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Go to the profile of Manas J. Saloi
Manas J. Saloi
Product Manager @Directi

Highlights from The Essays of Warren Buffett

The book ‘The Essays of Warren Buffett: Lessons for Corporate America’ is a must read for anyone who wants to learn how one of the most celebrated money managers of last century operates. I read the 3rd edition and am sharing my favourite parts from the book here.

Golden rules of Investing

  • The most revolutionary investing ideas of the past thirty-five years were those called modern finance theory. This is an elaborate set of ideas that boil down to one simple and misleading practical implication: it is a waste of time to study individual investment opportunities. One of modern finance theory’s main tenets is modern portfolio theory. It says that you can eliminate the peculiar risk of any security by holding a diversified portfolio — that is, it formalizes the folk slogan “don’t put all your eggs in one basket.” The risk that is leftover is the only risk for which the investors would be compensated. This leftover risk can be measured by a simple mathematical term — called beta — that shows how volatile the security is compared to the market. Beta measures this volatility risk well for securities that trade on efficient markets, where information about publicly traded securities is swiftly and accurately incorporated into prices. In the modern finance story, efficient markets rule. Buffett thinks most markets are not purely efficient and that equating volatility with risk is a gross distortion.
  • As to concentration of the portfolio, Buffett reminds us that Keynes, who was not only a brilliant economist but also an astute investor, believed that an investor should put fairly large sums into two or three businesses he knows something about and whose management is trustworthy.
    Buffett jokes that calling someone who trades actively in the market an investor “is like calling someone who repeatedly engages in one-night stands a romantic.” Buffett instead thinks we should follow Mark Twain’s advice from Pudd’nhead Wilson “Put all your eggs in one basket — and watch that basket.”
  • Buffet learned the art of investing from Ben Graham who in a number of classic works, including The Intelligent Investor, introduced a character who lives on Wall Street, Mr. Market. He is your hypothetical business partner who is daily willing to buy your interest in a business or sell you his at at prevailing market prices. He is moody and the more manic-depressive he is, the greater the spread between price and value, and therefore the greater the investment opportunities he offers. Buffett reintroduces Mr. Market, emphasizing how valuable Graham’s allegory of the overall market is for disciplined investment knitting. Another leading prudential legacy from Graham is his margin-of-safety principle. This principle holds that one should not make an investment in a security unless there is a sufficient basis for believing that the price being paid is substantially lower than the value being delivered.
  • All true investing must be based on an assessment of the relationship between price and value. Strategies that do not employ this comparison of price and value do not amount to investing at all, but to speculation — the hope that price will rise, rather than the conviction that the price being paid is lower than the value being obtained.
  • The circle of competence principle is the third leg of the Graham/Buffett stool of intelligent investing, along with Mr. Market and the margin of safety. This common sense rule instructs investors to consider investments only concerning businesses they are capable of understanding with a modicum of effort.
  • Three suggestions for investors from Buffett: First, beware of companies displaying weak accounting. If a company still does not expense options, or if its pension assumptions are fanciful, watch out. Second, unintelligible footnotes usually indicate untrustworthy management. If you can’t understand a footnote or other managerial explanation, it’s usually because the CEO doesn’t want you to. Finally, be suspicious of companies that trumpet earnings projections and growth expectations.
  • What needs to be reported is data — whether GAAP, non-GAAP, or extra-GAAP — that helps financially-literate readers answer three key questions: (1) Approximately how much is this company worth? (2) What is the likelihood that it can meet its future obligations? and (3) How good a job are its managers doing, given the hand they have been dealt?
  • On bonds: “The large numbers of corporations that failed in the early 1990s recession under crushing debt burdens to dispute academic research showing that higher interest rates on junk bonds more than compensated for their higher default rates.”
  • On “fallen angels” — bonds that were initially of investment grade but that were downgraded when the issuers fell on bad times:
    “A kind of bastardized fallen angel burst onto the investment scene in the 1980s — “junk bonds” that were far below investment-grade when issued. As the decade progressed, new offerings of manufactured junk became ever junkier and ultimately the predictable outcome occurred: Junk bonds lived up to their name. Thus, said the friendly salesmen, a diversified portfolio of junk bonds would produce greater net returns than would a portfolio of high-grade bonds. (Beware of past-performance “proofs” in finance: If history books were the key to riches, the Forbes 400 would consist of librarians). The manager of a fallen angel almost invariably yearned to regain investment-grade status and worked toward that goal. The junk-bond operator was usually an entirely different breed. Behaving much as a heroin user might, he devoted his energies not to finding a cure for his debt-ridden condition, but rather to finding another fix. Additionally, the fiduciary sensitivities of the executives managing the typical fallen angel were often, though not always, more finely developed than were those of the junk-bond-issuing financiopath.”
  • Most investors, both institutional and individual, will find that the best way to own common stocks is through an index fund that charges minimal fees. Those following this path are sure to beat the net results (after fees and expenses) delivered by the great majority of investment professionals. Should you choose, however, to construct your own portfolio, there are a few thoughts worth remembering: Intelligent investing is not complex, though that is far from saying that it is easy. What an investor needs is the ability to correctly evaluate selected businesses. Note that word “selected”: You don’t have to be an expert on every company, or even many. You only have to be able to evaluate companies within your circle of competence. The size of that circle is not very important; knowing its boundaries, however, is vital. To invest successfully, you need not understand beta, efficient markets, modern portfolio theory, option pricing, or emerging markets. You may, in fact, be better off knowing nothing of these. Your goal as an investor should simply be to purchase, at a rational price, a part interest in an easily-understandable business whose earnings are virtually certain to be materially higher five, ten and twenty years from now.
    If you aren’t willing to own a stock for ten years, don’t even think about owning it for ten minutes.
  • Bertrand Russell’s observation about life in general applies with unusual force in the financial world: “Most men would rather die than think. Many do.”
  • “Value is destroyed, not created, by any business that loses money over its lifetime, no matter how high its interim valuation may get. Intrinsic value can be defined simply: It is the discounted value of the cash that can be taken out of a business during its remaining life. Intrinsic value is an estimate rather than a precise figure.”
  • “You can gain some insight into the differences between book value and intrinsic value by looking at one form of investment, a college education. Think of the education’s cost as its “book value.” If this cost is to be accurate, it should include the earnings that were foregone by the student because he chose college rather than a job. For this exercise, we will ignore the important non-economic benefits of an education and focus strictly on its economic value. First, we must estimate the earnings that the graduate will receive over his lifetime and subtract from that figure an estimate of what he would have earned had he lacked his education. That gives us an excess earnings figure, which must then be discounted, at an appropriate interest rate, back to graduation day. The dollar result equals the intrinsic economic value of the education.
    Some graduates will find that the book value of their education exceeds its intrinsic value, which means that whoever paid for the education didn’t get his money’s worth. In other cases, the intrinsic value of an education will far exceed its book value, a result that proves capital was wisely deployed. In all cases, what is clear is that book value is meaningless as an indicator of intrinsic value.”
  • “We will continue to ignore political and economic forecasts, which are an expensive distraction for many investors and businessmen. Thirty years ago, no one could have foreseen the huge expansion of the Vietnam War, wage and price controls, two oil shocks, the resignation of a president, the dissolution of the Soviet Union, a one-day drop in the Dow of 508 points, or treasury bill yields fluctuating between 2.8% and 17.4%. But, surprise — none of these blockbuster events made the slightest dent in Ben Graham’s investment principles. Nor did they render unsound the negotiated purchases of fine businesses at sensible prices. A different set of major shocks is sure to occur in the next 30 years. We will neither try to predict these nor to profit from them. If we can identify businesses similar to those we have purchased in the past, external surprises will have little effect on our long-term results.”
  • “People who expect to earn 10% annually from equities during this century — envisioning that 2% of that will come from dividends and 8% from price appreciation — are implicitly forecasting a level of about 24,000,000 on the Dow by 2100. Think about it”

How Buffett and Charlie Munger run Berkshire

  • Buffett and Berkshire avoid making predictions and tell their managers to do the same. They think it is a bad managerial habit that too often leads managers to make up their financial reports.
  • Buffett just gives a simple set of commands to his CEOs: to run their business as if (1) they are its sole owner, (2) it is the only asset they hold, and (3) they can never sell or merge it for a hundred years. This enables Berkshire CEOs to manage with a long-term horizon ahead of them, something alien to the CEOs of public companies whose short-term oriented shareholders obsess with meeting the latest quarterly earnings estimate. Short-term results matter, of course, but the Berkshire approach avoids any pressure to achieve them at the expense of strengthening long-term competitive advantages.
  • “When a problem exists, whether in personnel or in business operations, the time to act is now.”
  • Unlike many CEOs, who desire their company’s stock to trade at the highest possible prices in the market, Buffett prefers Berkshire stock to trade at or around its intrinsic value — neither materially higher nor lower. Such linkage means that business results during one period will benefit the people who owned the company during that period.
  • Stock splits are another common action in corporate America that Buffett points out disserve owner interests. Stock splits have three consequences: they increase transaction costs by promoting high share turnover; they attract shareholders with short-term, market-oriented views who unduly focus on stock market prices; and, as a result of both of those effects, they lead to prices that depart materially from intrinsic business value.
  • Intrinsic value: The discounted value of the cash that can be taken out of a business during its remaining life. Charlie and Berkshire are interested only in acquisitions that they believe will raise the per-share intrinsic value of Berkshire’s stock.
  • According to Buffett: Useful financial statements must enable a user to answer three basic questions about a business: approximately how much a company is worth, its likely ability to meet its future obligations, and how good a job its managers are doing in operating the business. Charlie and Buffett think that it is both deceptive and dangerous for CEOs to predict growth rates for their companies.
  • “At Berkshire, we try to be as logical about compensation as about capital allocation. For example, we compensate Ralph Schey based upon the results of Scott Fetzer rather than those of Berkshire. What could make more sense, since he’s responsible for one operation but not the other? A cash bonus or a stock option tied to the fortunes of Berkshire would provide totally capricious rewards to Ralph. He could, for example, be hitting home runs at Scott Fetzer while Charlie and I rang up
    mistakes at Berkshire, thereby negating his efforts many times over. Conversely, why should option profits or bonuses be heaped upon Ralph if good things are occurring in other parts of Berkshire but Scott Fetzer is lagging?”
  • “Charlie and I believe that a CEO must not delegate risk control. It’s simply too important. If Berkshire ever gets in trouble, it will be my fault. It will not be because of misjudgments made by a Risk Committee or Chief Risk Officer.”
  • “It has not been shareholders who have botched the operations of some of our country’s largest financial institutions. Yet they have borne the burden, with 90% or more of the value of their holdings wiped out in most cases of failure. The CEOs and directors of the failed companies, however, have largely gone unscathed. Their fortunes may have been diminished by the disasters they oversaw, but they still live in grand style. It is the behavior of these CEOs and directors that needs to be changed: If their institutions and the country are harmed by their recklessness, they should pay a heavy price-one not reimbursable by the companies”
  • “Audit committees should unequivocally put auditors on the spot, making them understand they will become liable for major monetary penalties if they don’t come forth with what they know or suspect.”
  • On why Berkshire bought Washing Post Company: “We bought all of our [Washington Post Company (“WPC”)] holdings in mid-1973 at a price of not more than one-fourth of the then per-share business value of the enterprise. Calculating the price/value ratio required no unusual insights. Most security analysts, media brokers, and media executives would have estimated WPC’s intrinsic business value at $400 to $500 million just as we did. And its $100 million stock market valuation was published daily for all to see. Our advantage was our attitude, that we had learned from Ben Graham, that the key to successful investing was the purchase of shares in good businesses when market prices were at a large discount from underlying business values.”
  • “Whenever Charlie and I buy common stocks for Berkshire’s insurance companies (leaving aside arbitrage purchases, discussed) we approach the transaction as if we were buying into a private business. We look at the economic prospects of the business, the people in charge of running it, and the price we must pay. We do not have in mind any time or price for sale. Indeed, we are willing to hold a stock indefinitely so long as we expect the business to increase in intrinsic value at a satisfactory rate. When investing, we view ourselves as business analysts — not as market analysts, not as macroeconomic analysts, and not even as security analysts.”
  • “Ben Graham, my friend and teacher, long ago described the mental attitude toward market fluctuations that I believe to be most conducive to investment success. He said that you should imagine market quotations as coming from a remarkably accommodating fellow named Mr. Market who is your partner in a private business. Market appears daily and names a price at which he will either buy your interest or sell you his. Even though the business that the two of you own may have economic characteristics that are stable, Mr. Market’s quotations will be anything but. For, sad to say, the poor fellow has incurable emotional problems. At times he feels euphoric and can see only the favorable factors affecting the business. When in that mood, he names a very high buy-sell price because he fears that you will snap up his interest and rob him of imminent gains.
    is depressed and can see nothing but trouble ahead for both the business and the world. On these occasions he will name a very low price, since he is terrified that you will unload your interest on him. Rather an investor will succeed by coupling good business judgment with an ability to insulate his thoughts and behavior from the super-contagious emotions that swirl about the marketplace. In my own efforts to stay insulated, I have found it highly useful to keep Ben’s Mr. Market concept firmly in mind. As Ben said: “In the short run, the market is a voting machine but in the long run it is a weighing machine.”
  • The speed at which a business’s success is recognized, furthermore, is not that important as long as the company’s intrinsic value is increasing at a satisfactory rate.
  • Buffett then explains why he is happy when the stock market is stagnant or goes down: “ A short quiz: If you plan to eat hamburgers throughout your life and are not a cattle producer, should you wish for higher or lower prices for beef? This question answers itself. Similarly If you expect to be a net saver during the next five years, should you hope for a higher or lower stock market during that period? Many investors get this one wrong. Even though they are going to be net buyers of stocks for many years to come, they are elated when stock prices rise and depressed when they fall. In effect, they rejoice because prices have risen for the “hamburgers” they will soon be buying. This reaction makes no sense. Only those who will be sellers of equities in the near future should be happy at seeing stocks rise. Prospective purchasers should much prefer sinking prices.”
  • On arbitrage: “To evaluate arbitrage situations you must answer four questions: (1) How likely is it that the promised event will indeed occur? (2) How long will your money be tied up? (3) What chance is there that something still better will transpire — a competing takeover bid, for example? and (4) What will happen if the event does not take place because of anti-trust action, financing glitches, etc.?
  • The preceding discussion about arbitrage makes a small discussion of “efficient market theory” (EMT) also seem relevant. This doctrine became highly fashionable — indeed, almost holy scripture — in academic circles during the 1970s. Essentially, it said that analyzing stocks was useless because all public information about them was appropriately reflected in their prices. In other words, the market always knew everything. As a corollary, the professors who taught EMT said that someone throwing darts at the stock tables could select a stock portfolio having prospects just as good as one selected by the brightest, most hard-working security analyst. We continue to think that it is usually foolish to part with an interest in a business that is both understandable and durably wonderful. Business interests of that kind are simply too hard to replace. The strategy we’ve adopted precludes our following standard diversification dogma. Many pundits would therefore say the strategy must be riskier than that employed by more conventional investors. We disagree. We believe that a policy of portfolio concentration may well decrease risk if it raises, as it should, both the intensity with which an investor thinks about a business and the comfort-level he must feel with its economic characteristics before buying into it. In stating this opinion, we define risk, using dictionary terms, as “the possibility of loss or injury.” Academics, however, like to define investment “risk” differently, averring that it is the relative volatility of a stock or portfolio of stocks — that is, their volatility as compared to that of a large universe of stocks. Employing data bases and statistical skills, these academics compute with precision the “beta” of a stock — that shows how volatile the security is compared to the market. Beta measures this volatility risk well for securities that trade on efficient markets, where information about publicly traded securities is swiftly and accurately incorporated into prices. In our opinion, the real risk an investor must assess is whether his aggregate after-tax receipts from an investment (including those he receives on sale) will, over his prospective holding period, give him at least as much purchasing power as he had to begin with, plus a modest rate of interest on that initial stake. Though this risk cannot be calculated with engineering precision, it can in some cases be judged with a degree of accuracy that is useful. The primary factors bearing upon this evaluation are: (1) The certainty with which the long-term economic characteristics of the business can be evaluated; (2) The certainty with which management can be evaluated, both as to its ability to realise the full potential of the business and to wisely employ its cash flows; (3) The certainty with which management can be counted on to channel the reward from the business to the shareholders rather than to itself; (4) The purchase price of the business; (5) The levels of taxation and inflation that will be experienced and that will determine the degree by which an investor’s purchasing-power return is reduced from his gross return.
  • It is better to be approximately right than precisely wrong.
  • “If you are a know-something investor, able to understand business economics and to find five to ten sensibly-priced companies that possess important long-term competitive advantages, conventional diversification makes no sense for you. It is apt simply to hurt your results and increase your risk. I cannot understand why an investor of that sort elects to put money into a business that is his 20th favorite rather than simply adding that money to his top choices — the businesses he understands best and that present the least risk, along with the greatest profit potential. In the words of the prophet Mae West: “Too much of a good thing can be wonderful.”
  • “We continually search for large businesses with understandable, enduring and mouth-watering economics that are run by able and shareholder-oriented managements.”
  • “Our equity-investing strategy remains little changed from what it was when we said in the 1977 annual report: We select our marketable equity securities in much the way we would evaluate a business for acquisition in its entirety. We want the business to be one (a) that we can understand; (b) with favourable long-term prospects; operated by honest and competent people; and (d) available at a very attractive price.” We have seen cause to make only one change in this creed: Because of both market conditions and our size, we now substitute “an attractive price” for “a very attractive price.”
  • “Consciously paying more for a stock than its calculated value — in the hope that it can soon be sold for a still-higher price — should be labeled speculation (which is neither illegal, immoral nor — in our view — financially fattening). Growth benefits investors only when the business in point can invest at incremental returns that are enticing — in other words, only when each dollar used to finance the growth creates over a dollar of long-term market value. In the case of a low-return business requiring incremental funds, growth hurts the investor.”
  • Value investing typically connotes the purchase of stocks having attributes such as a low ratio of price to book value, a low price-earnings ratio, or a high dividend yield.
  • “Leaving the question of price aside, the best business to own is one that over an extended period can employ large amounts of incremental capital at very high rates of return. The worst business to own is one that must, or will, do the opposite — that is, consistently employ ever-greater amounts of capital at very low rates of return.”
  • “In studying the investments we have made in both subsidiary companies and common stocks, you will see that we favour businesses and industries unlikely to experience major change.”
  • If we have a strength, it is in recognising when we are operating well within our circle of competence and when we are approaching the perimeter. Predicting the long-term economics of companies that operate in fast-changing industries is simply far beyond our perimeter. A further related lesson: Easy does it. After 25 years of buying and supervising a great variety of businesses, Charlie and I have not learned how to solve difficult business problems. What we have learned is to avoid them.
  • On Cigar butt investing philosophy which Buffett followed earlier in his career “If you buy a stock at a sufficiently low price, there will usually be some hiccup in the fortunes of the business that gives you a chance to unload at a decent profit, even though the long-term performance of the business may be terrible. I call this the “cigar butt” approach to investing. A cigar butt found on the street that has only one puff left in it may not offer much of a smoke, but the “bargain purchase” will make that puff all profit.”
  • Time is the friend of the wonderful business, the enemy of the mediocre. For example, if you buy a business for $8 million that can be sold or liquidated for $10 million and promptly take either course, you can realise a high return. But the investment will disappoint if the business is sold for $10 million in ten years and in the interim has annually earned and distributed only a few percent on cost.
  • On institutional imperative: “I learned over time that rationality wilts when institutional imperative comes into play. Example: (1) As if governed by Newton’s First Law of Motion, an institution will resist any change in its current direction; (2) Just as work expands to fill available time, corporate projects or acquisitions will materialise to soak up available funds; (3) Any business craving of the leader, however foolish, will be quickly supported by detailed rate-of-return and strategic studies prepared by his troops; and (4) The behaviour of peer companies, whether they are expanding, acquiring, setting executive compensation or whatever, will be mindlessly imitated. Institutional dynamics, not venality or stupidity, set businesses on these courses, which are too often misguided.”
  • “After some other mistakes, I learned to go into business only with people whom I like, trust, and admire.”
  • “It’s no sin to miss a great opportunity outside one’s area of competence. But I have passed on a couple of really big purchases that were served up to me on a platter and that I was fully capable of understanding.”
  • “Over the years, a number of very smart people have learned the hard way that a long string of impressive numbers multiplied by a single zero always equals zero.”
  • On paying dividends: “Not a dime of cash has left Berkshire for dividends share repurchases during the past 40 years. Instead, we have retained all of our earnings to strengthen our business, a reinforcement now running about $1 billion per month.”
  • “ Our net worth has increased from $48 million to $157 billion during the last four decades. No other corporation has come to building its financial strength in this unrelenting way. By being so cautious in respect to leverage, we penalise our returns by a minor amount. Having loads of liquidity, though, lets us sleep well. Moreover, during the episodes of financial chaos that occasionally erupt in our economy, we will be equipped both financially and emotionally to play offense while others scramble for survival. That’s what allowed us to invest $15.6 billion in 25 days of panic following the Lehman bankruptcy in 2008.”

On alternative investments

  • “Investments that are denominated in a given currency include money-market funds, bonds, mortgages, bank deposits, and other instruments. Most of these currency-based investments are thought of as “safe.” In truth they are among the most dangerous of assets. Their beta may be zero, but their risk is huge. Over the past century these instruments have destroyed the purchasing power of investors in many countries, even as the holders continued to receive timely payments of interest and principal. This ugly result, moreover, will forever recur.”
  • “Governments determine the ultimate value of money, and systemic forces will sometimes cause them to gravitate to policies that produce inflation. From time to time such policies spin out of control. Even in the U.S., where the wish for a stable currency is strong, the dollar has fallen a staggering 86% in value since 1965, when I took over management of Berkshire. It takes no less than $7 today to buy what $1 did at that time. Consequently, a tax-free institution would have needed 4.3% interest annually from bond investments over that period to simply maintain its purchasing power. For tax-paying investors, the picture has been far worse. During the same 47-year period, continuous rolling of U.S. Treasury bills produced 5.7% annually. That sounds satisfactory. But if an individual investor paid personal income taxes at a rate averaging 25%, this 5.7% return would have yielded nothing in the way of real income. This investor’s visible income tax would have stripped him of 1.4 points of the stated yield, and the invisible inflation tax would have devoured the remaining 4.3 points. Under today’s conditions, therefore, I do not like currency-based investments. Even so, Berkshire holds significant amounts of them, primarily of the short-term variety. We primarily hold U.S. Treasury bills, the only investment that can be counted on for liquidity under the most chaotic of economic conditions. Our working level for liquidity is $20 billion; $10 billion is our absolute minimum.”
  • “Gold, however, has two significant shortcomings, being neither of much use nor procreative. True, gold has some industrial and decorative utility, but the demand for these purposes is both limited and incapable of soaking up new production. Meanwhile, if you own one ounce of gold for an eternity, you will still own one ounce at its end. Today the world’s gold stock is about 170,000 metric tons. If all of this gold were melded together, it would form a cube of about 68 feet per side. (Picture it fitting comfortably within a baseball infield.) At $1,750 per ounce — gold’s price as I write this — its value would be $9.6 trillion. Let’s now create a pile B costing an equal amount. For that, we could buy all U.S. cropland (400 million acres with output of about $200 billion annually), plus 16 Exxon Mobils (the world’s most profitable company, one earning more than $40 billion annually). After these purchases, we would have about $1 trillion left over for walking-around money (no sense feeling strapped after this buying binge). Can you imagine an investor with $9.6 trillion selecting pile A over pile B? My own preference is investment in productive assets, whether businesses, farms, or real estate.
  • “Charlie and I are of one mind in how we feel about derivatives and the trading activities that go with them: We view them as time bombs, both for the parties that deal in them and the economic system. Essentially, these instruments call for money to change hands at some future date, with the amount to be determined by one or more reference items, such as interest rates, stock prices or currency values.”
  • “Indeed, recent events demonstrate that certain big-name CEOs (or former CEOs) at major financial institutions were simply incapable of managing a business with a huge, complex book of derivatives. Include Charlie and me in this hapless group: When Berkshire purchased General Re in 1998, we knew we could not get our minds around its book of 23,218 derivatives contracts, made with 884 counterparties (many of which we had never heard of). So we decided to close up shop. Though we were under no pressure and were operating in benign markets as we exited, it took us five years and more than $400 million in losses to largely complete minds around its book of 23,218 derivatives contracts, made with 884 counterparties (many of which we had never heard of). So we decided to close up shop. Though we were under no pressure and were operating in benign markets as we exited, it took us five years and more than $400 million in losses to largely complete”

On owning a Bank

  • “Month by month the foolish loan decisions of once well-regarded banks were put on public display. As one huge loss after another was unveiled — often on the heels of managerial assurances that all was well — investors understandably concluded that no bank’s numbers were to be trusted. Aided by their flight from bank stocks, we purchased our 10% interest in Wells Fargo for $290 million, less than five times after-tax earnings, and less than three times pre-tax earnings.
    Our purchase of one-tenth of the bank may be thought of as roughly equivalent to our buying 100% of a $5 billion bank with identical financial characteristics. Wells Fargo is big — it has $56 billion in assets — and has been earning more than 20% on equity and 1.25% on assets. Of course, ownership of a bank — or about any other business — is far from riskless. California banks face the specific risk of a major earthquake, which might wreak enough havoc on borrowers to in turn destroy the banks lending to them. A second risk is systemic — the possibility of a business contraction or financial panic so severe that it would endanger almost every highly-leveraged institution, no matter how intelligently run. Finally, the market’s major fear of the moment is that West Coast real estate values will tumble because of overbuilding and deliver huge losses to banks that have financed the expansion. Because it is a leading real estate lender, Wells Fargo is thought to be particularly vulnerable. Consider some mathematics: Wells Fargo currently earns well over $1 billion pre-tax annually after expensing more than $300 million for loan losses. If 10% of all $48 billion of the bank’s loans — not just its real estate loans — were hit by problems in 1991, and these produced losses (including foregone interest) averaging 30% of principal, the company would roughly break even. A year like that — which we consider only a low-level possibility, not a likelihood — would not distress us.”

