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How to Write a 5 Paragraph Essay

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five-paragraph essay format 

 

I. The Introductory Paragraph begins with a general statement about the world, life, people, etc. as a way to introduce the topic.   The scope of the paragraph gradually narrows until the last sentence in the paragraph is the specific thesis (the statement of the author’s position on the topic) to be proven in the essay.  The paragraph starts broadly and comes to a definite point. Basic information about the book, name of author, and central characters should be included in the course of the introductory paragraph. Remember, the most important sentence of the whole essay appears at the very end of the introduction–the thesis statement.  

II.  Body Paragraph One–starts with a clear topic sentence that states the writer’s first reason in support of the thesis statement.  For example, if my thesis stated that “Canadian Bacon and pineapple pizza is the best food for humanity,” then my first (topic) sentence in my first paragraph might say: “Canadian Bacon and pineapple pizza includes elements of all five essential food groups.”  The rest of this paragraph will provide examples and support of this topic sentence. 

Clincher/Transition sentence: The last sentence of each body paragraph should be a “clincher” for the paragraph.  To form a clincher, include one or two key words from the topic sentence and restate the essential idea of the topic sentence.  In addition, the best clincher sentence will also echo the thesis.  As one becomes more confident in writing essays, one may also use the clincher sentence to lead into the next paragraph.  

III.  Body Paragraph Two–states the second point in support of the thesis and develops that point throughout the paragraph.   Of course, this body paragraph ends with a clincher sentence.

IV. Body Paragraph Three–states the third point in support of the thesis statement and develops that point throughout the paragraph.   Usually this is the strongest argument, saved for last.  The paragraph ends with a clincher sentence.

V. The final Concluding Paragraph begins with a restatement of the thesis.  By restating the thesis one need not use such phrases as “in conclusion” since the reader will recognize the end of the essay from the restatement of the thesis.  This paragraph is in some ways an inversion of the introductory paragraph.  Next, the concluding paragraph includes one or two sentences that review the major points (from the body paragraphs) in support of the thesis.   Finally, the conclusion must answer the “So what?” question.  Why is the thesis important?  How is it relevant to the life and world of the reader?  Try to conclude with force and power and some idea of why the thesis is important or compelling. The very last sentence should be memorable. 

Remember: Never say “I.”  

Many thanks to Ole Anderson,  my eximious Shakespeare instructor at Washington State University. 

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  • Essay Writing for Standardized Tests: Tips for Writing a Five Paragraph Essay

Essay Writing for Standardized Tests: Tips for Writing a Five Paragraph Essay

Most, if not all, high school and college standardized tests include a writing portion. Students are provided a writing prompt and must then write an essay on the topic. Writing for standardized tests can strike fear in the hearts and minds of students of all ages, but it doesn’t have to. If you know what to expect and understand how to write a five paragraph essay, you will be prepared to tackle any essay writing prompt.

Types of Essays on Standardized Tests

When you begin to write your essay for a standardized test, you must first decide what type of essay you are being asked to write. There are many different types of essays, including narrative, expository, argumentative, persuasive, comparative, literary, and so on. The type of essay will determine your topic and thesis. Essays for standardized tests are typically either persuasive, in which you will answer a question, or literary, in which you will write about something you read.

For standardized tests, students usually have to write a five paragraph essay, which should be 500 to 800 words long and include an introductory paragraph, three supporting paragraphs and a concluding paragraph.

The First Paragraph: The Introduction

The first paragraph will introduce your topic. The introduction is the most important paragraph because it provides direction for the entire essay. It also sets the tone, and you want to grab the reader’s attention with interest and clarity. The best way to tackle the introduction is to:

  • Describe your main idea, or what the essay is about, in one sentence. You can usually use the essay writing prompt or question to form this sentence.
  • Develop a thesis statement, or what you want to say about the main idea. When the writing prompt is a question, your thesis is typically the answer to the question.
  • List three points or arguments that support your thesis in order of importance (one sentence for each).

Voila! You’ve just written your introductory paragraph.

The Second, Third and Fourth Paragraphs: Supporting Details

These three paragraphs form the body of the essay. They provide details, such as facts, quotes, examples and concrete statistics, for the three points in your introductory paragraph that support your thesis. Take the points you listed in your introduction and discuss each in one body paragraph. Here’s how:

  • First, write a topic sentence that summarizes your point. This is the first sentence of your paragraph.
  • Next, write your argument, or why you feel the topic sentence is true.
  • Finally, present your evidence (facts, quotes, examples, and statistics) to support your argument.

Now you have a body paragraph. Repeat for points two and three. The best part about introducing your main points in the first paragraph is that it provides an outline for your body paragraphs and eliminates the need to write in transitions between paragraphs.

The Fifth Paragraph: The Conclusion

The concluding paragraph must summarize the essay. This is often the most difficult paragraph to write. In your conclusion, you should restate the thesis and connect it with the body of the essay in a sentence that explains how each point supports the thesis. Your final sentence should uphold your main idea in a clear and compelling manner. Be sure you do not present any new information in the conclusion.

Parting Thoughts

When writing an essay for a standardized test, outline your essay and get through each paragraph as quickly as possible. Think of it as a rough draft. When your time is up, a complete essay will score more points than an incomplete essay because the evaluator is expecting a beginning, middle and an end.

If you have time to review your essay before your time is up, by all means do so! Make any revisions that you think will enhance your “rough draft” and be sure to check for any grammatical errors or misspellings.

Online instruction like  the Time4Writing essay writing courses  for elementary, middle and high school students can help children prepare for state and college-entrance standardized writing tests. These interactive writing classes build basic writing skills, explain essay types and structure, and teach students how to organize their ideas.

For general tips on test preparation and details about each state’s standardized tests, please visit our standardized test overview page .

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English 3201

Handout: How to Write an Opinion Essay

 

The basic five-paragraph essay structure, which you have
probably used many times by this point, works extremely well for an opinion
essay. It�s a starting point, and when you get to university your profs will expect a more complex approach to essay writing.
If you feel confident about your essay-writing skills, you can certainly branch
out into longer and more complex essays. But this basic five-paragraph outline
is a good starting point, especially if you feel uncertain of your ability.

 

An opinion essay exists to prove your main point � your thesis. This should be clearly stated
in your opening paragraph. Don�t
leave the reader to guess what your position is on the issue � make a clear
stand!

 

Next, develop
your argument in the body of your essay. Each paragraph should contain a single, clear idea that support your point of view. You
can use examples and illustration, cause-and-effect reasoning,
comparison/contrast or other methods of development to support your argument.

 

Research: Any
statements you make that would cause a reader to say, �Wait, how do you know
that�s true?� need to be backed up with documentation from outside sources (�I
saw something on TV about it one time� would not be considered adequate
documentation). Refer to the handout �What is Research?� for further details.

 

Remember that a
paragraph is three to five sentences that develop a single, clear idea.A good paragraph often begins with a topic sentence that sums up your main
idea.

 

        
Paragraph One — The introduction.Here you state the main idea of your entire
essay — the point you are trying to make or prove.This paragraph should include your thesis statement plus three reasons why you believe this
statement to be true.

 

        
Paragraphs Two, Three and Four.These are the body of your essay.Remember back in Paragraph One, you gave
three reasons for your opinion? Three reasons, three body paragraphs.Each of the body paragraphs should take one of your reasons and explain it in
more detail, citing sources where necessary.

 

        
Paragraph Five — The conclusion.Former Newfoundland premier Joey Smallwood
once said about giving speeches: "First I tell them what I’m going to tell
them, then I tell them, then I tell them what I told them."That’s how you write an essay.In the conclusion, tell them what you told
them.Sum up your argument by restating
your thesis statement and reminding the reader what your three reasons
were.In an argumentative essay, you can
finish with a "call to action" — tell the reader what you would like
them to do as a result.



Sample Five-Paragraph Essay

Subject: Should
parents have their children vaccinated?

 

 

Title

Author�s
Name

 

 

Paragraph
One
: Introduction

 

Three reasons for my opinion

 

Thesis statement

 

 

 

Paragraph
Two
: Develops the first reason by giving examples

 

Topic Sentence

 

 

Paragraph
Three:

Topic Sentence

 

Develops the second reason, giving facts and
statistics to support the statement.

 

Paragraph
Four:

Topic sentence

 

Develops third reason, giving an example

 

 

 

Paragraph
Five:
Conclusion

Restatement of thesis

Summary of reasons

 

 

 

 

 

Why You Should Vaccinate Your Kids

sample essay for student
use by Trudy Morgan-Cole

 

Since
Edward Jenner introduced the first successful smallpox vaccine by injecting
an eight-year-old boy with cowpox pus in 1796, vaccines have been an
important part of public health care around the world (�Edward Jenner�). Yet
today, many parents choose not to vaccinate their children. Because vaccines
are widely supported by research, have few side effects, and have proven
successful in halting the spread of disease, I believe it is important
that all parents continue to vaccinate their children.

 

All
major health organizations, including the Centres
for Disease Control and the World Health Organization, recommend vaccination.
The value of vaccination is supported by research from around the world,
and researchers are constantly working to improve the safety and
effectiveness of vaccines
. Epidemiologists, the scientists whose job is
to study the outbreak of disease, all recommend vaccination.

 

Many
parents worry about the safety of vaccines. While side effects do occur,
they are usually minor
, like redness or swelling around the site of an
injection. In Canada, only about one in a million doses of vaccine leads to serious side effects (�Fact and Fiction�). The
most famous study linking vaccines to autism, one which got many parents
worried about vaccination, has been proven false and the doctor who conducted
the study has had his medical license taken away (Triggle).

 

Around
the world, increased vaccination leads to better public health.
Diseases like smallpox and polio which once killed
and disabled millions of people are virtually unknown today thanks to
immunization programs. Yet in countries like Afghanistan and Pakistan where
the Taliban discourage immunization, rates of polio are on the rise again (Nordland).

 

If
and when you have children, please get them vaccinated. The risks are minimal
and you�ll not only be following the best advice of medical science and
protecting your own child from disease; you�ll be helping in the fight to
eradicate infectious diseases in your community and around the world.

 

Sources Cited

 

�Edward Jenner
(1749-1823),� BBC History: Historic Figures.
http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/historic_figures/jenner_edward.shtml

 

�Immunization Fact and
Fiction,� Public Health Agency of Canada.
http://www.phac-aspc.gc.ca/im/iyc-vve/fic

 

Nordland, Rod, �After Year of Decline, PolioCases in Afghanistan Triple in a
Year.� The New York Times, Jan. 17,
2012.
http://www.nytimes.com/2012/01/18/world/asia/after-years-of-decline-polio-cases-in-afghanistan-rise.html

 

Triggle, Nick, �MMR Doctor Struck from Register,� BBC News.
http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/health/8695267.stm

 

 

 

 

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Breathtaking Ideas for Your Research Paper Topics




Breathtaking Ideas for Your Research Paper Topics

Research paper topic has to be up-to-date, engaging, and scientific. It has to deal with the most typical problems of modern society. Students should choose topics based on their relevance to their community. If a teacher does not assign a specific research paper topic, it means that you can come up with your own idea.

It is not that easy to select a good research paper topic idea. You have to look through endless pages of many different sources to offer your idea to the world. Besides, it is important to make sure that the social, political, or economic problem of your choice is harshly discussed in the media. Find out whether this life problem has a lot of information available in free access to your further research.

Human health , problems with children, road safety, animal protection, women rights, and life cycle – all of these topics are perfect for your future project. It is too difficult to select only one idea. You may count on efficient online help when thinking about the best topic name. Avoid stable facts that do not change for years. It is better to talk about some innovations or sensations in your research paper. Do not take too fresh ideas as well – such topics may lack information to serve as your evidence. You may talk about food or impact of the internet on our life. Millions of sources are describing these topics in details. Learn here how to write A+ research paper .

Your research paper has to be 100% unique meaning no plagiarism is allowed. The rights of the official sources you might use are reserved, so you have to cite every phrase used in your research paper. Do not forget to include a separate References page (a.k.a. Bibliography ) at the end of your research project to distinguish the authors you were inspired by. Besides, your readers have a right to know where to find the sources. If you are using online sources in your research topic, mention them with the links. The main idea is that work cannot be good without all works cited included properly.

There are many social problems in the life of modern United States citizens. You should know where to get inspired while choosing your research paper topic.

We have collected some issues that may help you to select the best topic from the list. Please have a look at the research paper topics listed below to start searching for the right sources now!

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  15. Global warming causes and effects in the closest future.
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  31. Consumer rights are best protected in developed countries.
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  33. Search for the influence of the internet on music and cinematography industries. Pick some good thoughts.
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  45. The law that forbids drinking on the board of the airplane has improved the overall safety situation.
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  51. Obesity – any research topic.
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  54. How much the war on drugs cost Americans annually.
  55. Teen literacy suffers because of the regular text messaging – essay with pros and cons.
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Traffic Jam In Delhi Essay Writing

term

Delhi Traffic Police
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    Road Safety  Education About Road Safety

    Road Safety

    In today’s world road and transport has become an integral part of every human being. Every body is a road user in one shape or the other. The present transport system has minimized the distances but it has on the other hand increased the life risk. Every year road crashes result in loss of lakhs of lives and serious injuries to crores of people.

