II, Section 3, Subsection (ii). The gazette of India, No. 460,27 Jul 1998.
      4. Pandit NB, Mehta HK, Kartha GP, Choudhary SK. Management of bio-medical waste: Awareness and practices in a district of Gujarat. Indian J Public Health. 2005;49:245–7. [ PubMed ]
      5. Rao PH. Hospital waste management—awareness and practices: A study of three states in India. Waste Manag Res. 2008;26:297–303. [ PubMed ]

      Articles from Indian Journal of Community Medicine : Official Publication of Indian Association of Preventive & Social Medicine are provided here courtesy of Wolters Kluwer — Medknow Publications

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      • J Environ Health Sci Eng
      • v.12; 2014
      • PMC3996946
      Logo of jehse

      J Environ Health Sci Eng. 2014; 12: 69.
      Published online 2014 Apr 17. doi:  10.1186/2052-336X-12-69
      PMCID: PMC3996946
      PMID: 24742274

      A descriptive study on evaluation of bio-medical waste management in a tertiary care public hospital of North India

      Rajiv Kumar ,corresponding author#1 Anil Kumar Gupta ,#1 Arun Kumar Aggarwal ,#2 and Ashok Kumar #1

      Rajiv Kumar

      1Department of Hospital Administration, Post-Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, India

      Find articles by Rajiv Kumar

      Anil Kumar Gupta

      1Department of Hospital Administration, Post-Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, India

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      Arun Kumar Aggarwal

      2School of Public Health, Post-Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, India

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      Ashok Kumar

      1Department of Hospital Administration, Post-Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, India

      Find articles by Ashok Kumar
      1Department of Hospital Administration, Post-Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, India
      2School of Public Health, Post-Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, India
      corresponding authorCorresponding author.
      #Contributed equally.
      Rajiv Kumar: [email protected] ; Anil Kumar Gupta: [email protected] ; Arun Kumar Aggarwal: [email protected] ; Ashok Kumar: [email protected]
      Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer
      Received 2013 Aug 15; Accepted 2014 Apr 14.
      Copyright © 2014 Kumar et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.
      This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0 ), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly credited.
      This article has been cited by other articles in PMC.

      Abstract

      Background

      Proper management of Biomedical waste (BMW) generated in a healthcare facility is one of the most important functions of a healthcare worker (HCW) as its improper management not only poses risk to human beings and environment, but may also invite legal action against HCW as well as hospital administration. This study was carried out to evaluate quality of BMW management in 1100-bedded hospital attached to a tertiary care public institute in North India.

      Methods

      A checklist, including 29 parameters related to various functions to be carried out at source of generation by a HCW for BMW management was prepared by researcher and used after validation to record observations in all the 70 areas of hospital. A total of 6 visits were made to each area and mean percentage score was calculated for each area and each category of waste management.

      Results

      It was found that summated mean percentage score of ‘Treatment Room of Wards’, which were used exclusively by resident doctors, was significantly lower than Operation Theatres (p value: 0.033) and ‘Central Waste Collection Points of Wards’ (p value: 0.018) for the function of ‘mutilation of recyclable waste’ and it was significantly lower than all other areas (p value: 0.006 to 0.017) for the function of ‘disinfection of waste’.

      Conclusion

      It is concluded that more emphasis needs to be laid on ‘mutilation of recyclable waste’ and disinfection of waste’ by HCWs especially resident doctors.

      Keywords: Biomedical waste, Medical waste, Environment, Waste receptacles, Segregation of waste, Mutilation of recyclable waste, Disinfection of waste

      Introduction

      When patient care activities are carried out in a healthcare setting, certain waste is produced which has the potential to cause harm to human beings and environment. Such waste includes soiled cotton, bandages, hypodermic needles, syringes, tubings such as intravenous sets, and urinary catheters etc. Such waste is commonly called as bio-medical waste (BMW) in India, though it is also known by various other names such as clinical waste, medical waste and health-care waste in different parts of world. Such waste constitutes merely 15 to 25% of total waste generated in a hospital, the remaining being general waste such as waste paper, wrapper of drugs, cardboard and left-over food etc [ 1 ]. The general waste is treated by local municipality in same way as house-hold waste, but special precautions and treatment modalities are required for BMW, so that it does not cause any harm to human beings and environment [ 2 ]. Though as many as 40 pathogens have been documented to be transmitted by BMW [ 3 ], its well documented propensity to cause transmission of 3 pathogens namely Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV), Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) and Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) makes it essential that due care is exercised while handling and disposing it [ 1 ].

      The enacted legislations in various countries have made it mandatory for a healthcare facility to manage its waste properly. In India, the legislation governing BMW management is called as Bio-Medical Waste (Management and Handling) Rules, 1998 [ 4 ] and has been promulgated under Environment (Protection) Act, 1986 [ 5 ].

      Due to propensity of BMW to transmit pathogens mentioned above and the risk of inviting adverse legal action, it is one of the top most priorities for a Hospital Administrator to put in place a framework for its proper management as well as to keep a close watch over the waste management practices being followed by Health Care Workers (HCWs) and waste handlers.

      There are primarily 4 broad functions for BMW management at source of generation, viz. placement of waste receptacles or bins lined with waste bags at source of generation, segregation of waste, mutilation of recyclable waste and disinfection of waste [ 1 , 2 , 4 ].

      It is highly desirable for a Hospital Administrator to know the weak points in the chain of waste management so that these could be addressed appropriately.

      Keeping this in view, the present study was conducted with the aim to evaluate BMW management practices at source of generation in an1100-bedded hospital of a tertiary care referral public hospital of North India.

      Methods

      Ethical clearance

      Ethical clearance from institute’s ethics committee and permission from Medical Superintendent to collect data from various patient care areas was taken before the study. The study was approved by ‘Thesis Review Committee’ of Post-Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research (PGIMER), Chandīgarh, India.

      Study areas and number of visits

      The study was conducted between December 2009 and April 2010. No sampling was done and all 70 patient care areas of 1100-bedded hospital were included in study. These areas were: Emergency Areas (12 in number), Waste Collection Points of Wards (25 in number), Treatment Rooms of Wards (11 in number), Intensive Care Units (8 in number) and Operation Theatres (14 in number).

      Each area was visited on any 3 non-consecutive days in the study period. No visit was made on Sundays and on Public Holidays. Areas were visited during morning hours between 7 am to 10 am and evening hours of the same day between 2 pm and 4 pm. Thus a total of 6 visits were made to each area. The chosen timings were such when maximum BMW is generated in a patient care area as this was the time when blood samples of patients were taken and medication injections were given. Although medication injections were also given during evening hours and night hours, such time period was excluded from the study due to operational difficulties in collecting data during these timings. All observations were made by same researcher.

      Study tool

      Data were recorded on a researcher made checklist covering various aspects of BMW management at source of generation of waste.

      Primarily, 4 broad functions are carried out at source viz. (i) placement of 4 colour-coded i.e. black, yellow, red and blue waste bins which are lined on inner side by similarly coloured waste bags; (ii) segregation of waste in such waste bags i.e. general waste like waste paper, wrapper of drugs, cardboard, left-over food etc. is to be put into black; soiled infected waste like dressing material, cotton swabs etc. is to be put into yellow; plastic waste like plastic syringes, dextrose bottles, intravenous sets, Ryle’s tubes, urinary catheters etc. is to be put into red and sharps like hypodermic needles, surgical blades, glass etc. is to be put into blue bags (iii) mutilation of recyclable waste like disposable syringes, plastic dextrose bottles, plastic tubings and hypodermic needles and (iv) disinfection of certain categories of waste notably plastics and sharps [ 1 , 2 , 4 ]. In the hospital, electrically operated needle cutters were used to mutilate hypodermic needles and nozzle (hub) of disposable syringes and scissors were used to cut the plastic tubings and 1% bleaching powder was used to disinfect plastics and sharps. Parameters related to each of the 4 main categories mentioned above were identified and a checklist was prepared (Table  1 ). Each desirable observation was assigned ‘1’ mark and each undesirable observation was assigned ‘0’ mark. There were some parameters, observations regarding which could be in part desirable and in part undesirable in a given area, such observation was assigned ‘0.5’ mark. As an example, if all of the used hypodermic needles in an area were found mutilated (desirable), it was assigned ‘1’ mark; if none of the needles was mutilated (undesirable), it was assigned ‘0’ mark and if some of the needles were mutilated and some not, such observation was assigned ‘0.5’ mark. The checklist was tested in another patient care area of institute not included in the study namely Advanced Pediatrics Centre and parameters which were not feasible to observe were deleted from checklist. In the final score-sheet, there were 16 parameters noted under category ‘condition of waste receptacles’, 4 parameters noted under category ‘segregation of waste’, 6 parameters noted under category ‘mutilation of recyclable waste’ and 3 parameters noted under category ‘disinfection of waste’. Thus a total of 29 parameters were noted in each study unit.

      Table 1

      Sample checklist for bio-medical waste management practices in patient care areas


      Name of ward/area



      Date and time of observation


      S. no.ParametersObservation


      S. no.ParametersObservation


      YesNoYesNo
      A


      Condition of waste receptacles


       


       


       


       


       


       


      1


      Is black colored waste bin available in ward?


       


       


      2


      Is yellow colored waste bin available in ward?


       


       


      3


      Is red colored waste bin available in ward?


       


       


      4


      Is blue colored waste bin available in ward?


       


       


      5


      Has black bag been placed lining the inner side of black bin?


       


       


      6


      Has yellow bag been placed lining the inner side of yellow bin?


       


       


      7


      Has red bag been placed lining the inner side of red bin?


       


       


      8


      Has blue bag been placed lining the inner side of blue bin?


       


       


      9


      Is black bag securely fitted with the bin?