On owning an Airline

  • “The day of reckoning for these airlines could be delayed by infusions of capital (such as ours into USAir), but eventually a fundamental rule of economics prevailed: In an unregulated commodity business, a company must lower its costs to competitive levels or face extinction. When Richard Branson, the wealthy owner of Virgin Atlantic Airways, was asked how to become a millionaire, he had a quick answer: “There’s really nothing to it. Start as a billionaire and then buy an airline.” Unwilling to accept Branson’s proposition on faith, your Chairman decided in 1989 to test it by investing $358 million in a 9¼% preferred stock of USAir. I liked and admired Ed Colodny, the company’s then-CEO, and I still do. But my analysis of USAir’s business was both superficial and wrong. I was so beguiled by the company’s long history of profitable operations, and by the protection that ownership of a senior security seemingly offered me, that I overlooked the crucial point: USAir’s revenues would increasingly feel the effects of an unregulated, fiercely competitive market whereas its cost structure was a holdover from the days when regulation protected profits. These costs, if left unchecked, portended disaster, however reassuring the airline’s past record might be. Since our purchase, the economics of the airline industry have deteriorated at an alarming pace, accelerated by the kamikaze pricing tactics of certain carriers. The trouble this pricing has produced for all carriers illustrates an important truth: In a business selling a commodity-type product, it’s impossible to be a lot smarter than your dumbest competitor.”

On stock repurchases

  • “We will never make purchases with the intention of stemming a decline in Berkshire’s price. Charlie and I favour repurchases when two conditions are met: first, a company has ample funds to take care of the operational and liquidity needs of its business; second, its stock is selling at a material discount to the company’s intrinsic business value, conservatively calculated. We have witnessed at a material discount to the company’s intrinsic business value, conservatively calculated. Today, IBM has 1.16 billion shares outstanding, of which we own about 63.9 million or 5.5%. Naturally, what happens to the company’s earnings over the next five years is of enormous importance to us. Beyond that, the company will likely spend $50 billion or so in those years to repurchase shares. Our quiz for the day: What should a long-term billion shares outstanding, of which we own about 63.9 million or 5.5%. Naturally, what happens to the company’s earnings over the next five years is of enormous importance to us. Beyond that, the company will likely spend $50 billion or so in those years to repurchase shares. Our quiz for the day: What should a long-term shareholder, such as Berkshire, cheer for during that period? I won’t keep you in suspense. We should wish for IBM’s stock price to languish throughout the five years. Let’s do the math. If IBM’s stock price averages, say, $200 during the period, the company will acquire 250 million shares for its $50 billion. There would consequently be 910 million shares outstanding, and we would own about 7% of the company. If the stock conversely sells for an average of $300 during the five-year period, IBM will acquire only 167 million shares. That would leave about 990 million shares outstanding after five years, of which we would own 6.5%.

    The logic is simple: If you are going to be a net buyer of stocks in the future, either directly with your own money or indirectly (through your ownership of a company that is repurchasing shares), you are hurt when stocks rise. You benefit when stocks swoon.”

On splitting Berkshire stock

  • “Were we to split the stock or take other actions focusing on stock price rather than business value, we would attract an entering class of buyers inferior to the exiting class of sellers.”
  • “A hyperactive stock market is the pickpocket of enterprise.
    For example, consider a typical company earning, say, 12% on equity. Assume a very high turnover rate in its shares of 100% per year. If a purchase and sale of the stock trades at book value, the owners of our hypothetical company will pay, in aggregate, 2% of the company’s net worth annually for the privilege of transferring ownership. This activity does nothing for the earnings of the business, and means that 1/6 of them are lost to the owners through the “frictional” cost of transfer. Consequently, our stock consistently trades in a price range that is sensibly related to intrinsic value.”
  • On issuing Class B common stock later: “We made two good-sized offerings through Salomon [during 1996], both with interesting aspects. The first was our sale in May of 517,500 shares of Class B Common, which generated net proceeds of $565 million. As I have told you before, we made this sale in response to the threatened
    creation of unit trusts that would have marketed themselves as Berkshire look-alikes. In the process, they would have used our past, and definitely non repeatable, record to entice naive small investors and would have charged these innocents high fees and commissions. The trusts would have meanwhile indiscriminately poured the proceeds of their offerings into a supply of Berkshire shares that is fixed and limited. The likely result: a speculative bubble in our stock.”

Why Buffet hates to part with Berkshire stock

  • “Our problem has been that we own a truly marvelous collection of businesses, which means that trading away a portion of them for something new almost never makes sense. If we issue shares in a merger, we reduce your ownership in all of our businesses — partly-owned companies such as Coca-Cola, Gillette and American Express, and all of our terrific operating companies as well.”
  • “The oracle Aesop and his enduring, though somewhat incomplete, investment insight was “a bird in the hand is worth
    two in the bush.”
    To flesh out this principle, you must answer only three questions. How certain are you that there are indeed birds in the bush? When will they emerge and how many will there be? What is the risk-free interest rate (which we consider to be the yield on long-term U.S. bonds)? If you can answer these three questions, you will know the maximum value of the bush — and the maximum number of the birds you now possess that should be offered for it.”

On acquisitions

  • “Over time, the skill with which a company’s managers allocate capital has an enormous impact on the enterprise’s value.
  • “Almost by definition, a really good business generates far more money (at least after its early years) than it can use internally. The company could, of course, distribute the money to shareholders by way of dividends or share repurchases. But often the CEO asks a strategic planning staff,
    consultants or investment bankers whether an acquisition or two might make sense. That’s like asking your interior decorator whether you need a $50,000 rug. We believe most deals do damage to the shareholders of the acquiring company. In any case, why potential buyers even look at projections prepared by sellers baffles me. Charlie and I never give them a glance, We would love to see an intermediary earn its fee by thinking of us — and therefore repeat here what we’re looking for: (1) Large purchases, (2) Demonstrated consistent earning power (future projections are of no interest to us, nor are “turnaround” situations), (3) Businesses earning good returns on equity while employing little or no debt, (4) Management in place (we can’t supply it), (5) Simple businesses (if there’s lots of technology, we won’t understand it), (6) An offering price (we don’t want to waste our time or that of the seller by talking, even preliminarily, about a transaction when price is unknown).”
  • “Berkshire is another kind of buyer — a rather unusual one. We buy to keep, but we don’t have, and don’t expect to have, operating people in our parent organisation. All of the businesses we own are run autonomously to an extraordinary degree. The areas I get involved in are capital allocation and selection and compensation of the top man. Other personnel decisions, operating strategies, etc. are his bailiwick.”

Note: I ignored highlights from a few chapters related to Accounting. Not being an accounting nerd, I had a hard time grasping all the concepts. I also mostly focussed on stocks and bonds and ignored other money instruments.

Links: Goodreads , Amazon

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The Life Of Warren Buffett History Essay

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INTRODUCTION

Warren Edward Buffett (born August 30, 1930) is a U.S. investor, and philanthropist. He is one of the most eminent investors in chronicle, the basic shareholder and chief executive officer of Berkshire Hathaway and in 2008 was ordered by Forbes as the 2nd most robust person in the world on an approximated net worth of around $62 billion.

Buffett is often called the "Oracle of Omaha" or the "Sage of Omaha’ and is noted for his adhesiveness to the value investing philosophy and for his own frugalness in spite of his huge riches.

Buffett is also a famed altruist, having engaged to impart 85 percentage of his fate to the Gates cornerstone. He as well assists as a appendage of the board of trustees at Grinnell College.

In 1999, Buffett personified described as the greatest money manager of the twentieth century in a surveil by the Carson Group, leading Peter Lynch and John Templeton. In 2007, he was enrolled amongst Time’s 100 virtually influencial people on the Earth.

BUFFETT’S HISTORY

Warren Buffett was born in Omaha, Nebraska. His father name is Howard Buffett and having 2 siblings. He worked at his grandpa’s grocery store. In 1943, Buffett registered his 1st income tax return, deducing his pedal and watch as an exercise disbursement for $35 for his employment as paper deliveryman. Later on his father was elected to United States Congress, Buffett was schooled at Woodrow Wilson High School , Washington. In 1945, in his fledgeling year of high school, Buffett and a acquaintance expended $25 to buy a secondhand pinball game machine, which they placed in a barber workshop. Within weeks, they possessed 3 game machines in different emplacements.

Buffett first entered at The Wharton School, University of Pennsylvania, (1947-49) where he united the Alpha Sigma Phi brotherhood. His father and uncles were Alpha Sigma Phi brothers from the chapter in Nebraska. In 1951, he changed to the University of Nebraska where he underwent a B.S. in Economics.

Buffett then enrolled at Columbia Business School subsequently memorising that Benjamin Graham, (the generator of The Intelligent Investor), and David Dodd, 2 long-familiar financial analyst*, tutored there. In 1951, he then underwent a M.S. in Economics from Columbia University.

In Buffett’s personal articulates:

I’m 15 percent Fisher and 85 percent Benjamin Graham.

The primary theme of investing is to consider stocks as business, utilise the market’s variations to your welfare, and look for a safety margin. That is what Benjamin Graham educated us. A century from today they’ll even be the fundaments of investing.

BENJAMIN GRAHAM – BUFFETT’S MENTOR

During the period of 1920’s, Ben Graham had become renowned. He looked for for stocks that comprised so low-priced they were almost entirely pregnant of risk, at a time when the rest of the world was approaching the investment field as a tremendous game of roulette. The Northern Pipe Line, an oil transportation company carried off by the Rockefellers was among his best known calls. The value investors tried to convince management to trade the portfolio, but they denied because Graham accomplished that the company had bond holdings worth $95 per share which was traded at $65 per share. Shortly thereafter, he engaged a adoptive warfare and procured a spot on the Board of Directors (BOD). The company gave a dividend in the amount of $70 per share and sold-out its bonds.

At the age of 40, Security Analysis, among the greatest works ever composed on the stock market was pubished by Ben Graham. At that time, it was dangerous; endowing in equities had become a prank (The Dow Jones had struck from 381.17 to 41.22 over the course of three to four short years following the crash of 1929). It was about this time that Graham arrived up with the rule of "intrinsic" business value – a touchstone of a business’s genuine worth that was wholly and entirely independent of the stock price. Utilising intrinsic value, investors could be in the position to determine what a company was worth and could be capable to take investment decisions consequently. His succeeding book, The Intelligent Investor, which Warren observes as "the greatest book on investing ever written", enclosed the world to Mr. Market – the best investment doctrine of analogy in history. Through his simple yet profound investment principles, Ben Graham turned an idyllic anatomy to the 21 year old, Warren Buffett.

CAREER CHRONICLE

From 1951-54, Buffett was hired at Buffett-Falk & Co., Omaha as an Investiture Salesman. From 1954-1956, he was hired at Graham-Newman Corp., New York as a financial analyst. From 1956-1969, he worked with Buffett Partnership, Ltd., Omaha as a superior general Partner and from 1970 onwards till Present at Berkshire Hathaway Inc, Omaha as its Chairman, Chief Executive Officer.

In 1951, Buffett Warren observed his mentor was the Chairman of a small, nameless insurance company named GEICO insurance. Taking a power train to Washington. on a Saturday, he tapped on the door of GEICO’s central office until a janitor permitted him in. At that place, he encountered Lorimer Davidson, Geico’s Vice President, and the both talked about the insurance business concern for hours. Davidson would eventually become Buffett’s womb-to-tomb friend and an everlasting charm and later on recollect that he discovered Buffett to be a "Prodigious man" after only fifteen minutes. Buffett calibrated from Columbia and desired to work at Wall Street, however both, his father and Ben Graham pressed him not to. He volunteered to work out for Graham free of charge, but Graham declined.

Buffett turned back to Omaha and worked as a stockbroker while acquiring a Dale Carnegie public speaking course. Utilising what he acquired, he sensed surefooted adequate to teach an "Investment Principles & Rules" night class at the University of Nebraska. The moderate age of his pupils was more than twice his personal. During this time he purchased a Sinclair Texaco gas station too as a side investment. Nevertheless, this didn’t boot out to be an eminent business jeopardize.

In 1952, Buffett wedded Susan Thompson and the following year they gave birth their 1st baby, Susan Alice Buffett. In 1954, Buffett received a job at Benjamin Graham’s partnership, which he always dreamed. His initiating remuneration was $12,000 a year (more or less $97,000 conformed to 2008 dollars). There he worked intimately with Walter Schloss. Graham was a bully man to work for. He was inexorable that stocks allow a ample safety margin after weighting the trade-off between their monetary value and their intrinsic value. The debate added up to Buffett simply he queried whether the standards were too demanding and induced the company to drop down on big successes that had more qualitative values. That same year the Buffetts birthed their 2nd baby, Howard Graham Buffett.

In 1956, Benjamin Graham adjourned and shut down his partnership. At this time Buffett’s own savings comprised over $174,000 and he commenced Buffett Partnership Ltd., an investment partnership in Omaha.

In 1957, Buffett had three partnerships manoeuvering the whole year. He bought a five-bedroom stucco mansion in Omaha, where he even dwells, for $31,500. In 1958, the Buffett’s 3rd baby, Peter Andrew Buffett , was born. Buffett controlled five partnerships the whole year. In 1959, the company raised to six partnerships running the full year and Buffett was acquainted to Charlie Munger. By 1960, Buffett had seven partnerships manoeuvering: Buffett Associates, Buffett Fund, Dacee, Emdee, Glenoff, Mo-Buff and Underwood. He asked one of his partners, a physician, to ascertain ten other physicians willing and able to invest $10,000 each in his partnership. Eventually eleven agreed. In 1961, Buffett unconcealed that Sanborn Map Company reported for 35% of the partnership’s pluses. He explicated that in 1958 Sanborn stock traded at only $45 per share when the value of the Sanborn investment portfolio was $65 per share. This implied that vendees valued Sanborn stock at "minus $20" per share and were involuntary to bear more than 70 cents on the dollar for an investment portfolio with a map business injected for nothing. This gained him a spot on the board of Sanborn.

WAY TO RICHES

In 1962, Buffett turned a millionaire, because of his partnerships, which in January 1962 had a surplus of $7,178,500, of which over $1,025,000 belonged to Buffett. Buffett integrated all partnerships into one partnership. Buffett divulged a textile fabricating business firm named Berkshire Hathaway. Buffett’s partnerships started buying shares at $7.60 per share. In 1965, when Buffett’s partnerships aggressively started buying Berkshire, they paid $14.86 per share while the company had working capital of $19 per share. This didn’t include the evaluation of fixed assets (factory, machinery and equipment etc.). Buffett took charge of Berkshire Hathaway at the board meeting and appointed a new president, Ken Chace, to feed the company. In 1966, Buffett closed the partnership to fresh income. Buffett published in his letter: unless it seems that conditions have changed (under some considerations added capital would better final result) or unless new partners can contribute some asset to the partnership other than simply working capital, I think not to admit more additional partners to BPL.

In his second letter, Buffett declared his foremost investment in a private business concern – Hochschild, Kohn and Co, a privately owned Baltimore emporium. In 1967, Berkshire disbursed its initiatory and exclusive dividend of 10 cents. In 1969, observing his most eminent year, Buffett neutralised the partnership and shifted their assets to his partners. Among the assets, disbursed were shares of Berkshire Hathaway. In 1970, as chairman of Berkshire Hathaway, Buffett commenced publishing his now-famous yearly letters to stockholders.

However, he survived solely on his salary of $50,000 per year, and his external investment revenue. In 1979, Berkshire commenced the year dealing at $775 per share, and finished at $1,310. Buffett’s income reached $620 million, ranking him on the Forbes 400 for the first time.

In 2006, Buffett declared in June that he step by step would impart 85% of his Berkshire retentions to five foundations in annual gifts of stock, starting in July 2006. The largest share would go to the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation.

In 2007, in a letter to shareholders, Buffett declared that he was seeking a younger successor, or possibly successors, to execute his investment business. Buffett had antecedently picked out Lou Simpson, who runs investments at Geico, to meet that role. However, Simpson is only six years younger than Buffett.

In 2008, Buffett became the wealthiest man in the world dethroning Bill Gates, worth $62 billion reported by Forbes, and $58 billion reported by Yahoo. Bill Gates had been first on the Forbes list for 13 successive years. On March 11 2009, Bill Gates regained number one of the list according to Forbes magazine, with Buffett second. Their values have dropped to $40 billion and $37 billion respectively, which is probably an outcome of the 2008/2009 economical downswing.

BUSINESS ACQUISITION

In 1973, Berkshire commenced to gain stock in the Washington Post Company. Buffett became close acquaintances with Katharine Graham, who disciplined the company and its flagship newsprint, and became a member of its directorate.

In 1974, the SEC opened up a schematic investigation into Warren Buffett and Berkshire’s attainment of WESCO, referable possible engagement of interest. No accusations were brought.

In 1977, Berkshire indirectly bought the Buffalo Evening News for $32.5 million. Fair charges began, inspired by its competitor, the Buffalo Courier-Express. Both compositions lost income, till the Courier-Express folded in 1982.

In 1979, Berkshire started to acquire stock in ABC. On March 18, Capital Cities’ declared $3.5 billion. Leverage of ABC stormed the media industry, as ABC was approximately four times larger than Capital Cities was at that time. Warren Buffett, Chairman Berkshire Hathaway, served finance the deal in return for a 25 percent stake in the merged company. The newly merged company, titled Capital Cities/ABC (or CapCities/ABC), was pressured to trade away a few stations due to FCC ownership conventions. Also, the two companies possessed several radio stations in the equivalent markets.

In 1987, Berkshire Hathaway bought 12% stake in Salomon Inc., making it the greatest shareholder and Buffett the director. In 1990, a outrage involving John Gutfreund (former CEO of Salomon Brothers) rose up. A knave trader, Paul Mozer, was passing on bids in excess of what was permitted by the Treasury rules. When this was ascertained and brought to the aid of Gutfreund, he didn’t immediately debar the knave trader. In August 1991, Gutfreund leftover the company. Buffett turned CEO of Salomon until the crisis surpassed. On September 4 1991, he evidenced before Congress.

In 1988, Buffett commenced purchasing stock in Coca-Cola Company, finally buying up to 7 percent of the company for $1.02 billion. It would come out to be one of Berkshire’s most profitable investments, and one which it still controls. In 2002, Buffett entered in $11 billion worth of forward contracts to deliver U.S. dollars against other currencies. By April 2006, his overall gain on these contracts was over $2 billion.

In 1998, he took on General Re, (in an infrequent move, for stock). In 2002, Buffett got interested with Maurice R. Greenberg at AIG, with General Re providing reinsurance. On March 15, 2005, AIG’s board forced Greenberg to leave office from his post as Chairman and CEO under the shadow of unfavorable judgment from Eliot Spitzer, attorney general of the state of New York. On February 9, 2006, AIG and the New York State Attorney General’s office agreed to a settlement in which AIG would pay a fine of $1.6 billion.

In 2009, Warren Buffett endowed $2.6 billion as a part of Swiss Re’s raising equity capital. Berkshire Hathaway already possesses a 3% stake, with rights to possess more than 20%.

LATE 2000’S RECESSION

Buffett encounter criticism during the -subprime crisis of 2007-2008, component of the late 2000s recession, that he had apportioned capital too early leading in suboptimal deals. "Buy American. I am." To quote Warren Buffett’s popular opinion piece published in the New York Times.

Buffett has called the 2007’s downswing in the financial sector "poetic justice".

Buffett’s Berkshire Hathaway met a 77% drop in earnings during Q3 2008 and many of his new deals look to be running into heavy mark-to-market losses.

Berkshire Hathaway gained 10% perpetual preference shares of Goldman Sachs .Some of Buffett’s exponent puts that he wrote (sold) are presently running around $6.73 billion mark-to-market losses. The scale of the expected loss inspired the SEC to demand that Berkshire produce, "a more robust revealing" of components accustomed assess the contracts.

Buffett also helped Dow Chemical pay for its $18.8 billion takeover of Rohm & Haas. He, thus, turned the only largest shareholder in the enlarged group with his Berkshire Hathaway, which offered $3 billion, emphasising his helpful role during the prevailing crisis in debt and equity markets.

In October 2008, the media rumoured that Warren Buffett had harmonised to buy General Electric(GE) preferred stock. The process admitted extraordinary incentives: he accepted an option to buy 3 billion General Electric at $22.25 in the incoming five years, and also accepted a 10% dividend (due within three years). In February 2009, Warren Buffett sold piece of Procter & Gamble Co, and Johnson & Johnson shares from his portfolio.

In addition to traces of anachronism, queries have been elevated as to the wisdom in keeping some of Berkshire’s major retentions, including The Coca-Cola Company (NYSE:KO) which peaked at $86 in 1998. Buffett talked over the troubles of acknowledging when to sell in the company’s 2004 annual report: "That may appear comfortable to do when one looks through an always-clean, rear-view mirror. Unluckily, however, it’s the windscreen through which investors must peer, and that glass is invariably fogged.". In March 2009, Buffett expressed in a cable television interview that the economy had "fallen off a cliff… Not only has the economy slowed down a lot, but people have really changed their habits like I haven’t seen." Additionally, Buffett awes we may revisit a 1970s level of ostentation, which led to a painful stagflation that lasted many years.

PERSONAL LIFE

Buffett married Susan Thompson in 1952. They had 3 kids, Susie, Howard, and Peter. In 1977, the couple started inhabiting separately, though they stayed married until her death in July 2004. Their daughter Susie lives in Omaha and does philanthropic work through the Susan A Buffett Foundation and is a national board member of Girls, Inc. In 2006, on his seventy-sixth birthday, he wedded his never-married longtime-companion, Astrid Menks, who was then sixty years old. From 1977, since his wife’s departure, She had lived with him to San Francisco. It was Susan Buffett who set for the two to meet before she left Omaha to engage her singing career. All three were close and vacation cards to friends were signed "Warren, Susie and Astrid". Susan Buffett briefly talked over this relationship in an interview on the Charlie Rose Show shortly earlier her death, in a rare glimpse into Buffett’s personal life. In 2006, His annual earnings was about $100,000, which is little as compared to senior executive remuneration in comparable companions.In 2007, and 2008, he earned a total compensation of $175,000, which enclosed a basic wage of just $100,000. He dwells in the same house in the central Dundee vicinity of Omaha that he purchased in 1958 for $31,500, today assessed at around $700,000 (though he too does have a $4 million home in Laguna Beach, California). In 1989, after having spent almost 10 million dollars of Berkshire’s funds on a private jet, Buffett sheepishly named it "The Indefensible." This act constituted a break from his past conviction of wasteful purchases by early CEOs and his account of practising more public conveyance.

He stays a desirous player of the card game bridge, which he acquired from Sharon Osberg, and plays with her and Bill Gates. He passes twelve hours a week playing the game. In 2006, he sponsored a bridge match for the Buffett Cup. Shapely on the Ryder Cup in golf, declared straightaway ahead it, and in the same city, a squad of 12 bridge players from the United States took on 12 Europeans in the event.

Warren Buffett acted with Christopher Webber on an animated series with head Andy Heyward, of DiC Entertainment,and then A Squared Entertainment. The series characteristics Buffett and Munger, and instructs children healthy financial habits for life.

Buffett was elevated Presbyterian but has since represented himself as agnostic as it strikes religious beliefs. In December 2006, it was accounted that Buffett doesn’t carry a cellphone, does not have a computer at his desk, and driveways his personal automobile, a Cadillac DTS.

Mr Warren Buffet wears off tailor-made suits from the Chinese label Trands, before he used to wear Ermenegildo Zegna.

LINEAGE

Buffett’s DNA report disclosed that his paternal roots hail from northern Scandinavia, while his maternal roots most likely have roots in Iberia or Estonia. Despite general propositions to the contrary, and the casual friendly relationship which has formed between their families, Warren Buffett has no clear reference to the well-known vocalist Jimmy Buffett.

POLITICS

In addition to, other political contributions across the years, Buffett has officially certified and made campaign contributions to Barack Obama’s presidential campaign. On July 2, 2008, Buffett attended a $28,500 per plate fundraiser for Obama’s campaign in Chicago hosted by Obama’s National Finance Chair, Penny Pritzker and her husband, as well as Obama advisor Valerie Jarrett. Buffett supported Obama for president, and suggested that John McCain’s aspects on social justice comprised so far from his own that McCain would need a "lobotomy" for Buffett to alter his indorsement.During the second 2008 U.S. presidential debate, nominees John McCain and Barack Obama, later on being asked first by presidential debate intermediator Tom Brokaw, both referred Buffett as a potential future Secretary of the Treasury. Later, in the third and concluding presidential debate, Obama mentioned Buffett as a potential economic consultant. Buffett was also finance consultant to California Republican Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger on his 2003 election crusade.

COMPOSITIONS

Warren Buffett’s compositions include his annual reports and various articles.

He admonished about the harmful effects of inflation:

"The arithmetic makes it plain that pomposity is a far more annihilating tax than anything that has been acted out by our general assembly. The inflation tax has a tremendous ability to merely wipe out capital. It creates no divergence to a widow with her savings in a 5 percent passbook account whether she pays 100 percent income tax on her interest money during a period of zero inflation, or pays no income taxes during years of 5 percent inflation."

In his article "The Superinvestors of Graham-and-Doddsville", Buffett controverted the scholarly Efficient-market hypothesis, that baffling the S&P 500 was "pure chance", by spotlighting a number of pupils of the Graham and Dodd value adorning school of thought. In addition to himself, Buffett named Walter J. Schloss, Tom Knapp, Ed Anderson (Tweedy, Brown Inc.), Bill Ruane (Sequoia Fund, Inc.), Charles Munger (Buffett’s own business partner at Berkshire), Rick Guerin (Pacific Partners, Ltd.), and Stan Perlmeter (Perlmeter Investments).

In his November, 1999 Fortune article, he admonished of investors’ delusive anticipations:

" Let me summarise what I’ve been saying about the stock market: I think it’s very hard to come up with a compelling case that equities will over the next 17 years perform anything like–anything like–they’ve performed in the past 17. If I had to pick the likeliest return, from appreciation and dividends combined, that investors in aggregate–repeat, aggregate–would earn in a world of constant interest rates, 2% inflation, and those ever injurious frictional costs, it would be 6%."