    In India itself about eighty thousand people are killed in road crashes every year which is thirteen percent of the total fatality all over the world. Man behind the wheel plays an important role in most of the crashes. In most of the cases crashes occurs either due to carelessness or due to lack of road safety awarenessof the road user.Hence, road safety education is as essential as any other basic skills of survival.

    It is an established fact that safe and efficient use of the traffic environment is a learned behaviour. All road users are the products of some form of education or training, however informal or intermittent. The importance of a formal training in road safety has been underestimated in the past because of the mistaken belief that the lessons to be learned are simple and the tasks to be performed rudimentary.

    Delhi Traffic Police established a Road Safety Cell in 1972 to generate awareness among road user. It is an educational wing of the Delhi Traffic Police and its main function is to educate the road users as regards the proper and safe use of roads as well as to develop the human resources who are responsive to public and are technically competent. The training programme is meant to encompass the whole range of road using citizens, from a common pedestrian to a vehicle driver.

    rrrrrr

    Target Groups

    • Drivers of Commercial Vehicles including Blue Line Bus, Trucks etc.
    • School Children
    • Pedestrians
    • Cyclists & Motor Cyclists
    • Autorickshaw drivers
    • Government vehicle drivers

    Educational Programmes

    • Regular programmes for the entire target groups including school children.
    • Road Safety March
    • Street play
    • Painting/Quiz/Essay Competitions
    • Distribution of Road Safety Literature

    Mode of Education

    Various tools have been adopted to impart road safety education to various categories of road users

    • Lectures
    • Film Shows
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    • Distribution of Road Safety Literature
    • On the spot help to the road users like OPD Patients, pedestrians, cyclist etc.
    • Fixing of Reflective tapes on cycles
    • Organising Road Safety Awareness programmes in Association with NGO’s
    • Road Safety Awareness involving RWAs Transport unions and Trade unions
    • Education through PA System
    Untitled-4

    Other Activities

    • Health Check-up Camps for Delhi Police Drivers
    • Designing of Road Safety Literature.
    • Display of Annual Road Safety Exhibition at Pragati Maidan during I.I.T.F
    • Organising exhibitions on special occasions like Diwali Mela, Perfect Health Mela.


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    • हिन्दी

    You Wouldn’t Like To Attend This Social Gathering- Traffic Jams In Delhi

    Posted on October 24, 2011

    By Diksha Langthasa :

    Everyone who has lived in Delhi for even a day has been bitten by the traffic jam bug. Everyone’s experienced it and everyone at one point or another has reached their destinations late by virtue of the traffic jams. And who can forget the times when someone went bonkers and just honked to make you move your vehicle when there was absolutely no possibility. Traffic Jams may be the most frequent social gathering after birthday parties and weddings.

     This gathering is no exclusive event at one particular place. The most congested roads Delhi lead to commercial areas like CP, Karol Bagh and Chandni Chowk. While in CP it is caused by the overwhelming magnitude of vehicles, in the latter two it is the narrow roads encroachment of road space by street vendors. The solutions that come to your mind would be regulating flow of vehicles where the magnitude is causing the problem and banning street vendors from their own business to prevent encroachment. However, the glitch in these solutions is that both interfere with people’s means of livelihood.

     Also at a particular time in the year, as Kaveri of SRCC says, almost everyone gets to be a part. That is when it pours cats, dogs and the whole animal kingdom. Roads get clogged with water, one has to move at a snail’s pace and usually either reach their destinations very late or fail to reach at all. It is unfortunate for city dwellers to face this as everyone has responsibilities to handle and deadlines to meet. And such traffic jams just send their day haywire. Where has this been most visible in Delhi? -On the way to the T3 terminal in IGI; Lodhi Road; and, all over Delhi!

     Another reason would be when protestors take to streets and may also resort to violent practices like torching empty vehicles. The protestors may feel that their cause is more important than anything else and fail to see that people will participate when they support them. The protests that obstructed the flow of traffic include those by Gujjars (Mathura Road, Noida Mor) and Anna Hazare’s fast (Pragati Maidan, North Campus). It is important that they keep in mind that people often have different priorities.

     And another way we contribute to this phenomenon – well, it is quite known that jay walking though made illegal is still prevalent. Who would take the pains of walking up till the zebra crossing to cross a road when we can do it from anywhere on the road. It is enough for a single jaywalker crossing from the middle of the road and causing vehicles to slow down or stop to let you cross the road to cause congestion during the peak hour. Yet, in our hurriedness, we forget what our actions may cause.

     Another reason –

    Today, the bigger the weddings, the better they are. And that is when jubilant baraatis descend on already crowded streets to celebrate a sacred union. Often during the wedding season(November — January) there are traffic jams in roads in our localities about which all we can do is complain. Why? What about our own baraatis?

     Why is it Important to tackle Traffic Jams:

     Traffic jams, as everyone may agree, cause immense wastage of our time. This time, which cannot be regained, that is, a sunk cost, could have been used to do something more valuable than wait in long lines of vehicles just to get to the other side of the road. This may lead to various consequences like missing a flight or train or emergency reaching their destinations late.

     An ecological consequence is the wastage of fossil fuel while people wait for short periods when it becomes cumbersome to turn the ignition off and on again and again. Also, the amount of emissions due to the longer hours of travel does nothing for the Earth’s or our benefit.

     Saloni Gupta of Khalsa College adds that traffic jams also supplements to enraging commuters leading to so many incidents of road rage. It is not difficult to imagine what part of traffic jams makes people angrier.

     Angad Arora, an auto enthusiast, also said that the durability of tyres are effected due to repeated braking and accelerating of vehicles during jams.

     I think enough reasons have been given to highlight the difficulties caused by traffic jams in our city.

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    Financial Post







    16 free online business classes that are actually worth your time

    Increasingly, it’s possible to get an extremely well-rounded business education from the best professors in the world without enrolling in a university or even leaving your house

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    16 free online business classes that are actually worth your time

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    First Wharton decided to offer the core of its first year MBA program online. Now Harvard Business School is exploring  online options as well.

    Increasingly, it’s possible to get an extremely well-rounded business education from the best professors in the world without enrolling in a university or even leaving your house.

    While online courses won’t necessarily give you the pay boost of a traditional two-year MBA and probably won’t land you a job on Wall Street, they can give you many of the core skills taught at top universities and business schools.

    We’ve found some of the best and most useful free online business courses out there. We’ve noted which courses are self-paced and which are being released more formally and sequentially. The Coursera, Udacity, and EdX platforms all offer the opportunity to complete coursework and earn a certificate for completing the course, but any of these can be taken more casually.

    Yale: Financial Markets with Bob Shiller

    Yale: Financial Markets with Bob Shiller

    YouTube

    Platform: Coursera

    Length/Start date: The formal, graded course starts in February 2014, though an earlier, self paced version is available from Yale. That version has 23 lectures that are 75 minutes each.

    Time commitment: Six to 12 hours a week.

    Why you should take it: For one thing, it’s an opportunity to learn from Bob Shiller, the most recent Nobel Laureate in Economics and one of the most important thinkers in finance. Shiller has been essential in helping us understand how bubbles can form in financial markets.

    The course is an effort to give an understanding of the theory behind financial markets and “its relation to the  history, strengths, and imperfections of such institutions as banking, insurance, securities, futures, and other derivatives markets, and the future of these institutions over the next century.”

    The course is a good foundation for people in business to understand the environment they work in and is interesting for econ and finance buffs.

    Stanford: Entrepreneurship Through The Lens Of Venture Capital

    Stanford: Entrepreneurship Through The Lens Of Venture Capital

    YouTube

    Platform: Stanford/ITunesU

    Length/Start date: A total of 11 self-paced lectures.

    Time commitment: Each lecture varies, but the average length is about an hour.

    Why you should take it: The idea of getting venture capital backing and scaling a business from nothing to an IPO sounds incredibly intimidating. This course is an effort to explain that process, from the perspective of the people that invest in tiny startups with the expectation of making a massive return.

    The course comes from Stanford, which has produced its share of successful entrepreneurs, including Sergey Brin and Larry Page. A variety of guest lecturers, both successful venture capitalists and investors, give advice as part of the course.

    Stanford: Game Theory

    Stanford: Game Theory

    YouTube

    Platform: Coursera

    Length/Start date: Started October 14th, runs for 9 weeks.

    Time commitment/prerequisites: Takes five to seven hours a week. Requires basic probability theory, and lightweight calculus (the ability to take a derivative).

    Why you should take it: Made famous by mathematician John Nash, the subject of the book and film “A Beautiful Mind,” game theory is the mathematical study of how rational and irrational actors interact in strategic, competitive situations.

    It looks at the incentives and behavior driving everything from what we traditionally think of as games to competition among firms, trading behavior on stock markets, and Google keyword auctions.

    The University of Pennsylvania/Wharton: Gamification

    The University of Pennsylvania/Wharton: Gamification

    YouTube

    Platform: Coursera

    Length/Start date: Starts January 27, and lasts 10 weeks.

    Time commitment: Four to eight hours a week.

    Why you should take it: This course was Wharton’s first MOOC offering. Gamification is one of the hottest buzzwords in business. It’s the application of techniques from video games and their design to non-game problems, like managing people or solving business problems.

    The best games leverage psychology and technology, just like good managers do, and organizations are increasingly using tools and techniques learned from video games to boost productivity, in human resources, and to engage customers. This course looks at how gamification works and can be used most effectively.

    Columbia: Financial Engineering And Risk Management (Part 1)

    Columbia: Financial Engineering And Risk Management (Part 1)

    YouTube

    Platform:  Coursera

    Length/Start date: Starts October 28, and lasts seven weeks.

    Time commitment/prerequisites: Requires seven to 10 hours a week. Students need undergraduate calculus, linear algebra, and statistics. Good Excel skills are helpful.

    Why you should take it: This is a more involved and technical finance class, but it’s well worth it for people that want a deeper understanding of how markets work and how to invest.

    The class focuses on how to build the sorts of models involved in “financial engineering,” the creation of derivative securities (investments with prices based on other assets). It will also look at the role that some of these assets, particularly mortgage backed securities, played in the financial crisis.

    There’s a follow-up course that goes into even more detail.

    Duke: How To Reason And Argue

    Duke: How To Reason And Argue

    Coursera/YouTube

    Platform:  Coursera

    Length/Start date: Started August 26, and lasts 12 weeks.

    Time commitment: Five to six hours a week, no prerequisites.

    Why you should take it: While it might be couched in more business-friendly terms like “negotiation,” “sales,” or “motivation,” a lot of business is about convincing people to do things that they don’t really want to — accept a lesser deal or push through exhaustion to get a project done, for example.

    This course gives a detailed tutorial on how to break down someone else’s argument, recognize flawed or vague reasoning, and construct a brilliant argument of your own. 

    Duke: A Beginner’s Guide To Irrational Behavior

    Duke: A Beginner's Guide To Irrational Behavior

    YouTube

    Platform: Coursera

    Length/Start date: The course ran last spring and all materials are available. It’s designed to last eight weeks.

    Time commitment: Seven to 10 hours a week, and no background is required other than a “curiosity about human nature.”

    Why you should take it: People aren’t always rational. They do unpredictable things that are often baffling to those who try to think rationally.

    The course is taught by Duke’s Dan Ariely, author of the best-selling book “Predictably Irrational” and one of the most prominent scholars studying this through the lens of behavioral economics. A student who’s taken 36 MOOCs said it was the one he’d most recommend to a first-time MOOC student.

    The idea is to introduce students to a range of cases where people make decisions inconsistent with standard economic theory, which assumes rational decision making, and think about how insights about that sort of behavior can be applied.

    The University of Pennsylvania/Wharton: An Introduction To Marketing

    The University of Pennsylvania/Wharton: An Introduction To Marketing

    YouTube

    Platform: Coursera

    Length/Start date: Nine weeks long, and started October 14

    Time commitment/prerequisites: Requires five to six hours a week. Though no formal prerequisites are required, this is an MBA course, so a business background helps.    

    Why you should take it: Wharton has one of the highest-ranked marketing programs in the world, and this course is team-taught by three of its stars: Peter Fader, David Bell, and Barbara E. Khan.

    Anyone interested in starting a business needs to learn how to relate to customers and sell their products, so this is an absolutely essential course.

    The University of Pennsylvania/Wharton: An Introduction To Financial Accounting

    The University of Pennsylvania/Wharton: An Introduction To Financial Accounting

    YouTube/Coursera

    Platform: Coursera

    Length/start date: Runs ten weeks, and started September 15

    Time commitment/prerequisites: Six to eight hours a week, and no background in the area required.  

    Why you should take it: Learning the basics of accounting and how to read a balance sheet, income statement, and cash flow is incredibly useful for just about anybody. The course is also designed for students with no background in the subject, and the only math requirement is knowing how to add and subtract.

    As the professor puts it, accounting is “the language of business.”  

    The course is also offered by one of the most prestigious business schools in the country, and taught by one of Wharton’s senior and most highly regarded faculty members, Brian Bushee, a 13-year veteran of Wharton and former Harvard Business School professor. Though it’s a bit more restrictive than the entirely self-directed courses, and new material will be released periodically, you get more of a community feel and more resources.

    “You will not only better understand what people in the business media are talking about,” the course description says, “you will also be able to notice when they don’t know what they are talking about!”

    The University of Pennsylvania/Wharton: An Introduction To Operations Management

    The University of Pennsylvania/Wharton: An Introduction To Operations Management

    YouTube

    Platform: Coursera

    Length/Start date: Eight weeks long, and started September 30

    Time commitment/prerequisites: Five to seven hours a week. The course is “designed for business students and executives,” but there are no academic or math requirements.