       


       


      10


      Is yellow bag securely fitted with the bin?


       


       


      11


      Is red bag securely fitted with the bin?


       


       


      12


      Is blue bag securely fitted with the bin?


       


       


      13


      Are waste bins covered?


       


       


      14


      If covered, is cover foot-operated?


       


       


      15


      Is the biohazard symbol imprinted over waste bags?


       


       


      16


      Are posters to guide users displayed near waste bins?


       


       


      B


      Segregation of waste


       


       


       


       


       


       


      17


      Does black bag contain only general waste?


       


       


      18


      Does yellow bag contain only soiled infected waste?


       


       


      19


      Does red bag contain only plastic waste?


       


       


      20


      Does blue bag contain only sharps waste?


       


       


      C


      Mutilation of recyclable waste


       


       


       


       


       


       


      21


      Are used hypodermic needles destroyed?


       


       


      22


      Is nozzle of used syringes destroyed?


       


       


      23


      Are used hypodermic needles found re-capped?


       


       


      24


      Are used hypodermic needles found bent?


       


       


      25


      Are used plastic bottles cut?


       


       


      26


      Are used plastic tubings cut?


       


       


      D


      Disinfection of plastics and sharps


       


       


       


       


       


       


      27


      Is disinfectant solution put into red containers?


       


       


      28


      Is disinfectant solution put into blue containers


       


       


      29Is barrel and plunger of syringe separate before immersion into disinfectant solution?      
      Open in a separate window

      Data analysis

      The score obtained in 6 visits for a particular category of waste management was divided by 6 to obtain the mean score and then percentage mean score was calculated. The score of all observation units in a given area was summated and mean percentage score of the area was calculated. This was done for all categories of waste management and for all areas.

      The statistical analysis was carried out using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, version 15.0 for Windows). All quantitative variables were estimated using measures of central location (mean, median) and measures of dispersion (standard deviation, standard error and 95% confidence interval). Means were compared using One-way ANOVA (analysis of variance) where there were more than two groups and unpaired t-test where there were two groups. P-value ≤ 0.05 was used as a cut point to determine significance.

      Results

      The overall mean percentage score for BMW management at source of generation of waste was 88%. Category-wise, the mean percentage score of ‘condition of receptacles’ was 87%, ‘waste segregation’ was 96%, ‘mutilation of recyclable waste’ was 88% and ‘disinfection of waste’ was 81%.

      Area-wise, the mean percentage score of Emergency was 88%, Central Waste Collection Points of Wards’ was 89%, ‘Treatment Room of Wards’ was 81%, OTs was 90% and ICUs was 92% (Table  2 ).

      Table 2

      Mean percentage score of different categories of BMW management in different areas at source of generation of waste

      Category of BMW managementEmergencyCentral waste collection area of wardsTreatment room of wardsOperation theatresIntensive care unitsOverall score of category of BMW management
      Condition of waste receptacles


      87%


      87%


      85%


      87%


      88%


      87%


      (95% CI: 86 to 88%)


      (95% CI: 86 to 88%)


      (95% CI: 81 to 88%),


      (95% CI: 87 to 88%)


      (95% CI: 86 to 90%)


      (95% CI: 86 to 87%)


      Waste segregation


      92%


      96%


      96%


      96%


      100%


      96%


      (95% CI: 88 to 97%)


      (95% CI: 92 to 99%)


      (95% CI: 92 to 100%)


      (95% CI: 92 to 100%)


      (95% CI: 100 to 100%)


      (95% CI: 94 to 98%)


      Mutilation of recyclable waste


      85%


      90%


      80%


      92%


      92%


      88%


      (95% CI: 82 to 88%)


      (95% CI: 85 to 95%)


      (95% CI: 74 to 86%)


      (95% CI: 86 to 98%)


      (95% CI: 85% to 99%)


      (95% CI: 86 to 91%)


      Disinfection of waste


      86%


      82%


      63%


      85%


      88%


      81%


      (95% CI: 80 to 92%)


      (95% CI: 75 to 90%)


      (95% CI: 52 to 74%)


      (95% CI: 75 to 94%)


      (95% CI: 77 to 75%)


      (95% CI: 77 to 85%)


      Overall score of area88%


      89%


      81%


      90%


      92%


      88%


      (95% CI: 85 to 90%)(95% CI: 85 to 92%)(95% CI: 76 to 86%)(95% CI: 86 to 95%)(95% CI: 88 to 96%)(95% CI: 86.20 to 89.76%).
      Open in a separate window

      Score of each category in each area

      In emergency, the mean score for ‘condition of waste receptacles’, ‘segregation of waste’, ‘mutilation of recyclable waste’ and ‘disinfection of waste’ was 87%, 92%, 85% and 86% respectively. For Central Waste Collection Points of Wards, the score for these categories was 87%, 96%, 90% and 82% respectively; for Treatment Room of wards the score was 85%, 96%, 80% and 63% respectively; for OTs, the score was 87%, 96%, 92% and 85% respectively and for ICUs, the score was 88%, 100%, 92% and 88% respectively.

      Comparison of scores amongst different areas

      The comparison of scores of different areas showed that score related to ‘condition of waste receptacles’ and ‘segregation of waste’ was not significantly different amongst various areas i.e. Emergency areas, Central Waste Collection Points of Wards, Treatment Room of Wards, OTs and ICUs.

      However, the score regarding ‘mutilation of recyclable waste’ and ‘disinfection of waste’ was significantly different amongst various areas (Table  3 ).

      Table 3

      Level of significance of difference in scores of different categories of BMW management amongst different areas

      S. no.CategoryLevel of significance of difference in scores amongst different areas using one-way ANOVA
      1


      Condition of waste receptacles


      Not significant


      (p value: 0.077)


      2


      Segregation of waste


      Not significant


      (p Value: 0.230)


      3


      Mutilation of recyclable waste


      Significant


      (p value: 0.016)


      4Disinfection of wasteHighly Significant


      (p value: 0.004)
      Open in a separate window

      The score regarding ‘mutilation of recyclable waste’ was found significantly different between OTs and Treatment Room of wards. The score in OTs (n: 13, mean: 92%, 95% CI: 86 to 98%) was significantly higher (p value: 0.033) than that in Treatment Room of Wards (n: 11, mean: 80%, 95% CI: 74 to 86%).

      The score related to ‘disinfection of waste’ in Treatment Room of Wards (n: 11, mean: 63%, 95% CI: 52 to 75%) was significantly lower than all other areas. It was significantly lower than Emergency (n: 11, mean: 86%, 95% CI: 80 to 92%, p value: 0.016); Central Waste Collection Points of Wards (n: 25, mean: 82%, 95% CI: 75 to 90%, p value: 0.016); OTs (n: 13, mean: 85%, 95% CI: 75 to 94%, p value: 0.017) and ICUs (n: 8, mean: 88%, 95% CI: 77 to 98%, p value: 0.017).

      The score of Central Waste Collection Points of Ward (n: 25, mean: 90%, 95% CI: 85 to 95%) was significantly higher (p value: 0.018) than that in Treatment Room of Ward (n: 11, mean: 80%, 95% CI: 74 to 86%) with respect to ‘mutilation of recyclable waste’. The score regarding ‘disinfection of waste’ was also significantly higher (p value: 0.006) in Central Waste Collection Points of Wards (n: 25, mean: 82%, 95% CI: 75 to 90%) as compared to that in Treatment Room of Wards (n: 11, mean: 63%, 95% CI: 52 to 75%) (Table  4 ).

      Table 4

      Level of significance of lower score in Treatment Room of Wards v/s other areas regarding ‘mutilation of recyclable waste’ and ‘disinfection of waste’

      S. no.CategoryAreaLevel of significance using unpaired
      t
      -test
      1


      Mutilation of recyclable waste


      Treatment Room of wards v/s OTs


      p value: 0.033


      Treatment Room of wards v/s Central Waste Collection Points of Wards


      p value: 0.018


      2Disinfection of wasteTreatment Room of wards v/s Emergency


      p value: 0.016


      Treatment Room of wards v/s Central Waste Collection Points of Wards


      p value: 0.006


      Treatment Room of wards v/s OTs


      p value: 0.017


      Treatment Room of wards v/s ICUsp value: 0.016
      Open in a separate window

      Score of individual parameters

      The summated mean percentage score of each of 29 observed parameters showed that it was 100% for placement of waste receptacles and 0% for ‘is cover on waste receptacle foot-operated’; for segregation of waste in various waste receptacles, it was from 84.84% to 98.93%; for destruction of used needles and nozzle of syringes, it was 91.21% and 85.73% respectively and for putting of disinfectant solution in blue and red bags, it was 78.97% and 78.68% respectively (Table  5 ).

      Table 5

      Score of individual parameters that constituted four broad categories of BMW management at source in all study areas in descending order

      S. no.Parameter*N% age mean scoreS. no.Parameter*N% age mean score
      1


      Placement of black bins


      420


      100


      2


      Placement of yellow bins


      420


      100


      3


      Placement of red bins


      420


      100


      4


      Placement of blue bins


      420


      100


      5


      Imprinting of biohazard symbol over waste bags


      420


      100


      6


      Bending of needles manually


      408


      100


      7


      Placement of red bags


      420


      99.81


      8


      Are red bags securely fitted


      420


      99.81


      9


      Displaying of posters to guide users


      408


      99.42


      10


      Segregation of waste in blue bags


      420


      98.93


      11


      Segregation of waste in black bags


      420


      98.71


      12


      Placement of blue bags


      420


      97.79


      13


      Are blue bags securely fitted


      420


      97.79


      14


      Placement of black bags


      420


      96.91


      15


      Are black bags securely fitted


      420


      96.91


      16


      Are used needles re-capped


      408


      94.89


      17


      Segregation of waste in red bags


      420


      94.63


      18


      Placement of yellow bags


      420


      91.63


      19


      Are yellow bags securely fitted


      420


      91.63


      20


      Are used needles destroyed


      408


      91.21


      21


      Are nozzles of used syringes destroyed


      408


      85.73


      22


      Segregation of waste in yellow bags


      420


      84.84


      23


      Putting of disinfectant solution in blue bags


      408


      78.97


      24


      Putting of disinfectant solution in red bags


      408


      78.68


      25


      Cutting of used plastic bottles


      408


      73.60


      26


      Separation of barrel and plunger of syringes


      408


      71.90


      27


      Cutting of used tubings


      408


      68.33


      28


      Are waste bins covered


      420


      2.28


      29If covered, are covers foot operated4200.00    
      Open in a separate window

      *N = number of observations.