PHILANTHROPY

The following quotation from 1988, respectively, highlights Warren Buffett’s thoughts on his wealth and why he long planned to reapportion it:

" I don’t have a trouble with guiltiness about money. The way I see it is that my money represents an tremendous number of claim checks on society. It’s like I have these little pieces of paper that I can turn into consumption. If I desired to, I could hire 10,000 people to do nothing but paint my impression everyday for the rest of my lifespan. And the GNP would go up. But the utility of the product would be zero, and I would be keeping those 10,000 people from doing AIDS research, or teaching, or nursing. I don’t do that though. I don’t use very many of those claim checks. There’s nothing material I want very much. And I’m going to give literally all of those lay claim checks to brotherly love when my wife and I die."

From a NY Times article:

"I don’t believe in dynastic wealthiness," Warren Buffett said, calling those who raise up in affluent circumstances "members of the lucky sperm club."

Buffett has written numerous times of his opinion that, in a free enterprise, the plentiful gain oversized advantages for their talents:

" A market economy creates some lopsided yields to participants. The right talent of vocal chords, anatomical structure, physical strength, or mental powers can produce tremendous piles of claim checks on upcoming national output. Right choice of roots likewise can outcome in lifetime issues of such tickets upon birth. If zero actual investment returns disported a little greater part of the national output from specified stockholders to equally desirable and diligent citizens missing jackpot-producing talents, it would appear improbable to baffle such an abuse to an equitable world as to risk Divine intercession."

His children won’t come into an important proportion of his wealth. These activities are uniform with affirmations he has made in the past suggesting his opposition to the transfer of outstanding fortunes from one genesis to the next. Buffett once remarked, "I would like to give my kids just sufficient so that they’d experience that they could do anything, but not such that they’d experience like doing nothing".

In 2006, he auctioned his 2001 Lincoln Town Caron eBay to hike money for Girls, Inc.

In 2007, he auctioned off a luncheon with himself that brought up a final bid of $650,100 for a charity.

In 2006, he declared a program to bring out his luck to charity, with 83% of it going to the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation. In June 2006, Buffett devoted approximately 10 million Berkshire Hathaway Class B shares to the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, valuable approximately US$30.7 billion as of 23 June 2006, building it the greatest charitable contribution in history and Buffett among the leaders in the philanthrocapitalism revolution. The foundation will have 5% of the total contribution on an annualised basis each July, commencing in 2006. Buffett also joined the directorate of the Gates Foundation, although he doesn’t program to be actively engaged in the foundation’s investment.

This is a substantial shift from previous affirmations Buffett has made, having expressed that most of his fortune would surpass to his Buffett Foundation. In 2004, the majority of the estate of his wife, prized at $2.6 billion, went to that foundation when she died.

He also committed $50-million to the Nuclear Threat Initiative, in Washington, where he has assisted as an consultant since 2002.

On 27 June 2008, Zhao Danyang, a general manager at Pure Heart China Growth Investment Fund, succeeded the 2008 5-day online "Power Lunch with Warren Buffett" charity auction with a bid of $2,110,100. Auction continues benefit the San Francisco Glide Foundation.

PUBLIC POSITIONINGS

Buffett’s deliveries are recognised for merging business discussions humorously. Every year, Buffett presides over Berkshire Hathaway’s yearly stockholder assembling in the Qwest Center in Omaha, Nebraska, an issue eviscerating over 20,000 visitors from both United States and abroad, giving it the nickname "Woodstock of Capitalism". Berkshire’s yearly articles and letters to stockholders, prepared by Buffett, frequently experience coverage by the financial media. Buffett’s compositions are recognised for carrying well-written quotations laying out from the Bible to Mae West. as well as Midwestern advice, and several jokes. Various websites proclaim Buffett’s merits while others objurgate Buffett’s business models or dismiss his investment advice and decisions.

WARREN BUFFETT AS A LEADER

What he does understand is business. At 5 Years old, he started earning income. At only 6 years old, Buffett bought 6-packs of Coke from his grandpa’s grocery store for 25 cents and resold all of the bottles for a nickel, pocketing a 5 cent income. While other children of his age were enjoying hopscotch and jacks, Warren was earning income. Five years later, Buffett underwent his step into the world of high finance. At 11 years old, he bought 3 shares of Cities Service Preferred at $38 per share for both himself and his older sister, Doris. Just after his buying of the stock, it fell down to just over $27 per share. A scared but spirited Warren held his shares until they rebounded to $40. He quickly sold them – an error he would shortly come to regret. Cities Service stroke up to $200. The experience taught him one of the basic lessons of investing: Patience is a Virtue. As he commenced on his investment career, he had invested among others in businesses in textiles and newspapers. He knew the newspaper business from experience: he was a paper boy as a adolescent. When he was investing in these businesses, the related industries were in great downslope or integration. The textile business is an industry unexhausted from the industrial revolution. As fabricating moved to inexpensive labor countries, American textile manufacturers contracted. In the 19 th century, Newspapers growth industry, competing with television and radio for news were consolidating from a rivalrous market of numerous newspapers to one major "monopoly" newspaper in major towns. Wall Street wasn’t fascinated in putting in these business concerns, so these were value bargains that pulled in Buffet. By investing in these businesses, Buffet got discounted assets and cash flows which he could utilise to invest in other businesses.

One biased and negative perspective of Buffet would be as a scavenger of American business: acquiring fat on the misfortunes of asset rich, but impassive, turning down, and tedious businesses. However, in realism, he stands by businesses in which he invests, he makes sure that the business is a benevolent business. He normally buys businesses and seldom deals them. For instance, GEICO Insurance is among his core properties, he has controlled GEICO most of his investment vocation. When he brought in Berkshire Hathaway, it was a textile business, asset rich and with a stabilise cash flow. But Wall Street considered the textile industry as a worsening business. Berkshire did finally get out of the business of textiles, but it owned among the last textile manufactory in America. If one purchased a share of Berkshire Hathaway just about the time Buffet did, approximately $8, and held it to today, its worth is about ten thousand times its value in 1965, over $80,000.

Buffet was progressive in the domain of efficaciously utilising capital. Before the crowd, Buffet realised the businesses of insurance and reinsurance as having great value of cash flow. Berkshire’s golden business is reinsurance. Reinsurance is the wholesale end of the insurance business, involving large sources of comparatively quick assets. Buffet knew what to do with that cash pool and how to invest it.

In the early 1980’s the insurance companies cut costs on premiums to keep market share. They wanted to reveal constant increase for the market idols. On the other hand, Buffet realised that writing policies for any kind of chance wasn’t judicious. He just wrote policies that added up to him. He acknowledged that finally, losses would force underwriters to recede and premiums would hike. in 1985, When the insurance market reversed, the industry was having terrible losses and several companies bring down the reporting they proposed. The insurance companies created a miserly market with their hesitation to issue policies, partly because their reserves were at an wane. Buffet came forward to the plate, boot with cash, he was set to publish big policies, at his own terms and conditions, offcourse.

Investments in securities are probably to interest this type, especially investments in blue chips securities. ISTJs [Inspector Guardians] are not probably to take chances either with their personal or other’s money.

Efficient and effective use of capital have been Buffet’s countersigns all his life.

"We simply attempt to be fearful when others are greedy and to be greedy only when others are fearful." is his policy.


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Warren Buffett Shares the Secrets to Wealth in America






By

Warren Buffett

January 4, 2018

IDEAS
Buffett is the CEO and chairman of Berkshire Hathaway

I have good news. First, most American children are going to live far better than their parents did. Second, large gains in the living standards of Americans will continue for many generations to come.

Some years back, people generally agreed with my optimism. Today, however, pollsters find that most Americans are pessimistic about their children’s future. Politicians, business leaders and the press constantly tell us that our economic machine is sputtering. Their evidence: GDP growth of only 2% or so in recent years.

Before we shed tears over that figure, let’s do a little math, recognizing that GDP per capita is what counts. If, for example, the U.S. population were to grow 3% annually while GDP grew 2%, prospects would indeed be bleak for our children.

But that’s not the case. We can be confident that births minus deaths will add no more than 0.5% yearly to America’s population. Immigration is more difficult to predict. I believe 1 million people annually is a reasonable estimate, an influx that will add 0.3% annually to population growth.

In total, therefore, you can expect America’s population to increase about 0.8% a year. Under that assumption, gains of 2% in real GDP–that is, without nominal gains produced by inflation–will annually deliver 1.2% growth in per capita GDP.

This pace no doubt sounds paltry. But over time, it works wonders. In 25 years–a single generation–1.2% annual growth boosts our current $59,000 of GDP per capita to $79,000. This $20,000 increase guarantees a far better life for our children.

In America, it should be noted, there’s nothing unusual about that sort of gain, magnificent though it will be. Just look at what has happened in my lifetime.

I was born in 1930, when the symbol of American wealth was John D. Rockefeller Sr. Today my upper-middle-class neighbors enjoy options in travel, entertainment, medicine and education that were simply not available to Rockefeller and his family. With all of his riches, John D. couldn’t buy the pleasures and conveniences we now take for granted.

Two words explain this miracle: innovation and productivity. Conversely, were today’s Americans doing the same things in the same ways as they did in 1776, we would be leading the same sort of lives as our forebears.

An American icon is depicted through composite photography.

An American icon is depicted through composite photography.
Stephen Wilkes

Replicating those early days would require that 80% or so of today’s workers be employed on farms simply to provide the food and cotton we need. So why does it take only 2% of today’s workers to do this job? Give the credit to those who brought us tractors, planters, cotton gins, combines, fertilizer, irrigation and a host of other productivity improvements.

To all this good news there is, of course, an important offset: in our 241 years, the progress that I’ve described has disrupted and displaced almost all of our country’s labor force. If that level of upheaval had been foreseen–which it clearly wasn’t–strong worker opposition would surely have formed and possibly doomed innovation. How, Americans would have asked, could all these unemployed farmers find work?

We know today that the staggering productivity gains in farming were a blessing. They freed nearly 80% of the nation’s workforce to redeploy their efforts into new industries that have changed our way of life.

You can describe these develop-ments as productivity gains or disruptions. Whatever the label, they explain why we now have our amazing $59,000 of GDP per capita.

This game of economic miracles is in its early innings. Americans will benefit from far more and better “stuff” in the future. The challenge will be to have this bounty deliver a better life to the disrupted as well as to the disrupters. And on this matter, many Americans are justifiably worried.

Let’s think again about 1930. Imagine someone then predicting that real per capita GDP would increase sixfold during my lifetime. My parents would have immediately dismissed such a gain as impossible. If somehow, though, they could have imagined it actually transpiring, they would concurrently have predicted something close to universal prosperity.

Instead, another invention of the ensuing decades, the Forbes 400, paints a far different picture. Between the first computation in 1982 and today, the wealth of the 400 increased 29-fold–from $93 billion to $2.7 trillion–while many millions of hardworking citizens remained stuck on an economic treadmill. During this period, the tsunami of wealth didn’t trickle down. It surged upward.

In 1776, America set off to unleash human potential by combining market economics, the rule of law and equality of opportunity. This foundation was an act of genius that in only 241 years converted our original villages and prairies into $96 trillion of wealth.

The market system, however, has also left many people hopelessly behind, particularly as it has become ever more specialized. These devastating side effects can be ameliorated: a rich family takes care of all its children, not just those with talents valued by the marketplace.

In the years of growth that certainly lie ahead, I have no doubt that America can both deliver riches to many and a decent life to all. We must not settle for less.

Buffett is the CEO and chairman of Berkshire Hathaway

IDEAS
TIME Ideas hosts the world’s leading voices, providing commentary on events in news, society, and culture. We welcome outside contributions. Opinions expressed do not necessarily reflect the views of TIME editors.

This appears in the January 15, 2018 issue of TIME.

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101 College Essay Examples for 13 Schools + Expert Analysis

Posted by Dr. Anna Wulick | Jun 1, 2018 12:00:00 PM

College Admissions ,

College Essays

 

The personal statement might just be the hardest part of your college application. Mostly this is because it has the least guidance and is the most open-ended. One way to understand what colleges are looking for when they ask you to write an essay is to check out the essays of students who already got in—college essays that actually worked. After all, they must be among the most successful of this weird literary genre.

In this article, I’ll go through general guidelines for what makes great college essays great. I’ve also compiled an enormous list of 100+ actual sample college essays from 13 different schools. Finally, I’ll break down two of these published college essay examples and explain why and how they work. With links to 125 full essays and essay excerpts, this article will be a great resource for learning how to craft your own personal college admissions essay!

 

What Excellent College Essays Have in Common

Even though in many ways these sample college essays are very different from one other, they do share some traits you should try to emulate as you write your own essay.

 

Visible Signs of Planning

Building out from a narrow, concrete focus. You’ll see a similar structure in many of the essays. The author starts with a very detailed story of an event or description of a person or place. After this sense-heavy imagery, the essay expands out to make a broader point about the author, and connects this very memorable experience to the author’s present situation, state of mind, newfound understanding, or maturity level.

Knowing how to tell a story. Some of the experiences in these essays are one-of-a-kind. But most deal with the stuff of everyday life. What sets them apart is the way the author approaches the topic: analyzing it for drama and humor, for its moving qualities, for what it says about the author’s world, and for how it connects to the author’s emotional life.

 

Stellar Execution

A killer first sentence. You’ve heard it before, and you’ll hear it again: you have to suck the reader in, and the best place to do that is the first sentence. Great first sentences are punchy. They are like cliffhangers, setting up an exciting scene or an unusual situation with an unclear conclusion, in order to make the reader want to know more. Don’t take my word for it—check out these  22 first sentences from Stanford applicants  and tell me you don’t want to read the rest of those essays to find out what happens!

A lively, individual voice. Writing is for readers. In this case, your reader is an admissions officer who has read thousands of essays before yours and will read thousands after. Your goal? Don’t bore your reader. Use interesting descriptions, stay away from clichés, include your own offbeat observations—anything that makes this essay sounds like you and not like anyone else.

 

Enchanted Prince Stan decided to stay away from any frog-kissing princesses to retain his unique perspective on ruling as an amphibian.

 

Technical correctness. No spelling mistakes, no grammar weirdness, no syntax issues, no punctuation snafus—each of these sample college essays has been formatted and proofread perfectly. If this kind of exactness is not your strong suit, you’re in luck! All colleges advise applicants to have their essays looked over several times by parents, teachers, mentors, and anyone else who can spot a comma splice. Your essay must be your own work, but there is absolutely nothing wrong with getting help polishing it.

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Links to Full College Essay Examples

Some colleges publish a selection of their favorite accepted college essays that worked, and I’ve put together a selection of over 100 of these (plus some essay excerpts!).

 

Common App Essay Samples

Please note that some of these college essay examples may be responding to prompts that are no longer in use. The current Common App prompts are as follows:

1. Some students have a background, identity, interest, or talent that is so meaningful they believe their application would be incomplete without it. If this sounds like you, then please share your story.

2. The lessons we take from obstacles we encounter can be fundamental to later success. Recount a time when you faced a challenge, setback, or failure. How did it affect you, and what did you learn from the experience?

3. Reflect on a time when you questioned or challenged a belief or idea. What prompted your thinking? What was the outcome?

4. Describe a problem you’ve solved or a problem you’d like to solve. It can be an intellectual challenge, a research query, an ethical dilemma – anything that is of personal importance, no matter the scale. Explain its significance to you and what steps you took or could be taken to identify a solution.

5. Discuss an accomplishment, event, or realization that sparked a period of personal growth and a new understanding of yourself or others.

6. Describe a topic, idea, or concept you find so engaging that it makes you lose all track of time. Why does it captivate you? What or who do you turn to when you want to learn more?

7. Share an essay on any topic of your choice. It can be one you’ve already written, one that responds to a different prompt, or one of your own design.

 

Carleton College

  • 3 Common Application essays from past students

 

Connecticut College

  • 16 Common Application essays from the classes of 2017-2020

 

Hamilton College

  • 8 Common Application essays from the class of 2018
  • 8 Common Application essays from the class of 2012
  • 8 Common Application essays from the class of 2007

 

Johns Hopkins

These essays are answers to past prompts from either the Common Application or the Universal Application, both of which Johns Hopkins accepts.

  • 5 Common Application or Universal Application essays from the class of 2021
  • 7 Common Application or Universal Application essays from the class of 2020
  • 8 Common Application or Universal Application essays from the class of 2019
  • 6 Common Application or Universal Application essays from the class of 2018

 

Tufts University

  • 3 Common Application essays

 

Essay Examples Published by Other Websites

  • 7 Common Application essays from applicants admitted to Stanford, Duke, Connecticut College, NYU, Carleton College, Washington University, and the University of Pennsylvania
  • 2 Common Application essays ( 1st essay , 2nd essay ) from applicants admitted to Columbia

 

Other Sample College Essays

Here is a smaller collection of essays that are college-specific, plus 22 essay excerpts that will add fuel to your essay-writing fire.

 

Smith College

Each year, Smith asks its applicants to answer a different prompt with a 200-word essay. Here are six of these short essays answering the 2014 prompt: “Tell us about the best gift you’ve ever given or received.”

  • 6 “best gift” essays from the class of 2018

 

Tufts University

On top of the Common Application essays students submit, Tufts asks applicants to answer three short essay questions : two mandatory, and one chosen from six prompts.

  • 6 “Why Tufts?” short essays
  • 5 “Let Your Life Speak” essays
  • 4 chosen prompt essays  

body_essay.jpg

 

Analyzing Great Common App Essays That Worked

I’ve picked two essays from the examples collected above to examine in more depth so that you can see exactly what makes a successful college essay work. Full credit for these essays goes to the original authors and the schools that published them.

 

Example #1: “Breaking Into Cars,” by Stephen, Johns Hopkins Class of ’19  (Common App Essay, 636 words long)

I had never broken into a car before.

We were in Laredo, having just finished our first day at a Habitat for Humanity work site. The Hotchkiss volunteers had already left, off to enjoy some Texas BBQ, leaving me behind with the college kids to clean up. Not until we were stranded did we realize we were locked out of the van.

Someone picked a coat hanger out of the dumpster, handed it to me, and took a few steps back.

“Can you do that thing with a coat hanger to unlock it?”

“Why me?” I thought.

More out of amusement than optimism, I gave it a try. I slid the hanger into the window’s seal like I’d seen on crime shows, and spent a few minutes jiggling the apparatus around the inside of the frame. Suddenly, two things simultaneously clicked. One was the lock on the door. (I actually succeeded in springing it.) The other was the realization that I’d been in this type of situation before. In fact, I’d been born into this type of situation.

My upbringing has numbed me to unpredictability and chaos. With a family of seven, my home was loud, messy, and spottily supervised. My siblings arguing, the dog barking, the phone ringing—all meant my house was functioning normally. My Dad, a retired Navy pilot, was away half the time. When he was home, he had a parenting style something like a drill sergeant. At the age of nine, I learned how to clear burning oil from the surface of water. My Dad considered this a critical life skill—you know, in case my aircraft carrier should ever get torpedoed. “The water’s on fire! Clear a hole!” he shouted, tossing me in the lake without warning. While I’m still unconvinced about that particular lesson’s practicality, my Dad’s overarching message is unequivocally true: much of life is unexpected, and you have to deal with the twists and turns.

Living in my family, days rarely unfolded as planned. A bit overlooked, a little pushed around, I learned to roll with reality, negotiate a quick deal, and give the improbable a try. I don’t sweat the small stuff, and I definitely don’t expect perfect fairness. So what if our dining room table only has six chairs for seven people? Someone learns the importance of punctuality every night.

But more than punctuality and a special affinity for musical chairs, my family life has taught me to thrive in situations over which I have no power. Growing up, I never controlled my older siblings, but I learned how to thwart their attempts to control me. I forged alliances, and realigned them as necessary. Sometimes, I was the poor, defenseless little brother; sometimes I was the omniscient elder. Different things to different people, as the situation demanded. I learned to adapt.

Back then, these techniques were merely reactions undertaken to ensure my survival. But one day this fall, Dr. Hicks, our Head of School, asked me a question that he hoped all seniors would reflect on throughout the year: “How can I participate in a thing I do not govern, in the company of people I did not choose?”

The question caught me off guard, much like the question posed to me in Laredo. Then, I realized I knew the answer. I knew why the coat hanger had been handed to me.

Growing up as the middle child in my family, I was a vital participant in a thing I did not govern, in the company of people I did not choose. It’s family. It’s society. And often, it’s chaos. You participate by letting go of the small stuff, not expecting order and perfection, and facing the unexpected with confidence, optimism, and preparedness. My family experience taught me to face a serendipitous world with confidence.

 

What Makes This Essay Tick?

It’s very helpful to take writing apart in order to see just how it accomplishes its objectives. Stephen’s essay is very effective. Let’s find out why!

 

An Opening Line That Draws You In

I had never broken into a car before.

In just eight words, we get: scene-setting (he is standing next to a car about to break in), the idea of crossing a boundary (he is maybe about to do an illegal thing for the first time), and a cliffhanger (we are thinking: is he going to get caught? Is he headed for a life of crime? Is he about to be scared straight?).

 

Great, Detailed Opening Story

We were in Laredo, having just finished our first day at a Habitat for Humanity work site. The Hotchkiss volunteers had already left, off to enjoy some Texas BBQ, leaving me behind with the college kids to clean up. Not until we were stranded did we realize we were locked out of the van.

Someone picked a coat hanger out of the dumpster, handed it to me, and took a few steps back.

“Can you do that thing with a coat hanger to unlock it?”

“Why me?” I thought.

More out of amusement than optimism, I gave it a try. I slid the hanger into the window’s seal like I’d seen on crime shows, and spent a few minutes jiggling the apparatus around the inside of the frame.

It’s the details that really make this small experience come alive. Notice how whenever he can, Stephen uses a more specific, descriptive word in place of a more generic one. The volunteers aren’t going to get food or dinner; they’re going for “Texas BBQ.” The coat hanger comes from “a dumpster.” Stephen doesn’t just move the coat hanger—he “jiggles” it.

Details also help us visualize the emotions of the people in the scene. The person who hands Stephen the coat hanger isn’t just uncomfortable or nervous; he “takes a few steps back”—a description of movement that conveys feelings. Finally, the detail of actual speech makes the scene pop. Instead of writing that the other guy asked him to unlock the van, Stephen has the guy actually say his own words in a way that sounds like a teenager talking.

 

Coat hangers: not just for crows’ nests anymore! ( Götz /Wikimedia)

 

Turning a Specific Incident Into a Deeper Insight

Suddenly, two things simultaneously clicked. One was the lock on the door. (I actually succeeded in springing it.) The other was the realization that I’d been in this type of situation before. In fact, I’d been born into this type of situation.

Stephen makes the locked car experience a meaningful illustration of how he has learned to be resourceful and ready for anything, and he also makes this turn from the specific to the broad through an elegant play on the two meanings of the word “click.”

 

Using Concrete Examples When Making Abstract Claims

My upbringing has numbed me to unpredictability and chaos. With a family of seven, my home was loud, messy, and spottily supervised. My siblings arguing, the dog barking, the phone ringing—all meant my house was functioning normally.

“Unpredictability and chaos” are very abstract, not easily visualized concepts. They could also mean any number of things—violence, abandonment, poverty, mental instability. By instantly following up with highly finite and unambiguous illustrations like “family of seven” and “siblings arguing, the dog barking, the phone ringing,” Stephen grounds the abstraction in something that is easy to picture: a large, noisy family.

 

Using Small Bits of Humor and Casual Word Choice

My Dad, a retired Navy pilot, was away half the time. When he was home, he had a parenting style something like a drill sergeant. At the age of nine, I learned how to clear burning oil from the surface of water. My Dad considered this a critical life skill—you know, in case my aircraft carrier should ever get torpedoed.

Obviously, knowing how to clean burning oil is not high on the list of things every 9-year-old needs to know. To emphasize this, Stephen uses sarcasm by bringing up a situation that is clearly over-the-top: “in case my aircraft carrier should ever get torpedoed.”

The humor also feels relaxed. Part of this is because he introduces it with the colloquial phrase “you know,” so it sounds like he is talking to us in person. This approach also diffuses the potential discomfort of the reader with his father’s strictness—since he is making jokes about it, clearly he is OK. Notice, though, that this doesn’t occur very much in the essay. This helps keep the tone meaningful and serious rather than flippant.

 

“Mr. President? There’s been an oil spill!” “Then I want our best elementary school students on it, STAT.”

 

An Ending That Stretches the Insight Into the Future

But one day this fall, Dr. Hicks, our Head of School, asked me a question that he hoped all seniors would reflect on throughout the year: “How can I participate in a thing I do not govern, in the company of people I did not choose?”

The question caught me off guard, much like the question posed to me in Laredo. Then, I realized I knew the answer. I knew why the coat hanger had been handed to me.

Growing up as the middle child in my family, I was a vital participant in a thing I did not govern, in the company of people I did not choose. It’s family. It’s society. And often, it’s chaos. You participate by letting go of the small stuff, not expecting order and perfection, and facing the unexpected with confidence, optimism, and preparedness. My family experience taught me to face a serendipitous world with confidence.

The ending of the essay reveals that Stephen’s life has been one long preparation for the future. He has emerged from chaos and his dad’s approach to parenting as a person who can thrive in a world that he can’t control.

This connection of past experience to current maturity and self-knowledge is a key element in all successful personal essays. Colleges are very much looking for mature, self-aware applicants. These are the qualities of successful college students, who will be able to navigate the independence college classes require and the responsibility and quasi-adulthood of college life.

 

What Could This Essay Do Even Better?

Even the best essays aren’t perfect, and even the world’s greatest writers will tell you that writing is never “finished”—just “due.” So what would we tweak in this essay if we could? 

Replace some of the clichéd language. Stephen uses handy phrases like “twists and turns” and don’t sweat the small stuff” as a kind of shorthand for explaining his relationship to chaos and unpredictability. But using too many of these ready-made expressions runs the risk of clouding out your own voice and replacing it with something expected and boring. 

Use another example from recent life. Stephen’s first example (breaking into the van in Laredo) is a great illustration of being resourceful in an unexpected situation. But his essay also emphasizes that he “learned to adapt” by being “different things to different people.” It would be great to see how this plays out outside his family, either in the situation in Laredo or another context.

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Example #2: By Bridget Collins,  Tufts Class of ’19 (Common App Essay, 608 words long)

I have always loved riding in cars. After a long day in first grade, I used to fall asleep to the engine purring in my mother’s Honda Odyssey, even though it was only a 5-minute drive home. As I grew, and graduated into the shotgun seat, it became natural and enjoyable to look out the window. Seeing my world passing by through that smudged glass, I would daydream what I could do with it.