    Why you should take it: This is the second course in Wharton’s “MBA Foundation Series,” which teaches a lot of what a first-year student enrolled at the school would learn. Anyone who has hopes to rise from being an employee to managing or running a company needs to learn some of the key principles behind analyzing and improving business processes, boosting productivity, and meeting higher standards.

    The professor, Christian Terwiesch, is a multiple award-winner for his teaching at Wharton, and wrote one of the most popular textbooks on operations management.

    The University of Pennsylvania/Wharton: An Introduction To Corporate Finance

    The University of Pennsylvania/Wharton: An Introduction To Corporate Finance

    YouTube

    Platform: Coursera

    Length/start date: Runs for six weeks, and starts October 28

    Time commitment: Takes six to eight hours a week, no formal requirements, but it’s a course taught to MBA students who have managed to get into Wharton, so it starts at a high level.   

    Why you should take it: This is an entirely different set of tools than the ones you learn in accounting, helping provide the basics of valuing companies, valuing stocks and bonds, and using other tools to analyze financial decisions.

    You can’t do much better for a pure MBA experience, as these are based on lectures given to Wharton students, and you’re learning from one of the acknowledged masters of the subject in Franklin Allen, a 30-year veteran of the school who wrote one of the most popular textbooks available on the subject.

    Udacity: How To Build A Startup

    Udacity: How To Build A Startup

    YouTube

    Platform: Udacity

    Length/Start date: Self paced

    Time commitment/prerequisites: Students are free to pace themselves, and Blank suggests that they have at least some idea of the business they want to create.

    Why you should take it: This course is a bit unusual, in that it’s not produced in partnership with a university or traditional professor, and it’s not about a traditional academic subject.

    It’s a practical and thorough guide to how to create your own company by successful serial entrepreneur Steve Blank, based on an approach he’s been using and teaching for years. It takes would-be entrepreneurs through everything from developing a viable product to figuring out how they’re actually going to make money.

    MIT/UC Berkeley: Introductory Macro And Microeconomics

    MIT/UC Berkeley: Introductory Macro And Microeconomics

    YouTube

    Platform: MIT OpenCourseWare / UC Berkeley on ITunesU

    Length/Start date: Self paced

    Time commitment/prerequisites: The course is taken entirely independently. Some basic, single variable calculus is required, but no more than you’d learn in a high school calculus class.  

    Why you should take it: Economics has a bad reputation, but it’s absolutely vital.

    This introductory microeconomics class is one of the most popular that MIT has made available, and is taught by Jonathan Gruber. He’s been teaching there for 20 years and is an extremely prominent economist who helped design Massachusetts’ groundbreaking health-care reform.

    Economics, and microeconomics in particular, are about how we make the best decision given scarce resources like money or time. That’s useful in itself, as is this course as background for more advanced work. 

    Berkeley also offers its introductory micro class online, along with introductory macroeconomics, and intermediate courses in both. Also worth checking out is international economics for those who take a more global angle.

    MIT: Innovation And Commercialization

    MIT: Innovation And Commercialization

    YouTube

    Platform: EdX

    Length/start date: Runs for 13 weeks, and started September 16

    Time commitment/prerequisites: 12 hours a week, and no prerequisites required other than an interest in the subject.  

    Why you should take it: It’s one thing to talk about coming up with an innovative product, but it’s another thing entirely to do it. The same goes for making an existing company more agile and quicker to come up with new ideas.

    This course takes an intelligent look at how innovation happens in the real world, rather than how people talk about it in meetings. It’s taught by Eugene Fitzgerald, who came up with important innovations in his own right during his time at ATT’s Bell Labs and later; and Andreas Wankerl, who runs the Innovation Interface at MIT and Cornell.

    Columbia: Economics Of Money And Banking

    Columbia: Economics Of Money And Banking

    YouTube

    Platform: Coursera

    Length/Start date: Lasts seven weeks, and started September 1, though material will remain available. Part two starts October 13.

    Time commitment/prerequisites: Five to seven hours a week. Students who take the course at Barnard and Columbia have completed intermediate macro and microeconomics, but students have also done fine without having taken those courses.

    Why you should take it: For the last five years, the economy has been front and center in the news as our banking and economic systems all but collapsed, were rescued, and are slowly coming back. 

    Behind the crisis and behind the recovery is an enormously complex system that relatively few people understand. This course is an effort to explain how money markets work, which is essential for anybody who truly wants to understand how everything moves in the economy.

    MIT: Introduction To Lean Six Sigma Methods

    MIT: Introduction To Lean Six Sigma Methods

    YouTube

    Platform:  MIT OpenCourseWare

    Length/Start date: Self paced

    Time commitment: Taught in three eight-hour sessions to students.

    Why you should take it: Lean Six Sigma principles are used throughout the business world to control quality and constantly improve manufacturing.

    The strategies originated at Toyota and Motorola respectively and have been widely adopted throughout the business world. This course aims to teach people how to apply the core principles to boost quality, customer satisfaction, productivity, and financial performance.

    The course focuses on the aerospace industry, but the principles can be applied anywhere.

    BONUS: Ben Bernanke on the Federal Reserve and MIT’s Andrew Lo on Financial Theory

    BONUS: Ben Bernanke on the Federal Reserve and MIT's Andrew Lo on Financial Theory

    YouTube

    The Bernanke Lectures

    Before joining the Federal Reserve, Ben Bernanke was an academic economist and professor at Princeton University. Last year, he returned to his roots with a series of four very thorough and valuable lectures on the history of the Federal Reserve, the conduct of monetary policy, and the financial crisis.

    Financial Theory with Andrew Lo

    Andrew Lo is one of the leading minds in the world when it comes to hedge funds and financial engineering. His course for MBAs at MIT’s Sloan School of Management on financial theory is definitely worth a look for those interested in the field.

    It’s not just what you know, but how you use it >> 18 People Whose Incredible Work Ethic Paid Off


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    What distance learning programs are offered at Harvard?

    Several distance education programs are available. In addition to the programs listed below, Harvard offers a variety of open learning opportunities, including online courses and modules. A full list of online courses and other forms of digital learning from across Harvard is available.

    Through the edX learning platform, founded by Harvard and The Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), anyone with an Internet connection can gain access to courses from Harvard, MIT, and other partner academic institutions. View  classes available from HarvardX  or  read more about edX .

    The Harvard Extension School

    The Division of Continuing Education and the Harvard Extension School offers many courses for credit over the Internet. The Internet is used to deliver course lectures with video, audio, and multimedia. Live lectures are recorded and made available on demand through “streaming video” technology. Students use additional technologies to work on exams and homework assignments and to communicate with the instructor and other students in the class.

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    Executive Education : Harvard Kennedy School offers a series of online Executive Education programs designed to reach an audience of nonprofit and NGO managers from around the world, who, given the costs and distances, are not able to attend on-campus Executive Education.

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    Master of Science Degree in Health Care Management : The Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health offers a master’s program in health care management partially online. The program features intensive weekend and summer sessions on-site, complemented by a distance learning component. The program allows participants to continue working full-time while pursuing the degree. The unique courses incorporate features of continuous learning, where skills learned in the classroom can be applied immediately to the participant’s work site.

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    Princeton University

    Home / Colleges /Princeton University

    A charter was granted in 1746 for “the education of youth in the learned languages and in the liberal arts and sciences” to the Province of New Jersey in the name of King George II. The school, known as the College of New Jersey, was unique from the beginning as the charter allowed for any religious denomination to attend. Classes began with ten students, young men, who met for class in the parlor of Reverend Jonathan Dickinson in Elizabeth, New Jersey. In 1756, the school moved to Princeton.

    The first building on campus, Nassau Hall, was named for King William III, Prince of Orange of the House of Nassau, was the largest in the Colonies. For almost 50 years, the entire college was housed in Nassau Hall and, during the American Revolution, it survived occupation by armies on both sides. The building still bears a cannonball scar from the Battle of Princeton.

    A new charter was developed in 1780, declaring that the trustees no longer had to swear allegiance to the King of England and the Continental Congress met in Nassau Hall in 1783, making it the capital of the United States for a short time. With nine members of the Continental Congress being alumni, Princeton boasts the highest number of founding fathers than any other American or British institution. This led to another revision in the charter requiring trustees to declare allegiance to the United States in 1799.

    The College of New Jersey was renamed Princeton University in 1896 along with an informal motto “Princeton in the nations service.” In 1902, Woodrow Wilson, who would go on to become President of the United States, became president of the university. Under his direction, the faculty doubled in size and curriculum was revised to include general studies for freshmen and sophomores.

    Today, every student who attends Princeton shares a tradition of academic excellence that began more than 260 years ago. From the Dickinson parlor’s library of a few books to today’s Firestone Library, which contains more than seven million volumes to Nassau Hall, which has grown into a campus of more than 500 acres, Princeton is constantly evolving.

    Although Princeton began as a school to education young men, it became co-educational in 1969. Approximately 5,200 undergraduates and 2,600 graduate students now learn from the more than 1,100 full- and part-time faculty members. Almost all undergraduate and two-thirds of graduate students live on campus.

    Princeton University Accreditation Details

    Princeton University is regionally accredited by the Middle States Commission on Higher Education. This accreditation indicates that a voluntary, non-governmental association has found that the university promotes educational excellence with diverse missions, student populations and resources. In addition, specific programs offered at Princeton have received accreditation from organizations within a particular industry.

    Princeton University Application Requirements

    Undergraduate students who wish to attend Princeton should complete the Common Application or the Universal College Application. Students must also provide a School Report, Counselor Recommendation and official transcript along with two teacher recommendations. Students must also provide official SAT or ACT scores.

    Graduate students must complete the application and provide a statement of academic purpose that outlines goals for graduate study. Students must provide a resume and letters of recommendation along with official transcripts from all colleges and universities attended. Students must also provide GRE or GMAT scores as well.

    Tuition and Financial Aid

    Undergraduate tuition at Princeton is $45,150 for full-time attendance. Full-time graduate school tuition is $43,450 or $3,280 per credit hour. Approximately 60 percent of all students who attend Princeton receive financial aid. In 2001, Princeton became the first university to offer aid recipients a financial aid package that replaces loans with grant aid that students are not required to repay. In 2014-15, the average aid grant covered 100 percent of tuition receiving aid with an average grant of $46,000. In addition, 83 percent of recent seniors graduated debt-free and the average indebtedness for students who did obtain loans privately was $6,600. Students must complete the Free Application for Federal Student Aid (FAFSA) to qualify for financial aid.

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    Master of Arts in Psychology

    Students in the Master of Arts in Psychology program at Princeton University are prepared for careers in research and teaching in the industry. Students are able to specialize their studies in:

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    • Psychology of Inequality
    • Social Neuroscience
    • Social Psychology
    • Systems Neuroscience

    Students work closely with a faculty adviser in order to develop and conduct research. Students take advance seminars while continuing research projects that begin in their first year. They will be required to prepare a written report of the project as well. Students must master methods and techniques in their chosen field of study, complete thesis-related research and write a thesis. Students must also write and submit for publication research conducted during their studies.

    Students should meet with an adviser before they begin selecting courses to be sure that those chosen meet the requirements of their concentration. Because the Princeton Graduate School consists of scholars engaged in ongoing research, discussion and scholarly exchange, students are required to be present on campus a majority of the days of the week for the academic term. All candidates must spend at least one year in residence in Princeton or in the vicinity. Graduate study is full-time and students are expected to pursue degree-related work while attending the university. Although there may be the availability of some online courses throughout the graduate program, the majority of classes are only offered in a traditional format. Students must be in good administrative standing in order to receive their advanced degree. Transfer credits are not accepted as part of any graduate degree at Princeton. Students who wish to transfer to Princeton must submit to a general examination in the subject after meeting residence requirements and any other departmental requirements.

    Some of the courses required for completion of the degree include, but are not limited to:

    • Proseminar in Basic Problems in Psychology: Cognitive Psychology
    • Quantitative Analysis in Psychological Research
    • Research Seminar in Cognitive Psychology
    • Design and Interpretation of Social Psychological Research
    • Current Issues in Neuroscience and Behavor

    Although Princeton does not offer an online master’s degree in psychology, the school does provide a high-quality educational experience that prepares students for leadership roles in the human service industry.

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    X Men Days of Future Past Magneto’s Speech

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    Magneto gives a speech for everybody before executing the president.

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    Copyright Disclaimer Under Section 107 of the Copyright Act 1976, allowance is made for “fair use” for purposes such as criticism, comment, news reporting, teaching, scholarship, and research. Fair use is a use permitted by copyright statute that might otherwise be infringing. Non-profit, educational or personal use tips the balance in favor of fair use. No copyright infringement intended.

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    Copyright Disclaimer Under Section 107 of the Copyright Act 1976, allowance is made for “fair use” for purposes such as criticism, comment, news reporting, teaching, scholarship, and research. Fair use is a use permitted by copyright statute that might otherwise be infringing. Non-profit, educational or personal use tips the balance in favor of fair use. No copyright infringement intended.

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    Copyright Disclaimer Under Section 107 of the Copyright Act 1976, allowance is made for “fair use” for purposes such as criticism, comment, news reporting, teaching, scholarship, and research. Fair use is a use permitted by copyright statute that might otherwise be infringing. Non-profit, educational or personal use tips the balance in favor of fair use. No copyright infringement intended.