      Discussion

      Segregation of waste is the most crucial step for proper management of BMW as waste segregated into various colour-coded containers is finally taken to different sites for disposal. Presence of a wrong kind of waste in a particular container will obviously nullify the efforts of appropriate disposal of waste. This implies that for proper segregation of waste, the waste bins in appropriate number, at appropriate places and with appropriate colour-code are required to be placed at the source of generation of waste.

      The summated score of ‘condition of waste receptacles’ in all the patient care areas was more than 80%. Various studies have found poor condition of waste receptacles for waste disposal. In a 600-bedded super-specialty corporate hospital of a South Indian city, there were only white receptacles for all types of BMW for aesthetic reasons and since the colour of all receptacles or bins was same, following the segregation practices was difficult [ 6 ]. In studies in Irbid city of Jordan [ 7 ] and UK [ 8 ], waste bins or receptacles were found to be in poor shape.

      The high score of ‘condition of waste receptacles’ in all patient care areas in present study implies that the basic infrastructure for proper segregation of waste at the source of generation of waste was well placed in hospital. However, it was found that almost all waste receptacles were open i.e. without any lid over them. Waste receptacles should preferably be covered ones having foot-operated lids [ 1 ] and so it is desirable to gradually replace the existing open type waste receptacles with the ones having foot-operated lids.

      High score for ‘segregation of waste’ (96%) shows that this crucial aspect of waste management was being appropriately addressed. In a study in 1800-bedded tertiary care hospital in Mumbai [ 9 ], it was found that waste segregation was less than satisfactory in 40.3% of areas in spite of continuous monitoring and informal counselling of HCWs. In another study conducted in 1300-bedded Government College and Hospital and 50-bedded private hospital of a south Indian city [ 6 ], it was found that waste segregation was not proper. However, the number of areas where it was not proper has not been mentioned in the study. In a study in Jordan also [ 7 ], it was found that waste segregation practices were non-existent in spite of existence of a regulatory framework. In studies conducted in Egypt [ 10 ], England [ 8 ] and Ethiopia [ 11 ] also, the waste segregation practices were found to be poor. In a study in a 350-bedded polyclinic at Lucknow, India [ 12 ] and 574-bedded tertiary care Medical Institute located at Belgaum, Karnataka, India [ 13 ], the waste segregation practices were found to be good. However, the authors did not mention the exact percentage of areas where segregation practices were found good.

      As segregation of BMW is the most crucial aspect of BMW management, still more focus may need to be laid in certain areas of hospital for this aspect of waste management particularly in Emergency areas as there the cumulative score (92%) was relatively less as compared to other areas of hospital, though this difference was not statistically significant. High score in ICUs may be due to relatively good staff to patient ratio whereas over-crowding of patients in Emergency and relatively less favourable staff to patient ratio may be the cause for relatively lower score in Emergency areas. As hospital does not have autoclave and instead has only 02 incinerators for terminal disposal of waste and incineration is considered a relatively poor technology from point of view of environmental safety and long term cost [ 14 ], it makes it essential that still more focus is laid on proper segregation of waste so that waste not meant for incineration like plastic material etc. could be prevented to mix into waste stream meant for incineration.

      In the hospital under study, electrically operated needle cutters are used to mutilate the used needles and nozzle (hub) of used syringes and scissors are used to cut the plastic bottles and tubings. It was found that score of ‘mutilation of recyclable waste’ in Treatment Room of wards was significantly lower as compared to OTs and Central Waste Collection Points of wards. The Treatment Rooms are used only by resident doctors to perform minor procedures on admitted patients. Poor score of these areas means that they may be more concerned with direct patient care activities and may be less sensitive towards their duty of BMW management posing an avoidable risk to themselves, patients, rag-pickers, general community and environment.

      Further analysis of scores of individual parameters that constituted the category ‘mutilation of recyclable waste’ showed that HCWs do not bend used needles manually; they very rarely re-cap the used needles and generally mutilate the used hypodermic needles. However, they lay less emphasis on mutilation of nozzle of used syringes. They pay even less attention to cutting of used plastic bottles and tubings.

      World Health Organization (WHO) has stated that “In unregulated environment, elaborate enterprises have grown up to divert used syringes from waste stream for reprocessing and sale back into unsuspecting markets” [ 15 ]. It makes it essential to mutilate used recyclables right after use thus leaving no scope for their unauthorized re-circulation and inappropriate reuse. Providing training is considered an effective tool to increase compliance to guidelines for waste management [ 16 ] and so HCWs especially resident doctors may need to be provided training in systematic manner so that they may pay more attention to proper management of BMW.

      Most of other studies have also shown poor management of sharps. In a study in Pakistan, practices of poor disposal of sharps were found as 60% of observed practitioners were found throwing syringes at open places [ 17 ]. Practices of poor disposal of sharps were also found in a province of China as 8.9 to 23.3% of HCWs were disposing off used needles and syringes in an inappropriate manner [ 18 ]. In a hospital at Indore, Madhya Pradesh, India, there were found to be good practices of mutilation of used hypodermic needles and syringes [ 19 ]. However, authors have not mentioned to what extent, the practices were followed.

      Relatively lower score of category ‘disinfection of waste’ as compared to other categories of waste management indicates that this aspect of waste management is generally overlooked by HCWs. Amongst the various areas, the significantly lower score in treatment room of wards indicates that the resident doctors who use treatment room pay little attention to the disinfection of waste. This may be due to the same reason as mentioned above for ‘mutilation of recyclable waste’ i.e. they might be considering providing direct medical care to patients as their primary duty not appreciating the indirect health risks that they pose, particularly to the waste-handlers, by not disinfecting waste and so need for their training for proper waste management is again highlighted.

      Various studies have mentioned that HCWs were using chlorine solution [ 6 , 13 ] or autoclave [ 19 ] to disinfect the waste, however, the authors have not mentioned the extent of compliance by HCWs. In the hospital under study, the standard practice was to use chlorine solution in the form of 1% bleaching powder solution for disinfection purposes. The finding of lower score for this category of waste management means that special focus may need to be laid on this aspect while imparting training to HCWs.

      Conclusions

      The present study was done to evaluate the practices of biomedical waste management amongst different patient care areas in tertiary care medical institute of North India using a checklist. It was found that more emphasis needs to be laid for ‘mutilation of recyclable waste’ and disinfection of waste’ especially in ‘Treatment Room of wards’ which are used exclusively by resident doctors. Hospital administrators may need to formulate and implement a plan for providing appropriate training to HCWs especially resident doctors so as to address the deficiencies observed in the study.

      Competing interests

      The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

      Authors’ contributions

      RK designed the study, collected data and drafted the manuscript. AKG participated in design, drafting and coordination; AKA conceived the study, performed data analysis and helped in drafting the manuscript. AK participated in design and helped in drafting manuscript. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.

      Acknowledgements

      Help extended by Nursing Staff and Sanitary Inspectors of study areas in collection of data is gratefully acknowledged. There was, however, no funding agency involved in carrying out the study.