In elementary school, I already knew my career path: I was going to be Emperor of the World. While I sat in the car and watched the miles pass by, I developed the plan for my empire. I reasoned that, for the world to run smoothly, it would have to look presentable. I would assign people, aptly named Fixer-Uppers, to fix everything that needed fixing. That old man down the street with chipping paint on his house would have a fresh coat in no time. The boy who accidentally tossed his Frisbee onto the roof of the school would get it back. The big pothole on Elm Street that my mother managed to hit every single day on the way to school would be filled-in. It made perfect sense! All the people that didn’t have a job could be Fixer-Uppers. I was like a ten-year-old FDR.

Seven years down the road, I still take a second glance at the sidewalk cracks and think of my Fixer-Uppers, but now I’m doing so from the driver’s seat. As much as I would enjoy it, I now accept that I won’t become Emperor of the World, and that the Fixer-Uppers will have to remain in my car ride imaginings. Or do they? I always pictured a Fixer-Upper as a smiling man in an orange T-Shirt. Maybe instead, a Fixer-Upper could be a tall girl with a deep love for Yankee Candles. Maybe it could be me.

Bridget the Fixer-Upper will be slightly different than the imaginary one who paints houses and fetches Frisbees. I was lucky enough to discover what I am passionate about when I was a freshman in high school. A self-admitted Phys. Ed. addict, I volunteered to help out with the Adapted PE class. On my first day, I learned that it was for developmentally-disabled students. To be honest, I was really nervous. I hadn’t had too much interaction with special needs students before, and wasn’t sure how to handle myself around them. Long story short, I got hooked. Three years have passed helping out in APE and eventually becoming a teacher in the Applied Behavior Analysis summer program. I love working with the students and watching them progress.

When senior year arrived, college meetings began, and my counselor asked me what I wanted to do for a career, I didn’t say Emperor of the World. Instead, I told him I wanted to become a board-certified behavior analyst. A BCBA helps develop learning plans for students with autism and other disabilities. Basically, I would get to do what I love for the rest of my life. He laughed and told me that it was a nice change that a seventeen-year-old knew so specifically what she wanted to do. I smiled, thanked him, and left. But it occurred to me that, while my desired occupation was decided, my true goal in life was still to become a Fixer-Upper. So, maybe I’ll be like Sue Storm and her alter-ego, the Invisible Woman. I’ll do one thing during the day, then spend my off-hours helping people where I can. Instead of flying like Sue, though, I’ll opt for a nice performance automobile. My childhood self would appreciate that.

 

What Makes This Essay Tick?

Bridget takes a somewhat different approach than Stephen, but her essay is just as detailed and engaging. Let’s go through some of the strengths of her essay.

 

A Structure That’s Easy to Follow and Understand

The essay is arranged chronologically. Bridget starts each paragraph with a clear signpost of where we are in time:

  • Paragraph 1: “after a long day in first grade”
  • Paragraph 2: “in elementary school”
  • Paragraph 3: “seven years down the road”
  • Paragraph 4: “when I was a freshman in high school”
  • Paragraph 5: “when senior year arrived”

This keeps the reader oriented without being distracting or gimmicky.

 

One Clear Governing Metaphor

I would assign people, aptly named Fixer-Uppers, to fix everything that needed fixing. That old man down the street with chipping paint on his house would have a fresh coat in no time. The boy who accidentally tossed his Frisbee onto the roof of the school would get it back.

Seven years down the road, I still take a second glance at the sidewalk cracks and think of my Fixer-Uppers, but now I’m doing so from the driver’s seat. As much as I would enjoy it, I now accept that I won’t become Emperor of the World, and that the Fixer-Uppers will have to remain in my car ride imaginings. Or do they? I always pictured a Fixer-Upper as a smiling man in an orange T-Shirt. Maybe instead, a Fixer-Upper could be a tall girl with a deep love for Yankee Candles. Maybe it could be me.

I wanted to become a board-certified behavior analyst. A BCBA helps develop learning plans for students with autism and other disabilities. Basically, I would get to do what I love for the rest of my life. …But it occurred to me that, while my desired occupation was decided, my true goal in life was still to become a Fixer-Upper.

What makes this essay fun to read is that Bridget takes a child’s idea of a world made better through quasi-magical helpers and turns it into a metaphor for the author’s future aspirations. It helps that the metaphor is a very clear one: people who work with students with disabilities are making the world better one abstract fix at a time, just like imaginary Fixer-Uppers would make the world better one concrete physical fix at a time.

 

Every childhood Fixer-Upper ever. Ask your parents to explain the back row to you. ( JD Hancock /Flickr)

 

An Engaging, Individual Voice

This essay uses many techniques that make Bridget sound genuine and make the reader feel like we already know her. 

Technique #1: humor. Notice Bridget’s gentle and relaxed humor that lightly mocks her younger self’s grand ambitions (this is different from the more sarcastic kind of humor used by Stephen in the first essay—you could never mistake one writer for the other).

In elementary school, I already knew my career path: I was going to be Emperor of the World.

I was like a ten-year-old FDR.

Technique #2: invented terminology. The second technique is the way Bridget coins her own terms, carrying them through the whole essay. It would be easy enough to simply describe the people she imagined in childhood as helpers or assistants, and to simply say that as a child she wanted to rule the world. Instead, she invents the capitalized (and thus official-sounding) titles “Fixer-Upper” and “Emperor of the World,” making these childish conceits at once charming and iconic. What’s also key is that the titles feed into the central metaphor of the essay, which keeps them from sounding like strange quirks that don’t go anywhere.

Technique #3: playing with syntax. The third technique is to use sentences of varying length, syntax, and structure. Most of the essay’s written in standard English and uses grammatically correct sentences. However, at key moments, Bridget emphasizes that the reader needs to sit up and pay attention by switching to short, colloquial, differently punctuated, and sometimes fragmented sentences.

The big pothole on Elm Street that my mother managed to hit every single day on the way to school would be filled-in. It made perfect sense! All the people that didn’t have a job could be Fixer-Uppers.

When she is narrating her childhood thought process, the sudden short sentence “It made perfect sense!” (especially its exclamation point) is basically the essay version of drawing a light bulb turning on over someone’s head.

As much as I would enjoy it, I now accept that I won’t become Emperor of the World, and that the Fixer-Uppers will have to remain in my car ride imaginings. Or do they?

Similarly, when the essay turns from her childhood imagination to her present-day aspirations, the turn is marked with “Or do they?”—a tiny and arresting half-sentence question.

Maybe instead, a Fixer-Upper could be a tall girl with a deep love for Yankee Candles. Maybe it could be me.

The first time when the comparison between magical fixer-upper’s and the future disability specialist is made is when Bridget turns her metaphor onto herself. The essay emphasizes the importance of the moment through repetition (two sentences structured similarly, both starting with the word “maybe”) and the use of a very short sentence: “Maybe it could be me.”

To be honest, I was really nervous. I hadn’t had too much interaction with special needs students before, and wasn’t sure how to handle myself around them. Long story short, I got hooked.

The last key moment that gets the small-sentence treatment is the emotional crux of the essay. As we watch Bridget go from nervously trying to help disabled students to falling in love with this specialty field, she undercuts the potential sappiness of the moment by relying on changed-up sentence length and slang: “Long story short, I got hooked.”

 


The best essays convey emotions just as clearly as this image.

 

What Could This Essay Do Even Better?

Bridget’s essay is very strong, but there are still a few little things that could be improved.

Explain the car connection better. The essay begins and ends with Bridget’s enjoying a car ride, but this doesn’t seem to be related either to the Fixer-Upper idea or to her passion for working with special-needs students. It would be great to either connect this into the essay more, or to take it out altogether and create more space for something else.

Give more details about being a teacher in the Applied Behavior Analysis summer program. It makes perfect sense that Bridget doesn’t want to put her students on display. It would take the focus off of her and possibly read as offensive or condescending. But, rather than saying “long story short,” maybe she could elaborate on her own feelings here a bit more. What is it about this kind of teaching that she loves? What is she hoping to bring to the lives of her future clients?

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3 Essential Tips for Writing Your Own Essay

How can you use this discussion to better your own college essay? Here are some suggestions for ways to use this resource effectively.

 

#1: Read Other Essays to Get Ideas for Your Own

As you go through the essays we’ve compiled for you above, ask yourself the following questions:

  • Can you explain to yourself (or someone else!) why the opening sentence works well?
  • Look for the essay’s detailed personal anecdote. What senses is the author describing? Can you easily picture the scene in your mind’s eye?
  • Find the place where this anecdote bridges into a larger insight about the author. How does the essay connect the two? How does the anecdote work as an example of the author’s characteristic, trait, or skill?
  • Check out the essay’s tone. If it’s funny, can you find the places where the humor comes from? If it’s sad and moving, can you find the imagery and description of feelings that make you moved? If it’s serious, can you see how word choice adds to this tone?

Make a note whenever you find an essay or part of an essay that you think was particularly well-written, and think about what you like about it. Is it funny? Does it help you really get to know the writer? Does it show what makes the writer unique? Once you have your list, keep it next to you while writing your essay to remind yourself to try and use those same techniques in your own essay.

 

When you figure out how all the cogs fit together, you’ll be able to build your own … um … whatever this is.

 

#2: Find Your “A-Ha!” Moment

All of these essays rely on connecting with the reader through a heartfelt, highly descriptive scene from the author’s life. It can either be very dramatic (did you survive a plane crash?) or it can be completely mundane (did you finally beat your dad at Scrabble?). Either way, it should be personal and revealing about you, your personality, and the way you are now that you are entering the adult world.

 

#3: Start Early, Revise Often

Let me level with you: the best writing isn’t writing at all. It’s rewriting. And in order to have time to rewrite, you have to start way before the application deadline. My advice is to write your first draft at least two months before your applications are due.

Let it sit for a few days untouched. Then come back to it with fresh eyes and think critically about what you’ve written. What’s extra? What’s missing? What is in the wrong place? What doesn’t make sense? Don’t be afraid to take it apart and rearrange sections. Do this several times over, and your essay will be much better for it!

 

What’s Next?

Interested in learning more about college essays? Check out our detailed breakdown of exactly how personal statements work in an application , some  suggestions on what to avoid when writing your essay , and our guide to  writing about your extracurricular activities .

Working on the rest of your application? Read  what admissions officers wish applicants knew before applying .

 

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Dr. Anna Wulick

About the Author

Anna scored in the 99th percentile on her SATs in high school, and went on to major in English at Princeton and to get her doctorate in English Literature at Columbia. She is passionate about improving student access to higher education.

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    How to Write AP English Essay: Prompts, Tips, Examples




    Table of Contents

    How to Write AP English Essay: Prompts, Tips, Examples
    How to Write AP English Essay Prompts: Know the Challenge in Face!

    AP English Language Essay Prompts & Grading Rubric

    AP English Essay Examples of 1st Part Questions

    Practice AP English Exam Essay Example

    AP English Language and Composition Exam Essay Prompts

    VERDICT

    How to Write AP English Essay: Prompts, Tips, Examples

    The Advanced Placement essay exam is one of the best ways to check the English proficiency of the particular student. If you master some of the experts AP English essay prompts, you will succeed with your task. Having some powerful AP English essay examples on hands may help to write a winning personal statement – these challenges have a lot in common.

    ORDER EXPERT HELP

    Is there a need to hire an essay expert to enter the college of your dream? To increase the chances of being accepted to the target institution, contact professional AP and admissions essay writers online who can compose the entire essay for cheap!

    How to Write AP English Essay Prompts: Know the Challenge in Face!

    One of the most important AP English language essay prompts is the definition of this special task: A challenging college course made of 2 separate courses to train reading, comprehension, writing, and creativity:

    1. Language and Composition
    2. English Literature and Composition

    Rhetoric and literature analysis are two components the student need to succeed in a further essay writing career. A synthesis essay is at the heart of the course’s exam. This essay is a written discussion that draws on a single/multiple sources (s) such as scholarly articles, essays, textbooks, magazines, newspapers, documentaries, websites, etc.

    AP English Language Essay Prompts & Grading Rubric

    The exam essay prompts are different for both courses. An essay prompt refers to the specific topical article a student has to analyze and synthesize in order to come up with analytical pieces as one whole. It is important to remember the essay structure and essay grading rubric to succeed.

    A student can either develop a high-scoring essay, a mid-range essay, or a complete failure essay (low-scoring piece). This article focuses on the winning exam scenario. The rubric will look this way in case you are interested in hitting the highest score (8-9 points):

    • Effectively stated point of view
    • Relevant exam essay content
    • Complete understanding of the offered AP English essay prompts
    • Well-developed position towards the topic discussed in the given prompt(s)
    • Instead of driving the sources, the essay focuses on the claim
    • The main essay idea sounds persuasive & meaningful
    • Only specific evidence for every mentioned idea is present
    • “So what?” question is the clue to an essay
    • A coherent and concise essay content
    • Does not have any grammar, spelling, punctuation, or formatting mistakes

    Keep in touch with the process with the help of special learning mobile phone apps . Download some helpful writing apps to get ready!

    AP English Essay Examples of 1st Part Questions

    The 1st group of examples includes those associated with the Language & Composition part. Be ready to work on 3 essays. A couple of pieces should evaluate the offered literary text. A student will need to read the attached poem, narration, mini story, or essay by a famous American author to succeed. One more assignment requires responding to a given prompt the writer had to observe before the exam. A student will face:

    • Up to 20 questions on the contemporary literature
    • Up to 20 questions on Victorian/Romantic literature
    • No more than 10 questions related to XVII-century Elizabethan epoch in art

    If the teachers make it possible, try to add a bit of fun to your responses . Discover some of the great ways to save a day thanks to humor.

    Expert Advice:

    “I work in the admissions team that grades the AP English exam essays several years, and I can say there is no need to focus on the contemporary literature. The college boards do not consider most of the XX century authors. A student may cover just the most popular and top-rated pieces from the Middle English period – those authors are not regular guests in AP exams.”

    Lola Brendon, an AP English course teacher and expert online writer at JustDoMyHomework

    Practice AP English Exam Essay Example

    It is time to move to the Literature part of the examination, and have a look at other AP English exam essay examples of prompts. To get ready, experts recommend taking the time-tested steps:

    1. Find numerous poems and proses to train the reading & comprehension skills. Try to read and analyze them in mind ASAP. Mind that it is important to select the literary pieces from many various epochs as required by the exam’s instructions.
    2. Train a lot by reading a prompt a few minutes before moving to the offered piece and before getting to write. Annotate it. Many students benefit from searching for the particular keywords & key phrases – they are helpful during the writing process.
    3. Annotate the passage by keeping in mind the chosen keys and major themes.

    AP English Language and Composition Exam Essay Prompts

    It is important to practice different AP English language exams, and composition essay prompts before joining the examination. One of the good examples might be a famous poem by Robert Frost:

    Nature’s first green is gold

    Her hardest hue to hold

    Her early leaf’s a flower

    But only so an hour

    Then leaf subsides to leaf,

    So Eden sank to grief

    So dawn goes down to day

    Nothing gold can stay.

    CLICK TO GET HELP RIGHT AWAY

    After reading & analyzing this piece, think about the answers to multiple-choice questions.

    1. A rhyme in the given literary piece is present to:
    • Allow easier reading
    • Taking part in a literary convention
    • Expanding a simile
    • Developing imagery
    1. Eden in the line number 6 stands for:
    • The mourning
    • Religious aspect of the author
    • Woman with the same name
    • Judeo-Christian approach
    1. Under ‘Nothing gold…,” what do you understand?
    • Wealth is transient
    • People are evil by their nature
    • Gold tarnishes without special efforts
    • Things that are good will remain this way
    1. Pick a sentence, which reflects the essence of the mood in the offered text?
    • The underlying mood is exciting & fun
    • The mood is outraged/emotional
    • The mood is romantic & calm
    • The mood is melancholic/depressive

    The prompt may be given as the one, which requires a broad response. Some students believe such instructions are more complicated.

    Think about how the structure of a particular literary piece adds up to the essence of the topic . Pretend the offered structure is villanelle and try to come up with the original explanation of its reflection of the work. Cover such aspects as repetitiveness. Do not forget to include the poem’s line numbers that prove your point.

    VERDICT

    That is everything an average student needs to know about AP English exam essay prompts. To succeed, we recommend getting extra essay help. No parent or classmate will be able to prepare you better than a professional online essay writing service full of certified writers. Order a custom essay from the native-speaking English team now!












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    Top 50 No-GMAT Online MBA Programs 2018 – Online MBA Today

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    Online MBA Today

    The Latest Online MBA News and Reviews

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    Top 50 No-GMAT Online MBA Programs 2018

    This is a comprehensive ranking of the very best online Master’s of Business Administration that either offer absolute GMAT waivers or have no GMAT or GRE requirement. With this initial requirement in mind, each school was then assessed by their tuition rates, accreditation, early-career salary, and prestige. Let the following ranking of the nation’s best Non-GMAT online MBA programs assist you in finding the perfect program for your graduate studies.

    With the high financial and time-prep costs of the GMAT , some students are interested in programs which feature no GMAT or GRE test score requirements in order to be accepted into their programs. This is a particularly attractive feature for students who may struggle with performing successfully on standardized tests. With factors like this in mind, many of the nation’s top business schools now offer its applicants the option of not having to take the GMAT. Some schools waive the GMAT requirement based on a candidate’s previous academic performance and/or professional work experience, and some business schools have deleted the GMAT from its list of admissions requirements all together.

    For more information about other online MBA programs, check out our article on the  top MBA specializations  and explore our other  Online MBA Rankings .

    Note: A detailed explanation of the methodology we used to determine the best No-GMAT online MBA programs can be found at the end of the ranking.

    #50 Baldwin Wallace University School of Business – Berea, Ohio


    An online Master’s of Business Administration, with a specialization in Management and no GMAT requirement for qualifying students, is offered at Baldwin Wallace University’s School of Business. This 38-credit hour program is priced at $921 per credit hour making the total cost of tuition $34,998 for this highly-accredited program.

    Photo credit
    The School of Business at Baldwin Wallace University features an online Master’s of Business Administration with a specialization in Management . This 38-credit hour program is priced at $921 per credit hour making the total cost of tuition $34,998. Some students of the School of Business have reported an average early career salary of $61,300 after graduating revealing a strong return on the investment of education. “The management track is designed from a general management perspective and is applicable across functions and industries. Coursework in this track includes financial management, project management and an elective class that can be chosen from any of the other MBA specialization tracks.” Interested applicants with a cumulative undergraduate grade point average of 3.0 or better can waive the required GMAT test score. An advising session with an MBA director at the business school is required for this credit. U.S. News & World Report has recently recognized the business school as offering the 95th best online MBA in the nation.

    Under the official school motto of “Creating contributing, compassionate citizens of an increasingly global society”, Baldwin Wallace University was named when the fledgling Baldwin University merged with German Wallace College in 1913. Today the school features over 80 majors and offers degrees at the undergraduate and graduate levels to the 3,933 students currently enrolled there. This four-year, private not-for-profit institution of higher learning features a main campus in Berea, Ohio. Receiving its accreditation through the Higher Learning Commission, Baldwin Wallace is home to the WBWC radio station which enjoys local notoriety as one of the most popular stations in the Cleveland area. Established in 1845, the school still has strong ties to the United Methodist Church.

    Estimated Program Tuition: $34,998

    #49 Portland State University School of Business Administration – Portland, Oregon


    The School of Business Administration at Portland State University offers an online Master’s of Business Administration with a specialization in Healthcare with no GMAT requirement for qualifying students. U.S. News & World Report has recently recognized the School of Business Administration as offering the 65th best online MBA in the nation.

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    Portland State University features an online Master’s of Business Administration with a specialization in Healthcare at its School of Business Administration. Qualifying students, including those who hold an MD, DO, DDS or DMD degree and have at least five years professional experience beyond the doctoral degree, can automatically waive the GMAT/GRE requirement. The School of Business Administration has recently been recognized as the 65th best online MBA by U.S. News & World Report. This 72-credit hour program is priced at $1,037 making the entire tuition cost $74,664. An average early career salary of $66,600 has been reported by some students of the business school after graduation revealing a solid return on the investment of education. The six major thematic areas covered in this degree include Understanding the Healthcare Industry, Leadership and Management in Healthcare, Financial Management in Healthcare, Operations and Quality in healthcare, Marketing, Business Planning and Strategy, and Application Projects and Capstone. The School of Business Administration receives its excellent business accreditation through the Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business.

    With a main campus located on 50 acres in the southwest region of downtown Portland, Oregon, Portland State University is a four-year, public university offering undergraduate, graduate, and doctoral degrees to the 26,627 students currently enrolled there. Receiving its regional accreditation through the Northwest Commission on Colleges and Universities, PSU was established in 1946 as the Vanport Extension Center by Stephen Edward Epler in an effort to offer higher education in the Portland area for returning Word War II veterans taking advantage of the G.I. Bill, which had been passed just two years before. With a high priority for environmental sustainability, a number of buildings on the school’s campus are Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED)-certified and Portland State has been recognized as one of the eco-friendliest colleges in the nation.

    Estimated Program Tuition: $74,664

    #48 Colorado Technical University School of Business & Management – Colorado Springs, Colorado


    Colorado Technical University offers an online Master of Business Administration at its School of Business & Management. Besides an accessible total tuition fee of $28,080, this program features no GMAT/GRE requirement for its applicants.

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    The School of Business & Management at Colorado Technical University features an online Master’s of Business Administration with an emphasis in Accounting, Entrepreneurship, Finance, Global Leadership, Healthcare Management, Human Resource Management, Logistics, Marketing, Project Management, Supply Chain Management, or Technology Management. This 48-credit hour program is priced at $585 per credit hour making the total cost of tuition $28,080. The School of Business & Management, which receives its business accreditation through the Accreditation Council for Business Schools and Programs, was recognized as a Tier One program among North American universities by CEO Magazine in 2015. Divided between 32 credit hours of core courses and 16 hours of concentration-specific courses, the core courses for this program include Strategic Management in Dynamic Environments, Applied Managerial Finance, Leadership and Ethical Decision-Making, Strategic Human Capital Management, and Applied Managerial Marketing. Applicants with active duty military status, transferring credits from other qualifying institutions, or eligibility for a Corporate Alliances Grant, can save on tuition fees for this program. CTU also offers a tuition reimbursement plan, grants, and scholarships. The School of Business and Management does not require applicants to submit GMAT/GRE scores to be considered for acceptance. U.S News & World Report has recently ranked the School of Business & Management as having the 160th best MBA program in the nation.

    With two main campuses, one in Colorado Springs and one in Denver, Colorado Technical University is a four-year, not-for-profit university which receives its regional accreditation through the North Central Association of Colleges and Schools, The Higher Learning Commission. While over 90% of the student body completes coursework through online education, the school offers degrees at the associate, undergraduate, graduate, and doctoral levels to the 25,548 students currently enrolled there. CTU was founded in 1965 as Colorado Technical College with the primary focus of educating former military personnel in technical and vocational fields of study. Thirty years later the school achieved its university status and was renamed Colorado Technical University. Most the school’s funding is provided by the US government which includes $33 million from GI Bill funds and nearly $3 million from the Department of Defense.

    Estimated Program Tuition: $28,080

    #47 American University Kogod School of Business – Washington, District of Columbia


    American University’s Kogod School of Business features an online Master’s of Business Administration with a concentration in Marketing, Finance, Cybersecurity, International Business, Business Analytics, or Consulting. While some students of the business school have reported an average early career salary of $75,800, this well-accredited, 48-credit hour program features no GMAT/GRE requirements for acceptance.

    Photo credit
    An online Master’s of Business Administration with a focus in Marketing, Finance, Cybersecurity, International Business, Business Analytics, or Consulting is offered at American University’s Kogod School of Business. This 48-credit hour program is priced at $1,642 per credit hour making the total cost of tuition $78,816. An average early career salary of $75,800 has been reported by some students after graduating from the business school showing a healthy return on the investment of education. The Kogod School of Business has recently been recognized as offering the 127th best online MBA in the nation by U.S. News & World Report. Receiving its exemplary business accreditation through the Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business, the Kogod School of Business has designed this 100% online MBA with a number of specializations to be completed in as little as one calendar year. This 48-credit hour degree is divided between 12 core courses, three elective courses, and two immersions, offering students a balanced academic experience between rigorous curriculum and real-life business experience. Core courses within this program include Brand Strategy, Business Law, Ethics, & Governance, Financial Accounting, Financial Management, Financial Statement Analysis, Forensic Accounting: Fraud Examination and Litigation Support, Integrated Marketing Communication, and International Finance. Interested applicants lacking the GMAT will be pleased to know GMAT/GRE scores are not required for acceptance into the online MBA program.

    The campus of American University is situated in the Tenleytown area of northwest Washington D.C. The school was originally chartered in 1893 by an Act of Congress under the approval of President Benjamin Harrison. The first classes began meeting in 1914 after years of fundraising. The original enrollment of the school was 28 students. While U.S. News & World Report has labeled the university as a “more selective” institution of higher learning, American University’s admission office accepted 35% of its applicants in 2015 and only 25.7% of its total applicants in 2016. American University is a four-year, private not-for-profit university offering degrees at the associate, undergraduate, graduate, and doctoral levels to 13,346 students currently enrolled there. American University receives its regional accreditation through the Middle States Commission on Higher Education and reports a positive graduation rate of 81%.

    Estimated Program Tuition: $78,816

    #46 Southern Illinois University, Carbondale College of Business – Carbondale, Illinois

    An online Master’s of Business Administration is offered, with no GMAT requirement for qualifying students, at Southern Illinois University, Carbondale’s School of Business. While the total tuition fee for this program is $36,000, some students of the business school have reported an average early career salary of $48,900 upon graduation, revealing a strong return on the investment of education.

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    The School of Business at Southern Illinois University, Carbondale features an online Master’s of Business Administration offered as a general degree or with a focus in Agricultural Economics. This 42-credit hour program is delivered as a structured, cohort-based modular degree plan which allows students the opportunity to complete all coursework in just 23 months. While the total tuition fee for this degree is $36,000, that price includes all course textbooks and course-specific supplemental reading materials. Some students of the School of Business have reported an average early career salary of $48,900 revealing a strong return on the investment of education. Receiving its excellent business accreditation through the Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business, the School of Business has recently been recognized by U.S. News & World Report as offering the 36th best online Master’s of Business Administration in the nation. Core courses within this degree include Brand Management, Business Communication for MBA Professionals, Critical Issues for Business, Seminar on Career Effectiveness, Advanced Seminar in Leadership Development, Managerial Accounting and Control, Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, Business Ethics, and Operations Management. Applicants with five or more years of professional work experience following an undergraduate degree or those with a master’s degree from an accredited university are not required to submit GMAT or GRE test scores for acceptance into this program.