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    Punjabi Dress Cutting Full Clarity

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    Nursing Ethics Essay — essays research papers

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    Nursing Ethics – Ethical Dilemmas Faced By Nurses Everyday

    • Patricia Bratianu
    • Careers | General
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    ethics

    Ethics is the study of practical reasoning. Nurses face ethical dilemmas on a daily basis. Ethical behavior is determined by many factors. What one person considers ethical may be vastly different from a person approaching a situation with a different point of view.

    The word ethics is derived from the Greek word for character. Nurses are charged with using ethical concepts in their delivery of patient care. Ethical concepts include providing care which is good, correct, and rational. Patients need to be provided opportunities to express their freedom of choice in procuring services and determining how they want to be cared for. The ethical nurse recognizes that he or she is obligated to provide individualized care which will assist the patient reach and/ or maintain his or her highest level of wellbeing. Ethical nursing care is based upon rational science and decision making.

    There are four core concepts which are essential to a professional nursing practice. They are respect for patient autonomy; the duty to act with beneficence; no maleficence; and justice.

    Nurses provide respect for patient autonomy by recognizing and enhancing a patient’s freedom of choice, respecting patient choices, and providing privacy. The National League for Nursing issued a statement which document’s patient rights.  Nurses are expected to uphold the rights of patients and advocate for patients’ who are not able to advocate for themselves.

    Nurses demonstrate beneficence by helping people reach their highest level of wellbeing. This may be achieved by providing care directly to an individual patient or developing health care policies which affect a large population.

    Nurses are obligated not to harm patients. This is the principal of nonmaleficence.  Nurses often do have to perform procedures which make patients’ feel uncomfortable. An example is administering an injection. A patent needs medication to relieve a symptom, however, in order to relieve a symptom, the nurse may cause discomfort. Nonmaleficence must be balanced by beneficence, while providing care. The intent of the nurse provides a treatment which benefits the patient must outweigh the discomfort caused. The nurse’s intent must be to help, not harm.

    Justice and fairness in nursing care is often related to the delivery of services. The current health care reform plan is a result of people recognizing that the current health care system needs revision. Controversy arises over what is fair, equitable, and economically feasible.

    Nurses are involved at every level of the healthcare system, making decisions, and assisting with policy development.

    Many experts state that the nursing concept of ethical care is an exceptional one which needs to be implemented throughout healthcare. It is similar to the medical model of ethics in that it deals with life and death issues. The nursing model is one of individual patient empowerment. Ethical nurses lead the way for health care reform which emphasizes healing even when curing is impossible. It places quality of life in the forefront.

    Ethical dilemmas which nurses face are vast in scope. Examples include diverse topics such as staffing ratios, and end of life care. Dilemmas may occur while caring for patients with disabilities which may place them at risk for self-harm. For example, an elderly patient may want to walk without supervision. The nurse desires to promote independence, but the risk of patient injury due to falls may be great. The dilemma is how to balance the contrasting issues. Which is more important- independence or safety? Each patient, family, and healthcare team faces challenges such as this on a daily basis. Larger challenges may be encountered while working with families who have newborns  with physical or mental disabilities . Is it ethical to subject a child to an unproven procedure which will cause pain if it gives them their only chance of survival? Is it best to prolong life when the quality of life is poor?

    As caregivers on the front lines of health care, nurses are faced with ethical dilemmas at growing rate. Technology is enabling sick people to survive serious illnesses. Yet recent studies indicate that people are surviving, yet not living well. Nurses have a role in implementing educational and clinical practices which address the issues that high tech care presents.

    There are not enough health care resources available in the world. The resources are unequally distributed. Nurses have a role in ensuring that distribution is fair.

    Patients with various cultural backgrounds and personal experiences may present with diverse opinions of what is ethical. The nurse can serve as a resource to ensure that each person feels that their opinion counts.

    • About
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    Patricia Bratianu

    Patricia Bratianu

    Patricia has been a Registered Nurse for almost forty years in a wide variety of settings. As a Registered Nurse, she realized that conventional healthcare was not meeting the needs of all patients. She became an herbalist and obtained a PhD in Natural Health. Patricia is a professional member of the American Herbalist’s Guild, passing the stringent peer reviewed process to become a Registered Herbalist.
    Patricia Bratianu

    Latest posts by Patricia Bratianu ( see all )

    • The Brave Nurses of World War I – July 8, 2015
    • Nursing Ethics – Ethical Dilemmas Faced By Nurses Everyday – June 25, 2015
    • Ten Tips to Getting Hired for Nursing Graduates – June 25, 2015

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    Ethics In Counseling And Consulting Profession Nursing Essay

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    10th International Conference on Networks & Communications (NeCoM 2018)

    June 23~24, 2018, Copenhagen, Denmark

    Scope & Topics       Program Schedule      Conference Photos

    10th Conference on Networks & Communications (NeCoM 2018) will provide an excellent international forum for sharing knowledge and results in theory, methodology and applications of Computer Networks & Data Communications.

    Read More

    Scope & Topics

    10th International Conference on Networks & Communications (NeCoM 2018) will provide an excellent international forum for sharing knowledge and results in theory, methodology and applications of Computer Networks & Data Communications. The conference looks for significant contributions to the Computer Networks & Communications for wired and wireless networks in theoretical and practical aspects. Original papers are invited on computer Networks, Network Protocols and Wireless Networks, Data communication Technologies, and Network Security. The aim of the conference is to provide a platform to the researchers and practitioners from both academia as well as industry to meet and share cutting-edge development in the field.

    Authors are solicited to contribute to the conference by submitting articles that illustrate research results, projects, surveying works and industrial experiences that describe significant advances in the following areas, but are not limited to

    Topics of interest include, but are not limited to, the following:

    • Heterogeneous Wireless Networks
    • Adhoc and Sensor Networks
    • High Speed Networks
    • Internet and Web Applications
    • Measurement & Performance Analysis
    • Mobile & Broadband Wireless Internet
    • Mobile Networks & Wireless LAN
    • Multimedia Networking
    • Network Architectures
    • Network Based Applications
    • Network Operations & management
    • Network Protocols & Wireless Networks
    • Network Security
    • Networked Systems Applications and Services
    • Next Generation Internet
    • Next Generation Web Architectures
    • Optical Networks and Systems
    • Peer to Peer and Overlay Networks
    • QoS and Resource Management
    • Recent Trends & Developments in Computer Networks
    • Routing, Switching and Addressing Techniquesg
    • Self-Organizing Networks and Networked Systems
    • Signal Processing for Communications
    • Ubiquitous Networks
    • Wireless Communications
    • Wireless Multimedia Systems

    Paper Submission

    Authors are invited to submit papers through the conference submission system by June 09, 2018.

    Submissions must be original and should not have been published previously or be under consideration for publication while being evaluated for this conference. The proceedings of the conference will be published by Computer Science Conference Proceedings in Computer Science & Information Technology (CS & IT) series (Confirmed).

    Submit

    Selected papers from NeCoM 2018, after further revisions, will be published in the special issues of the following journals.

    • International Journal of Computer Networks & Communications (IJCNC) – ERA Indexed, UGC listed
    • International Journal of Network Security & Its Applications (IJNSA) – ERA Indexed, UGC listed
    • International Journal of Computer Science & Information Technology (IJCSIT) – UGC, INSPEC Indexed
    • International Journal of Wireless & Mobile Networks (IJWMN)- ERA Indexed
    • International Journal on Applications of Graph Theory in Wireless Ad hoc Networks and Sensor Networks (GRAPH-HOC)
    • International Journal of Next-Generation Networks (IJNGN)
    • International Journal of UbiComp (IJU)
    • International Journal of Ad hoc, Sensor & Ubiquitous Computing (IJASUC)
    • International Journal of Distributed and Parallel systems (IJDPS)
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    Important Dates

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    Submission Deadline : June 09, 2018

    Authors Notification : June 15, 2018

    Registration & Camera-Ready Paper Due : June 18, 2018

    Courtesy

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    Invited Talk

    Jelena Vasiljevic

    University of Belgrade
    Institute Mihajlo Pupin

    Other Conferences

    • ADCO 2018
    • CMCA 2018
    • CSITEC 2018
    • SEAS 2018
    • SP 2018

    Proceedings

    The Registration fee is 390 Euro. Hard copy of the proceedings will be distributed during the Conference. The softcopy will be available on AIRCC Digital Library

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    UW Undergraduate Advising: Dentistry

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    Pre-Dental Program

    What does Walsh’s Pre-Dentistry program entail?

    Students in our Pre-Dental program major in either Biology or Chemistry. Most choose Biology as their major and minor in Chemistry. Those with a strong math background may choose to major in Chemistry with a minor in Biology. Choosing to major and minor in these sciences strengthens our students’ application portfolios. Advisors work with them to recommend the concentration that suits them best.

    Like medical schools, Pre-Dentistry colleges also look for individuals who are diverse and academically strong. Students in this program should maintain a minimum 3.3 to 3.5 GPA and be involved in volunteer service, internships and leadership roles on campus.

    What type of career can I look forward to with a Pre-Dentistry degree?

    Nearly 100% of students in Walsh’s Pre-Dentistry program attend the post-graduate schools of their choice. Upon completion of their post-graduate programs, Walsh graduates are practicing dentistry throughout Ohio and across the country. Many completed the DDS program at The Ohio State University or Case Western Reserve University.

    What makes Walsh’s Pre-Dental program unique?

    Pre-Dentistry students take the DAT, a standardized test for entry into dental school, at the end of their junior year. Their courses and lab work prepare them for this exam, as well as the rigors of dental school training.

    Generally speaking, what Pre-Dental courses will I need to take?

    Courses vary depending on whether the student chooses to major in Biology or Chemistry. Some specific courses for Biology majors include:

    • Microbiology
    • Anatomy and Physiology
    • Organic Chemistry
    • Physics
    • Molecular Pharmacology
    • Biochemistry

    What experiential learning or internship opportunities are available?

    Students gain real-world experience through:

    • Summer research initiatives at Walsh or other organizations in our community.
    • Opportunities to take their studies abroad.

    Kristine Byrum – Class of 2018

    Majors: Biology Pre-Dental, Interdisciplinary Studies
    Minors: Psychology, History

    Walsh has really pushed me outside my comfort zone and taken me places that I did not expect. I came to Walsh as a Biology Pre-Medicine student and a member of the Honors program. My freshman year that was all I was – a student. I was able to do well in school, but I did not really explore any clubs or activities on campus.

    The following summer I realized that being a dentist would be a perfect fit for me, a great way to combine my love for both creativity and health care.When I returned to school the following year, I began to get involved. I joined Pre-Dental Club, Pre-Health Club, Intramurals and Dance Marathon. I also started a book club and became an Orientation Leader and a Teaching Assistant for the Anatomy and Physiology labs. Getting involved expanded my horizons so much that I even signed up for a Global Learning trip to Uruguay.

    Read More of Kristine’s Story Here

    Photo of Kristine Byrum - Class of 2018

    Who to contact…

    Dr. Mike Dunphy

    Michael Dunphy, Dean, School of Arts and Sciences; Professor of Biochemistry

    Fr. Matthew Herttna Counseling Center, 254
    330.490.7201
    Find out more about Michael Dunphy

    Find out what is happening at Walsh

    From academics to our stellar sports program, we make sure you are always informed.

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    Home > Pre-requisites & Requirements for Admission

    Learning

    Learning

    Pre-requisites & Requirements for Admission

    In order to be considered for the 4-year DDS program at the UCLA School of Dentistry, all applicants must have at least three years of coursework with the majority of applicants having four years of coursework. Likewise, applicants must have at least 90 semester units or 135 quarter units.

    * Limitations on accredited community college course work – 
       (Only 70 semester or 105 quarter units will be accepted.)
    ** Online classes for web-based education are not accepted.
    *** All required courses must be passed with a grade of “C” or higher.

    Required courses with 1-year of a laboratory component (2 sem./3 qtr.)

    Semester Hours

    Quarter Hours

    Inorganic/General Chemistry

    8

    12

    Organic Chemistry

    6

    8

    Physics

    8

    12

    Biology

    8

    12

     

    Required courses with no laboratory component

    Semester hours

    Quarter hours

    English Composition

    6

    8

    Introductory Psychology

    3

    4

    Biochemistry

    3

    4

     

    All required courses must be completed no later than June 30th of the year you are seeking admission for.

    Other recommended courses that will be considered in an application are histology, physiology, human or comparative anatomy, social sciences, microbiology, communication, business, composition, technical writing, fine arts, philosophy, engineering and classics.

    Applicants must take their Dental Admission Test (DAT) no later than December 31 and within a 3-year period, including the current year applying. Canadian DATs are not accepted. Official score reports from the American Dental Association will be imported through the AADSAS application. Please do NOT fax or email unofficial score reports to the office.

    Non-Discrimination Policy

    The School of Dentistry adheres to and supports the UCLA non-discrimination policy related to admissions. Click here for full policy details.

    http://catalog.registrar.ucla.edu/ucla-catalog2017-930.html

    International students who are eligible for a student visa must meet the regular requirements for admission to the School of Dentistry and complete all pre-dental pre-requisites at an accredited U.S. college or university.

    It should be noted that financial aid is limited to U.S. citizens and permanent residents so international applicants should not apply unless they have adequate funding for their educational and living expenses. The School participates in the  Western Interstate Commission for Higher Education (WICHE) .