      References

      • Pruss A, Cirouit E, Rushbrook P. Safe Management of Wastes From Health-Care Activities. Geneva: WHO; 1999. Definition and Characterization of Health-Care Waste; pp. 2–46.
      • Manual on Solid Waste Management, Ministry of Urban Development, Government of India. http://www.urbanindia.nic.in/publicinfo/swm/swm_manual.htm .
      • Collins CH, Kennedy DA. Microbiological hazards of occupational needle-stick and sharps injuries. J Appl Bacteriol. 1987;62:385–402. [ PubMed ]
      • Bio-medical Waste (Management and Handling) Rules, 1998, Ministry of Environment and Forests, Government of India. http://cpcb.nic.in/Bio_medical.php .
      • The Environment (Protection) Act, 1986, Ministry of Environment and Forests, Govt. of India. http://envfor.nic.in/legis/env/env1.html .
      • Rao PH. Hospital waste management system – a case study of a south Indian city. Waste Manag Res. 2009;27:313–321. doi: 10.1177/0734242X09104128. [ PubMed ] [ Cross Ref ]
      • Bdour A. Assessment of medical wastes management practice: a case study of the northern part of Jordan. Waste Manag. 2007;27(6):746–759. doi: 10.1016/j.wasman.2006.03.004. [ PubMed ] [ Cross Ref ]
      • Blenkharn JI. Standards of clinical waste management in hospitals – a second look. Public Health. 2007;121:540–545. doi: 10.1016/j.puhe.2006.12.005. [ PubMed ] [ Cross Ref ]
      • Nataraj G, Baveja S, Kuyare S, Poojary A, Mehta PK. Report: medical students for monitoring biomedical waste segregation practices – why and how? Experience from a medical college. Waste Manag Res. 2008;26:288–290. doi: 10.1177/0734242X07081481. [ PubMed ] [ Cross Ref ]
      • Talaat M, Kandeel A, El-Shoubary W, Bodenschatz C, Khairy I, Oun S. Occupational exposure to needlestick injuries and hepatitis B vaccination coverage among healthcare workers in Egypt. Am J Infect Control. 2003;31(8):469–474. doi: 10.1016/j.ajic.2003.03.003. [ PubMed ] [ Cross Ref ]
      • Debere MK, Gelaye KA, Alamdo AG, Trifa ZM. Assessment of the health care waste generation rates and its management system in hospitals of Addis Abada, Ethiopia, 2011. BMC Public Health. 2013;13:28. doi: 10.1186/1471-2458-13-28. [ PMC free article ] [ PubMed ] [ Cross Ref ]
      • Gupta S, Boojh R, Mishra A, Chandra H. Rules and management of biomedical waste at Vivekananda Polyclinic: a case study. Waste Manag. 2009;29:812–819. doi: 10.1016/j.wasman.2008.06.009. [ PubMed ] [ Cross Ref ]
      • Patil GV, Pokhrel K. Biomedical solid waste management in an Indian hospital: a case study. Waste Manag. 2005;25:592–599. doi: 10.1016/j.wasman.2004.07.011. [ PubMed ] [ Cross Ref ]
      • Ferdows A, Ferdosi M, Mehrani MJ. Incineration or autoclave? a comparative study in Isfahan hospitals waste management system (2010) Mat Soc Med. 2013;25(10):48–51. [ PMC free article ] [ PubMed ]
      • Battersby A, Feilden R, Nelson C. Sterilizable syringes: excessive risk or cost-effective option? Bull World Health Organ. 1999;77(10):812–819. [ PMC free article ] [ PubMed ]
      • Ozder A, Teker B, Eker HH, Altindis S, Kocaakman M, Karabay O. Medical waste management training for healthcare managers – a necessity? J Environ Health Res Eng. 2013;11:20. doi: 10.1186/2052-336X-11-20. [ PMC free article ] [ PubMed ] [ Cross Ref ]
      • Janjua NZ. Injection practices and sharp waste disposal by general practitioners of Murree. J Pak Med Assoc. 2003;53(3):107–111. [ PubMed ]
      • Murakami H, Kobayashi M, Zhu X. Risk of transmission of hepatitis B virus through childhood immunization in northwest China. Soc Sci Med. 2003;57(10):1821–1832. doi: 10.1016/S0277-9536(03)00065-0. [ PubMed ] [ Cross Ref ]
      • Chitnis V, Vaidya K, Chitnis DS. Biomedical waste in laboratory medicine: audit and management. Indian J Med Microbiol. 2005;23:6–13. doi: 10.4103/0255-0857.13865. [ PubMed ] [ Cross Ref ]

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      Thursday, June 26, 2014

      46 Good SPM English Model Essays / Free Essay Samples for O-level, IELTS, TOEFL & MUET Writing

      Panduan MUET Guide Tips
      Panduan MUET

      46 Model Essay Samples for SPM English, O-level, IELTS, TOEFL & MUET Writing

      Preparing for the upcoming MUET writing test and want to read some good essay examples? Read Free MUET Tips & Essential MUET Guide . Want to read some samples of good essays for IELTS writing? Or simply looking some ideas and inspiration for your SPM English writing homework? Below is the list of 46 free model essays for SPM English, O-level, IELTS, TOEFL & MUET Writing.

              Descriptive Essays

      1. Friend
      2. Friends
      3. My Best Friend
      4. Describe an afternoon at the bus station
      5. A Horrifying Swim
      6. A Prominent Malaysian Leader
      7. A Demonic Gold
      8. My Mother
      9. My Favourite TV Programme
      10. The Night Market
      11. Malaysia, a Unique Country

        Narrative Essays

      12. A Horror / Tragic Story
      13. Finally, A Voice Message
      14. Forgiven
      15. Home
      16. Race
      17. That is the reward for my patience and hardwork
      18. A Holiday I Would Never Forget
      19. Couple Foils Robbery Attempt
      20. Write a story starting with: “The widow had to work hard to bring up her little son alone…”
      21. My Most Embarrassing Situation
      22. A Road Accident
      23. Autumn on Sugarbush Street
      24. Of Bombs and Ice-Cream
      25. After All, It Isn’t That Bad

        Argumentative / Persuasive Essays

      26. Haze: A Danger to Health
      27. Money
      28. Cell phones – One of Our Greatest Technologies Misused
      29. Importance of Studying English
      30. Faith
      31. Thoughts On Sharing

        Reflective Essays

      32. Are undergraduates ready for the real world?
      33. Does School Prepare Us for Life
      34. What would you do if you had a lot of money
      35. Which do you prefer, living in the countryside or living in the city?

        Factual Essays

      36. Pollution
      37. Social Networking Website
      38. The Kuala Lumpur International Airport (KLIA)

        Directed Writing

      39. Anti-Smoking Campaign Speech
      40. Informal Letter
      41. Informal Letter Sample
      42. Formal Letter: Letter of Application
      43. Formal Letter: Letter of Complain
      44. Complain Report About School Canteen
      45. Book Report
      46. Police Report on Accident

      Want even more good sample essays for your SPM English writing, MUET writing or IELTS writing preparation? Enter email address now to get them!



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      Comments

      34 Comments

      34 comments:

      1. lau Monday, July 28, 2014 4:05:00 pm

        Is there any chinese language essay??
        can recommend??

        Reply Delete

        Replies

        1. Anonymous Wednesday, September 07, 2016 2:24:00 pm

          lol u retarded?

          Delete

        2. Anonymous Saturday, September 10, 2016 11:44:00 pm

          Why are you so mean? Which part of it is retarded?

          Delete

        3. Anonymous Thursday, August 17, 2017 11:10:00 pm

          Maybe he lack of attention in his life

          Delete

        4. Anonymous Thursday, September 21, 2017 12:31:00 pm

          Dude, there are really chinese essay in spm. What’s wrong with you guys

          Delete

        5. Anonymous Friday, October 27, 2017 9:21:00 pm

          Are you lost mate? This webpage is for english essays, not chinese

          retard

          Delete

        6. Syahrul Thursday, January 04, 2018 11:30:00 pm

          Cmon he just asking if theres any chinese language essay… nothing wrong with it… sorry i think u are the one who is retarded here… no one r supporting ya…

          Delete

        7. Anonymous Sunday, March 25, 2018 11:37:00 am

          what is naratif composition

          Delete

        8. JLTan Monday, April 09, 2018 6:54:00 pm

          Lol retarded 9 yr olds hating over a single question

          Delete

        9. Anonymous Sunday, May 20, 2018 11:57:00 am

          WTH????? He is just asking. FGS he is not even asking u man..That question were asked to the admin. Pls just mind your own bussiness..

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        10. Anonymous Thursday, June 21, 2018 9:26:00 pm

          Senyap ar semua

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        11. Anonymous Monday, July 23, 2018 8:24:00 pm

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        12. Reply

      2. nancy Friday, September 26, 2014 3:00:00 pm

        The test score works as a proof of their language proficiency and knowledge. Finding the Best TOEFL Coaching it self is a task because the objective of TOEFL classes is to give you interactive examples of TOEFL test questions.

        Reply Delete

      3. KHai Sunday, October 12, 2014 3:51:00 am

        Salam sejahtera rakan2 semua…

        Ada berita baik buat anda yang baru nak ambil peperiksaan MUET, yang GAGAL dan nak ambil semula, yang TAK PERNAH LULUS serta yang nak memperbaiki band yang diperoleh dalam peperiksaan MUET yang lalu. Rakan saya Saudara Shamsul Ariffin telah menerbitkan sebuah panduan khas untuk anda lulus cemerlang dalam peperiksaan MUET…

        Jika anda berminat untuk mendapatkan panduan tersebut SiLa KLik Sini

        Reply Delete

        Replies

        1. cik yayaa Wednesday, April 08, 2015 11:46:00 pm

          klau tuk repeat bi spm ngan st ada x ?

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        2. cik yayaa Wednesday, April 08, 2015 11:46:00 pm

          klau tuk repeat bi spm ngan st ada x ?

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        3. Reply

      4. Anonymous Tuesday, February 24, 2015 6:19:00 pm

        Good Work for English learnes

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      5. nancy Tuesday, February 24, 2015 10:57:00 pm

        This is important to remember while you are browsing IELTS or TOEFL preparation course, if you are planning on applying for citizenship or collage and intend to use your results as an entry requirement.

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      10. type an essay online Wednesday, September 09, 2015 7:13:00 pm

        That’s really huge list of sample essays for students those need to write essay and facing difficulties. I am sure that will be very helpful for students studying in various level.

        Reply Delete

      11. Anonymous Saturday, September 26, 2015 2:00:00 pm

        To be honest
        All the 46 Model essays are uncomparable to the O level English Standard.
        In fact,writing such a essay in o level english will guarantee a fail

        Reply Delete

        Replies

        1. Anonymous Monday, November 06, 2017 6:58:00 pm

          Agreed

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        2. Reply

      12. Jamil Corazzo Sunday, October 04, 2015 1:54:00 am

        totally useful for me

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      13. Zizy Zizy Sunday, February 07, 2016 10:00:00 pm

        thank you much for the God’s sake who had done this blog 🙂 You pretty had aid me much in essays

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      14. Husna Lovatics Thursday, May 05, 2016 6:20:00 pm

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        1. Anonymous Saturday, June 04, 2016 4:09:00 pm

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      Latest SPM Model Essays

      7 May 2018


      Describe the first time you went on a camping trip. You should write about the activities at the camp and explain how you felt about the experience.