    Featuring the school motto of Deo Volente (“God Willing”), Southern Illinois University, Carbondale is a four-year, public flagship university of the Southern Illinois University system. The school currently offers degrees at the associate, undergraduate, graduate, and doctoral levels to the 15,987 students enrolled there. Home of the Salukis, the 16 men’s and women’s varsity teams at SIU compete at the NCAA Division I level as members of the Missouri Valley Conference. While the saluki is a royal dog of ancient Egypt, the southern Illinois area is commonly referred to as “little Egypt.”

    Estimated Program Tuition: $36,000

    #45 Norwich University College of Graduate and Continuing Studies – Northfield, Vermont


    The College of Graduate and Continuing Studies at Norwich University offers an online Master’s of Business Administration with no GRE/GMAT requirement. Priced at $792 per credit hour, this 36-credit hour program features an affordable total tuition rate of just $28,512.

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    Norwich University’s College of Graduate and Continuing Studies features an online Master’s of Business Administration with a specialization in Project Management, Construction Management, Energy Management, Finance, Organizational Leadership, or Supply Chain Management and Logistics. Graduate students interested in pursuing this degree will be interested to know the business school requires no GMAT or GRE scores to be submitted in order to be considered for acceptance into this program. This 36-credit hour program is priced at $792 per credit hour making the total cost of tuition an accessible $28,512. An average early career salary of $50,100 has been reported by some students of the College of Graduate and Continuing Studies showing a healthy return on the investment of education. Core courses within this program include Strategic Resources management, Managerial Finance, Strategic Marketing and Operations Management, International Business Management, Leading Change in organizations, Strategic Management, Project Management Techniques, Tools and Practices, and Supply Chain Management Strategy, Planning and Operations. U.S. News & World report has recently recognized the business school, which receives its accreditation through the ACBSP, as the 134th best online MBA program in the nation.

    With a main campus in Northfield, Vermont, Norwich University is a four-year, private not-for-profit institution of higher learning which currently offers undergraduate and graduate degrees to the 4,219 students enrolled there. Receiving its regional accreditation through the New England Association of Schools and Colleges, Commission on Institutions of Higher Education, Norwich is the oldest private military college in the United States. The university got its start in 1819 when Captain Alden Partridge, former superintendent of West Point, returned to his native state of Vermont to plant the American Literary, Scientific and military Academy. Many of the educational principals Partridge created were used in subsequent military schools including The Citadel. While the school colors are maroon and gold, the 18 men’s and women’s varsity sports teams at Norwich University compete at the NCAA Division II level within the Great Northeast Athletic Conference.

    Estimated Program Tuition: $28,512

    #44 Bentley University Graduate School of Business – Waltham, Massachusetts


    An online Professional Master’s of Business Administration is featured at the Graduate School of Business at Bentley University. All Bentley alumni graduating with an undergraduate degree within the last five years are not required to submit GMAT and GRE test scores for acceptance into this program.

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    Bentley University offers an online Professional Master’s of Business Administration with a specialization choice of Accountancy, Business Analytics, Economics of Financial Markets, Finance, Information Systems and Technology, Law and Taxation, Leadership, or Marketing at the Graduate School of Business. Qualifying students can waive up to seven courses making this degree a 10-course part-time Professional MBA priced at $4,445 per three-credit course making the total cost of tuition $44,450. Some graduates of the business school have reported an average early career salary of $82,000 showing a healthy return on the investment of education. Receiving its excellent business accreditation through the Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business, the Graduate School of Business offers students the chance to work through a dual degree with the added coursework of a master’s at Bentley. “Credits from four courses apply to both degrees, so you can earn the valuable extra credential by completing six additional courses. Tuition for the Professional MBA program does not include Master of Science courses; they are charged at the regular per-course rate.” Core courses within the part-time Professional MBA include Strategic Information Technology Alignment, Business Process Management, Law, Ethics and Social Responsibility, Designing for the Value Chain, Global Strategy, and Leading Responsibly. Applicants for this program are encouraged to submit a completed application form with essays, a current resume, two letters of recommendation, all official transcripts, GMAT or GRE score, and $50 application fee in the admissions office. All Bentley alumni graduating within five years of applying for an MBA are not required to submit a GMAT or GRE test score.

    Reporting an impressive graduation rate of 89%, Bentley University is home to the Falcons who wear the official school colors of blue and white while competing at the NCAA Division II level within the Northeast-10 Conference. The school is a four-year private, not-for-profit institution of higher learning located in Waltham, Massachusetts, just ten miles from Boston. While Bentley currently oversees 5,506 students seeking degrees at the associate, undergraduate, graduate and doctoral levels, it receives its regional accreditation through the New England Association of Schools and Colleges, Commission on Institutions of Higher Education.

    Estimated Program Tuition: $44,450

    #43 Eastern Illinois University School of Business – Charleston, Illinois


    An online Master’s of Business Administration is featured at the School of Business at Eastern Illinois University. While this 33-credit hour program features an accessible tuition rate of just $19,800, qualifying applicants can also benefit by waiving a GMAT test score submission during the acceptance process.

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    The School of Business at Eastern Illinois University offers an online Master’s of Business Administration as a general degree or with an emphasis in Applied Management, Geographic Information Sciences (Computer Systems with Geographical Data), or Accountancy. This 33-credit hour program is priced at $600 per credit hour making the total cost of the program an attractive $19,800. An average early career salary of $41,500 has been reported by some students after graduating from the School of Business showing a healthy return on the investment of education. Students needing flexibility and seeking an accelerated option can graduate in just two calendar years taking two courses for six consecutive semesters. While the School of Business receives its exemplary business accreditation through the Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business, core courses within this degree include Organizational Behavior and Group Dynamics, Operations Management, Management Simulation, Quantitative Modeling, Supply Chain and Logistics Management, Systems Security, Project Management, and Accounting from a Management Perspective. Applicants with the proper academic qualifications can waive the GMAT and GRE test score requirements during the application process.

    Eastern Illinois University is a four-year, public university currently overseeing 7,415 students seeking degrees at the undergraduate and graduate levels. Wearing the school’s official colors of blue and grey, the men’s and women’s varsity sports teams at Eastern Illinois compete at the NCAA Division I level as members of the Ohio Valley Conference. The school’s mascot is Billy the Panther. Established as the Eastern Illinois Normal School in 1895, the university was first founded in order to train educators as public-school teachers in the region. The first classes were held on a 40-acre piece of land in Charleston, Illinois. The original student enrollment consisted of 125 students and 18 college staff. The school receives its regional accreditation through the Higher Learning Commission.

    Estimated Program Tuition: $19,800

    #42 Suffolk University Sawyer Business School – Boston, Massachusetts


    An online Master’s of Business Administration is featured at the Sawyer Business School at Suffolk University. Qualifying applicants, including those who maintained a 3.4 GPA throughout their undergraduate career coupled with at least two years of professional work experience, can waive all GMAT and GRE test score submissions during the application process.

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    The Sawyer Business School at Suffolk University offers an online Master’s of Business Administration with a focus in Accounting, Entrepreneurship, Finance, International Business, Marketing, or Strategic Management. The business school encourages all students interested in applying for this online MBA to complete an online form with a $50 application fee, submit official transcripts, goal-statement and professional resume, one letter of recommendation, GMAT or GRE test results, and to be prepared for a possible admission interview conducted by a Sawyer Business School representative. Undergraduate students who maintained a cumulative GPA of 3.4 and who have at least two years of professional work experience, can waive all GMAT and GRE test score submissions during the admissions process. This 49-credit hour program is priced at $1,424 per credit hour making the total cost of tuition $689,776. An average early career salary of $75,300 has been reported by some graduates of the business school revealing a healthy return on the investment of education. The Sawyer Business School, which receives its excellent business accreditation through the Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business, has recently been recognized by QS Distance as offering the 35th best online MBA program on the planet.

    Recently relocating its main campus from the historic campus in Beacon Hill into the middle of downtown Boston at 20 Somerset Street, Suffolk University has been able to give its students even greater access to the many cultural and historical attractions the city of Boston delivers. Suffolk was established in 1906 by Boston lawyer, Gleason Archer with an aim to “serve ambitious young men who are obliged to work for a living while studying law.” Receiving its regional accreditation through the New England Association of Schools and Colleges and Commission on Institutions of Higher Education, the school today exists as a four-year, private not-for-profit university overseeing 7,461 students seeking degrees at the associate, undergraduate, graduate, and doctoral levels. Over nine out of ten students attending Suffolk receive some form of financial aid, most through grants or scholarships.

    Estimated Program Tuition: $69,776

    #41 Lawrence Technological University College of Management – Southfield, Michigan


    An online Master’s of Business Administration, with no GMAT requirement for qualified students, is offered in the College of Management at Lawrence Technological University. The College of Management, which receives its excellent business accreditation through the IACBE and ACBSP, has recently been recognized by U.S. News & World Report as offering the 142nd best online MBA in the nation.

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    The College of Management at Lawrence Technological University features an online Master’s of Business Administration with an emphasis in Information Technology or Project Management with no GMAT requirement for qualified students. This 36-credit hour program is priced at $960 per credit hour making the total cost of tuition an accessible $34,560. Some students of the business school have reported an average early career salary of $57,800 showing a strong return on the investment of education. Applicants holding a master’s degree or who have been previously admitted to a master level program are not required to submit a GMAT test score in order to be accepted into this program. A GMAT is not required for applicants who hold an undergraduate degree and who maintained a minimum GPA of 3.0 for undergraduate course work. The College of Management, which receives dual business accreditation through the International Assembly for Collegiate Business Education and the Accreditation Council for Business School and Programs, has recently been recognized by U.S. News & World Report as offering the 142nd best online MBA program in the country. The curriculum for this 100% online MBA has been designed to be completed in just two years. Core courses within this degree include Managerial Accounting, Global Business Economics, Financial Management, Corporate Finance, Global Leadership, Strategic Marketing Management, Operations and Supply Chain Management, and Enterprise Information Technology.

    Operating under the school motto of “Theory and Practice”, Lawrence Technological University is a four-year, private not-for-profit institution of higher learning featuring a main campus in Southfield, Michigan. Currently offering degrees at the associate, undergraduate, graduate, and doctoral levels to the 3,309 students enrolled there, LTU is accredited by the Higher Learning Commission. The school was established in 1932 by Russell Lawrence with just a few hundred students and small faculty. The original school building was a leased property owned by henry Ford just next to a huge manufacturing warehouse on Woodward Avenue in Michigan.

    Estimated Program Tuition: $34,560

    #40 New Jersey Institute of Technology Martin Tuchman School of Management – Newark, New Jersey


    An online Master’s of Business Administration is offered at the New Jersey Institute of Technology’s School of Management. Interested candidates holding an undergraduate degree with 2.8 GPA, master’s, or PhD are eligible to waive the GMAT/GRE requirement during the acceptance process.

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    The Martin Tuchman School of Management at New Jersey Institute of Technology features an online MBA with a specialization in Management Information Systems, Marketing, or Finance. This 48-credit hour program is priced at $1,248 per credit hour making the total cost of tuition $59,904. An average early career salary of $69,700 has been reported by some students of the business school after graduation revealing a strong return on the investment of education. The majority of students in this program sign up for two classes each semester and the program is delivered in 8 semesters lasting 15 weeks each. The Martin Tuchman School of Management, which receives its business accreditation through the Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business, has recently been recognized as offering the 167th best online MBA in the nation by U.S. News & World Report. 30 credits of this 48-credit 100% online MBA are core courses including Management Accounting, Managerial Economics, Corporate Finance I, Organizational Behavior, Decision Analysis, New Venture Management, and International Business while 12 are concentration-intensive. The final six hours of capstone courses for this degree include Corporate Governance and Strategic Management. Interested candidates with an undergraduate degree with 2.8 GPA, master’s, or PhD are eligible to waive the GMAT/GRE requirement during the acceptance process.

    Reporting a student-to-faculty ratio of 18 to one and a graduation rate of 61% among its students, New Jersey Institute of Technology receives its regional accreditation through the Middle States Commission on Higher Education. The school was established as Newark Technical School in 1881. Today the college exists as a four-year, public school with a main campus in Newark, New Jersey and is home to nearly 50 laboratories and education centers with 120+ business incubators, where many research breakthroughs have been achieved. While BestColleges.com names the school as one of the best in the nation to have a low student loan default rate, NJIT currently oversees 11,317 students seeking degrees at the undergraduate, graduate, and doctoral levels.

    Estimated Program Tuition: $59,904 

    #39 Liberty University School of Business – Lynchburg, Virginia


    Liberty University’s School of Business offers a highly recognized online Master’s of Business Administration. Interested applicants lacking GMAT or GRE scores will be pleased to know Liberty does not require them for acceptance into this program.

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    The School of Business at Liberty University features an online Master’s of Business Administration with an emphasis in Accounting, American Legal Studies, Criminal Justice Administration, Finance, Healthcare Management, Human Resources, International Business, International Legal Studies, Leadership, Marketing, Nonprofit Leadership and Management, Project Management, Public Administration, Public Relations, Strategic Management, Supply Chain Management, or Logistics. This 45-credit hour program is priced at $615 per credit hour making the total cost of tuition an accessible $25,425. Some students of the School of Business have reported an average early career salary of $53,600 after graduating revealing a strong return on the investment of education. The School of Business at Liberty, recently recognized as offering the 127th best online MBA in the nation by U.S. News & World Report, receives its exemplary business accreditation through the Accreditation Council for Business Schools and Programs.

    The School of Business has designed this 100% online program to train graduate students for the career fields of global management, cultural advising, international transportation and shipping, missions ministry, tour industry, and federal, state, and local government specialty. Applicants for this program are encouraged to submit an online application with $40 fee, copies of unofficial transcripts, and proof of an accredited undergraduate degree with a cumulative 3.0 GPA into the admissions office to be considered. There are no GMAT or GRE test score requirements for acceptance into this program.

    Home of the Flames, the men’s and women’s varsity teams at Liberty University wear the official school colors of blue and red while competing at the NCAA Division I level as members of the Big South Conference. Liberty was established in 1971 as Lynchburg Baptist College by author, pastor, and televangelist Jerry Falwell. The university is a four-year, private not-for-profit Christian university located in Lynchburg, Virginia. Liberty obtained university status in 1984 and is widely known as the largest evangelical Christian university in the world. Receiving its regional accreditation through the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools, Commission on Colleges, the school currently offers associate, undergraduate, graduate, and doctoral degrees to the 75,756 students currently enrolled there.

    Estimated Program Tuition: $25,425

    #38 Cleveland State University Monte Ahuja College of Business – Cleveland, Ohio


    Cleveland State University’s Monte Ahuja College of Business offers an online Master’s of Business Administration with no GMAT requirement for qualified students. The business school, which receives its exemplary business accreditation through the Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business, has recently been recognized as featuring the 47th best in the nation online MBA by U.S. News & World Report.

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    Cleveland State University features an online Master’s of Business Administration with no GMAT for qualified students at the Monte Ahuja College of Business. Tuition for this 34-credit hour degree is $35,000 and includes all resources needed for the program. An average early career salary of $55,100 has been reported by some students upon graduating from the business school revealing a solid return on the investment of education. While the Monte Ahuja College of Business receives its exemplary business accreditation through the Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business, it has also recently been recognized as offering the 47th best online MBA in the nation by U.S. News & World Report. While this entire program has been designed to be completed in as little as one year, the core courses for this degree include International Business, Strategic Entrepreneurship, IT for Competitive Advantage, Managerial Accounting, HR Management, Team Dynamics, Financial Policies, and Marketing Strategy. Interested applicants are encouraged to submit an application with $30 non-refundable application fee, all official transcripts and official GMAT or GRE scores in order to begin the acceptance process. Students having achieved a degree at the MD or PhD. Level do not need to submit GMAT or GRE scores.

    With a main campus in downtown Cleveland, Ohio, Cleveland State University got its start in 1964 after taking ownership of the buildings, land, and student body previously occupied by Fenn College, which was founded in 1923. Today, the school operates with the mission to “encourage excellence, diversity, and engaged learning by providing a contemporary and accessible education in the arts, sciences, humanities and professions, and by conducting research, scholarship, and creative activity across these branches of knowledge.” Receiving its accreditation through the Higher Learning Commission, CSU is a four-year public school offering degrees at the undergraduate, graduate, and doctoral levels to the 16,864 students currently enrolled there.

    Estimated Program Tuition: $35,000

    #37 University of Scranton Arthur J. Kania School of Management – Scranton, Pennsylvania


    An online Master’s of Business Administration is featured at the University of Scranton’s Arthur J. Kania School of Management. Graduate students looking for a business school that prioritizes integrity and social awareness will want to consider this 36-credit hour program which offers no GMAT or GRE requirement for acceptance.

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    The Arthur J. Kania School of Management at the University of Scranton features an online Master’s of Business Administration offered as a general degree or with a concentration in Accounting, Enterprise Resource Planning, Healthcare Management, Human Resources, International Business, or Operations Management. Courses within this degree include Responsibility, Sustainability, and Justice, Accounting for Management, Managerial Economics, Management Information Systems, Organizational Behavior, and marketing Management. General MBA students may choose three to six courses from all specialization fields while all students complete the degree with a required Capstone Course of Business Policy. This 36-credit hour program is priced at $965 per credit hour making the total cost of tuition $34,740. An average early career salary of $55,200 has been reported by some students of the business school after graduation showing a strong return on the investment of education. The Arthur J. Kania School of Management, which was recently recognized by U.S. News & World Report as offering the 91st best online MBA in the nation, receives its stellar business accreditation through the Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business. Students interested in applying for admission into this program are encouraged to fill out an application and submit letters of recommendation, transcripts, a resume, and a statement of intent into the admissions office. There are no GMAT or GRE test score submissions required for acceptance into the business school.

    Home of the Royals and Lady Royals, the 19 men’s and women’s varsity sports teams of the University of Scranton compete at the NCAA Division III level within the Landmark Conference. The university, which reports a healthy graduation rate of 80% among its students, receives its regional accreditation through the Middle States Commission on Higher Education and houses three colleges: the College of Arts and Sciences, Kania School of Management, and Panuska College of Professional Studies. This four-year, private, not-for-profit university oversees 5,380 students seeking degrees at the associate, undergraduate, graduate, and doctoral levels. Originally established as Saint Thomas College in 1888 by founding father and Bishop of Scranton, the Most Reverend William O’Hara, the school received university status fifty years later. Today, this Catholic and Jesuit university is nestled in the historic Hill Section area of Scranton, Pennsylvania.

    Estimated Program Tuition: $34,740

    #36 Southern New Hampshire University School of Business – Manchester, New Hampshire


    Southern New Hampshire University’s School of Business features a robust online Master’s of Business Administration. While this 12-course program features a competitive tuition rate of just $22,572, the School of Business at SNSU does not require its applicants to submit GMAT or GRE score in order to be accepted into the program.

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    The School of Business at Southern New Hampshire University offers an online Master’s of Business Administration with concentration choices in the fields of Accounting, Business Intelligence, Economics, Engineering Management, Entrepreneurship, Finance, Human Resources, Information Technology Management, Internet Marketing, Leadership, Project Management, Public Administration, Social Media, Sport Management, and more. This 12-course degree is priced at $1,881 per course making the total cost of tuition an affordable $22,572. An average early career salary of $52,600 has been reported by some students of the School of Business after graduation showing a healthy return of the investment of education. This 12-course, 100% online degree is divided between nine core courses and three concentration-specific courses. Core courses for this degree include Ethics, Corporate Culture, and Social Responsibility, Finance, Economics, and Decision Making, Government Impact on Business, Operations Management and Technology, Leading in an Organization, and Marketing and Strategy. Students seeking an accelerated experience can graduate in just 15 months by completing two courses each 10-week term. This degree “provides an examination of how to research and analyze new business ventures along with a foundation of time-tested business strategies.” Besides a GMAT/GRE score waiver for all incoming students, the business school offers a staff of admission counselors accessible to all applicants throughout the admissions process. The School of Business receives its exemplary business accreditation through the Accreditation Council for Business Schools and Programs.

    With a large student body of 73,177 seeking degrees at the associate, undergraduate, graduate, and doctoral levels, Southern New Hampshire University is a four-year, private, not-for-profit university nestled on 300 acres along the Merrimack River in Manchester, New Hampshire. SNSU is comprised of three schools and two colleges and receives its regional accreditation through the New England Association of Schools and Colleges, Commission on Institutions of Higher Education. Home of the Penmen, the men’s and women’s varsity sports teams wear the official school colors of blue and gold while competing at the NCAA Division II level within the Eastern College Athletic Conference. The university was first established as the New Hampshire School of Accounting and Secretarial Science in 1932 by Harry and Gertrude Shapiro. The school’s motto is “The Greatest and the Best.”

    Estimated Program Tuition: $22,572

    #35 Florida Atlantic University College of Business – Boca Raton, Florida


    The College of Business at Florida Atlantic University offers an online Master’s of Business Administration with a concentration in International Business. This competitively priced online degree costs $32,000 in total tuition and requires no GMAT or GRE test score submissions by those having five years of professional work experience.

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    Florida Atlantic University features an online Master’s of Business Administration with an International Business specialization at its College of Business. Students with the proper academic experience may be able to waive up to six hours of coursework making this 100% online MBA a 40-credit hour program. Priced at $800 per credit hour, the total cost of tuition for this degree is $32,000. The College of Business, which has recently been recognized by U.S. News & World Report as the 100th best online MBA in the country, receives its exemplary business accreditation through the Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business. This degree offers a team-based cohort format, can be completed in less than two years, and features two start times a year. This 40-hour program is divided between 28 core courses and 12 International Business-specific credits. The core courses for this degree include Financial Accounting Concepts, Corporate Financial Management, Communication Skills for Business Professionals, Global Environment of Management, Advanced Analysis of Accounting Data, Marketing Management in a Global Environment, and Advanced Financial Management.

    Established in 1964 as the first public university in southeast Florida, Florida Atlantic University currently offers associate, undergraduate, graduate, and doctoral degrees to the 30,541 students currently enrolled there. Receiving its regional accreditation its regional accreditation through the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools, Commission on Colleges, FAU exists as a four-year, public institution of higher learning which currently reports a graduation rate of 49%. With a main campus in Boca Raton, Florida, Florida Atlantic University features five centers for education in Dania Beach, Davie, Fort Lauderdale, Fort Pierce, and Jupiter, Florida. The school is classified by the Carnegie Foundation as a top-tier research university. FAU’s mascot is Owlsley the Owl and the school’s official colors are blue and red.

    Estimated Program Tuition: $32,000

    #34 Mercer University Eugene W. Stetson School of Business and Economics – Macon, Georgia


    Mercer University features an online Master’s of Business Administration in its highly accredited College of Business. While this program features an attractive total tuition fee of just $26,640, a GMAT requirement is waived for applicants holding a graduate degree from a regionally accredited college or university or an equivalent international graduate degree.

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    The College of Business at Mercer University offers an online Master’s of Business Administration with a specialization in Marketing, Finance, Economics, General Business, Human Resources, or Healthcare Management at its College of Business. Students with the proper academic experience can waive up to nine hours of foundational credit and complete this degree by taking 36-credit hours. Receiving its stellar business accreditation through the Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business, the College of Business has recently been recognized by U.S. News & World Report as offering the 78th best online MBA in the nation. This 36-credit hour program is priced at $740 per credit hour making the total cost of tuition an accessible $26,640. Some students of the business school have reported an average early career salary of $51,700 revealing a strong return on the investment of education. Core courses within this program include Managerial Economics, Managerial Accounting, Issues in Business Law and Corporate Responsibility, Marketing Concepts and Practices, Corporate Finance, Operations Management Science, and Ethical Leadership. Applicants for this program will be pleased to know the GMAT requirement is waived for applicants holding a graduate degree from a regionally accredited college or university or an equivalent international graduate degree.

    Founded in 1833, Mercer University is currently the oldest four-year, private not-for-profit university in the state of Georgia. The school was first established as Mercer Institute and was named after Baptist leader Jesse Mercer, who provided the school’s first endowment and served on the first board of trustees as chairman. The school was granted university status four years later and would graduate its first class of three students in 1841. Today, Mercer features three campuses: a main campus in Macon, Georgia and two others in Atlanta and Savannah. Receiving its regional accreditation through the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools, Commission on Colleges, Mercer offers degrees at the undergraduate, graduate, and doctoral levels to the 8,615 students currently enrolled there.

    Estimated Program Tuition: $26,640

    #33 Louisiana State University E. J. Ourso College of Business – Baton Rouge, Louisiana


    Louisiana State University features an online Master’s of Business Administration at the E. J. Ourso College of Business. While this program features a total tuition rate of $46,620, the E. J. Ourso College of Business has recently been recognized as offering the 47th best online MBA in the nation by U.S. News & World Report.

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    An online Master’s of Business Administration is offered at the E. J. Ourso College of Business at Louisiana State University. This 42-credit hour program is priced at $1,110 per credit hour making the total cost of tuition $46,620. An average early career salary of $64,600 has been reported by some students of the E. J. Ourso College of Business after graduating revealing a solid return on the investment of education. Applicants interested in this program are encouraged to complete an online application and submit all official transcripts, GMAT/GRE scores, and a $50 application fee to the admissions office. “For candidates who do not meet the minimum work requirements, the MBA admissions committee may consider supplemental documentation; including official GMAT test scores, GRE test scores, and/or official professional designation or certification.” Candidates with at least a 3.0GPA in previous coursework may waive the GMAT requirement. The business school receives its stellar accreditation though the Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business. Core courses within this 100% online MBA include Managerial Statistics, Understanding Financial Information, Information Systems, Elements of Cost Management, Understanding Behavior in Organizations, Financial Management, Marketing Administration, Operations Management, Legal Environment of Business, and Economic Environment of the Firm.