    Same Sex Marriage Should be Legalized Essay example

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    A Right to Marry? Same-sex Marriage and Constitutional Law

    A Right to Marry? Same-sex Marriage and Constitutional Law

    Martha Nussbaum ▪ Summer 2009

    (Ted Eytan / Flickr)

    Marriage is both ubiquitous and central. All across our country, in every region, every social class, every race and ethnicity, every religion or non-religion, people get married. For many if not most people, moreover, marriage is not a trivial matter. It is a key to the pursuit of happiness, something people aspire to—and keep aspiring to, again and again, even when their experience has been far from happy. To be told “You cannot get married” is thus to be excluded from one of the defining rituals of the American life cycle.

    The keys to the kingdom of the married might have been held only by private citizens—religious bodies and their leaders, families, other parts of civil society. So it has been in many societies throughout history. In the United States, however, as in most modern nations, government holds those keys. Even if people have been married by their church or religious group, they are not married in the sense that really counts for social and political purposes unless they have been granted a marriage license by the state. Unlike private actors, however, the state doesn’t have complete freedom to decide who may and may not marry. The state’s involvement raises fundamental issues about equality of political and civic standing.

    Same-sex marriage is currently one of the most divisive political issues in our nation. In November 2008, Californians passed Proposition 8, a referendum that removed the right to marry from same-sex couples who had been granted that right by the courts. This result has been seen by the same-sex community as deeply degrading. More recently, Iowa and Vermont have legalized same-sex marriage, the former through judicial interpretation of the state constitution, the latter through legislation. Analyzing this issue will help us understand what is happening in our country, and where we might go from here.

    Before we approach the issue of same-sex marriage, we must define marriage. But marriage, it soon becomes evident, is no single thing. It is plural in both content and meaning. The institution of marriage houses and supports several distinct aspects of human life: sexual relations, friendship and companionship, love, conversation, procreation and child-rearing, mutual responsibility. Marriages can exist without each of these. (We have always granted marriage licenses to sterile people, people too old to have children, irresponsible people, and people incapable of love and friendship. Impotence, lack of interest in sex, and refusal to allow intercourse may count as grounds for divorce, but they don’t preclude marriage.) Marriages can exist even in cases where none of these is present, though such marriages are probably unhappy. Each of these important aspects of human life, in turn, can exist outside of marriage, and they can even exist all together outside of marriage, as is evident from the fact that many unmarried couples live lives of intimacy, friendship, and mutual responsibility, and have and raise children. Nonetheless, when people ask themselves what the content of marriage is, they typically think of this cluster of things.

    Nor is the meaning of marriage single. Marriage has, first, a civil rights aspect. Married people get a lot of government benefits that the unmarried usually do not get: favorable treatment in tax, inheritance, and insurance status; immigration rights; rights in adoption and custody; decisional and visitation rights in health care and burial; the spousal privilege exemption when giving testimony in court; and yet others.

    Marriage has, second, an expressive aspect. When people get married, they typically make a statement of love and commitment in front of witnesses. Most people who get married view that statement as a very important part of their lives. Being able to make it, and to make it freely (not under duress) is taken to be definitive of adult human freedom. The statement made by the marrying couple is usually seen as involving an answering statement on the part of society: we declare our love and commitment, and society, in response, recognizes and dignifies that commitment.

    Marriage has, finally, a religious aspect. For many people, a marriage is not complete unless it has been solemnized by the relevant authorities in their religion, according to the rules of the religion.

    Government plays a key role in all three aspects of marriage. It confers and administers benefits. It seems, at least, to operate as an agent of recognition or the granting of dignity. And it forms alliances with religious bodies. Clergy are always among those entitled to perform legally binding marriages. Religions may refuse to marry people who are eligible for state marriage and they may also agree to marry people who are ineligible for state marriage. But much of the officially sanctioned marrying currently done in the United States is done on religious premises by religious personnel. What they are solemnizing (when there is a license granted by the state) is, however, not only a religious ritual, but also a public rite of passage, the entry into a privileged civic status.

    To get this privileged treatment under law people do not have to show that they are good people. Convicted felons, divorced parents who fail to pay child support, people with a record of domestic violence or emotional abuse, delinquent taxpayers, drug abusers, rapists, murderers, racists, anti-Semites, other bigots, all can marry if they choose, and indeed are held to have a fundamental constitutional right to do so—so long as they want to marry someone of the opposite sex. Although some religions urge premarital counseling and refuse to marry people who seem ill-prepared for marriage, the state does not turn such people away. The most casual whim may become a marriage with no impediment but for the time it takes to get a license. Nor do people even have to lead a sexual lifestyle of the type the majority prefers in order to get married. Pedophiles, sadists, masochists, sodomites, transsexuals—all can get married by the state, so long as they marry someone of the opposite sex.

    Given all this, it seems odd to suggest that in marrying people the state affirmatively expresses its approval or confers dignity. There is indeed something odd about the mixture of casualness and solemnity with which the state behaves as a marrying agent. Nonetheless, it seems to most people that the state, by giving a marriage license, expresses approval, and, by withholding it, disapproval.
    WHAT IS the same-sex marriage debate about? It is not about whether same-sex relationships can involve the content of marriage: few would deny that gays and lesbians are capable of friendship, intimacy, “meet and happy conversation,” and mutual responsibility, nor that they can have and raise children (whether their own from a previous marriage, children created within their relationship by surrogacy or artificial insemination, or adopted children). Certainly none would deny that gays and lesbians are capable of sexual intimacy.

    Nor is the debate, at least currently, about the civil aspects of marriage: we are moving toward a consensus that same-sex couples and opposite-sex couples ought to enjoy equal civil rights. The leaders of both major political parties appeared to endorse this position during the 2008 presidential campaign, although only a handful of states have legalized civil unions with material privileges equivalent to those of marriage.

    Finally, the debate is not about the religious aspects of marriage. Most of the major religions have their own internal debates, frequently heated, over the status of same-sex unions. Some denominations—Unitarian Universalism, the United Church of Christ, and Reform and Conservative Judaism—have endorsed marriage for same-sex couples. Others have taken a friendly position toward these unions. Mainline Protestant denominations are divided on the issue, although some have taken negative positions. American Roman Catholics, both lay and clergy, are divided, although the church hierarchy is strongly opposed. Still other denominations and religions (Southern Baptists, the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints) seem to be strongly opposed collectively. There is no single “religious” position on these unions in America today, but the heat of those debates is, typically, denominational; heat does not spill over into the public realm. Under any state of the law, religions would be free to marry or not marry same-sex couples.

    The public debate, instead, is primarily about the expressive aspects of marriage. It is here that the difference between civil unions and marriage resides, and it is this aspect that is at issue when same-sex couples see the compromise offer of civil unions as stigmatizing and degrading.

    The expressive dimension of marriage raises several distinct questions. First, assuming that granting a marriage license expresses a type of public approval, should the state be in the business of expressing favor for, or dignifying, some unions rather than others? Are there any good public reasons for the state to be in the marriage business at all, rather than the civil union business? Second, if there are good reasons, what are the arguments for and against admitting same-sex couples to that status, and how should we think about them?


    Myth of the Golden Age

    WHEN PEOPLE talk about the institution of marriage, they often wax nostalgic. They think, and often say, that until very recently marriage was a lifelong commitment by one man and one woman, sanctified by God and the state, for the purposes of companionship and the rearing of children. People lived by those rules and were happy. Typical, if somewhat rhetorical, is this statement by Senator Robert Byrd of West Virginia during the debates over the “Defense of Marriage” Act:

    Mr. President, throughout the annals of human experience, in dozens of civilizations and cultures of varying value systems, humanity has discovered that the permanent relationship between men and women is a keystone to the stability, strength, and health of human society—a relationship worthy of legal recognition and judicial protection.

    We used to live in that golden age of marital purity. Now, the story goes, things are falling apart. Divorce is ubiquitous. Children are growing up without sufficient guidance, support, and love, as adults live for selfish pleasure alone. We need to come to our senses and return to the rules that used to make us all happy.

    Like most Golden Age myths, this one contains a core of truth: commitment and responsibility are under strain in our culture, and too many children are indeed growing up without enough economic or emotional support. We can’t think well about how to solve this problem, however, unless we first recognize the flaws in the mythic depiction of our own past. Like all fantasies of purity, this one masks a reality that is far more varied and complex.

    To begin with, Byrd’s idea that lifelong monogamous marriage has been the norm throughout human history is just mistaken. Many societies have embraced various forms of polygamy, informal or common-law marriage, and sequential monogamy. People who base their ethical norms on the Bible too rarely take note of the fact that the society depicted in the Old Testament is polygamous.

    In many other ancient societies, and some modern ones, sex outside marriage was, or is, a routine matter: in ancient Greece, for example, married men routinely had socially approved sexual relationships with prostitutes (male and female) and, with numerous restrictions, younger male citizens. One reason for this custom was that women were secluded and uneducated, thus not able to share a man’s political and intellectual aspirations. If we turn to republican Rome, a society more like our own in basing marriage on an ideal of love and companionship, we find that this very ideal gave rise to widespread divorce, as both women and men sought a partner with whom they could be happy and share a common life. We hardly find a major Roman figure, male or female, who did not marry at least twice. Moreover, Roman marriages were typically not monogamous, at least on the side of the male, who was expected to have sexual relations with both males and females of lower status (slaves, prostitutes). Even if wives at times protested, they understood the practice as typical and ubiquitous. These Romans are often admired (and rightly so, I think) as good citizens, people who believed in civic virtue and tried hard to run a government based on that commitment. Certainly for the founders of the United States the Roman Republic was a key source of both political norms and personal heroes. And yet these heroes did not live in a marital Eden.

    In fact, there is no better antidote to the myth of marital purity than to read Cicero’s account of the unhappy marriage of his brother Quintus to Pomponia Attica, the sister of his best friend, Atticus. Through his narrative (however biased in his brother’s favor) we get a glimpse of something so familiar that it is difficult to believe it all happened around 50 B.C.E. Cicero is out in the country, on one of his estates, and his brother has (it seems) dragged his unwilling wife away from the city to spend a week on the farm—with a brother-in-law who doesn’t like her and who, despite his undoubted greatness, is more than a little self-obsessed:

    When we arrived there Quintus said in the kindest way, “Pomponia, will you ask the women in…?” Both what he said and his intention and manner were perfectly pleasant, at least it seemed so to me. Pomponia however answered in our hearing, “I am a guest here myself.”… Quintus said to me, “There! This is the sort of thing I have to put up with every day.”…I myself was quite shocked. Her words and manner were so gratuitously rude. [They all go in to lunch, except for Pomponia, who goes straight to her room; Quintus has some food sent up to her, which she refuses.] In a word, I felt my brother could not have been more forbearing nor your sister ruder… [The following day, Quintus has a talk with his brother.] He told me that Pomponia had refused to sleep with him, and that her attitude when he left the house was just as I had seen it the day before. Well, you can tell her for me that her whole conduct was lacking in sympathy.

    The marriage lasted six more unhappy years and then ended in divorce.

    The shock of seeing our own face in the mirror of Cicero’s intimate narrative reminds us that human beings always have a hard time sustaining love and even friendship; that bad temper, incompatibility, and divergent desires are no invention of the sexual revolution. Certainly they are not caused by the recognition of same-sex marriage. We’ve always lived in a postlapsarian world.

    The rise of divorce in the modern era, moreover, was spurred not by a hatred of marriage but, far more, by a high conception of what marriage ought to be. It’s not just that people began to think that women had a right to divorce on grounds of bodily cruelty, and that divorce of that sort was a good thing. It’s also that Christians began insisting—just like those ancient Romans—that marriage was about much more than procreation and sexual relations. John Milton’s famous defense of divorce on grounds of incompatibility emphasizes “meet and happy conversation” as the central goal of marriage and notes that marriage ought to fulfill not simply bodily drives but also the “intellectual and innocent desire” that leads people to want to talk a lot to each other. People are entitled to demand this from their marriages, he argues, and entitled to divorce if they do not find it. If we adopt Milton’s view, we should not see divorce as expressing (necessarily) a falling away from high moral ideals but rather an unwillingness to put up with a relationship that does not fulfill, or at least seriously pursue, high ideals.

    In our own nation, as historians of marriage emphasize, a social norm of monogamous marriage was salient, from colonial times onward. The norm, however, like most norms in all times and places, was not the same as the reality. Studying the reality of marital discord and separation is very difficult, because many if not most broken marriages were not formally terminated by divorce. Given that divorce, until rather recently, was hard to obtain, and given that America offered so much space for relocation and the reinvention of self, many individuals, both male and female, simply moved away and started life somewhere else. A man who showed up with a “wife” in tow was not likely to encounter a background check to find out whether he had ever been legally divorced from a former spouse. A woman who arrived calling herself “the Widow Jones” would not be asked to show her husband’s death certificate before she could form a new relationship and marry. The cases of separation that did end up in court were the tip of a vast, uncharted iceberg. If, as historian Hendrik Hartog concludes about the nineteenth century, “Marital mobility marked American legal and constitutional life,” it marked, far more, the daily lives of Americans who did not litigate their separations.