      During the school holidays last year, I had an opportunity to participate in a 3-day camp organised by the Boy Scouts Association of my school. As it was the first I had ever taken part in … (read more)



      SPM English 1119 Past Year Papers


      31 March 2018


      2017 Paper 1 Section B (Continuous Writing) Essay Questions



      Latest SPM Model Essays

      16 November 2017


      What are the ways to cultivate reading habits among students?

      It is a fact that students today do not read much compared to those in the past. Since reading brings forth a lot of benefits such as to expand one�s knowledge, improve one�s language skills … (read more)

      16 October 2017


      The day I
      lost my temper

      The blare of the alarm clock signalled the start of another schoolday. I exerted my weight on my feet and hobbled to the basin for a quick brush-up. My eyelids were still sagging from … (read more)

      27 September 2017


      Write a story ending with: ‘…We had never laughed so much in our lives.’

      Clutching my belongings, I jostled my way through the milling crowd and seated myself alongside a few members of the audience. There I sat, looking down upon a scene the like of which I … (read more)

      25 September 2017


      Describe an enjoyable stroll in a park.

      Strolling in a park is an enjoyment to me. During weekdays, a student like me is so occupied with homework and studies that not much time is left for leisure activities. Last Saturday, I … (read more)

      18 August 2017


      Write about your experience helping Puan Ramlah, an elderly lady who lives alone. End your story with �… I learnt a lot about myself by helping Puan Ramlah.�


      I live in a village with a population of approximately 5,000. Puan Ramlah, an elderly lady, lives alone in a run-down wooden house in close proximity to mine. In the past, Puan Ramlah … (read more)

      20 June 2017


      There are many things to do after your SPM examination. Write about your plans for the next three months and the challenges you might face.


      Despite the fact the SPM examination is just round the corner, I have had the following 3 months after the examination planned, besides studying hard and doing last-minute revision. The first … (read more)

      16 June 2017


      What is the best way for teenagers to stay fit and healthy?


      Teenagers are youngsters between 13 and 19 years of age. As teenage years are the period that most of our growing occurs, it is of vital importance that teenagers stay fit and healthy to …
      (read more)



      SPM English 1119 Past Year Papers


      8 June 2017


      2016 Paper 1 Section B (Continuous Writing) Essay Questions



      Latest SPM Model Essays

      20 April 2017


      Describe your experience participating in a singing competition.


      Last Saturday, I took part in a singing competition organised by the management of a shopping mall. A total of 32 contestants participated in the contest. As it was my first …
      (read more)

      12 November 2016


      Describe an enjoyable weekend you have experienced.


      One weekend during last year�s year-end holidays, three cousins of mine from Australia visited my family. They were here from Friday to Sunday. Born and bred in the land of the kangaroo … (read more)

      4 November 2016


      The number of elderly people in the world is increasing. What do you think are the positive and negative effects of this trend?


      Thanks to the advancement of medical science technology, human beings now enjoy a longer life. Due to the fact that many couples of the world currently prefer quality to …
      (read more)

      25 October 2016


      Describe the most terrifying experience in your life.


      The sky was so beautiful. I could see stars glittering and the moon shining mother earth. I was impressed by God’s magnum opus. I was enjoying my lovely night and listening to a … (read more) �

      14 October 2016


      The Internet is mostly a good thing. Do you agree? Support your opinion.


      The Internet is the electricity of the 21st century. Yes, we are so attached to it every day. Indeed, it is one of the greatest inventions of all time. Since it upgrades our lifestyle, I must … (read more)

      7 October 2016


      Why are animals important to human beings?


      There are a number of reasons why animals are important to human beings. The main reason is that animals benefit us personally, socially and economically … (read more)

      2 October 2016


      There is a lack of freedom given to teenagers today. Do you agree?

      The majority of teenagers today complain that they are not given sufficient freedom. Despite their complaints, I believe that teenagers are given more than adequate freedom. Since … (read more)

      27 September 2016


      Describe an important family celebration and how you felt about it.

      Last Saturday, my family had an important celebration. It was my father�s birthday and we celebrated the special occasion by throwing a surprise party for him. A week prior to the party, we … (read more)

      23 September 2016


      �Honesty is the best policy.� Describe an experience when this was true for you.

      The proverb �honesty is the best policy� advises people that it is better to tell the truth than to lie. I have always believed in the proverb. When I was about eleven years old, my honesty … (read more)

      20 September 2016


      The best things in life are free.

      We live in a world that values material goods. However, it is a fact that material goods do not guarantee happiness. The best things in life are free – they are not tangible … (read more)

      18 September 2016


      �The Internet is mostly a good thing.� Do you agree? Support your opinion.

      The Internet, which became available to the general public in the year 1991, is currently a worldwide phenomenon. In our modern world, most people depend on it so much that it … (read more)

      17 September 2016


      �Truly Malaysian.� Describe what this means to you.

      Being citizens of our beloved country – Malaysia, we should be �truly Malaysian� not only in our feelings but also in our actions. Different Malaysians have … (read more)

      7 September 2016


      Why is having good neighbours important?

      Neighbours are people who live next door or near to us. If we live in a neighbourhood with good neighbours, we are fortunate and blessed. They can be extremely helpful and make our stay safer … (read more)

      1 September 2016


      Describe what makes you happy and explain why.

      It is human nature to long for a happy life. Carrying out activities that we enjoy bring us happiness and joy. There are a lot of things that make me happy and the top three are hanging out … (read more)

      26 August 2016


      A Road Accident

      Every day, we learn about road accidents through coverage in the mass media such as television, radio and newspapers. As we all know, the majority of road accidents are caused by …
      (read more)

      23 August 2016


      SPM – My Emotions and Advice

      The time has come – 2016. This is the year I am going to sit for the national examination, SPM. It is time to be serious, to face the reality and to take the challenge. Let me tell you my … (read more)

      19 August 2016


      �A friend in need is a friend indeed.� Describe how a friend helped you in difficult time.

      The first of May last year is indeed a memorable day for me as it is the day Sarah, my best friend, lent me a helping hand in a difficult time. Since that day was a public holiday, Sarah came to my … (read more)

      17 August 2016


      Examinations – good or bad?

      Whether we like it or not, examinations are part and parcel of our life. Apparently, most people dislike examinations as they are tedious and a lot of preparation is required. Despite … (read more)

      6 August 2016


      Friends / The Qualities of True Friends

      Throughout our life, we encounter many people and make friends. But among these hundreds or perhaps thousands of people we meet, only a handful of them are our true friends. So, you … (read more)

      3 July 2016


      Social networking has caused a lot of problems. How far do you agree?

      Social networking, which is also known as social media, is the use of internet-based applications or websites to make connections with people such as our family and friends. It is now … (read more)



      SPM English 1119 Past Year Papers


      13 June 2016


      2015 Paper 1 Section B (Continuous Writing) Essay Questions

      5 May 2015


      2014 Paper 1 Section B (Continuous Writing) Essay Questions



      Latest SPM Model Essays

      29 October 2014


      Are loyalty and membership cards for shoppers really worth it?

      Having loyalty and membership cards seems to be the norm among shoppers nowadays. The cards are one of the efforts of business organisations such as department … (read more)

      27 October 2014


      Spending time in shopping centres has become a culture in our country. Do you agree?

      In this epoch of rapid development, a myriad of shopping centres have been built. Many of them are still in the process of being built. We cannot deny the fact that they have become … (read more)

      22 October 2014


      The simple steps to happiness

      There was someone who was seated on a particular side and edge. He pondered over his problems. His poor face brought out emptiness and did not show any tranquility. Where had his … (read more)

      14 October 2014


      Are smartphones a necessity?

      “Mom, my birthday is approaching. May I ask for something from you and Daddy?” Farah asks her mother. “Of course my dear. What do you want?” “Can you buy me an iPhone 6 … (read more)

      23 September 2014


      Tomorrow

      I sit in a corner of the prison cell, staring at the small window which was built high up in the wall. Inside the cell, there are only loneliness and silence. I am waiting for the coming of … (read more)

      12 August 2014


      Is tuition necessary? Discuss.

      Tuition is the act of teaching, especially to people in smaller groups or individuals. It is extremely common among Malaysians, especially primary and secondary students. When … (read more)

      7 August 2014


      A perfect life

      What do I think a good life is? Wow, what a question. I do not know how to answer that. I guess I would start out by saying that I would want great health, because without being … (read more)

      5 August 2014


      My perfect future husband or wife

      Whenever I attend weddings and see the adorable pairs of newly-weds, I would wonder how my future wife be like. One thing I can be sure of is that she would not just be any other … (read more)

      4 August 2014


      Write a story about being alone.

      Last Saturday night, my parents went to their friend’s wedding dinner. I wished I could follow them as I hate to be home alone. Unfortunately, only my parents were invited so I could not go … (read more)

      31 July 2014


      Beauty

      Everybody said that my sister Britney was the beauty of the family. I did not really mind them saying so, as it was apparent. What I did not like was the way they pointed out how unattractive … (read more)



      Star Writer

      17 July 2014


      Abigail Shannon Chua



      Latest SPM Model Essays

      17 July 2014


      Water

      I flew over the water, my hand skimming the water’s surface. I love the water – it was so much better than our cities up in the sky. The water’s surface shone in the sunlight, its cool touch … (read more)

      14 July 2014


      Write a story ending with: “… They looked at each other and smiled meaningfully.”

      Tony sat by the side of the lake, his head in his hands. He sobbed softly, his heart full of misery and regret as he took out a dainty ring. “I miss you so much, Tessa,” he whispered as he stroked the ring … (read more)

      10 July 2014


      Clothes

      I walked into the shopping centre, cool air greeting me. My mother grabbed my arm and started to haul me to the nearest store. I was going to college in a fortnight and my mother thought … (read more)

      8 July 2014


      Write a story of an old man returning to his home he left many years ago.