    Receiving its regional accreditation through the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools, Commission on Colleges, Louisiana State University is a four-year public university located in Baton Rouge, Louisiana. 31,409 students are currently seeking degrees at the undergraduate, graduate, and doctoral levels. First named the Louisiana State Seminary of Learning & Military Academy, Louisiana State dates to 1853 when it was founded with the express intent to educate students in the military tradition. LSU’s athletic department consists of 12 women’s varsity teams and nine men’s varsity teams which compete at the NCAA Division I level as members of the Southeastern Conference. The Tigers and Lady Tigers have won 47 team national championships through the years.

    Estimated Program Tuition: $46,620

    #32 Webster University Walker School of Business and Technology – Saint Louis, Missouri


    Webster University’s Walker School of Business and Technology offers an online Master’s of Business Administration that allows students to tailor their studies with multiple specializations. This 36-credit hour program benefits from the university’s priority for “small classes, personal attention, international perspective, and a real-world approach to learning” and requires no GMAT or GRE score for acceptance.

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    An online Master’s of Business Administration with a specialization in Business and Organizational Security Management, Cybersecurity, Environmental Management, Gerontology, Health Administration, Human Resources Development, Human Resources Management, Information Technology Management, International Business, International Relations, Management and Leadership, Marketing, Media Communications, Procurement and Acquisitions Management, or Project Management is featured at the School of Business and Technology at Webster University. This 36-credit hour general degree is priced at $780 per credit hour making the total cost of tuition $28,080. An average early career salary of $58,300 has been reported by some students after graduating from the College of Management showing a healthy return on the investment of education. Candidates interested in this program are encouraged to provide transcripts showing an undergraduate degree awarded by an accredited university and a cumulative GPA of at least 2.5. There is no advertised requirement for GMAT/GRE test scores for acceptance. Recently recognized by U.S. News & World Report as offering the 160th best online MBA in the nation, the College of Management receives its business accreditation through the Accreditation Council for Business Schools and Programs.

    Webster University is a four-year, private not-for profit university situated in Saint Louis, Missouri, overseeing 13,906 students seeking degrees at the undergraduate, graduate, and doctoral levels. Established in 1915 as Loretto College by the Sisters of Loretto, the school was as one of the first Catholic women’s colleges west of the Mississippi River. Home of the Gorloks, the seven men’s and seven women’s varsity sports teams at Webster wear the official school colors of navy, gold, and white and compete at the NCAA Division II level as members the St. Louis Intercollegiate Athletic Conference. Receiving its regional accreditation though the North Central Association of Colleges and Schools, The Higher Learning Commission, Webster began admitting male students in 1962.

    Estimated Program Tuition: $28,080

    #31 National University School of Business and Management – La Jolla, California


    National University’s School of Business and Management offers an online Master’s of Business Administration. Candidates with an undergraduate degree and cumulative GPA of at least 2.5 are exempt from submitting GMAT and GRE scores for admission into the program.

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    The School of Business and Management at National University offers an online Master’s of Business Administration with an emphasis in Financial Management, Human Resources Management, Integrated Marketing Communication, International Business, Management Accounting, Marketing, Mobile Marketing and Social Media, Organizational Leadership, or Supply Chain Management. Priced at $416 per quarter unit, this 63 quarter-unit, 100% online Master’s of Business Administration features a total tuition rate of $26,208. Some students of the business school have reported an average early career salary of $58,100 after graduation revealing a strong return on the investment of education. Students interested in applying for this program are encouraged to submit an application with $60 fee, turn in transcripts showing a GPA of at least 2.5, and sign up for an interview with an admissions advisor. Students meeting these criteria are exempt from having to submit GMAT/GRE scores. Core courses for this degree include Organization Management and Leadership, Marketing Management, Global Business, Statistics for Business, Managerial Accounting, Economics for Managerial Decisions, Managerial Support Systems, and Seminar in Financial Management. This 63-quarter unit degree includes two modules of core coursework followed by 18 quarter units of General Electives. The remaining 18 quarter units are required specialized courses within the chosen concentration. The School of Business and Management receives its business accreditation through the International Assembly for Collegiate Business Education.

    Receiving its regional accreditation through the Western Association of Schools and Colleges, Senior College and University Commission, National University was established in 1971 by retired United States Navy lieutenant commander David Chigos. Today, this four-year, private not-for-profit university which maintains a main campus in the coastal Southern California city of La Jolla and features education centers throughout the state of California, in Nevada, and online through distance learning. National University is comprised of the College of Letters and Sciences, the School of Business and Management, the Sanford College of Education, the School of Engineering and Computing, the School of Health and Human Services, and the School of Professional Studies.

    Estimated Program Tuition: $26,208

    #30 University of Nevada-Reno College of Business – Reno, Nevada


    The College of Business at the University of Nevada-Reno features an online Executive Master’s of Business Administration. While the business school has been recognized as offering the 36th best online MBA in the nation by U.S. News & World Report, a GMAT waiver can be applied to students possessing an accredited graduate degree (Master’s, Ph.D.), professional degree (JD, MD, DVM, etc.), or with an active CPA, CFP, CMA or PE license.

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    An online Executive Master’s of Business Administration is offered at the University of Nevada-Reno’s College of Business. This 100% online, cohort-based programs features 12 courses and requires two years to complete the curriculum. The total tuition fee for this degree is $30,000 and the program begins in the fall each year. “This allows students in each cohort to begin the program at the same point, move through the curriculum together, and build supportive working relationships in a stimulating online environment. Courses in the EMBA program are sequenced to assure continuity in learning.” Candidates for this program are encouraged to apply by June 1 of the year. A favorable application includes the completion of an undergraduate degree from an accredited four-year institution, a cumulative GPA of at least 2.75, professional work experience of at least five years past the achievement of a bachelor’s degree, and the submission of GMAT or GRE test score. Candidates possessing an accredited graduate degree (Master’s, Ph.D.), a professional degree (JD, MD, DVM), or an active CPA, CFP, CMA or PE license are not required to submit a GMAT or GRE to be accepted into this program. Receiving its excellent business accreditation through the AACSB, the College of Business has recently been recognized by U.S. News & World Report as offering the 36th best online MBA in the country. Some students of the business school have reported an average early career salary of $56,000 revealing a strong return on the investment of education.

    Holding the distinction as the only land grant institution in the state of Nevada, the University of Nevada, Reno was established in 1874 and originally named State University of Nevada. Until 1965, UNR was the exclusive four-year university in the state. Today, this four-year public institution of higher learning offers degrees at the undergraduate, graduate, and doctoral levels to the 21,353 students currently enrolled there. Receiving its accreditation through the Higher Learning Commission, the University of Nevada operates under the motto of Omnia Pro Patria (“All For Our Country”). The flagship campus of Nevada is situated just to the north of downtown Reno near the casinos and overlooking the Truckee Meadows.

    Estimated Program Tuition: $30,000

    #29 Dallas Baptist University Graduate School of Business – Dallas, Texas


    Dallas Baptist University features an online Master’s of Business Administration in the Graduate School of Business. While this 36-credit hour program is priced at just $32,616, applicants meeting certain criteria are exempt from providing any GMAT or GRE test scores upon acceptance.

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    An online Master’s of Business Administration with specialization in Finance, Health Care Management, International Business, Management, Management Information Systems, Marketing, or Project Management is offered at the Graduate School of Business at Dallas Baptist University. This 36-credit hour online MBA is priced at $906 per credit hour making the total cost of tuition $32,616. Applicants looking for a solid return on the investment of education will be pleased to learn that some students have reported an average early career salary of $62,900 upon completing this degree. Offered by the Graduate School of Business as a 100% online MBA, 24 hours of this degree consist of core courses while 12 hours consist of concentration-specific courses. Core courses within this program Managerial Accounting, Corporate Finance, Quantitative Analysis for managers, Leadership in Management, Business Ethics, Management Information Systems, Creative Problem-Solving Marketing Decisions, and Strategic Management Decisions. “Specific learning foci include: creative leadership, customer relationship development, marketing, messaging and sales, culture innovation, and value-centric servant leadership.” Recently ranked as offering the 175th best online MBA in the nation by U.S. News & World Report, The Graduate School of Business, which receives its business accreditation through the Accreditation Council for Business Schools and Programs, was recently ranked as offering the 175th best online MBA in the nation by U.S. News & World Report. Candidates meeting certain criteria are exempt from providing any GMAT or GRE test scores upon acceptance.

    Established in 1898, Dallas Baptist University was originally named Decatur Baptist College. It was the first two-year college in Texas. Now located just 12 miles from downtown Dallas, the school was relocated in 1965. Receiving its regional accreditation through the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools, Commission on Colleges, this four-year, private not-for-profit Christian university offering degrees at the associate, undergraduate, graduate, and doctoral levels to the 5,156 students currently enrolled there. Reporting a graduation rate of 58%, the graduates of DBU enjoy a 70% acceptance rate into medical school, which is twice the national average.

    Estimated Program Tuition: $32,616

    #28 University of Cincinnati Carl H. Lindner College of Business – Cincinnati, Ohio


    An online Master’s of Business Administration is featured at the Carl H. Lindner College of Business at the University of Cincinnati. Students who successfully complete the Foundations Pathway of this degree may waive the GMAT requirements for the MBA application.

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    The University of Cincinnati offers an online Master’s of Business Administration with a concentration in Marketing, Health Care Finance, Health Care Administration, Health Care Operations, Health Care Policy and Regulation, Corporate Taxation, Individual Taxation, or Business Foundations at the Carl H. Lindner College of Business. The business school has recently been recognized by U.S. News & World Report as offering the 65th best online MBA in the nation. This 38-credit hour program is priced at $890 per credit hour making the total cost of tuition $33,820. Some students of the business school have reported an average early career salary of $59,100 after graduation. Receiving its excellent business accreditation through the Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business, the Carl H. Lindner College of Business offers a “Foundations Pathway for its students which typically involves a student possessing three or more years or professional work experience. “Students start by applying to the Business Foundations Certificate program and DO NOT submit a GMAT/GRE score. Candidates who successfully complete the Foundations Pathway may waive the standardized test score requirements for the MBA application.” Core courses within this program include Accounting for Managerial Decisions, Corporate Legal and Social Responsibility, Decision Models, Managerial Economics, Financial Management, Information and Technology Management, Strategic Management, and Leadership and Organizations.

    Operating under the two school mottos of “Strength in Unity” and “Seek the Highest”, the University of Cincinnati got its start in 1819 when the Medical College of Ohio and Cincinnati College were opened. Within 20 years, the schools combined and in 1893 the school was moved to its present location in the Heights neighborhood of downtown Cincinnati. Today, this four-year, public university oversees 36,596 students seeking degrees at the associate, undergraduate, graduate, and doctoral levels. Receiving its accreditation through the Higher Learning Commission, UC is home to the Bearcats and its official school colors are red and black.

    Estimated Program Tuition: $33,820

    #27 Florida Institute of Technology Nathan M. Bisk College of Business – Melbourne, Florida


    The Nathan M. Bisk College of Business at the Florida Institute of Technology offers a highly regarded online Master’s of Business Administration. This robust 36-credit hour program features a competitive tuition cost of $32,256 and features no GMAT or GRE requirement for acceptance into the program.

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    An online Master’s of Business Administration with a specialization in Accounting, Accounting & Finance, Cybersecurity, Finance, Healthcare Management, Information Technology Management, International Business, Management, Marketing, or Project Management, is offered at Florida Institute of Technology’s Nathan M. Bisk College of Business. Students seeking an accelerated experience can take 12 courses over eight-week long terms and satisfy all requirements for this 36-credit hour program in as few as 24 months. The Nathan M. Bisk College of Business, which receives its business accreditation through the International Assembly for Collegiate Business Education, communicates this MBA offers “the global perspective and practical leadership abilities to position you as a stronger candidate for high-level and executive careers, including international business manager, international sales representative, international management consultant, and risk analyst.” This degree consists of two foundation courses, five core courses, and four concentration-intensive courses. U.S. News & World Report recently recognized the Nathan M. Bisk College of Business as offering the 119th best online MBA in the nation. This 36-credit hour program is priced at $896 per credit hour making the total cost of tuition $32,256. An average early career salary of $64,400 has been reported by some students of the business school reflecting a positive return on the investment of education.

    Florida Institute of Technology is a four-year, private not-for-profit university located on over 130 acres in Melbourne, Florida which offers degrees at the associate, undergraduate, and graduate levels to the 2,774 students currently enrolled there. Commonly known as Florida Tech, the school was founded in 1958 and receives its regional accreditation through the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools, Commission on Colleges. Recently recognized by Times Higher Education as the 219th best university in the nation, U.S. News & World Report has ranked Florida Tech as a tier-one national university. While Florida Tech reports a graduation rate of 57% among its students, the male to female student ratio was seven-to-three in 2016.

    Estimated Program Tuition: $32,256

    #26 Ohio University College of Business – Athens, Ohio


    The College of Business at Ohio University features an online Master’s of Business Administration with a specialization in Finance, Health Care, Business Analytics, or Executive Management. Priced at $35,140, this 35-credit hour program benefits from the business school’s excellent business accreditation through the AACSB and requires no GMAT score for acceptance.

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    Ohio University’s College of Business offers an online Master’s of Business Administration with an emphasis in Finance, Health Care, Business Analytics, or Executive Management. Receiving its stellar business accreditation through the Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business, the College of Business has recently been recognized as offering the 72nd best online MBA in the country by U.S. News & World Report. This 35-credit hour program is priced at $1,004 per credit hour making the total cost of tuition $35,140. Some students of the business school have reported an average early career salary of $61,200 after graduating showing a healthy return on the investment of education. Students interested in this program will be pleased to know the College of Business does not require its candidates submit GMAT or GRE test scores in order to be accepted. This 100% online Master’s of Business Administration has been ranked as the 3rd best MBA value by Fortune Magazine.

    What began as a shared vison for an institution of higher learning in the area of the newly-founded Ohio by Manasseh Cutler and General Rufus Putnam became realized in 1804 when the charter for Ohio University was established by the General Assembly of Ohio. The first three students of Ohio were enrolled in 1809 while the school’s first degrees were granted in 1815. Today, this four-year public university features a main campus situated in Athens, Ohio overlooking the Hocking River. Receiving its accreditation through the Higher Learning Commission, Ohio University offers degrees at the associate, undergraduate, graduate, and doctoral levels to the student body of 29,509. Home of the Bobcats, the men’s and women’s varsity sports teams at the school wear the official colors of Ohio green and white while competing at the NCAA Division I level within the University System of Ohio.

    Estimated Program Tuition: $35,140

    #25 Western Illinois University College of Business and Technology – Macomb, Illinois


    The College of Business and Technology at Western Illinois University features an online Master’s of Business Administration with concentration in Management or Supply Chain Management. Discerning students will want to consider this program which features an affordable tuition rate of just $10,680 and no GMAT or GRE test score requirements for qualified candidates.

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    Western Illinois University’s College of Business and Technology offers an online Master’s of Business Administration with concentration in Management or Supply Chain Management. This 33-credit hour program is priced at just $323 per credit hour making the total cost of tuition a very accessible $10,680. An average early career salary of $45,500 has been reported by some students of the College of Business and Technology showing a strong return on the investment of education. Qualified candidates with the proper academic experience can waive up to 21-credit hours and complete all requirements for this degree by taking only 11 courses.

    No GMAT or GRE test scores are required of applicants with the following achievements: a cumulative GPA of at least 3.6 in an AACSB accredited bachelor’s degree in a business discipline or a cumulative GPA of at least 3.75 in a bachelor’s degree from the WIU College of Business and Technology and a minor in either business or Pre-MBA. This program is offered as a fully-online experience, in the classroom, or as a hybrid with the combination of the two. The business school also encourages mentoring relationships between faculty and students and maintains an average class size of 16. The College of Business and Technology receives its remarkable business accreditation through the Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business.

    Home of the Leathernecks, the men’s and women’s varsity sports teams at Western Illinois University compete while wearing the official school colors of purple and gold within the NCAA Division I as members of the Summit League. This four-year public institution of higher learning located in Macomb, Illinois was originally known as Western Illinois State Normal School when it was established in 1899 as a school for training public school educators to teach in the state of Illinois. WIU currently offers degrees at the undergraduate, graduate, and doctoral levels to the 10,373 students currently enrolled there. The school’s grounds were originally donated by the Freemason’s in Macomb. Today the campus consists of over 50 buildings spread on over 1,000 acres.

    Estimated Program Tuition: $10,680

    #24 Rochester Institute of Technology Saunders College of Business – Rochester, New York


    The Saunders College of Business at the Rochester Institute of Technology offers an online Executive Master’s of Business Administration. Receiving its exemplary business accreditation through the Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business, the Saunders College of Business requires no GMAT/GRE for acceptance into this program.

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    An online Executive Master’s of Business Administration is featured at the Rochester Institute of Technology’s Saunders College of Business. Offered as a 17-month, four-semester program, the total tuition fee for this degree is $70,000. An average early career salary of $58,600 has been reported by some students of the business school revealing a positive return on the investment of education. Receiving its exemplary business accreditation through the Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business, the Saunders College of Business has recently been recognized by U.S. News & World Report as offering the 33rd best online in the nation and the Princeton Review as featuring the seventh best online MBA program in the United States. While candidates for this program are encouraged to submit proof of an undergraduate degree from an accredited institute of higher learning, have at least six years of professional work experience, and complete an application, no GMAT or GRE test scores are required for acceptance. The majority of requirements for this program are completed online, however students are required to visit the campus for a three-day orientation at the onset of the program.

    Formerly known as Rochester Athenaeum and Mechanics Institute, today’s Rochester Institute of Technology operates under the school motto of “the making of a living and the living of a life.” With the official establish date of 1829, the Institute got its start with a merger between Rochester Athenaeum and Mechanics Institute, one a literary school and the other a technical training school. RIT’s campus consists of 1,300 acres, many of which are woodlands and swamps located near the Genesee River in Rochester, New York. This four-year, private not-for-profit university offers degrees at the associate, undergraduate, graduate, and doctoral levels to the 16,507 students currently enrolled there. The school receives its regional accreditation through the Middle States Commission on Higher Education.

    Estimated Program Tuition: $70,000

    #23 University of Houston, Clear Lake College of Business – Houston, Texas


    The University of Houston-Clear Lake features a stellar online Master’s of Business Administration in their College of Business. This 36-credit hour program features an affordable total tuition of just $20,868 and offers a GMAT waver for qualified applicants.

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    An online Master’s of Business Administration with concentration options in Environmental Management, Finance, Human Resource Management, or Management of Technology is offered at the College of Business at the University of Houston-Clear Lake. This 36-credit hour program is priced at $1,739 per course making the total cost of tuition an accessible $20,868. Some students of the College of Business have reported an average early career salary of $54,400 after graduating showing a healthy return on the investment of education. Receiving its excellent business accreditation through the Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business, the College of Business has recently been recognized as the 109th best online MBA program in the nation by U.S. News & World Report. The business school has replaced the standard 16-week long courses with eight-week long classes which allow an accelerated pace for this degree. By taking two classes per term, a student can now complete all coursework in just 14 months. Core courses within this program include Accounting for Administration Control, The Global Environment of Business, Management Science and Operations, Managerial Economics, Corporate Finance, Human Behavior in Organizations, Strategic Management Seminar, and Executive Decisions in Marketing.

    Established in 1971, the University of Houston-Clear Lake is a four-year, public university offers degrees at the undergraduate, graduate, and doctoral levels to the 8,669 students currently enrolled there. Functioning as one of the four distinct campuses within the University of Houston System, the over-500-acre campus of the University of Houston-Clear Lake is in southeast Houston. The school was originally founded in response to the growing need for graduate programs within NASA and the space-related industry that was booming in the area of the state since the early 60’s. Land for U of H-Clear Lake was donated by Humble Oil and the Friendswood Development Corporation. While the university receives its regional accreditation through the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools, Commission on Colleges, its school mascot is the Hawks.

    Estimated Program Tuition: $20,868

    #22 Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University Worldwide College of Business – Daytona Beach, Florida


    An online Master’s of Business Administration is featured in the College of Business at Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University. The College of Business, which delivers this 33-credit hour program at the affordable tuition rate of $21,120, lists no GMAT or GRE test score requirements for acceptance into this program.

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    The College of Business at Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University offers an online Master’s of Business Administration with a concentration in Accounting, Finance, Leadership, Information Technology, Marketing, International Business, or Public Administration. The College of Business, which has designed this program “to help prepare graduates for leadership and management roles in the business industry and teach critical analytic skills in accounting, economics, international business, marketing, finance, operations research, and statistics”, has recently been recognized as the 100th best online MBA program in the nation by U.S. News & World Report. This 33-credit hour program is priced at $640 per credit hour, making the total tuition rate for this degree an accessible $21,120. An average early career salary of $60,900 has been reported by some students of the College of Business upon graduating reflecting a positive return on the investment of education. Business core courses included in this 33-credit hour program include Strategic Marketing Management in Aviation, Managerial Accounting for Decision Making, Managerial Finance, Business Research Methods, Advanced Aviation Economics, and International Business Administration. The College of Business receives its stellar business accreditation through the Accreditation Council for Business Schools and Programs.

    Named after its founders, Talton Embry and John Riddle, who first established the Embry-Riddle Company based in Cincinnati, Ohio at Lunken Airport, Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University was established in 1926 and stands today as a four-year private, not-for-profit institution of higher learning located in sunny Daytona Beach, Florida. The school currently offers degrees at the associate, undergraduate, graduate, and doctoral levels to the 14,221 students enrolled there. Embry Riddle receives its regional accreditation through the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools, Commission on Colleges. The school relocated to Miami in 1939 and would train many WWII pilots under the Civilian Pilot Training Program. The second-largest fleet of aircraft in the United States, 67 in total, is housed at the university.

    Estimated Program Tuition: $21,120

    #21 Kettering University School of Management – Flint, Michigan


    An online Master’s of Business Administration, with a concentration in Global Leadership, Supply Chain Management, Operations Management, or Healthcare Management, is featured at Kettering University’s School of Management. The School of Management receives its excellent business accreditation through the Accreditation Council for Business Schools and Programs and does not require a GMAT score from its applicants for the online MBA or the Graduate Certificate Program.

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    Kettering University offers an online Master’s of Business Administration with a specialization in Global Leadership, Supply Chain Management, Operations Management, or Healthcare Management at its School of Management. Receiving its business accreditation through the Accreditation Council for Business Schools and Programs, the School of Management has designed this degree to help students “learn the skills needed to become effective leaders and aid in making the important decisions that can make their organization successful.” This 48-credit hour program is priced at $890 per credit hour making the total cost of tuition $42,720. An early career salary of $76,600 has been reported by some students of the business school after graduating reflecting a positive return on the investment of education. Receiving its business accreditation through the Accreditation Council for Business Schools and Programs, the business school has designed this 100% online MBA to be completed in as few as 18 months. Required courses for this degree include Managerial Accounting, International Business, Financial Management, Enterprise Information System Models, Managing People & Organization, Strategy, and Operations Management in Service Organizations. Applicants are not required to submit a GMAT or GRE score for acceptance into this program.

    Receiving its regional accreditation through the Higher Learning Commission, Kettering University stands as a four-year private, not-for-profit university maintaining a main campus in Flint, Michigan. Currently overseeing 2,326 students pursuing degrees at the undergraduate and graduate levels, the schools original name was the School of Automotive Trades when it was established in 1919. General Motors took over the school in 1926 in order to train the automaker’s engineers until 1982 when the school cut ties to GM. The school became Kettering University in 1998 to honor the memory of inventor and automotive engineering legend, Charles Kettering. The official school colors of Kettering are gold and blue. Payscale.com recently recognized the university as the 12th-best return on investment in the nation. The university’s nickname is the Bulldogs.

    Estimated Program Tuition: $42,720

    #20 Wright State University Raj Soin College of Business – Dayton, Ohio


    The Raj Soin College of Business at Wright State University offers an accessible online Master’s of Business Administration program. Applicants with a cumulative undergraduate GPA of 3.0 or higher can enroll under the school’s regular admission and waive the GMAT, while undergrads with a GPA of 2.7-2.99 can waive the GMAT and enroll on a conditional basis.

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    The Raj Soin College of Business at Wright State University offers an online Master’s of Business Administration with concentration choices in Economics, Finance, Healthcare Management, International Business, Interdisciplinary Business, Investments, Management, Innovation and Change, Marketing, New Venture Creation, or Project Management. Priced at $640 per credit hour, this 11-course program is listed at just $19,200 in total tuition fees. An average early career salary of $58,600 has been reported by some students of the Raj Soin College of Business revealing a strong return on the investment of education. Core courses for this program include Strategic Cost Management, Economics for Managers, Financial Analysis and Decision Making, Leadership and Ethics, International Business Management: Operations and Environments, Developing and Implementing Competitive Strategies, Marketing Strategy, and Supply Chain Management. The business school has recently been recognized as offering the 124th best online MBA in the country by U.S. News & World Report. Students interested in waiving the GMAT requirement for this degree may do so if they have acquired an undergraduate degree from an accredited college or university and have maintained a GPA of at least 3.0. Students with an undergraduate GPA of 2.7 to 2.99 may seek acceptance into the program on a conditional basis and still waive the GMAT requirement.

    Offering degrees at the undergraduate and graduate levels to the 16,655 students currently enrolled there, Wright State University is home to the Raiders. The school’s namesake is aviators and inventors Orville and Wilbur Wright, who lived in Dayton. The school’s campus is situated in the suburb area of Fairborn, Ohio. This four-year public university was founded in 1964 as a center for education between an agreement of Ohio State University and Miami University and today is accredited by the Higher Learning Commission. Wearing the official school colors of green and gold, the men’s and women’s varsity sports teams at Wright State compete at the NCAA Division I level as members of the Horizon League.

    Estimated Program Tuition: $19,200

    #19 Central Michigan University College of Business Administration – Mount Pleasant, Michigan


    An online Master’s of Business Administration is offered through the College of Business Administration at Central Michigan University. This 36-credit hour program is priced at an affordable $21,600 and offers a GMAT waver to qualified candidates.

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    Central Michigan University’s College of Business Administration features an online Master’s of Business Administration with a concentration in ERP Emphasis using SAP Software, Human Resource Management, Logistics Management, Marketing, or Value-Driven Organization. Core courses within this degree include Managing Information Systems in a Global Economy, Managerial Accounting: A Management Perspective, Managing and Leading Individuals and Groups in Organizations, Data Analysis for Managers, Global Business and Sustainability, Financial Analysis and Risk management, and Global Economic Environment. The College of Business Administration, which receives its stellar business accreditation through the Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business, has recently been recognized as offering the 42nd best online MBA in the nation by U.S. News & World Report. Candidates with the proper academic experience can waive up to seven hours of prerequisite courses and complete this degree as a 12-course program. This 36-credit hour program is priced at $600 per credit hour making the total cost of tuition an affordable $21,600. An average early career salary of $62,800 has been reported by some students of the College of Business Administration after graduation showing a positive return on the investment of education.