    Insofar as monogamy was reality, we should never forget that it rested on the disenfranchisement of women. Indeed, the rise of divorce in recent years is probably connected to women’s social and political empowerment more than to any other factor. When women had no rights, no marketable skills, and hence no exit options, they often had to put up with bad marriages, with adultery, neglect, even with domestic violence. When women are able to leave, they demand a better deal. This simple economic explanation for the rise of divorce—combined with Milton’s emphasis on people’s need for emotional attunement and conversation—is much more powerful than the idea of a fall from ethical purity in explaining how we’ve moved from where we were to where we are today. But if such factors are salient, denial of marriage to same-sex couples is hardly the way to address them

    Throughout the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, a distinctive feature of American marriage was the strategic use of federalism. Marriage laws have always been state laws (despite recurrent attempts to legislate a national law of marriage and divorce). But states in the United States have typically used that power to compete with one another, and marriage quickly became a scene of competition. Long before Nevada became famous as a divorce haven, with its short residency requirement, other states assumed that role. For quite a stretch of time, Indiana (surprisingly) was the divorce haven for couples fleeing the strict requirements of states such as New York (one of the strictest until a few decades ago) and Wisconsin. The reasons why a state liberalized its laws were complex, but at least some of them were economic: while couples lived out the residency requirement, they would spend money in the state. In short, as Hartog points out, marriage laws “became public packages of goods and services that competed against the public goods of other jurisdictions for the loyalty and the tax dollars of a mobile citizenry.”

    What we’re seeing today, as five states (Massachusetts, Connecticut, Iowa, Vermont, and, briefly, California) have legalized same-sex marriage, as others (California, and Vermont and Connecticut before their legalization of same-sex marriage) have offered civil unions with marriage-like benefits, and yet others (New York) have announced that, although they will not perform same-sex marriages themselves, they will recognize those legally contracted in other jurisdictions, is the same sort of competitive process—with, however, one important difference. The federal Defense of Marriage Act has made it clear that states need not give legal recognition to marriages legally contracted elsewhere. That was not the case with competing divorce regimes: once legally divorced in any other U. S. state, the parties were considered divorced in their own.

    But the non-recognition faced by same-sex couples does have a major historical precedent. States that had laws against miscegenation refused to recognize marriages between blacks and whites legally contracted elsewhere, and even criminalized those marriages. The Supreme Court case that overturned the anti-miscegenation laws, Loving v. Virginia, focused on this issue. Mildred Jeter (African American) and Richard Loving (white) got married in Washington, D. C., in 1958. Their marriage was not recognized as legal in their home state of Virginia. When they returned, there they were arrested in the middle of the night in their own bedroom. Their marriage certificate was hanging on the wall over their bed. The state prosecuted them, because interracial marriage was a felony in Virginia, and they were convicted. The judge then told them either to leave the state for twenty-five years or to spend one year in jail. They left, but began the litigation that led to the landmark 1967 decision.

    In 2007, on the fortieth anniversary of that decision, Jeter Loving issued a rare public statement, saying that she saw the struggle she and her late husband waged as similar to the struggle of same-sex couples today:

    My generation was bitterly divided over something that should have been so clear and right. The majority believed…that it was God’s plan to keep people apart, and that government should discriminate against people in love. But…[t]he older generation’s fears and prejudices have given way, and today’s young people realize that if someone loves someone they have a right to marry. Surrounded as I am now by wonderful children and grandchildren, not a day goes by that I don’t think of Richard and our love, our right to marry, and how much it meant to me to have that freedom to marry the person precious to me, even if others thought he was the “wrong kind of person” for me to marry. I believe all Americans, no matter their race, no matter their sex, no matter their sexual orientation, should have that same freedom to marry.

    The politics of humanity seems to require us to agree with her. Let’s consider, however, the arguments on the other side.


    Panic Over Same-Sex Marriage

    AS WE do that, we need to keep two questions firmly in mind. First, does each argument really justify legal restriction of same-sex marriage or only some peoples’ attitudes of moral and religious disapproval? We live in a country in which people have a wide range of different religious beliefs, and we agree in respecting the space within which people pursue those beliefs. We do not, however, agree that these beliefs, by themselves, are sufficient grounds for legal regulation. Typically, we understand that some beliefs (including some but not all moral commitments) can generate public arguments that bear on the lives of all citizens in a decent society, while others generate only intra-religious arguments. Thus, observant Jews abhor the eating of pork, but few if any would think that this religiously grounded abhorrence is a reason to make the eating of pork illegal. The prohibition rests on religious texts that not all citizens embrace, and it cannot be translated into a public argument that people of all religions can accept. Similarly in this case, we must ask whether the arguments against same-sex marriage are expressed in a neutral and sharable language or only in a sectarian doctrinal language. If the arguments are moral rather than doctrinal, they fare better, but we still have to ask whether they are compatible with core values of a society dedicated to giving all citizens the equal protection of the laws. Many legal aspects of our history of racial and gender-based discrimination were defended by secular moral arguments, but that did not insulate them from constitutional scrutiny.

    Second, we must ask whether each argument justifies its conclusion or whether there is reason to see the argument as a rationalization of some deeper sort of anxiety or aversion.

    The first and most widespread objection to same-sex marriage is that it is immoral and unnatural. Similar arguments were widespread in the anti-miscegenation debate, and, in both cases, these arguments are typically made in a sectarian and doctrinal way, referring to religious texts. (Anti-miscegenation judges, for example, referred to the will of God in arguing that racial mixing is unnatural.) It is difficult to cast such arguments in a form that could be accepted by citizens whose religion teaches something different. They look like Jewish arguments against the eating of pork: good reasons for members of some religions not to engage in same-sex marriage, but not sufficient reasons for making them illegal in a pluralistic society.

    A second objection, and perhaps the one that is most often heard from thoughtful people, insists that the main purpose of state-sanctified marriage is procreation and the rearing of children. Protecting an institution that serves these purposes is a legitimate public interest, and so there is a legitimate public interest in supporting potentially procreative marriages. Does this mean there is also a public interest in restricting marriage to only those cases where there may be procreation? This is less clear. We should all agree that the procreation, protection, and safe rearing of children are important public purposes. It is not clear, however, that we have ever thought these important purposes best served by restricting marriage to the potentially procreative. If we ever did think like this, we certainly haven’t done anything about it. We have never limited marriage to the fertile or even to those of an age to be fertile. It is very difficult, in terms of the state’s interest in procreation, to explain why the marriage of two heterosexual seventy-year-olds should be permitted and the marriage of two men or two women should be forbidden—all the more because so many same-sex couples have and raise children.

    As it stands, the procreation argument looks two-faced, approving in heterosexuals what it refuses to tolerate in same-sex couples. If the arguer should add that sterile heterosexual marriages somehow support the efforts of the procreative, we can reply that gay and lesbian couples who don’t have or raise children may support, similarly, the work of procreative couples.

    Sometimes this argument is put a little differently: marriage is about the protection of children, and we know that children do best in a home with one father and one mother, so there is a legitimate public interest in supporting an institution that fulfills this purpose. Put this way, the argument, again, offers a legitimate public reason to favor and support heterosexual marriage, though it is less clear why it gives a reason to restrict same-sex marriage (and marriages of those too old to have children or not desiring children). Its main problem, however, is with the facts. Again and again, psychological studies have shown that children do best when they have love and support, and it appears that two-parent households do better at that job than single-parent households. There is no evidence, however, that opposite-sex couples do better than same-sex couples. There is a widespread feeling that these results can’t be right, that living in an “immoral” atmosphere must be bad for the child. But that feeling rests on the religious judgments of the first argument; when the well-being of children is assessed in a religiously neutral way, there is no difference.

    A third argument is that if same-sex marriage receives state approval, people who believe it to be evil will be forced to “bless” or approve of it, thus violating their conscience. This argument was recently made in an influential way by Charles Fried in Modern Liberty and the Limits of Government. Fried, who supports an end to sodomy laws and expresses considerable sympathy with same-sex couples, still thinks that marriage goes too far because of this idea of enforced approval.

    What, precisely, is the argument here? Fried does not suggest that the recognition of same-sex marriage would violate the Free Exercise clause of the First Amendment—and that would be an implausible position to take. Presumably, the position is that the state has a legitimate interest in banning same-sex marriage on the grounds that it offends many religious believers.

    This argument contains many difficulties. First, it raises an Establishment Clause problem: for, as we’ve seen, religions vary greatly in their attitude to same-sex marriage, and the state, following this argument, would be siding with one group of believers against another. More generally, there are a lot of things that a modern state does that people deeply dislike, often on religious grounds. Public education teaches things that many religious parents abhor (such as evolution and the equality of women); parents often choose home schooling for that reason. Public health regulations license butchers who cut up pigs for human consumption; Jews don’t want to be associated with this practice. But nobody believes that Jews have a right to ask the state to impose their religiously grounded preference on all citizens. The Old Order Amish don’t want their children to attend public school past age fourteen, holding that such schooling is destructive of community. The state respects that choice—for Amish children; and the state even allows Amish children to be exempt from some generally applicable laws for reasons of religion. But nobody would think that the Amish have a right to expect the state to make public schooling past age fourteen off-limits for all children. Part of life within a pluralistic society that values the non-establishment of religion is an attitude of live and let live. Whenever we see a nation that does allow the imposition of religiously grounded preferences on all citizens—as with some Israeli laws limiting activity on the Sabbath, and as with laws in India banning cow slaughter—we see a nation with a religious establishment, de jure or de facto. We have chosen not to take that route, and for good reasons. To the extent that we choose workdays and holidays that coincide with the preferences of a religious majority, we bend over backward to be sensitive to the difficulties this may create for minorities.

    A fourth argument, again appealing to a legitimate public purpose, focuses on the difficulties that traditional marriage seems to be facing in our society. Pointing to rising divorce rates and evidence that children are being damaged by lack of parental support, people say that we need to defend traditional marriage, not undermine it by opening the institution to those who don’t have any concern for its traditional purposes. We could begin by contesting the characterization of same-sex couples. In large numbers, they do have and raise children. Marriage, for them as for others parents, provides a clear framework of entitlements and responsibilities, as well as security, legitimacy, and social standing for their children. In fact, the states that have legalized same-sex marriage, Massachusetts, Connecticut, Iowa, and Vermont, have among the lowest divorce rates in the nation, and the Massachusetts evidence shows that the rate has not risen as a result of the legalization. In the European countries that have legalized same-sex marriage, divorce rates appear to be roughly the same as among heterosexual couples.

    We might also pause, for reasons I have already given, before granting that an increase in the divorce rate signals social degeneration. But let us concede, for the sake of argument, that there is a social problem. What, then, about the claim that legalizing same-sex marriage would undermine the effort to defend or protect traditional marriage? If society really wants to defend traditional marriage, as it surely is entitled to do and probably ought to do, many policies suggest themselves: family and medical leave; drug and alcohol counseling on demand; generous support for marital counseling and mental health treatment; strengthening laws against domestic violence and enforcing them better; employment counseling and financial support for those under stress during the present economic crisis; and, of course, tighter enforcement of child-support laws. Such measures have a clear relationship to the stresses and strains facing traditional marriage. The prohibition of same-sex marriage does not. If we were to study heterosexual divorce, we would be unlikely to find even a single case in which the parties felt that their divorce was caused by the availability of marriage to same-sex couples.

    The objector at this point typically makes a further move. The very recognition of same-sex marriage on a par with traditional marriage demeans traditional marriage, makes it less valuable. What’s being said, it seems, is something like this: if the Metropolitan Opera auditions started giving prizes to pop singers of the sort who sing on American Idol, this would contaminate the opera world. Similarly, including in the Hall of Fame baseball players who got their records by cheating on the drug rules would contaminate the Hall of Fame, cheapening the real achievements of others. In general, the promiscuous recognition of low-level or non-serious contenders for an honor sullies the honor. This, I believe, is the sort of argument people are making when they assert that recognition of same-sex marriage defiles traditional marriage, when they talk about a “defense of marriage,” and so forth. How should we evaluate this argument?

    First of all, we may challenge it on the facts. Same-sex couples are not like B-grade singers or cheating athletes—or at least no more so than heterosexual couples. They want to get married for reasons very similar to those of heterosexuals: to express love and commitment, to gain religious sanctification for their union, to obtain a package of civil benefits—and, often, to have or raise children. Traditional marriage has its share of creeps, and there are same-sex creeps as well. But the existence of creeps among the heterosexuals has never stopped the state from marrying heterosexuals. Nor do people talk or think that way. I’ve never heard anyone say that the state’s willingness to marry Britney Spears or O. J. Simpson demeans or sullies their own marriage. But somehow, without even knowing anything about the character or intentions of the same-sex couple next door, they think their own marriages would be sullied by public recognition of that union.

    If the proposal were to restrict marriage to worthy people who have passed a character test, it would at least be consistent, though few would support such an intrusive regime. What is clear is that those who make this argument don’t fret about the way in which unworthy or immoral heterosexuals could sully the institution of marriage or lower its value. Given that they don’t worry about this, and given that they don’t want to allow marriage for gays and lesbians who have proven their good character, it is difficult to take this argument at face value. The idea that same-sex unions will sully traditional marriage cannot be understood without moving to the terrain of disgust and contamination. The only distinction between unworthy heterosexuals and the class of gays and lesbians that can possibly explain the difference in people’s reaction is that the sex acts of the former do not disgust the majority, whereas the sex acts of the latter do. The thought must be that to associate traditional marriage with the sex acts of same-sex couples is to defile or contaminate it, in much the way that eating food served by a dalit, (formerly called “untouchable,”) used to be taken by many people in India to contaminate the high-caste body. Nothing short of a primitive idea of stigma and taint can explain the widespread feeling that same-sex marriage defiles or contaminates straight marriage, while the marriages of “immoral” and “sinful” heterosexuals do not do so.