      Charles stood at the gate leading to a large mansion. Trees were scattered around the compound and the lawn looked like it had not been swept in a long time. He took a deep … (read more)

      4 July 2014


      Write a story beginning with: “The teacher walked into the classroom. It was the first period…”

      The teacher walked into the classroom. It was the first period and everyone was pretty much still asleep. The teacher rapped his knuckles on his desk, jolting everyone awake. “Teenagers,” he … (read more)

      2 July 2014


      Write a story ending with: “… Now I realise the value of a true friend.”

      We sat behind a desk, Professor Painswick yelling at us. “Do you understand what you have to do?” she screamed at us, the chandelier practically shaking with the vibration of her voice. “Yes, … (read more)

      1 July 2014


      Home

      It was late in the afternoon. My brother Jason and I were on a routine patrol near our base camp. The streets were deserted and there were cars scattered around. Armed with guns, we … (read more)

      30 June 2014


      Write a story beginning with: “I could tell by his face that he was angry…

      I could tell by his face that he was angry. Vice principal Mr Chaplain slammed his fist onto the desk and looked at us. “Why did you beat up Charles in the cafeteria?” he shouted at … (read more)



      Latest Student’s Story

      26 June 2014


      Memories

      It was not like I wanted to be born with power like this. At the same time, it was not that I did not want it. In my family, the ones who had this kind of power were my elder brother, Yi Fang, and me … (read more)



      Latest SPM Model Essays

      23 June 2014


      Write a story ending with: “… Now I realise the value of a true friend.”

      It was midday and we were out in the woods making our daily patrol. The forest was quiet as we rode horseback down the path, whispering among ourselves. Eruvan and I headed the group and all of … (read more)

      19 June 2014


      Write a story beginning with: “It had been raining all day…”

      It had been raining all day. I sat next to the fireplace, my toes curled up and a book in my hands. I was listening to music via my iPod and tapping my toes to the rhythm. I was about to … (read more)

      5 June 2014


      Write a story that ends with: “… and so I became a better person.”

      It was a hot afternoon as the scorching sun was shining brightly in the sky. I was about to take a nap but the heat from the sun was unbearable. I sat on my bed, feeling sleepy. I turned around … (read more)

      2 June 2014


      Friends

      It all started at boarding school. I was sent to boarding school at the age of 13 in the hope that I would excel in my studies. But I was quiet and always got bullied by older kids. Only one person … (read more) “

      28 May 2014


      Write a story beginning with: “Kim was nervous when the door opened…”

      Kim was nervous when the door opened. In the doorway stood Zack. Who would have thought that of all the girls, Zack would pick Kim as his dance partner? Kim was red with nervousness … (read more)

      26 May 2014


      Write a story with the following title: A Narrow Escape.

      “It was a sunny day and a few clouds were seen floating across the blue sky. I had reached 20,000 feet when my friend, Mike, reached me by radio. “Hey Dean, after this test flight, why don’t … (read more) “



      SPM English 1119 Past Year Papers


      24 May 2014


      2013 Paper 1 Section B (Continuous Writing) Essay Questions



      Latest SPM Model Essays

      23 May 2014


      Peace

      “Life was perfect. I had a girlfriend, a great family and I was about to enter Harvard University. But then there was a disease outbreak. The human race was almost wiped out as most humans were transformed into zombies. I fled … (read more) “

      20 May 2014


      A day I wished had never happened

      “It was late at night. James and I were walking in a field near our base camp. The stars were out and suddenly, James covered my eyes with his hands. “Tada!” he said, removing his hands to … (read more) “

      6 May 2014


      Write a story that ends with: “… If only I had listened to his/her advice.”

      “I had never felt so much regret in my whole life. I was standing in a graveyard looking at a headstone. The headstone read ‘Marie Sanders. Born 21 May 2040. Died 13 February 2072. No sister was … (read more) ”

      2 May 2014


      A famous person you admire

      “There are many famous people in the world who are in the entertainment line, science field and so on. The person I admire in particular is actor Tom Hiddleston. He was born in … (read more) ”

      25 April 2014


      Write a story ending with: “If only I had been more careful, that wouldn’t have happened.”

      “It was dark. My partner Jack and I were doing our usual rounds around the palace grounds, talking among ourselves softly. As we walked, I looked around. The night air was still and the palace … (read more) ”

      3 April 2014


      Memories

      “Last December, my family and I went to Pulau Tioman for our holidays. We stayed there for three days. On the first day, we left our house at six in the morning in my father’s car and headed for … (read more) ”

      18 February 2014


      Write a story beginning with: “Is it really you? Where have you been all these years?”

      “Is it really you? Where have you been all these years?” I yelled at the guy at the door. He was shuffling his feet nervously and staring at the ground. “Lily, I can explain,” he started to say but I … (read more)



      Students’ Stories


      27 January 2014


      Lost love found

      “The night was extremely chilly as it had been snowing a lot here in Rome. The lovebirds, Matt and Lily, had just finished watching a romantic film. While their car stopped at the … (read more) ”



      Latest SPM Model Essays


      23 January 2014


      Childhood reminiscences and the present

      “When I was at a very young age, I remember playing with the kid next door named Ramlee, the girl from across the street – Tina with her shy little brother, Jonah, who was always tagging along. All … (read more) ”

      22 January 2014


      Memories

      “It happened a few years ago at work. I worked as a physiologist at a Wellness Centre for soldiers in New Jersey, USA. One day, I was assigned to James who had a leg injury from a battle … (read more) ”

      13 January 2014


      Describe an unforgettable incident that you saw on your way home from school.

      “The last period had ended and after bidding the teacher goodbye, our class started to disperse. After mounting my mountain bike, I started pedalling along the concrete path. Soon, I was out … (read more) ”

      4 November 2013


      Colours

      “What do colours mean to you? Colours can express ones’ feelings and it can also represent ones’ sexual orientation. Colours can determine what type of person … (read more) ”


      Write a story ending with: “…They looked at each other and smiled meaningfully.”

      Janet and Siew Ling were best friends. They loved to do good to other people. Their acts of kindness to others made them happy and gave them satisfaction … (read more) ”



      Latest Questions & Answers


      1 October 2013


      Hello Doctor Grammar, I was assigned by my teacher to complete two essays during the holidays. I have completed one, but I am worried that this essay may be not so good and I wanted to… Yap Choon Meng

      “Hello Choon Meng, Thank you for your requests. I have edited your essay. Seen below are your original essay and my explanations (the red text in italics below each paragraph)… (read more) ”

      22 September 2013


      Hi Dr Grammar, I have some questions: What is the difference between ‘could’ and ‘would’, and when to use them? Is it before past tense or present tense? Libra Nytestar

      “Hi Libra Nytestar, Thanks for your questions. The use of could was explained earlier and I’ll repeat it here: The modal verb could is used:… (read more) ”


      Hi Dr Grammar, I would like to ask you some questions: 1. Should we use ‘besides that’ or ‘beside that’ ? 2. If a text or essay is in past tense…

      “Hi Herman Lim, 1. Since ‘beside’ is a preposition to show position, the correct phrase should be besides that. 2. Apart from dialogues, we use the simple present tense when we talk about facts and universal truths… (read more) ”


      Dear Dr Grammar, Fill in the blanks with correct collective noun: We saw __________ of tigers in Africa. Shruti


      “Dear Shruti, Thank you for your request. The right collective nouns for tigers are ‘ambush’, ‘streak’ and ‘hide’. an ambush of tigers… (read more) ”


      Latest SPM Model Essay


      12 September 2013


      My future plans

      “Almost everyone in the world has future plans. A person without any plans is likened to a ship sailing the ocean aimlessly without any destinations. Having plans help us know our objectives in life … (read more) ”

      8 September 2013


      Mobile phones should be allowed in schools. Do you agree?

      “Mobile phones are one of the great inventions and high technology items in this modern era. They have become some of the most indispensable objects in our daily life as … (read more) ”



      Students’ Stories


      7 September 2013


      An old photograph!

      “It was the wettest December I had ever experienced. The torrential rains had ruined my holiday plans as floods continued to wreak havoc in several states. I had pleaded with dad to allow … (read more) ”

      6 September 2013


      Love keeps a relationship alive

      “In the east beyond the city, the sun rose. It resembled a red gold ball. A ray of light shone through the window of my bedroom. I woke up and opened the window. Some birds … (read more) ”



      Latest Questions & Answers


      31 August 2013


      Dear Dr Grammar, Please give me the complete lists of collective nouns for people, animals and things. Thanks. Jacky Chan


      “Dear Jacky Chan, Thank you for your request. The lists of collective nouns for people, animals and things are available on this page . The list for animals has just been updated. Though not … (read more) ”

      27 August 2013


      Dear Dr Grammar, I was or I were? Darcy

      “Dear Darcy, Thank you for your question. We use I was and I were in different circumstances. In normal circumstances, we use I was as ‘was’ is the past tense of the verb / auxiliary verb ‘am’ … (read more) ”



      Latest SPM Model Essays


      9 July 2013


      Describe an outing with your friends.

      Last year during the first semester holidays, I went on an outing with my classmates and best friends, Ariff and Adam. Adam’s father won a trip to Penang, which came with a hotel suite stay for … (read more) ”

      8 July 2013


      Write a story ending with “… I realised that good-hearted people are always there in this world.”

      “Class, our lesson has almost come to an end. Your homework for today is to do exercise 12 on page 45 of your textbook,” said our mathematics teacher, Mdm Wong. Not long after, the … (read more) ”

      5 July 2013


      Write a story with the following title: Pride Goes Before A Fall.