    Operating under the official school motto of “Wisdom, Virtue, Friendship”, Central Michigan University was established in 1892 and today is one of the state’s largest universities and a member of the top 100 largest schools in the United States. This four-year, public research university features a main campus in Mount Pleasant, Michigan. Home of the Chippewas and wearing the official school colors of maroon and gold, the athletic department at CMU is comprised of men’s and women’s varsity sports teams which compete at the NCAA Division I level within the Mid-American Conference. CMU currently oversees 25,986 students seeking degrees at the undergraduate, graduate, and doctoral levels. The university offers over 200 academic fields of study and is best known for its audiology, entrepreneurship, journalism, music, psychology, and teacher education programs. Central Michigan’s official school colors are maroon and gold and the nickname is the Chippewas.

    Estimated Program Tuition: $21,600

    #18 University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill Kenan-Flagler Business School – Chapel Hill, North Carolina


    The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill’s Kenan-Flagler Business School offers an online Master’s of Business Administration with multiple choices of concentrations for students to consider. Recently recognized as offering the top online MBA in the country by the Princeton Review, the Kenan-Flagler Business School requires no GMAT or GRE test scores for applicants with seven or more years of professional work experience.

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    The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill’s Kenan-Flagler Business School offers an online Master’s of Business Administration with concentration in Corporate Finance, Entrepreneurship, Global Supply Chain Management, Marketing, Investment Management, Sustainable Enterprise, Management Consulting, or Data Analytics and Decision Making. Priced at $1,728 per credit hour, this 66-credit hour degree features a total tuition rate of $114,078. Students seeking an accelerated experience can complete all coursework in as few as 18 months, however most students take two years to graduate. The business school encourages applicants have two years of professional experience and submit all official transcripts, three required essays, two letters of professional recommendation, and an online application with $150 fee into the admissions office in order to be considered for acceptance. Candidates with seven or more years of professional work experience do not have to submit GMAT or GRE test scores. All applicants are required to complete an interview process before being accepted into this program. This 66-credit hour degree covers “a broad range of entrepreneurial topics, and includes electives that help students bring their business ideas to life. Courses focus on principles such as managing innovation, corporate strategy, innovation and social entrepreneurship in developing economies, new ventures discovery and business discovery and technology management.” Core courses for this degree include Analytical Tools, Marketing Strategy, Analysis, and Development, Financial Accounting, Developing Management & Leadership Skills, Economics, Operations, Introductory Finance, and Business Communication. The business school has recently been recognized as offering the #1 online MBA in the nation by the Princeton Review and the 4th best by U.S. News & World Report.

    While the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill is one of three universities in the nation to claim to be the oldest, there is no doubt it has been setting the pace for quality education since its inception in 1789 as the first public university in America to be chartered under the US Constitution. Receiving its regional accreditation through the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools, Commission on Colleges, UNC offers degrees at the undergraduate, graduate, and doctoral levels to the 29,468 students currently enrolled there. This four-year public research university features a main campus in Chapel Hill, North Carolina and reports a solid graduation rate of 91%. Home of the NCAA Division I Tar-Heels, the sports teams at UNC wear the official school colors of Carolina blue and white.

    Estimated Program Tuition: $114,078

    #17 James Madison University College of Business – Harrisonburg, Virginia


    An online MBA with a focus in Executive Leadership or Information Security is featured at James Madison University’s College of Business. Candidates with a master’s degree or holding a CPA do not have to submit a GMAT or GRE score in order to be accepted into this program.

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    James Madison University’s College of Business offers an online Master’s of Business Administration with a specialization in Executive Leadership or Information Security. While most coursework for this degree is offered online, some on campus residencies are required for this hybrid program. Short-term residencies of one day at the campus in Reston, Virginia every eight weeks are included in both programs. The Executive Leadership program features a total tuition fee of $42,000 while the degree with an emphasis in Information Security is priced at $37,800. Both programs are 42-credit hours in length. An average early career salary of $53,500 has been reported by some students of the College of Business after graduating reflecting a positive return on the investment of education. While the Princeton Review has recently recognized the business school as offering the 10th best online MBA in the U.S., U.S. News & World Report has recently recognized the business school as offering the 21st best program in the nation Receiving its exemplary business accreditation through the Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business, the College of Business encourages its applicants to complete an online application with $55 fee and submit unofficial transcripts, letters of recommendation, and GMAT/GRE results into the graduate school for consideration. Applicants with a graduate’s degree or holding a CPA do not have to submit a GMAT or GRE score in order to be accepted into this program.

    Home of the Dukes who wear the official school colors of purple and gold, James Madison University features over 16 men’s and women’s varsity sports teams which compete at the NCAA Division I level as members of the Colonial Athletic Association. The school was founded in 1908 by the Virginia General Assembly as an all-women’s college called the State Normal and Industrial School for Women at Harrisonburg. Thirty years later the name was changed to James Madison College in honor of the fourth president of the United States, James Madison, whose Montpelier Estate was located in nearby Orange, Virginia. The school was renamed once more in 1976 when it achieved its university status. Today, this four-year public university in Harrisonburg, Virginia oversees 21,270 students currently seeking degrees at the undergraduate, graduate, and doctoral levels. Receiving its regional accreditation through the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools, Commission on Colleges, JMU reports a healthy graduation rate of 82%.

    Estimated Program Tuition: $37,800

    #16 Marist College School of Management – Poughkeepsie, New York


    An online Master’s of Business Administration with a specialization in Ethical Leadership, Financial Management, or Healthcare Administration is offered at Marist College’s School of Management. While this 36-credit hour program features an affordable tuition rate of just $28,800, candidates with a graduate’s degree are exempt from submitting GMAT or GRE test scores during the application process.

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    The School of Management at Marist College features an online Master’s of Business Administration with a concentration in Ethical Leadership, Financial Management, or Healthcare Administration. The School of Management, which receives its excellent business accreditation through the Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business, has designed this 100% online MBA to be accessible to an array of students by not requiring a business undergraduate degree for its applicants. Students interested in applying for this program are encouraged to complete a Graduate Admission Application and submit a $50 fee with responses to essay questions, GMAT/GRE results, transcripts, a current resume, and two letters of recommendation into the admissions office. Applicants with a master’s degree or higher are not required to submit GMAT or GRE test scores. This 36-credit hour program is priced at $800 per credit hour making the total cost of tuition $28,800. Some students of the School of Management have reported an average early career salary of $56,600 upon graduation revealing a positive return on the investment of education. Core courses for this degree include The 21st Century Manager, Global Environment of Business, Economics, Analytics Bootcamp, Accounting, Marketing Management, Finance, Operations Management, and Strategic Management. U.S. News & World Report While the business school has recently recognized by U.S. News & World Report as offering the 61st best online MBA in the nation, Quacquarelli Symonds has recently named the program the 37th best in the world.

    Operating under the official school motto of “To Pray and To Work”, Marist College is a four-year, private not-for-profit institution of higher learning with previous ties to the Roman Catholic Church. Established in 1905, the school was founded by the Marist Brothers to prepare men of the cloth for professions as educators. Today the school features centers of learning in 26 countries, a campus in Florence, Italy, and a main campus nestled on 180 acres along the Hudson River in Poughkeepsie, New York. The school currently offers undergraduate and graduate degrees to the student body of 6,569. Receiving its regional accreditation through the Middle States Commission on Higher Education, Marist reports a healthy 83% graduation rate.
    Estimated Program Tuition: $28,800

    #15 Auburn University Raymond J. Harbert College of Business – Auburn, Alabama


    Auburn University’s Raymond J. Harbert College of Business features a highly regarded online Master’s of Business Administration. The business school stands as one of the most prestigious in the nation, and has recently been recognized as offering the 10th best online MBA in the nation by U.S. News & World Report.

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    Auburn University features a general online Master’s of Business Administration at its Raymond J. Harbert College of Business. This 39-credit hour degree is priced at $875 per credit hour making the total cost of tuition $34,125. Some students of the business school have reported an average early career salary of $60,200 after graduation showing a positive return on the investment of education. Interested applicants are encouraged to complete an online application with application fee, and submit a personal statement, resume, two letters of recommendation, official GMAT results, and all transcripts from previous universities to the admissions office. Those students who have already achieved a J.D or Ph.D. are not required to submit a GMAT or GRE test score as a part of the application process. Core courses for this program include Financial Analysis, Quantitative Analysis, Strategic Analysis & the Competitive Environment, Information Systems for Competitive Advantage, Organizational Leadership & Change, and Integrated Business Project & Case Analysis. Receiving its exemplary business accreditation through the Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business, the Raymond J. Harbert College of Business has been recognized by the Princeton Review as having the 14th best online MBA in the country and U.S. News & World Report for offering the 10th best degree in the nation.

    Commonly heralded as Alabama’s first public land-grant university after the Morrill Act of 1872, Auburn University receives its regional accreditation through the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools, Commission on Colleges. With a founding affiliation with the Methodist Episcopal Church, South, the school was established in 1856 as the East Alabama Male College. The school was later renamed the Agricultural and Mechanical College of Alabama before becoming the first co-educational school in the state. Auburn achieved its university status in 1960. Located in Auburn, Alabama, the university currently exists as a four-year, public institution of higher learning which offers undergraduate, graduate, and doctoral degrees to the 28,290 students enrolled there. Auburn reports a solid graduation rate of 75% and is now one of the few in the United States designated as a land-grant, sea-grant, and space-grant, research center.

    Estimated Program Tuition: $34,125

    #14 George Washington University School of Business – Washington, District of Columbia


    George Washington University features an online Master’s of Business Administration at its School of Business. The School of Business has recently been recognized as offering the #15 best online MBA in the world by Quacquarelli Symonds.

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    The School of Business at George Washington University offers an online Master’s of Business Administration with a specialization in Consulting, Finance, Global Management, Government Contracts, Information Systems and Technology Management, or Project Management. This 55.5-credit hour program is priced at $1,765 per credit making the total cost of tuition $97,957. An average early career salary of $79,000 has been reported by some students of the School of Business after graduating revealing a healthy return on the investment of education. With three start times each year and a schedule based on six credit hours taken each semester, all coursework for this degree is completed 100% online. Each class includes an hour of instructor-led live classroom sessions featuring “lectures, case discussion, and/or group activities.” The business school has recently been recognized as the 15th best online MBA in the world by Quacquarelli Symonds, the 29th best program in the country by U.S. News & World Report, and the #6 best online MBA in the nation by the Princeton Review. The School of Business receives its excellent business accreditation through the Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business. Required courses include a year’s worth of Foundational Business Fundamentals including Financial Accounting, Global Perspectives, Business Ethics, Judgment, Uncertainty and Decisions, Nature of Markets, Data Analysis and Decisions, and Marketing Decisions followed by a second year’s worth of Advanced Business Fundamentals.

    George Washington University is a four-year, private not-for-profit institution of higher learning which currently oversees 27,159 students seeking degrees at the associate, undergraduate, graduate, and doctoral levels. Receiving its regional accreditation through the Middle States Commission on Higher Education, GWU reports a strong graduation rate of 84%. With a national reputation as one the country’s “Most Politically Active” institutions of higher education, GWU has equipped many notable politicians and business leaders through the years including Senate Minority Leaders, Presidential staffers, and even former First Ladies. Plans for the university were set into motion by an act of Congress in 1821. Although it was first known as Columbian College, the university would later be renamed in 1904 to honor of the nation’s first president.

    Estimated Program Tuition: $97,957

    #13 Ball State University Miller College of Business – Muncie, Indiana


    An online Master’s of Business Administration is featured at the Miller College of Business at Ball State University. Featuring a very affordable total tuition rate of just $12,060, applicants with a JD, PhD, PharmD, or MD, are not required to present GMAT or GRE test scores during the application process.

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    The Miller College of Business at Ball State University offers an online Master’s of Business Administration with a specialization in Entrepreneurship, Finance, Health Economics, Policy, and Administration, Logistics and Supply Chain Management, or Sales Management and a Certificate in Business Essentials for Professionals, Health Economics, Policy, and Administration, or Professional Sales Management. This 30-credit program is priced at $402 per credit making the total cost of tuition an incredibly low $12,060. An average early career salary of $49,400 has been reported by some students of the Miller College of Business after graduation reflecting a positive return on the investment of education. Recently recognized as offering the 24th best program in the U.S. by Princeton Review and awarded the 12th best in the nation by U.S. News & World Report, the business school receives its excellent business accreditation through the Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business. While this program offers three start dates each calendar year, the business school puts flexibility and accessibility as a high priority in distance learning by allowing students the opportunity to complete courses on-campus, online, or a combination of the two. The 10 courses required for this 100% online MBA include eight core courses including Entrepreneurial Leadership, Statistics and Quantitative Methods, Information Systems, Accounting and Decision Making, Economic Analysis for Managers, Managerial Finance, Marketing Management, and Global Strategic Management and two electives chosen within the concentration-focused courses.

    Home of the Cardinals, the seven men’s varsity teams and 12 women’s varsity teams at Ball State University wear the official school colors of cardinal and white while competing at the NCAA Division I level as members of the Mid-American Conference. This four-year public research university in Muncie, Indiana which offers programs at the associate, undergraduate, graduate, and doctoral levels to the 21,998 students currently enrolled there. Founded as the Indiana State Normal School in 1918, Ball State University began meeting for classes with a student body of 235 with the purpose of educating public school teachers for the state of Indiana.

    Estimated Program Tuition: $12,060

    #12 Babson College F.W. Olin Graduate School of Business – Wellesley, Massachusetts


    A Blended Learning Master’s of Business Administration is offered in the F.W. Olin Graduate School of Business at Babson College. While the business school at Babson receives its excellent business accreditation through the Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business, GMAT or GRE scores are not required for most Blended Learning program candidates.

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    Babson College features a Blended Learning Master’s of Business Administration with concentration choices of Business Analytics, Entrepreneurship, Finance, Global Management, or Marketing at the F.W. Olin Graduate School of Business. Priced at $1,853 per credit hour, this 46-credit hour program features a total tuition rate of $85,238. An average early career salary of $96,800 has been reported by some students of the business school after graduating reflecting a positive return on the investment of education. Recently recognized by both the Princeton Review and Financial Times as offering the 8th best online MBA program in the nation, the business school receives its exemplary business accreditation through the Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business. This 46-credit hour Blended Learning program has been designed to include the advantages of a cohort-based on-campus degree with the flexibility and convenience of an online program. The short-term residencies planned every seven weeks allow students to network with one another and form close-knit interactive professional relationships which often serve their business careers in the future. Core courses for this degree include Introduction to Financial Management, Law, Marketing, and Managerial Economics, Entrepreneurship and Opportunity, Creating and Leading Effective Organizations, Financial Reporting, Managing Talent: Your Own and Others, and Strategy, Data, Models and Decisions.

    With an original student body of just 27 students, Babson College got its start when Roger and Grace Babson set out to educate its students over the topics of finance, production, and distribution over one year as opposed to the typical four-year plan most schools supported. Founded in 1919, classes originally met in the couple’s home in Wellesley Hills in Wellesley, Pennsylvania. Today the school exists as a four-year, private not-for-profit college offering undergraduate and graduate degrees to the 3,165 students currently enrolled there. Babson receives its regional accreditation through the New England Association of Schools and Colleges, Commission on Institutions of Higher Education. The 22 men’s and women’s varsity teams at Babson compete at the NCAA Division III level as members of the New England Women’s and Men’s Athletic Conference.

    Estimated Program Tuition: $85,238

    #11 University of North Texas College of Business – Denton, Texas


    The University of North Texas’ College of Business features an online Master’s of Business Administration with a specialization in Finance, Marketing, Strategic Management, or Organizational Behavior. While this 36-credit hour program offers an accessible total tuition rate of $25,237, candidates with high academic qualifications can waive the GMAT requirement during the application process.

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    The College of Business at the University of North Texas offers an online Master’s of Business Administration with a concentration in Finance, Marketing, Strategic Management, or Organizational Behavior. This 36-credit hour program is priced at $701 per credit-hour making the total cost of tuition an affordable $25,237. An average early career salary of $59,900 has been reported by some students of the business school revealing a positive return on the investment of education. The College of Business has recently been recognized by U.S. News & World Report as offering the 55th best online MBA in the nation while the Princeton Review hails it as the 21st among the nation’s top programs. This 36-credit program is divided between 18 hours of core courses, 12 hours of required courses, and two elective courses chosen through consultation with the departmental advisor of Theory and Application of Financial Derivatives, Theory of Finance, and Contemporary Issues in Finance. With three acceptance deadlines advertised, candidates for this program are encouraged to complete an online application with $75 fee, submit GMAT/GRE results, a 600-word essay, current resume, and two letters of recommendation into the Graduate Programs office. UNT undergraduate degree holders with a cumulative GPA of 3.5 or higher will receive a GMAT score waiver while a UNT Honors College graduates with a cumulative GPA of 3.5 or higher will be considered for a GMAT waiver.

    University of North Texas is a four-year, public research school in Denton, Texas that got its start as the Texas Normal College and Teachers Training Institute in 1890. While UNT’s main campus is situated in Denton, Texas, the school also maintains learning centers in nearby Dallas and Fort Worth. Home of the “Mean Green”, the varsity sports teams at UNT wear green white and black as they compete at the NCAA Division I level as members of the Conference USA. Currently reporting a graduation rate of 52%, the university currently offers the 38,145 students enrolled there an array of degrees at the undergraduate, graduate, and doctoral levels. Comprised of two schools and ten colleges, UNT receives its regional accreditation through the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools, Commission on Colleges.

    Estimated Program Tuition: $25,237

    #10 Lehigh University College of Business and Economics – Bethlehem, Pennsylvania


    An online Master’s of Business Administration is featured at the College of Business and Economics at Lehigh University. Candidates with ten years of professional experience, six years of professional experience combined with a graduate’s degree, or holding an academic doctorate, juris doctorate, or medical doctorate are automatically exempt from needing to submit GMAT or GRE scores for acceptance into this prestigious program.

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    Lehigh University offers an online Master’s of Business Administration with a focus in Corporate Entrepreneurship, Finance, International Business, Marketing, Project Management, or Supply Chain Management at its College of Business. This 36-credit hour degree is priced at $1,075 per credit hour making the total tuition fee $38,700. Some students of the business school have reported an average early career salary of $69,100 after graduation reflecting a positive return on the investment of education. The business school receives its exemplary business accreditation through the Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business. Candidates for this program are encouraged to submit an online application with $75 fee, essay, current resume, GMAT/GRE results, official transcripts, and two letters of recommendation into the admissions office at the business school. Applicants with ten years of professional experience, six years of professional experience combined with a graduate’s degree, or holding an academic doctorate, juris doctorate, or medical doctorate are automatically exempt from needing to submit GMAT or GRE scores for acceptance into this program. The College of Business and Economics has recently been recognized as offering the 21st best online MBA in the country by U.S. News & World Report and the 25th best program in the nation by Quacquarelli Symonds. Lehigh’s Flex MBA allows distance learners to attend classes through Classroom Live, a series of real-time classroom-based lessons, or through Classroom Online, which allows students to view pre-recorded class videos at their convenience online. Both Classroom Live and Classroom Online are 100% online formats, both feature three start times each year, and both typically take between 24 and 72 months to complete. All concentration-intensive courses are taken on campus.

    Receiving it regional accreditation through the Middle States Commission on Higher Education, Lehigh University is a four-year, private not-for-profit institution of higher learning which features the P.C. Rossin College of Engineering and Applied Science, College of Business and Economics, College of Arts and Sciences, and College of Education. Operating under the official school motto of “Man, the Servant and Interpreter of Nature”, Lehigh features a main campus in Bethlehem, Pennsylvania. Home of the Mountain Hawks, the 25 men’s and women’s varsity sports teams at Lehigh compete at the NCAA Division I level within the Patriot League. The school’s current enrollment is 7,059 students who are seeking degrees at the undergraduate, graduate, and doctoral levels. Lehigh reports an above-average graduation rate of 89%.

    Estimated Program Tuition: $38,700

    #9 Colorado State University College of Business – Fort Collins, Colorado


    An online Master’s of Business Administration with a focus in Computer Information Systems, Finance, Marketing, or Professional Enrichment is featured in the College of Business at Colorado State University. This 42-credit hour program offers a total tuition rate of $39,732, and candidates interested in applying are not required to submit a GMAT score.

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    Colorado State University offers an online Master’s of Business Administration with a specialization in Computer Information Systems, Finance, Marketing, or Professional Enrichment at its College of Business. This online degree is divided between core courses including Business Systems and Processes, Quantitative Business Analysis, Accounting Concepts, Managerial Accounting, Financial Reporting and Analysis, Business Economics for the World Market, and Financial Principles and Practice and six elective credits. This 42-credit hour program is priced at $946 per credit making the total cost of tuition $39,732. An average early career salary of $70,300 has been reported by some students after graduating from the College of Business reflecting a positive return on the investment of education. Recently recognized by Financial Times for offering the 19th best online MBA program in the nation, the College of Business receives its stellar business accreditation through the Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business. This program has been designed with flexibility in mind as all coursework can be completed in as few as 21 months or if students need a slower pace, they can take as long as five years to graduate.

    Widely known as the flagship school of the Colorado State University System, Colorado State University is situated on a main campus in Fort Collins, Colorado. The school offers degrees at the undergraduate, graduate, and doctoral levels to the 31,858 students currently enrolled there. This four-year, public research institution of higher learning receives its regional accreditation through the Higher Learning Commission and reports a graduation rate of 56%. The 11 women’s and 6 men’s varsity sports teams at Colorado State wear the school’s official colors of green, gold, and white while competing at the NCAA Division I level within the Mountain West Conference.

    Estimated Program Tuition: $39,732

    #8 University of Arizona Eller College of Management –Tucson, Arizona


    An online Master’s of Business Administration is offered in the elite University of Arizona’s Eller College of Management. This 45-unit program is bolstered by the business school’s recent recognition as the 55th best online MBA program in the nation by U.S. News & World Report, and qualifying candidates with the proper academic experience may waive the GMAT requirement during the application process.

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    The University of Arizona features an online Master’s of Business Administration with a concentration in Entrepreneurship, Health Care, Finance, Management and Organizations, Management Information Systems, or Marketing at its Eller College of Management. The business school has recently been recognized as offering the 19th best online MBA program in the nation by the Princeton Review and ranked #55 by U.S. News & World Report. This 45-unit 100% online program is divided into 28 core units and 17 elective units at a cost of $1,000 per unit making the total tuition cost $45,000. Some students of the Eller College of Management have reported an average early career salary of $74,000 after graduation revealing a strong return on the investment of education. The Eller College of Management receives its exemplary business accreditation through the Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business. Students seeking an accelerated experience can structure their course load and complete all requirements for the degree in as few as 14 months or take as long as five years to graduate if their work schedule dictates a slower pace. Potential students interested in this program are encouraged to contact the admissions office with any questions they may have. Graduate students looking to apply should submit an online application with $100 application fee, an essay, professional resume, two professional letters of recommendation, a copy of official transcripts, and GMAT/GRE results to the admissions office. Veterans and actively serving U.S. military personnel, bachelor’s degree holders with at least a 3.0 GPA from a STEM (science, technology, engineering, or math) discipline, are eligible for a GMAT waiver. Applicants holding a terminal degree such as MD, JD, or Ph.D. may also receive a GMAT waiver.

    Established in 1885 as the Arizona Normal School, today’s University of Arizona was first founded with the intent of educating public school teachers in the southwest territories. Just two years later, the leadership at the school began construction of Old Main, the first and oldest building on the campus, which still stands as a reminder of the school’s traditions. The university is situated on a main campus in Tucson and offers undergraduate, graduate, and doctoral degrees to the 43,161 students currently enrolled there. The men’s and women’s varsity teams, which compete under the nickname of the Wildcats, compete at the NCAA Division I-A level as part of the Pac-12 Conference. Reporting a 60% graduation rate among its students, Arizona receives its regional accreditation through the North Central Association of Colleges and Schools, The Higher Learning Commission.

    Estimated Program Tuition: $45,000

    #7 University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign College of Business – Champaign, Illinois


    The College of Business at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign offers an online Master’s of Business Administration. As this program features an accessible tuition rate of just $18,000, interested applicants are encouraged to submit a GMAT or GRE score but are not required in order to be considered for this program.

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    The University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign’s College of Business features an online Master’s of Business Administration with a concentration in Digital Marketing, Global Challenges in Business, or Innovation: From Creativity to Entrepreneurship. While the College of Business receives its exemplary business accreditation through the Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business, its recent recognitions include Poets & Quants awarding the school as offering a top 50 100% online MBA in the nation. This 18-course/72-credit hour program is priced at $250 per credit hour making the total cost of tuition an affordable $18,000. An average early career salary of $88,000 has been reported by some students of the College of Business after graduating reflecting a strong return on the investment of education. Core courses within this program include Everyday Leadership, Designing & Managing Organizations, Strategic Management, Firm-Level Economics, Country Level Economics, Business Statistics, Data Analysis & Decision Making, Managerial Accounting, Process Management, and Marketing Management. While a GMAT or GRE is not a required component of a complete application, standardized test score submissions are encouraged by the admissions office.

    Operating under the official school motto of “Learning and Labor”, the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign receives its regional accreditation through the North Central Association of Colleges and Schools, The Higher Learning Commission. Currently offering degrees at the undergraduate, graduate, and doctoral levels (both on-campus and online through distance learning), the school was established in 1867 and today is a land-grant institution within the twin cities of Champaign and Urbana. The university is the founding member of the Big Ten Conference and the flagship university within the University of Illinois State System. 46,951 students are enrolled at this four-year, public university which reports a solid graduation rate of 85%.

    Estimated Program Tuition: $18,000

    #6 Florida International University College of Business – Miami, Florida


    Florida International University’s College of Business offers a prestigious online Master’s of Business Administration. While the College of Business has been recognized as offering the 21st best in the world online MBA by Quacquarelli Symonds, candidates with four years of professional work experience can waive the GMAT.