    If the arguer should reply that marriage between two people of the same sex cannot result in the procreation of children, and so must be a kind of sham marriage, which insults or parodies, and thus demeans, the real sort of marriage, we are back to the second argument. Those who insist so strongly on procreation do not feel sullied or demeaned or tainted by the presence next door of two opposite-sex seventy-year-olds newly married, nor by the presence of opposite-sex couples who publicly announce their intention never to have children—or, indeed, by opposite-sex couples who have adopted children. They do not try to get lawmakers to make such marriages illegal, and they neither say nor feel that such marriages are immoral or undermine their own. So the feeling of undermining, or demeaning, cannot honestly be explained by the point about children and must be explained instead by other, more subterranean, ideas.

    If we’re looking for a historical parallel to the anxieties associated with same-sex marriage, we can find it in the history of views about miscegenation. At the time of Loving v. Virginia, in 1967, sixteen states both prohibited and punished marriages across racial lines. In Virginia, a typical example, such a marriage was a felony punishable by from one to five years in prison. Like same-sex marriages, cross-racial unions were opposed with a variety of arguments, both political and theological. In hindsight, however, we can see that disgust was at work. Indeed, it did not hide its hand: the idea of racial purity was proudly proclaimed (for example, in the Racial Integrity Act of 1924 in Virginia), and ideas of taint and contamination were ubiquitous. If white people felt disgusted and contaminated by the thought that a black person had drunk from the same public drinking fountain or swum in the same public swimming pool or used the same toilet or the same plates and glasses—all views widely held by southern whites—we can see that the thought of sex and marriage between black and white would have carried a powerful freight of revulsion. The Supreme Court concluded that such ideas of racial stigma were the only ideas that really supported those laws, whatever else was said: “There is patently no legitimate overriding purpose independent of invidious racial discrimination which justifies this classification.”

    We should draw the same conclusion about the prohibition of same-sex marriage: irrational ideas of stigma and contamination, the sort of “animus” the Court recognized in Romer v. Evans, is a powerful force in its support. So thought the Supreme Court of Connecticut in October 2008, saying,

    Beyond moral disapprobation, gay persons also face virulent homophobia that rests on nothing more than feelings of revulsion toward gay persons and the intimate sexual conduct with which they are associated…. Such visceral prejudice is reflected in the large number of hate crimes that are perpetrated against gay persons….The irrational nature of the prejudice directed at gay persons, who ‘‘are ridiculed, ostracized, despised, demonized and condemned “merely for being who they are” …is entirely different in kind than the prejudice suffered by other groups that previously have been denied suspect or quasi-suspect class status. This fact provides further reason to doubt that such prejudice soon can be eliminated and underscores the reality that gay persons face unique challenges to their political and social integration.

    We have now seen the arguments against same-sex marriage. They do not seem impressive. We have not seen any that would supply government with a “compelling” state interest, and it seems likely, given Romer, that these arguments, motivated by animus, fail even the rational basis test.

    The argument in favor of same-sex marriage is straightforward: if two people want to make a commitment of the marital sort, they should be permitted to do so, and excluding one class of citizens from the benefits and dignity of that commitment demeans them and insults their dignity.


    What Is the “Right to Marry”?

    IN OUR constitutional tradition, there is frequent talk of a “right to marry.” In Loving, the Court calls marriage “one of the basic civil rights of man.” A later case, Zablocki v. Redhail, recognizes the right to marry as a fundamental right for Fourteenth Amendment purposes, apparently under the Equal Protection clause; the Court states that “the right to marry is of fundamental importance for all individuals” and continues with the observation that “the decision to marry has been placed on the same level of importance as decisions relating to procreation, childbirth, child rearing, and family relationships.” Before courts can sort out the issue of same-sex marriage, they have to figure out two things: (1) what is this “right to marry”? and (2) who has it?

    What does the “right to marry” mean? On a minimal understanding, it just means that if the state chooses to offer a particular package of expressive and/or civil benefits under the name “marriage,” it must make that package available to all who seek it without discrimination (though here “all” will require further interpretation). Loving concerned the exclusion of interracial couples from the institution; Zablocki concerned the attempt of the state of Wisconsin to exclude from marriage parents who could not show that they had met their child support obligations. Another pertinent early case, Skinner v. Oklahoma, invalidated a law mandating the compulsory sterilization of the “habitual criminal,” saying that such a person, being cut off from “marriage and procreation,” would be “forever deprived of a basic liberty.” A more recent case, Turner v. Safley, invalidated a prohibition on marriages by prison inmates. All the major cases, then, turn on the denial to a particular group of people of an institutional package already available to others.

    Is the right to marry, then, merely a non-discrimination right? If so, the state is not required to offer marriages at all. It’s only that once it does so, it must do so with an even hand. The talk of marriage as a “fundamental right,” together with the fact that most of these decisions mingle equal protection analysis with due process considerations, suggests, however, that something further is being said. What is it? Would it violate the Constitution if a state decided that it would offer only civil unions and drop the status of marriage, leaving that for religious and private bodies?

    Put in terms of our three categories, then, does the “right to marry” obligate a state to offer a set of economic and civil benefits to married people? Does it obligate a state to confer dignity and status on certain unions by the use of the term “marriage”? And does it require the state to recognize or validate unions approved by religious bodies? Clearly, the answer to the third question is, and has always been, no. Many marriages that are approved by religious bodies are not approved by the state, as the case of same-sex marriage has long shown us, and nobody has thought it promising to contest these denials on constitutional grounds. The right to the free exercise of religion clearly does not require the state to approve all marriages a religious body approves. Nor does the “right to marry” obligate the state to offer any particular package of civil benefits to people who marry. This has been said repeatedly in cases dealing with the marriage right.

    On the other side, however, it’s clear that the right in question is not simply a right to be treated like others, barring group-based discrimination. The right to marry is frequently classified with fundamental personal liberties protected by the Due Process clause of the Fourteenth Amendment. In Meyer v. Nebraska, for example, the Court says that the liberty protected by that Clause “without doubt…denotes not merely freedom from bodily restraint but also the right of the individual to contract, to engage in any of the common occupations of life, to acquire useful knowledge, to marry, establish a home and bring up children, to worship God according to the dictates of his own conscience, and generally to enjoy those privileges long recognized…as essential to the orderly pursuit of happiness by free men.” Loving, similarly, states that “the freedom to marry, or not marry, a person of another race resides with the individual and cannot be infringed by the state,” grounding this conclusion in the Due Process clause as well as the Equal Protection clause. Zablocki allows that “reasonable regulations that do not significantly interfere with decisions to enter into the marital relationship may legitimately be imposed,” but concludes that the Wisconsin law goes too far, violating rights guaranteed by the Due Process clause. Turner v. Safley, similarly, determines that the restriction of prisoner marriages violates the Due Process clause’s privacy right.

    What does due process liberty mean in this case? Most of the cases concern attempts by the state to forbid a class of marriages. That sort of state interference with marriage is, apparently, unconstitutional on due process as well as equal protection grounds. So, if a state forbade everyone to marry, that would presumably be unconstitutional.

    Nowhere, however, has the Court held that a state must offer the expressive benefits of marriage. There would appear to be no constitutional barrier to the decision of a state to get out of the expressive game altogether, going over to a regime of civil unions or, even more extremely, to a regime of private contract for marriages, in which the state plays the same role it plays in any other contractual process.

    Again, the issue turns on equality. What the cases consistently hold is that when the state does offer a status that has both civil benefits and expressive dignity, it must offer it with an even hand. This position, which I’ve called “minimal,” is not so minimal when one looks into it. Laws against miscegenation were in force in sixteen states at the time of Loving.

    In other words, marriage is a fundamental liberty right of individuals, and because it is that, it also involves an equality dimension: groups of people cannot be fenced out of that fundamental right without some overwhelming reason. It’s like voting: there isn’t a constitutional right to vote, as such: some jobs can be filled by appointment. But the minute voting is offered, it is unconstitutional to fence out a group of people from the exercise of the right. At this point, then, the questions become, Who has this liberty/equality right to marry? And what reasons are strong enough to override it?
    Who has the right? At one extreme, it seems clear that, under existing law, the state that offers marriage is not required to allow it to polygamous unions. Whatever one thinks about the moral issues involved in polygamy, our constitutional tradition has upheld a law making polygamy criminal, so it is clear, at present, that polygamous unions do not have equal recognition. (The legal arguments against polygamy, however, are extremely weak. The primary state interest that is strong enough to justify legal restriction is an interest in the equality of the sexes, which would not tell against a regime of sex-equal polygamy.)

    Regulations on incestuous unions have also typically been thought to be reasonable exercises of state power, although, here again, the state interests have been defined very vaguely. The interest in preventing child abuse would justify a ban on most cases of parent-child incest, but it’s unclear that there is any strong state interest that should block adult brothers and sisters from marrying. (The health risk involved is no greater than in many cases where marriage is permitted.) Nonetheless, it’s clear that if a brother-sister couple challenged such a restriction today on due process/equal protection grounds, they would lose, because the state’s alleged (health) interest in forbidding such unions would prevail.

    How should we think of these cases? Should we think that these individuals have a right to marry as they choose, but that the state has a countervailing interest that prevails? Or should we think that they don’t have the right at all, given the nature of their choices? I incline to the former view. On this view, the state has to show that the law forbidding such unions really is supported by a strong public interest.

    At the other extreme, it is also clear that the liberty and equality rights involved in the right to marry do not belong only to the potentially procreative. Turner v. Safley concerned marriages between inmates, most serving long terms, and non-incarcerated people, marriages that could not be consummated. The case rested on the emotional support provided by marriage and its religious and spiritual significance. At one point the Court mentions, as an additional factor, that the inmate may some day be released, so that the marriage might be consummated, but that is clearly not the basis of the holding. Nor does any other case suggest that the elderly or the sterile do not have the right.

    The best way of summarizing the tradition seems to be this: all adults have a right to choose whom to marry. They have this right because of the emotional and personal significance of marriage, as well as its procreative potential. This right is fundamental for Due Process purposes, and it also has an equality dimension. No group of people may be fenced out of this right without an exceedingly strong state justification. It would seem that the best way to think about the cases of incest and polygamy is that in these cases the state can meet its burden, by showing that policy considerations outweigh the individual’s right, although it is not impossible to imagine that these judgments might change over time.


    Legal Issues

    WHAT, THEN, of people who seek to marry someone of the same sex? This is the question with which courts are currently wrestling. Recent state court decisions had to answer four questions (using not only federal constitutional law but also the text and tradition of their own state constitutions): First, will civil unions suffice, or is the status of marriage constitutionally compelled? Second, is this issue one of due process or equal protection or a complex mixture of both? Third, in assessing the putative right against the countervailing claims of state interest, is sexual orientation a suspect classification for equal protection purposes? In other words, does the state forbidding such unions have to show a mere rational basis for the law or a “compelling” state interest? Fourth, what interests might so qualify?

    Three states that have recently confronted this question—Massachusetts, California, and Connecticut—give different answers to these questions, but there is a large measure of agreement. All agree that, as currently practiced, marriage is a status with a strong component of public dignity. Because of that unique status, it is fundamental to individual self-definition, autonomy, and the pursuit of happiness. The right to marry does not belong only to the potentially procreative. (The Massachusetts court notes, for example, that people who cannot stir from their deathbed are still permitted to marry.)

    For all these expressive reasons, it seems that civil unions are a kind of second-class status, lacking the affirmation and recognition characteristic of marriage. As the California court put it, the right is not a right to a particular word, it is the right “to have their family relationship accorded dignity and respect equal to that accorded other officially recognized families.” All three courts draw on the miscegenation cases to make this point. The California court notes that if states opposed to miscegenation had created a separate category called “transracial union,” while still denying interracial couples the status of “marriage,” we would easily see that this was no solution.

    All three courts invoke both due process and equal protection. The Massachusetts court notes that the two guarantees frequently “overlap, as they do here.” They all agree that the right to marry is an individual liberty right that also involves an equality component: a group of people can’t be fenced out of that right without a very strong governmental justification.

    How strong? Here the states diverge. The Massachusetts court held that the denial of same-sex marriages fails to pass even the rational basis test. The California and Connecticut courts, by contrast, held that sexual orientation is a suspect classification, analogizing sexual orientation to gender.

    What state interests lie on the other side? The California and Connecticut opinions examine carefully the main contenders, concluding that none rises to the level of a compelling interest. Preserving tradition all by itself cannot be such an interest: “the justification of ‘tradition’ does not explain the classification, it just repeats it.” Nor can discrimination be justified simply on the grounds that legislators have strong convictions. None of the other preferred policy considerations (the familiar ones we have already identified) stands up as sufficiently strong.

    These opinions will not convince everyone. Nor will all who like their conclusion, or even their reasoning, agree that it’s good for courts to handle this issue, rather than democratic majorities. But the opinions, I believe, should convince a reasonable person that constitutional law, and therefore courts, have a legitimate role to play in this divisive area, at least sometimes, standing up for minorities who are at risk in the majoritarian political process.