      Having held the interschool storytelling championship for the past three consecutive years, I was the star of my school. When it came to choosing the right candidate to participate in… (read more) ”

      24 June 2013


      Describe the best holiday trip you made

      During the last Chinese New Year holidays, my family and I made a trip to Kuala Lumpur. A few months before we went on the trip, my parents booked the air tickets. They also booked a room at … (read more) ”



      Latest Questions & Answers


      21 June 2013


      Hi Dr Grammar, Thank you for answering my questions a few days ago. I would like to ask you some more questions here: I wonder what the difference is between… Jia Sin

      “Hi Jia Sin, Thank you for your questions. to play – the infinitive marker to is often used before the base form of a verb to show purpose or intention … (read more) ”



      Latest SPM Model Essays


      21 June 2013


      Write a story ending with: “…How will I explain everything to my father?”

      “Son, turn off the computer now and do your revision immediately. Your second terminal exams are approaching,” said my father, as he was getting ready for work that morning… (read more) ”



      Latest Questions & Answers


      17 June 2013


      Hello Dr Grammar, I’m glad to visit this site. I have found that English312 is great and helpful to me. Thus, I have a question to ask, that is … Jia Sin

      “Hello Jia Sin, I’m glad to know that you find english312.com a great and helpful site. Here are the answers to your questions: Have been / has been is combined with a present participle… (read more) ”



      Latest SPM Model Essays


      21 June 2013


      Write a story beginning with: “The teacher walked into the classroom. It was the first period …”

      “The teacher walked into the classroom. It was the first period that morning. Our English teacher, Puan Maimunah, greeted us and we greeted her back. Then, the lesson began… (read more) ”



      Latest Questions & Answers


      25 May 2013


      Hello Dr Grammar, What is the difference between ‘did not’ and ‘do not’? Can you explain how to use didn’t and don’t? Thank you. BMA

      “Hello BMA, Thank you for your questions. Do is a plural auxiliary verb (singular: does) used with not before a full verb to form negative… (read more) ”



      Latest SPM English 1119 Updates


      21 May 2013


      Tips for scoring high marks in examinations


      Marking band for SPM English 1119


      17 May 2013


      SPM English 1119


      SPM English 1119 Past Year Papers


      Latest Questions & Answers


      9 May 2013


      Dear Dr Grammar, I have a question: how to use the words ‘can’ and ‘could’? Thank you. AHTO879

      “Hi AHTO879, Thanks for your question. The modal verb ‘can’ means ‘be able to’ or ‘to know how to do something’. Examples: I can drive well… (read more) ”


      8 May 2013


      Hello Sir, I need to know how to use the word ‘omnipotent’ in a sentence. Can I use it in essays? is it suitable? Thank you 🙂 Justin

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      Crime And Punishment Essay Examples

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      On Crimes and Punishments

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      Frontpage of the original Italian edition Dei delitti e delle pene.

      On Crimes and Punishments ( Italian : Dei delitti e delle pene [dei deˈlitti e ddelle ˈpeːne] ), is a treatise written by Cesare Beccaria in 1764.

      The treatise condemned torture and the death penalty and was a founding work in the field of penology .

      Contents

      • 1 History
      • 2 Principles
      • 3 Style
      • 4 Influence
      • 5 References
      • 6 External links

      History[ edit ]

      Beccaria and the two brothers Pietro and Alessandro Verri started an important cultural reformist movement centered around their journal Il Caffè (“The Coffee House“), which ran from the summer of 1764 for about two years, and was inspired by Addison and Steele’s literary magazine The Spectator and other such journals. Il Caffè represented an entirely new cultural moment in northern Italy. With their Enlightenment rhetoric and their balance between topics of socio-political and literary interest, the anonymous contributors held the interest of the educated classes in Italy, introducing recent thought such as that of Voltaire and Denis Diderot .

      On Crimes and Punishments marked the high point of the Milan Enlightenment . In it, Beccaria put forth some of the first modern arguments against the death penalty . It was also the first full work of penology , advocating reform of the criminal law system. The book was the first full-scale work to tackle criminal reform and to suggest that criminal justice should conform to rational principles. It is a less theoretical work than the writings of Hugo Grotius , Samuel von Pufendorf and other comparable thinkers, and as much a work of advocacy as of theory. In this essay, Beccaria reflected the convictions of the Il Caffè group, who sought to cause reform through Enlightenment discourse. In 1765, André Morellet produced a French translation of On Crimes and Punishments. His translation was widely criticized for the liberties he took with the text. [1] Morellet had the opinion that the Italian text of Beccaria did require some clarification. He therefore left parts away, and sometimes added to it. But he mainly changed the structure of the essay by moving, merging or splitting chapters. These interventions were known to experts, but because Beccaria himself had indicated in a letter to Morellet that he fully agreed with him, it was assumed that these adaptations also had Beccaria’s consent in substance. The differences are so great, however, that the book from the hands of Morellet became quite another book than the book that Beccaria wrote. [2]

      Principles[ edit ]

      Illustration from the 6th edition.

      On Crimes and Punishments was the first critical analysis of capital punishment that demanded its abolition . Beccaria described the death penalty as:

      the war of a nation against a citizen … It appears absurd to me that the laws, which are the expression of the public will and which detest and punish homicide, commit murder themselves, and in order to dissuade citizens from assassination, commit public assassination. [3]

      Beccaria cited Montesquieu , who stated that “every punishment which does not arise from absolute necessity is tyrannical “. [4]

      Regarding the “Proportion between Crimes and Punishment”, Beccaria stated that:

      Crimes of every kind should be less frequent, in proportion to the evil they produce to society … If an equal punishment be ordained for two crimes that injure society in different degrees, there is nothing to deter men from committing the greater as often as it is attended with greater advantage. [5]

      Beccaria also argued against torture , believing it was cruel and unnecessary. [6]

      Style[ edit ]

      The book’s serious message is put across in a clear and animated style, based in particular upon a deep sense of humanity and of urgency at unjust suffering. This humane sentiment is what makes Beccaria appeal for rationality in the laws.

      Suicide is a crime which seems not to admit of punishment, properly speaking; for it cannot be inflicted but on the innocent, or upon an insensible dead body. In the first case, it is unjust and tyrannical, for political liberty supposes all punishments entirely personal; in the second, it has the same effect, by way of example, as the scourging a statue. Mankind love life too well; the objects that surround them, the seducing phantom of pleasure, and hope, that sweetest error of mortals, which makes men swallow such large draughts of evil, mingled with a very few drops of good, allure them too strongly, to apprehend that this crime will ever be common from its unavoidable impunity. The laws are obeyed through fear of punishment, but death destroys all sensibility. What motive then can restrain the desperate hand of suicide?…But, to return: – If it be demonstrated that the laws which imprison men in their own country are vain and unjust, it will be equally true of those which punish suicide; for that can only be punished after death, which is in the power of God alone; but it is no crime with regard to man, because the punishment falls on an innocent family. If it be objected, that the consideration of such a punishment may prevent the crime, I answer, that he who can calmly renounce the pleasure of existence, who is so weary of life as to brave the idea of eternal misery, will never be influenced by the more distant and less powerful considerations of family and children.

      — Of Crimes and Punishments [7]

      Influence[ edit ]

      Dei delitti e delle pene (1766), frontpage, 6th edition.

      Within eighteen months, the book passed through six editions. [8] [9] [10] It was translated into French in 1766 and published with an anonymous commentary by Voltaire . [11] An English translation appeared in 1767, and it was translated into several other languages. [12] The book was read by all the luminaries of the day, including, in the United States, by John Adams and Thomas Jefferson .

      The book’s principles influenced thinking on criminal justice and punishment of offenders, leading to reforms in Europe, especially in France and at the court of Catherine II of Russia . In England, Beccaria’s ideas fed into the writings on punishment of Sir William Blackstone (selectively), and more wholeheartedly those of William Eden and Jeremy Bentham . [13] The reforms he had advocated led to the abolition of the death penalty in the Grand Duchy of Tuscany , the first state in the world to take this measure.

      Thomas Jefferson in his ” Commonplace Book ” copied a passage from Beccaria related to the issue of gun control : “Laws that forbid the carrying of arms . . . disarm only those who are neither inclined nor determined to commit crimes . . . Such laws make things worse for the assaulted and better for the assailants; they serve rather to encourage than to prevent homicides, for an unarmed man may be attacked with greater confidence than an armed man.” His only notation on this passage was, “False idee di utilità” (“false ideas of utility”). [14] [15] [16]

      References[ edit ]