    Future of Marriage

    WHAT OUGHT we to hope and work for, as a just future for families in our society? Should government continue to marry people at all? Should it drop the expressive dimension and simply offer civil-union packages? Should it back away from package deals entirely, in favor of a regime of disaggregated benefits and private contract? Such questions, the penumbra of any constitutional debate, require us to identify the vital rights and interests that need state protection and to think how to protect them without impermissibly infringing either equality or individual liberty. Our analysis of the constitutional issues does not dictate specific answers to these questions, but it does constrain the options we ought to consider.

    The future of marriage looks, in one way, a lot like its past. People will continue to unite, form families, have children, and, sometimes, split up. What the Constitution dictates, however, is that whatever the state decides to do in this area will be done on a basis of equality. Government cannot exclude any group of citizens from the civil benefits or the expressive dignities of marriage without a compelling public interest. The full inclusion of same-sex couples is in one sense a large change, just as official recognition of interracial marriage was a large change, and just as the full inclusion of women and African Americans as voters and citizens was a large change. On the other hand, those changes are best seen as a true realization of the promise contained in our constitutional guarantees. We should view this change in the same way. The politics of humanity asks us to stop viewing same-sex marriage as a source of taint or defilement to traditional marriage but, instead, to understand the human purposes of those who seek marriage and the similarity of what they seek to that which straight people seek. When we think this way, the issue ought to look like the miscegenation issue: as an exclusion we can no longer tolerate in a society pursuing equal respect and justice for all.


    Martha Nussbaum is Ernst Freund Distinguished Service Professor of Law and Ethics at the University of Chicago, appointed in Law, Philosophy, and Divinity. This essay is adapted from her From Disgust to Humanity: Sexual Orientation and the Constitution, which will be published by Oxford University Press in February 2010.

    Read Martha Ackelsberg , Stephanie Coontz , and Katha Pollitt ’s online responses to “A Right to Marry?”

    Works consulted for this essay include:

    Nancy F. Cott, Public Vows: A History of Marriage and the Nation (Harvard University Press, 2000).
    Charles Fried, Modern Liberty: and the Limits of Government (New York: W.W. Norton, 2006).
    Hendrik Hartog, Man and Wife in America: A History (Harvard University Press, 2000).
    Andrew Koppelman, Same Sex, Different States: When Same-Sex Marriages Cross State Lines (Yale University Press, 2006).
    Cass R. Sunstein, “The Right to Marry,” Cardozo Law Review 26 (2005), 2081-2120.
    Susan Treggiari, Roman Marriage (Oxford University Press, 1991).
    Craig Williams, Roman Homosexuality (Oxford University Press, 1999). Updated edition forthcoming, 2009.

    ED. NOTE: This article was written before the California court ruling on Proposition 8 or the proposed vote in the New York State legislature.

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    Essay: Should Same Sex Marriage be Legalized?

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    The argument for or against same sex marriage(SSM) has raged for several years in America and around the world. Some see same sex marriage as a legal civil right that is presently being denied to some who want to get married. Others, primarily right wing Christian conservatives as well as many in the Black church view same sex marriage as going against God’s law. Several American states and countries around the world allow for same sex unions. However the argument continues to go on and on and on.

    Some argue that allowing same sex marriage will destroy the institution of marriage in general, yet studies in Scandinavia where same sex marriage started years ago, suggest otherwise. Some allege that children are negatively affected by having two parents of the same sex. But no credible study has ever been able to document this allegation. Some conservatives argue that allowing same sex marriage opens the door to other things such as polygamy. They don’t back it up with any real evidence just the charge that this will happen. Another allegation is that SSM will make heterosexual divorce too easy. Critics shoot back that heterosexual divorce can’t get too much easier because it is already at nearly 60% of married couples who seek divorce.

    Opponents of SSM claim that schools will be forced to teach tolerance in schools, meaning the schools would be forced to teach straight kids to be nice to gay kids. Tolerance is apparently no longer a Christian principle according to the conservative right. Allowing SSM also opens the door to same sexed couples being able to adopt children and this would be a way for homosexuals to recruit naive children into the ranks of militant homosexuals. This charge belies the fact that homosexuality just like heterosexuality is a born characteristic, not a learned characteristic.

    Allowing SSM would mean that straight foster parents would now have to undergo sensitivity training, for so far, unclear reasons. This is one of many allegations that have no basis in fact or common sense but still viewed as legitimate arguments by Christian conservatives. Similar reasoning applies to the argument that Social Security can’t afford to pay for same sex couples. The so called justification for this allegation is convoluted with no basis in fact. One other argument claims that SSM would hinder evangelists in doing their job. In other words, that SSM would impede religion and religious practices.

    Still others maintain that allowing SSM will bring divine retribution from God. These conservatives claim that God will destroy America or other tolerant countries in the same fashion as Sodom was destroyed. Those in favor of SSM view it simply as a civil right that has nothing really to do with religion but everything to do with equality of all people.

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    SANGEET – SANGIT: Vocal music, Instrumental music and Dance. The Indian Hindi language word ‘SANGEET’ or ‘SANGIT’ represents and incorporates three forms of performing arts : ‘Gayan‘ (Vocal), ‘Vadya sangeet‘ (Instrumental) and ‘Nritya‘ (Dance). Divya music is a global music school – Sangit vidyalaya, offering regular and online vocal music, Instumental music and dance classes.

    Divya Music : is one of the top rated music schools in India and in Delhi offering regular vocal music classes and musical instruments learning lessons online on Skype or Google talk, online voice singing class lessons – the online vocal music class lessons facilitated on Google talk and on Skype, to learn singing Indian vocal – Hindustani classical vocal, learning to sing Light classical vocal online, Karnatik / Carnatic vocal singing lessons online and learning how to sing the Indian Folk songs / Indian Bollywood movie Hindi film songs / Global / western singing. Vocal music singing voice learning lessons for beginners as a hobby and the music career courses for kids, children, young adults and university, college and school students are offered by Divya Music with the highly experienced Indian music school faculty of the senior, famous music gurus, top rated vocal music singing teachers, noted vocal musicians, best vocal music performers – vocalists, vocal singing trainers and voice singing instructors in India. Divya sangeet vidyalaya offers the regular and online Hobby certificate level courses, diploma, graduation, post graduation and doctorate level music classes for above mentioned courses to learn the following:

    Global / Indian vocal singing classes – Hindustani classical vocal singing. Indian Light classical vocal Sugam Sangit lessons – learn to sing Bhajans, Ghazals, Devotional, Spiritual chants, Folk songs Lok geet sangeet etc. Carnatic vocal singing – Karnatic vocal lessons on Skype, Rabindra Sangit, Gurbani Shabad Kirtan, Bollywood movies – Hindi film songs singing lessons on Google talk etc. Western classical vocal and popular vocal music. Indian Hindustani classical vocal music lessons online on Skype, Light semi classical singing classes & Carnatic voice music lessons online are offered as flexible online vocal music class schedules for global citizens & non-resident Indians (NRI) living in USA, Mauritius, UK, Kenya, Canada, Fiji, Australia, Malaysia, Singapore, South Africa, Philippines, New Zealand, Netherlands, Thailand & other countries in Europe, Africa, Asia, Middle East & South America.

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    The regular vocal music classes and online Skype music learning class lessons offered by Divya Music include the systemic vocal music training based on prescribed music syllabus / curriculum and the vocal music course student learns about – basic and advanced knowledge of vocal singing, voice singing notes and sound, origin and genre of music, work of noted vocalists – musicians of the world, learning how to sing, solo and chorus singing music compositions etc.

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    Bollywood Playback Singing Course

     

     

     

     

    Bollywood Playback Singing Course

    Course Duration : 1 Year

    Course Fees: Rs 27500

    Learn Hindustani Classical Ghazal Sufi Western Hindi / English / Regional Language Songs / Stage shows participation / 1 Studio Recording Song 

    Reasons to Join a Singing Course

    There are numerous reasons why a singer may wish to join a Singing course. In general, if your voice experiences the following problems you should consider enrolling for a singing course –

    1 – Pitch problems 2- limited vocal range problems 3 – tone deafness 4-voice cracking 5 – lack of stamina for Singing for long concerts 6- lack of vocal control  7 – lack of consistent singing 8 – lack of confidence 9 – stage fear and many more…..

    Some things you can learn from a Singing Course –

    1 – Singing Properly

    2 – Avoiding Fatigue, Strain and Injury

    3 – Gaining confidence

    4 – Receiving 100% honest feedback about your Singing

    5 – Expert Solutions to Vocal Problems

    6 – Vocal control Practice

    7 – Different styles of Singing

    8 – Achieving faster results

    9 – Opportunity to Sing in Stage Shows

    10 – Gain from Jamming Sessions with live Musicians

    11 – Chance to meet like minded Singers just like you.

    12 – Making an Investment – Learning Singing is like an investment in one’s future and vocal health. Here the returns are a zillion percent of joy and fulfillment that you get by great Singing which is invaluable, all the money in the world cant buy that happiness.

    And there are many many more reasons to take up a Singing Course.

    Some information for Singing Students – Bollywood Batch / General Batch

    “Ragas are born from Thaats – so what are Thaats?” Thaats are like sets of a particular notes. From each of these Thaats are born 100s of Ragas which have all the primary qualities of the Thaat it is derived from.

    In Hindustani Classical music there are 10 Thaats. 10 – Thaats – Bilawal Thaat / Khamaj Thaat / Kafi Thaat / Asawari Thaat / Bhairavi Thaat / Bhairav Thaat / Marwa Thaat / Poorvi Thaat / Todi Thaat and Yaman Kalyan Thaat.

    For example Raga Bhoop (also known as Bhupali Raga)  is derived from Kalyan Thaat. So it will only have the notes from Thaat Kalyan, any note than dosent belong to Thaat Kalyan will not be present in Bhoop Raga.

    By the way Thaat Kalyan = s r g M p d n s’ M – Tivra Ma and remaining swars are shuddha swaras So any Raga coming from Thaat Kalyan will have some or all of these notes only no other notes (there are exceptions though like Mishra ragas but we will not discuss that right now) ‘Bhoop’ Raga has s r g p d s’ notes. These notes are taken from Thaat Kalyan.

    Some Ragas have 5 Notes – Pentatonic or Audav Raga Some Ragas have 6 Notes – Shadav Ragas Some Ragas have all 7 notes of Thaat – Sampoorna Ragas. ‘Bhoop’ Raga is a pentatonic Raga as it is made of 5 notes.

    Some Ragas are Seasonal (meant to be sung in particular Season) Ragas have a particular samay when it is supposed to be sung. Like Bhoop Raga is a night time Raga.

    All ragas are forms of expressions of different Rasa’s from the Navras.. which has different ras such as Karuna Ras, Vir Ras etc showing emotions and expressions. For example Bhoop Raga demonstrates Bhakti Ras.

    Ragas are basically a structure of notes with certain rules. They can only be sung when we sing a song composed using those Raga notes and rules. These songs composed in the ancient time are called as Bandishes / Taranaas.

    If you find difficult to sing Bandish or Taranaa at the start follow the given plan –

    1 – First practice Singing Aaroh and Avaroh of each Raga. For example for Bhoop Raga the Aaroh is s r g p d s’ and avaroh is s’ d p g r s.

    2 – Then start listening to film songs composed in that Raga and practice singing it. For example songs like Main Jahan Rahu from Namastey London or Dekha ek khwaab to hai -Silsila or Dil hun hun Re – Rudaali for female singers or the famous Jagjit Singh bhajan “hey govind hey gopal” There are also different taals like teentaal Dadra etc to be used when singing Bandish we will discuss this later. Hope you are not bored by now. But it is important to know the Hindustani Classical Music structure so then you can imagine its complexity and why it takes 10 years to study I would say even 10% of it.

    Regards Singing Department Devs Music.

     

    Join the most economical and most productive Singing Classes in Pune and learn to Sing Professionally by developing proper tempo knowledge (“laya” knowledge) and proper Music Note knowledge (“Sur” knowledge).

    Devs Music Academy

    Devs Music Academy offers a variety of music courses in Pune such as Guitar classes in Pune, Casio classes in Pune, Drums classes in Pune, Flute classes in Pune, Violin classes in Pune, Mouthorgan Classes in Pune, Mandolin classes in Pune, Tabla classes in Pune, Hindustani Classical Vocals Singing classes in Pune, Western Singing classes in Pune, Dance classes in Pune, Salsa classes in Pune, Acting classes in Pune, Saxophone classes in Pune, Drawing and Painting classes in Pune Devs Music is an expert in teaching music composition, guitar scales, piano scales, guitar chords, piano chords, jazz etc and some Professional courses such as DJ Mixing courses in Pune, Sound Engineering courses in Pune, Photography courses in Pune, Music Therapy courses and Music Management courses in Pune

    Devs Music has been teaching music since 1996.

    Call 9923561531 / 9764887344 / 9923577867

    Join Devs Music Courses in Pune. Top Ranking Music Classes in Pune. Guitar Classes in Pune, Piano Classes, Casio Classes in Pune, Mouthorgan in Pune, Flute classes in Pune, Drums Classes in Pune, Violin Classes in Pune, Mandolin classes in Pune, Drawing Painting classes in Pune, Dance Classes in Pune, Dance Academy in Pune, Acting classes in Pune, Singing classes in Pune, Hindustani Classical Singing classes in Pune, Sound Engineering classes in Pune, Music Composition Course in Pune, Sound Engineering Courses in Pune