      1. ^ Cesare Beccaria (1986). On Crimes And Punishments . Hackett. p. 17. ISBN   978-0-915145-97-3 . Retrieved 21 July 2012. 
      2. ^ http://www.bjulibrary.nl/boek/9789462902633/voorwoord
      3. ^ Franklin E. Zimring (24 September 2004). The Contradictions of American Capital Punishment . Oxford University Press. pp. 34–. ISBN   978-0-19-029237-9 . 
      4. ^ Beccaria, ch. 2 “Of the Right to Punish”
      5. ^ Beccaria, ch. 6, “Of the Proportion between Crimes and Punishment”
      6. ^ See An Essay on Crimes and Punishment translated from the Italian with a Commentary attributed to Mons. Voltaire, Translated from the French (4th ed.). London: E. Newbery. 1785 [1775]. pp. 57–69. Retrieved 29 May 2016 – via Internet Archive. 
      7. ^ See An Essay on Crimes and Punishment translated from the Italian with a Commentary attributed to Mons. Voltaire, Translated from the French (4th ed.). London: E. Newbery. 1785 [1775]. pp. 132–139. Retrieved 29 May 2016 – via Internet Archive. 
      8. ^ See Dei delitti e delle pene, terza edizione, Rivista, corretta, e notabilmente acccresciuta dall’ autore colle risposte dello stesso alle note e osservazione publicate in Venezia contro quest’ opera. Si aggiunge il guidizio di un celebre prefessore (3rd ed.). Lausanna [i.e. Livorno?]. 1765. Retrieved 29 May 2016 – via Biblioteca Europea di informazione e cultura (BEIC). 
      9. ^ See Dei delitti e delle pene, Edizione sesta di nuovo corretta ed accresciuta (6th ed.). Harlem [i.e. Paris?]. 1766. Retrieved 29 May 2016 – via Biblioteca Europea di informazione e cultura (BEIC). 
      10. ^ See Dei delitti e delle pene, nuova edizione, Corretta, e Acccresciuta . Harlem e si vende a Parigi. 1780. Retrieved 29 May 2016 – via Biblioteca Europea di informazione e cultura (BEIC). 
      11. ^ See also Traité des délits et des peines. Traduit de l’italien, d’après la troisieme edition revue, corrigée & augmentée par l’auteur. Avec des additions de l’auteur qui n’ont pas encore paru en italien. Nouvelle édition plus correcte que les précédentes (3rd ed.). Philadelphia. 1766. Retrieved 29 May 2016 – via Gallica. 
      12. ^ See, for example, Tratado de los delitos y de las penas, Traducido del Italiano por D. Juan Antonio de las Casas . Madrid: Por Joachin Ibarra, Impressor de Camera de S.M. 1774. Retrieved 30 May 2016 – via Google Books. 
      13. ^ Draper, Anthony J. (2000). “Cesare Beccaria’s influence on English discussions of punishment, 1764–1789”. History of European Ideas. 26 (3–4): 177–99. 
      14. ^ ‘ http://www.monticello.org/site/jefferson/laws-forbid-carrying-armsquotation .
      15. ^ Halbrook, S.P. (1989). A Right to Bear Arms: State and Federal Bills of Rights and Constitutional Guarantees . Contributions in political science. Greenwood Press. p. 54. ISBN   978-0-313-26539-6 . Retrieved 3 July 2017. 
      16. ^ Halbrook, S.P. (2008). The Founders’ Second Amendment: Origins of the Right to Bear Arms . Independent studies in political economy. Ivan R. Dee. p. 132. ISBN   978-1-61578-014-3 . Retrieved 3 July 2017. 

      External links[ edit ]

      • On Crimes and Punishment by Cesare Bonesana di Beccaria : at Online Library of Liberty
      • Works related to An Essay on Crimes and Punishments at Wikisource
      Authority control Edit this at Wikidata
      • WorldCat Identities
      • BNF : cb13328966v (data)
      • GND : 4517164-6
      • SUDOC : 035678070
      • VIAF : 174562223

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                         Everyday people are face with numerous decisions to make and problems to solve. Decision-making and problem solving is the very core in many aspects of life, yet some decision making can be very difficult to accomplish.
                        
            Critical thinking is an important skill to acquire, by obtaining this skill; a person will be able to make an appropriate decisions.
                        
            What is critical thinking? According to the reading, critical thinking is "reacting with systematic evaluation to what you have read or heard." It is important for a person to think critically in order to better understand a certain situation. Critical thinking skills allows people to see all sides of an issue, look for creative alternatives, approaches to problems, and make well thought out decisions. When a person understands what the writer or speaker is trying to convey, they are able to agree or disagree with the writer or speaker because they have the knowledge to make their decision. The skills an individual needs to obtain in order to think critically is first, consider the importance of the issue. Once the issue is important to the individual, they can begin searching for more information by ask important question pertaining to the issue and reflecting on the answers. Asking the right questions gives a person more specific information about the issue. Once they identifying the correct facts they will be able to think collaboratively of different ways to proceed. With this understanding, the individual can reach an opinion base on the available information and arrive at a conclusion. A critical thinker looks at all the options prior to making the final decision
                        
            The purpose of critical thinking is to achieve understanding, evaluate viewpoints, and solve problems. In order for a person to be a good critical thinker they must be able to identify the issue, ask thought provoking questions, find new solutions, be a good listener, suspend judgment until al…

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            DS 3006 Critical Thinking
            Chong Shear LeenDS3006 Critical ThinkingMs. Shariffah Bahyah27
            th
            November 2009The Grade I Deserve for the Critical Thinking CourseAt the beginning of this semester, we were asked by lecturer what Critical Thinking is, but most of us do not know what it is or maybe there are some students do know but just that they do notspeak out their answer, therefore none of us answer this question. According to her, it is to let uslearn how to think from a different point of view. At first I am thinking, why should I take thissubject, as it is not related to the course which I choose to study (I am taking Business andHospitality Course). Educational system nowadays for primary schools and secondary schools arenormally provided with memorization-based education, students are expected to absorb thatinformation passively then repeat what they memorize in the test or examination paper. Accordingto Bassham, G. et al. (2008), ‘…is to teach students how to thinkthat is, how to becomeindependent, self-educated thinkers and learners.’ Without the ability to think critically, everysituation that a person comes across would have to be considered in isolation from all other situations. When a person encounters a problem that is a new one, he or she may able to usecritical thinking to solve those problems. Therefore, the grade in my mind, that I deserve to get for this subject, is grade B because of the academic performance and the effort that I will put duringmy exam time.The marks that I have for my test is 66 over 100, while the marks I got for my mid-termexamination is 12.9 over 20. Besides, I attended all the class since the beginning of this semester,I never miss a class. I will continue with full attendance, until this semester end, if nothingunexpected happens. Therefore, until now, I have got 8.2 marks over 10 marks for attendance.The coursework marks which include test and mid-term examination that I have known so far aremarks 40 over 60, and I have had marks 27.7 out of 40. I will get 29.5 out of 40 with a fullattendance that worth total 10 marks. In order for me to get at least 65 marks, or grade B in thissubject, I still need to gain another extra 35.5 marks in the final paper and final exam. According tothe prediction for the result in final paper and final exam which base on my test and mid-semester examination result, I will get 12 marks for my final paper and 25 marks for my final examination. Byadding up this forecast result in final paper and final examination and the marks that I have got in
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            DS 3006 Critical Thinking
            the 40 percent coursework marks, I will get a total of 66.5 marks, which over the minimumrequirement for grade B, which I deserve to get in my mind.Stated in Huber, D. (2006, pg 134.), the root of concept of critical thinking can be traces toSocrates, the ancient Greek philosopher.’…It is important to ask deep questions and probe intothinking sequence, seek evidence, closely examine reasoning and assumptions, analyze basicconcept, and trace out implications’. People often cannot rationally think of the solution for problemof it is related or even not related to them due to our self-belief, the limited knowledge and theeducational system which is too narrow for us to think in different dimension. After I have studycritical thinking, it helps me in better thinking, and I know that this skill will assist me to survivebetter in my future career because that is the reason why I am studying here. I have absorbedknowledge such as to review an article by evaluating its argument, does it support by point which isvalid or cogent, is the argument follows logical correctness and more. We do practice to refute theargument with our point in order to understand better about the critical thinking skills that we havelearnt in class. However, the part which I like most is categorical logic and propositional logic.Though is it not easy to solve the questions sometimes, but I feel like I am attending mathematicalclass when lecturer teaching these 2 chapter, which is more akin to practice skills if compare toother chapter that need better English language knowledge. These 2 chapters assist me to studycritical thinking better and easier because it is a formal system which allows me to determinewhether a sentence or argument is logic or not. Hence, it will help me to gain a better grade incritical thinking because I will try my best for higher marks in final paper and final examination.Due to the moderate performance in the test and mid-term examination, I would therefore forecastmy result for this essay to be moderate as well. As stated in Craver, K. W. (1999, pg.3.), ‘…Criticalthinking reflects self-regulation of the thought process’. Lecturer may teach us what critical thinkingis, and the process to apply all the skills. We, who as a student, are the one that should learn allthe knowledge because lecturer cannot be with us until the end of the day, or at least they are notallowed to be with us during examination period. I do admit that I am not that good in Englishwriting skills because of my poor grammar and lack of reading, and I cannot improve much within amonth, therefore I probably cannot gain higher marks in final paper. However, I will need to obtainat least 63 marks in final examination in order to achieve the grade that I wish to deserve. I amquite confidence with the diagramming part, categorical reasoning part and propositional logic.Though I am not so good in paraphrasing, inductive reasoning, recognising arguments, andfallacies, but I do believe that if I will do better by practice more. I probably will gain more than half of the points in final examination paper for section A which is multiple-choice question part thatcontribute 30 out of 100 marks, and section B which is categorical reasoning, propositional logicand inductive reasoning part that contribute 30 out of 100 marks.
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            DS 3006 Critical Thinking
            Critical thinking skill is one of the skills that can be implement in the future career for greater success if compare to those who did not learn Critical Thinking before. Stated in Regal, P.J. (1990,pg.80.) ‘ …critical thinking skills are also important from the individual’s point of view, if only interms of his or her relative ability to compete and survive’. Knowledge is powerful, if we have theskills to use it correctly. Millionaires could live without their elite schools certificate or their property,but intelligence were their main assets as they could not manage to reach the stage of millionairewithout their poor judgement in their business. After studying critical thinking for a semester, withthe knowledge that I have gained in the class and self-reading, therefore I do have the confidencethat I deserve to get B in critical thinking subject due to the support point that provided in this essayand also with the perseverance that I will study hard for final examination.(1,192 words)Reference:Bassham, G., Irwin, W., Nardone, H., & Wallace, James. M. (2008). Critical Thinking: A Student’sIntroduction. (3
            rd
            ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill.
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            Sample of critical thinking essay.

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