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    The College of Business at Florida International University features an online Master’s of Business Administration with a concentration in Entrepreneurship and Innovation, Finance, International Business, Marketing Channel Strategy, Strategic Negotiations, or Business Analytics. Core courses for this degree include Competitive Strategy, Accounting for Managers, Corporate Finance, Business Analysis for Decision Making, Operations Management, Marketing Management in the Global Environment, Financial Reporting and Analysis, International Business, and Global Financial Strategy. This 42-credit hour MBA features a per-credit cost of $1,000 making the total cost of tuition $42,000. Some students of the College of Business have reported an average early career salary of $58,100 after graduating reflecting a solid return on the investment of education. While the Financial Times has recognized the business school as offering the 16th best online MBA in the country, U.S. News & World Report has awarded the business school their spot as the 42nd best program in the country. One of the most notable recognitions the business school has in recent years is Quacquarelli Symonds’ listing this program as the 21st best in the world. The College of Business receives its exemplary business accreditation through the Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business. While candidates interested in this degree with at least four years of professional work experience can waive the GMAT requirement during the application process, students seeking an accelerated rate for completion can finish all coursework for this degree in as few as 18 months.

    Florida International University features a main campus in University Park, and another major campus in Miami-Dade County, Florida. Under the official school motto of “Hope, Knowledge, Opportunity”, FIU was founded in 1965 after then-Florida Senator Robert M. Haverfield introduced a bill for a new state university in Florida. Today the school exists as the largest institution of higher learning in South Florida and the second-largest in the state. This four-year, public university offers degrees at the associate, undergraduate, graduate, and doctoral levels to the 55,003 students currently enrolled there. The official school colors are blue and gold while the school’s mascot is Roary the Panther.

    Estimated Program Tuition: $42,000

    #5 Syracuse University Martin J. Whitman School of Management – Syracuse, New York


    An online Master’s of Business Administration is offered at the Martin J. Whitman School of Management at Syracuse University. There is no GMAT or GRE score requirement for candidates interested in this award-winning 54-credit hour program if they possess at least five years of professional work experience.

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    The Martin J. Whitman School of Management at Syracuse University features an online Master’s of Business Administration with a concentration in Accounting, Business Analytics, Entrepreneurship, Finance, Marketing Management, or Supply Chain Management. This 100% online MBA has been divided between 36 credits of core courses, 15 credits of concentration-specific electives, and three credits of U.S. and global residencies. Core courses within this program include Data Analysis and Decision Making, Global Entrepreneurial Management, Financial Accounting, Leadership in Organizations, Managerial Accounting, Strategic Management, Microeconomics, and Legal and Ethical Environment of Business. The business school has been the recent recipient of recognition from Financial Times as offering the 10th best online MBA in the country, 20th best in the nation by the Princeton Review, and 47th in the nation by U.S. News & World Report. Quacquarelli Symonds has also deemed the business school as featuring the 28th best online MBA on the planet. Priced at $1,500 per credit, this 54-credit hour program features a total tuition rate of $81,000. An average early career salary of $59,800 has been reported by some students of the Martin J. Whitman School of Management reflecting a strong return on the investment of education. The business school receives its exemplary business accreditation through the Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business. Candidates with at least five years of professional work experience can waive the GMAT requirement during the application process of this program.

    Syracuse University is a four-year, private not-for-profit institution of higher learning with a main campus located in Syracuse, New York. With a large student body of 21,970, the school currently offers degrees at the associate, undergraduate, graduate, and doctoral levels. Syracuse receives its regional accreditation through the Middle States Commission on Higher Education and reports a high 82% graduation rate among its students. The university was chartered in 1870 after a combined donation of $100,000 from the city of Syracuse and a $25,000 gift from Bishop Jesse Truesdell Peck. Home of the Orange, the athletic department at ‘Cuse has a long-standing tradition of success.

    Estimated Program Tuition: $81,000

    #4 Drexel University Bennett S. LeBow College of Business – Philadelphia, Pennsylvania


    The Bennett S. Lebow College of Business at Drexel University offers an online Master’s of Business Administration. While qualified candidates with the proper academic experience can waive the GMAT requirement, this 49-credit hour program is backed by the business school’s recent recognition by Quacquarelli Symonds as providing the 18th best online MBA in the world.

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    Drexel University’s Bennett S. Lebow College of Business features an online Master’s of Business Administration with an emphasis in Accounting, Business Analytics, Entrepreneurship/Innovation Management, Finance, Healthcare Management, Marketing, or Supply Chain and Logistics. The Bennett S. Lebow College of Business has recently been recognized by U.S. News & World Report as offering the 61st best online MBA in the nation, by Financial Times as having the 20th best program in the U.S., and by Quacquarelli Symonds Distance as offering the 18th best online MBA in the world. Students needing an accelerated experience can complete all requirements for this 100% online part-time cohort-based program in as few as 24 months. The business school receives its excellent business accreditation through the Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business. Core courses within this 49-quarter credit degree include Managerial Economics, Managing & Leading the Total Enterprise, Introduction to Statistics for Business Analytics, Legal Options in Decision Making, Strategy Analysis, Leading High-Performance Teams, and Essentials of Financial Reporting. In addition to the core courses, this degree also includes one capstone course and four specialization-intensive electives. Priced at $1,306 per credit, this 49-credit MBA features a total tuition cost of $63,994.

    With an official school motto reflecting their values for “Science, Industry, Art”, Drexel University was established in 1891 by Anthony J. Drexel who had a vision for a university that would provide a quality education in the “practical arts and sciences” to men and women of all backgrounds. First labeled the Drexel Institute of Art, Science and Industry, the school achieved its university status in 1907. Today Drexel University exists as a four-year private not-for-profit institution of higher education currently overseeing 24,232 students with a choice of associate, 70 undergraduate degrees, over 100 graduate, doctoral, and professional programs. Receiving its regional accreditation through the Middle States Commission on Higher Education, Drexel reports a 70% graduation rate.

    Estimated Program Tuition: $63,994

    #3 North Carolina State University Poole College of Management – Raleigh, North Carolina


    The Poole College of Management at North Carolina State University offers an online Master’s of Business Administration. While all students may submit a GMAT-GRE Waiver Request Form during the application process, students with a J.D, Ph.D., Pharm. D., or M.D. are automatically exempt from providing GMAT or GRE results.

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    A Professional Online Master’s of Business Administration with a choice of a Depth Area in BioSciences Management, Financial Management, Innovation Management, Marketing Management, Supply Chain Management, or Entrepreneurship & Technology Commercialization is featured at the Poole College of Management at North Carolina State University. This 40-credit hour program is priced at $1,108 per credit hour for a total tuition fee of $44,320. An average early career salary of $65,000 has been reported by some students of the Poole College of Management reflecting a solid return on the investment of education. Students seeking an accelerated academic experience can complete all requirements for this degree in as few as 21 months or take as long as six years if a work schedule dictates it. While the majority of the coursework for this degree can be completed online, the business school does require its students to take part in just two on-campus residencies to experience face-to-face teaching, dynamic group projects, and networking benefits. Receiving its excellent business accreditation through the Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business, the Poole College of Management has recently been recognized by the Financial Times and U.S. News & World Report as offering the 18th best online MBA in the nation and the 9th best in the U.S. by the Princeton Review. Core courses for this degree include Economics & Managerial Accounting, Statistics & Marketing, Critical Thinking and Communications, Financial Accounting and Finance, Strategy, Statistics 2 & Operations/Supply Chain Management, and Analytics.

    Home of the Wolfpack, the 11 men’s varsity teams and 11 women’s varsity teams at North Carolina State University compete at the NCAA Division I level as members of the Atlantic Coast Conference. This four-year, urban, public university’s main athletic rivalry is the University of North Carolina Tar Heels. Overseeing a student body of 33,755, the university offers degrees at the associate, undergraduate, graduate, and doctoral levels. Reporting a solid graduation rate of 77%, NCSU receives its regional accreditation through the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools, Commission on Colleges.

    Estimated Program Tuition: $44,320

    #2 Northeastern University D’Amore-McKim School of Business – Boston, Massachusetts


    The D’Amore-McKim School of Business at Northeastern University features a highly esteemed online Master’s of Business Administration. Qualifying students with the proper academic and professional work experience may waive the GMAT/GRE requirement during the application process.

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    An online Master’s of Business Administration with a focus in Finance, Healthcare Management, High Technology Management, Innovation Entrepreneurship, International Management, Marketing, Supply Chain Management, or Sustainability is offered at Northeastern University’s D’Amore-McKim School of Business. This 50-credit hour program is priced at $1,560 per credit making the total cost of tuition $78,000. An average early career salary of $73,000 has been reported by some students of the D’Amore-McKim School of Business after graduation showing a healthy return on the investment of education. The business school has recently been recognized for offering the 17th best online MBA in the country by the Princeton Review, the 13th best in the U.S. by Financial Times, and the 42nd best program in the nation by U.S. News & World Report. Quacquarelli Symonds has awarded the D’Amore-McKim School of Business the 17th best online MBA program spot in the world. The 100% online MBA is divided between 13 core courses and five concentration-intensive electives. Core courses within this program include Finance, Healthcare Management, High Technology Management, Innovation Entrepreneurship, International Management, Marketing, Supply Chain Management, and Sustainability. The D’Amore-McKim School of Business receives its exemplary business accreditation through the Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business.

    Featuring a main campus in Boston, Massachusetts, Northeastern University is a four-year, private not-for-profit school which receives its regional accreditation through the New England Association of Schools and Colleges, Commission on Institutions of Higher Education. Originally founded as the Evening Institute for Younger Men in 1898, students first met in classrooms at the Huntington Avenue YMCA. The school became Northeastern College in 1916 after the passing of a bill in the Massachusetts Legislature. Offering degrees at the undergraduate, graduate, and doctoral levels, the current enrollment of NU is 20,381.

    Estimated Program Tuition: $78,000

    #1 University of Nebraska, Lincoln College of Business Administration – Lincoln, Nebraska


    The University of Nebraska-Lincoln’s College of Business Administration offers a top online Master’s of Business Administration. Qualifying students, including those who hold a Ph.D., JD, MD or Pharm D, or are currently enrolled in medical school, do not have to submit a GMAT or GRE score in order to be accepted into this prestigious program.

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    An online Master’s of Business Administration with concentration options in Business Analytics, Finance, International Business, Marketing, or Supply Chain Management is featured at the College of Business Administration at the University of Nebraska, Lincoln. This 48-credit hour program is priced at $600 per credit hour making the total cost of tuition $28,800. An average early career salary of $52,900 has been reported by some students upon graduating from the College of Business Administration showing a healthy return on the investment of education. Nine hours of this online MBA are offered as electives while 39 hours of core courses include Intro to Business Strategy, Financial Accounting, Managerial Finance, Managerial Economics, Managerial Marketing, Applied Organizational Behavior, Supply Chain Management, Human Resource Management, and Strategic Management and Business Policy. Interested applicants who hold a Ph.D., JD, MD or Pharm D, are currently enrolled in medical school, or who are taking coursework through the Nebraska College of Law, are not required to submit a GMAT or GRE score for acceptance into this program. As students with seven or more years of significant managerial, operational or decision-making experience and an acceptable undergraduate GPA are not required to submit a GMAT score, a reference must be submitted in order to validate work experience. Receiving its exemplary business accreditation through the AACSB, the College of Business Administration has recently been recognized as offering the 21st best online MBA in the nation by U.S. News & World Report, the 16th best by the Princeton Review, and the 40th best online MBA on the planet by Quacquarelli Symonds.

    Receiving its accreditation through the Higher Learning Commission, the University of Nebraska, Lincoln reports a graduation rate of 67% and currently offers degrees at the associate, undergraduate, graduate, and doctoral levels to the student body of 25,897. Home of the Cornhuskers, the 21 men’s and women’s varsity sports teams at Nebraska compete at the NCAA Division I level within the Big Ten Conference. Wearing the official school colors of scarlet and cream, the football team is one of the flagship athletic programs at the school which features three Heisman Trophy winners and five national championships, the earliest being in 1970 and the latest being won in 1997.

    Estimated Program Tuition: $28,800

    No-GMAT Online MBA Ranking Methodology

    A list of over 450 online MBA programs was obtained and then vetted based three factors:

    Accreditation: Accreditation should always plays a major part when researching prospective business degrees. Accreditation directly affects value and program brand recognition, which in turn affects the competitive advantage of each graduate in the job market. Every online MBA program included in this best value ranking is regionally accredited by one of the six accrediting agencies recognized by the US Department of Education. Each program was also evaluated on whether they hold an additional business accreditation from one of the top three business school accrediting institutions: IACBE, ACBSP, and AACSB-International.

    Estimated Tuition Cost: Each Online MBA program was evaluated based on their estimated total base tuition cost. This figure gives insight on accessibility, affordability, and possible return on investment. Each tuition figure was gathered from the most recent data given on each program or school website. This financial data was calculated for the entirety of the degree, but does not included fees, books, or room and board, with the exception of programs that only offer all-inclusive figures. In the event that a school offers a lower in-state tuition cost, the in-state pricing was used. The lowest online MBA tuition in this ranking is $10,680, the highest came in at $1114,078, with the average resting at $41,434.

    PayScale Early Career Salary: The salary data is highlighted because it provides insight on a possible financial ROI from a particular online MBA program. This data is collected from the 2016-17  PayScale College Salary Report . The early-career salary data reports the median salary for recent alumni, from each school’s master’s or MBA program, that have 0-5 years of experience. The highest early career salary reported in this ranking is $102,000, the lowest came in at $41,500, with the average resting at $62,832.

    Prestige: The prestige for each program was calculated by evaluating rankings from some of the most prestigious educational rankings systems for online MBA programs, and finding how many rankings included their program. The ranking systems researched are  US News and World Report’s Online MBA Ranking , the  Princeton Review’s Online MBA Ranking , the  Financial Times’ Global Online MBA Ranking , and  Quacquarelli Symonds’ Distance Online MBA Ranking .

    All of the data for each of the four factors was weighted equally and then averaged. This average score provided the ranking order for this list. By evaluating the accreditation, estimated tuition cost, early-career salary, and prestige, this ranking can help prospective students find the highest quality No-GMAT Online MBA program.

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    Online MBA Director Interviews

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    • An Interview with Kathy Farrell, Dean of the College of Business at the University of Nebraska, Lincoln
    • An Interview with Hasan Pirkul, Dean of the Naveen Jindal School of Business at the University of Texas at Dallas
    • An Interview with Raj Echambadi, the Dunton Family Dean of the D’Amore-McKim School of Business at Northeastern University
    • An Interview with Rosemary Hartigan and Ravi Mittal of the Graduate School of Business at the University of Maryland University College
    • An Interview with Jeff Tanner, Dean of the Strome College of Business at Old Dominion University
    • An Interview with Dr. Jun Zhao, Dean of the College of Business at Governors State University
    • An Interview with Dr. Gary Schirr, Director of the Online MBA Program at Radford University
    • An Interview with Jeffrey Brown, Dean and professor of Business for the Gies College of Business at the University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign
    • An Interview with Paul Russell, Director of Graduate Programs for the College of Business at East Carolina University
    • An Interview with Carly Broussard, Director of the MBA Program at Lamar University
    • An Interview with Elizabeth Rozell, Associate Dean and Director of the MBA Program for the College of Business at Missouri State University
    • Stacey Dorang Peeler, Managing Director of the Online MBA at Penn State University, Smeal College of Business
    • John Wells, Associate Dean at The University of Massachusetts Amherst, Isenberg School of Management
    • Erin Vincent, Indiana University-Bloomington
    • Jonathon Nichols, The University of Utah, David Eccles School of Business
    • An Interview with Michael Tarantino, Director of Recruitment  Admissions for Graduate Programs at Lehigh University

    Employer Interviews

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    Resource Articles

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    • Guide to the GMAT for Online MBA Students
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    • Guide to Online MBAs in Entrepreneurship
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    Ranking System Reviews

    • A Review of The Financial Times Online MBA Ranking
    • A Review of US News and World Report Online MBA Ranking
    • A Review of Bloomberg Businessweek 2015 MBA Rankings
    • A Review of Princeton Review’s 2015 Online MBA Ranking
    • A Review of Quacquarelli Symonds (QS) Distance MBA Ranking

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    William & Mary’s Online MBA program is unlike any other in the country. At the start of the program, students identify a “wicked problem” they will work to solve throughout the entirety of their studies. This issue is directly related to their real work or is a larger business issue that they are likely to encounter in the future. The program demands strategic analysis and creative efforts to find solutions, which are invaluable skills for business leadership careers today.

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    Obtaining an online MBA can provide a substantial return on investment. According to the 2016 Alumni Perspectives Survey Report by the Graduate Management Admission Council, graduate business school alumni earn an average of $2.5 million in cumulative base salary over 20 years after graduation.1 On average, alumni make back their financial investment in their degrees in less than four years after graduation.

    Studying for an MBA online at William & Mary provides the following advantages:

    • A sophisticated and intuitive learning platform which makes online study fun and simple
    • The potential to graduate in as few as 24 months
    • An available GMAT waiver, allowing students to enter the program without having to take a standardized test
    • Small class sizes, ensuring personalized attention from instructors and the ability to connect with classmates

    Classes are taught by a faculty comprised of prominent experts in the business world with extensive practical experience. A collaborative, guided learning experience that gives students the support and feedback they need to confront challenging topics, the Online MBA at William & Mary can position students to succeed in their studies and beyond.

    Contact William & Mary for More Information

    Whether you’re currently a working professional looking to earn more responsibility or a more fulfilling role, or you want to enter a business career with the knowledge and skills you need to succeed, the Online MBA program from William & Mary can give you the tools to achieve your goals. Schedule an appointment to talk with one of our Admissions Advisors to see how an Online MBA program can help you, or call us at 757-500-5532 for more information.


    1. Retrieved on January 3, 2018, from gmac.com/market-intelligence-and-research/research-library/measuring-program-roi/2016-alumni-perspectives-survey-report.aspx


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    Testing and calibrating the Altman Z-score for the UK

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    Stop Using the Altman-Z Score.

    Home / Posts / Research Insights / Factor Investing /Stop Using the Altman-Z Score.

    Stop Using the Altman-Z Score.

    By Wesley Gray, PhD |2017-08-28T07:28:20+00:00July 23rd, 2011| Factor Investing , Research Insights |

    Ed Altman is simply a legend.

    Everyone in finance is familiar with the Altman Z-Score and many analysts use it religiously–despite the fact there has been 50 years worth of research suggesting there are better methods. The Altman Z-Score kinda reminds me of the CAPM: the CAPM has been shown to not be very effective , and yet, everyone still uses it?

    Nonetheless, Prof. Altman single handily created an empire based on his original 1968 book/research on predicting corporate bankruptcy .

    Prof. Altman went ahead and outdid himself with his new ZETA score :

    The point of this post is to highlight some recent research that concocts a model that predicts better than the Altman-Z AND is relatively straight forward to implement (at least relative to the ZETA score, which is proprietary and involves a lot of leg work to reverse engineer).

    Before we begin, here are some recent models showing that Altman-Z is dead:

    • Shumway (2001)
      • Shows that half of the variables included in Altman-Z are no longer predictive of bankruptcy–ouch.
      • He also identifies a model that trumps the Altman-Z in out of sample tests–double ouch.
    • Chava and Jarrow (2004)
      • Verify with expanded data that Altman’s model sucks vs. Shumway’s model.
      • Determine that controlling for industry effects can significantly improve bankruptcy prediction models.

    What does this paper add to the party?

    The authors devise a model that ends up improving the forecast accuracy by 16% compared to Shumway and Chava and Jarrow’s models (which in turns mean it is way better than Altman-Z).

    Here is how they set up their prediction variables:

    • profitability measure=weighted average (quarter’s Net income/MTA)(1)
      • MTA=Market value of total assets=book value of liabilities +market cap.
    • leverage measure=Total liabilities/MTA
    • short-term liquidity=cash & equivalents/MTA
    • Recent relative performance=weighted average(log(1+stock’s return)-log(1+S&P 500 return)
    • Recent volatility=annualized stock’s standard deviation over the previous 3 months
    • Relative size=log(stock market cap / S&P 500 total market value)
    • Overvaluation factor=MTA/adjusted book value, where adjusted book value=book value+.1*(market cap-book value)
    • Stock price level=Log(recent stock price), capped at $15, so a firm with a stock price of $20, would be given a value of log(15) instead of log(20).
    Here is the “explanation” from the text:

    What the authors meant to say is that their weighted average is simply calculated as follows:
    .5333* t+.2666*t-1+.1333*t-2+.0666*t-3.

    Here is a table comparing the stats on the various measures above for the universe of firms and for firms that have failed:

    The results are hypothetical results and are NOT an indicator of future results and do NOT represent returns that any investor actually attained. Indexes are unmanaged, do not reflect management or trading fees, and one cannot invest directly in an index. Additional information regarding the construction of these results is available upon request.

    It certainly seems that the variables are capturing something regarding failed firms!

    So how do we go about predicting bankruptcy/failure? Behold the magical distress formula:

    After running some logistic regressions the authors determine that their model beats the best alternatives out there over a variety of time periods:

    The results are hypothetical results and are NOT an indicator of future results and do NOT represent returns that any investor actually attained. Indexes are unmanaged, do not reflect management or trading fees, and one cannot invest directly in an index. Additional information regarding the construction of these results is available upon request.

    The results are hypothetical results and are NOT an indicator of future results and do NOT represent returns that any investor actually attained. Indexes are unmanaged, do not reflect management or trading fees, and one cannot invest directly in an index. Additional information regarding the construction of these results is available upon request.

    Here are the results from the logistic regression:

    If you forgot to get a PhD in some quantitative field and you are not sure how to use these regression results, here is a quick background on logistic regression s:

    • Calculate the following:
      • Logit=-8.87-.09*PRICE+MB*.07-.005*RSIZE+1.55*SIGMA-7.88*EXRETAVG-2.27*CASHMTA+1.6*TLMTA-20.12*NIMTAAVG
      • P=probability of failure=1/(1+exp-(logit))

    Once you have calculated your P’s you are ready to predict which firms are likely to go bankrupt. So how might one use this information? Well, if you could predict which firms are going bankrupt–assuming the market hasn’t already priced in a bankruptcy–you might be able to make some money. Let’s see.

    Here are results of sorting portfolios based on “P”  every January and holding stocks for one year.

    The results are hypothetical results and are NOT an indicator of future results and do NOT represent returns that any investor actually attained. Indexes are unmanaged, do not reflect management or trading fees, and one cannot invest directly in an index. Additional information regarding the construction of these results is available upon request.

    Pretty wild, eh? Stocks with low probabilities of failure do well, but from a statistical standpoint, it is hard to say if there is any alpha. However, check out the high probability of default firms–wow–negative alphas galore!

    We’re getting closer to affording our gold-plated Mercedes!

    Investment Strategy

    Strategy 1:

    1. Stop using Altman-Z to predict bankruptcy

    Strategy 2:

    1. Calculate logits using the estimates from table 2
    2. Calculate the probability (P from above) of bankruptcy using the logit figures calculated in 1.
    3. Go long low P firms, and WAY short high P firms.
    4. Make money.

    To juice up strategy 2:

    1. Focus on distressed firms in the extreme growth and value categories (see below)

    The results are hypothetical results and are NOT an indicator of future results and do NOT represent returns that any investor actually attained. Indexes are unmanaged, do not reflect management or trading fees, and one cannot invest directly in an index. Additional information regarding the construction of these results is available upon request.

    Commentary:

    I’ve been playing with the ‘financial quality’ variables for one of our in-house ‘value factor’ models recently (every quant shop has to have one, right?). I’ll admit it, we were using Altman-Z as a component of that variable, but after doing some research I’m sh&$canning Altman-Z and going test this model out instead. No disrespect to Prof. Altman, but when the evidence shows something works better, why not use it?


    Predicting Financial Distress and the Performance of Distressed Stocks

    • John Y. Campbell, Jens Hilscher, and Jan Szilagyi
    • A version of the paper can be found here . ( Here is the Journal of Finance version)

    Abstract

    In this paper we consider the measurement and pricing of distress risk. We present a model of corporate failure in which accounting and market-based measures forecast the likelihood of future financial distress. Our best model is more accurate than leading alternative measures of corporate failure risk. We then use our measure of financial distress to examine the performance of distressed stocks from 1981 to 2008.We find that distressed stocks have highly variable returns and high market betas and that they tend to underperform safe stocks by more at times of high market volatility and risk aversion. However, investors in distressed stocks have not been rewarded for bearing these risks. Instead, distressed stocks have had very low returns, both relative to the market and after adjusting for their high risk. The underperformance of distressed stocks is present in all size and value quintiles. It is lower for stocks with low analyst coverage and institutional holdings, which suggests that information or arbitrage-related frictions may be partly responsible for the underperformance of distressed stocks.

    Data Sources

    The study covers the 1963-2008 time period. Data come from Compustat and CRSP. Data on failures come from Kamakura Risk Information Services .


    • The views and opinions expressed herein are those of the author and do not necessarily reflect the views of Alpha Architect, its affiliates or its employees. Our full disclosures are available here. Definitions of common statistics used in our analysis are available here (towards the bottom).
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    1.weighted average is represented by some silly a&* equation meant to create confusion for the layman.

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    About the Author: Wesley Gray, PhD

    Wesley Gray, PhD
    Wes Gray has published multiple academic papers and four books, including Quantitative Value (Wiley, 2012), DIY Financial Advisor (Wiley, 2015), and Quantitative Momentum (Wiley, 2016).After serving as a Captain in the United States Marine Corps, Dr. Gray earned an MBA and a PhD in finance from the University of Chicago where he studied under Nobel Prize Winner Eugene Fama. Next, Wes took an academic job in his wife’s hometown of Philadelphia and worked as a finance professor at Drexel University. Dr. Gray’s interest in bridging the research gap between academia and industry led him to found Alpha Architect, an asset management firm that delivers affordable active exposures for tax-sensitive investors. He is a contributor to multiple industry publications and regularly speaks to professional investor groups across the country. Wes currently resides in the suburbs of Philadelphia with his wife and three children.

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    Creative

    Specsavers Delivers an Unwanted Arctic Surprise in Hilarious New Ad

    lbbonline.com, 1 year ago


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    Chris Denton and Graham Daldry co-direct new spot from Specsavers’ in-house creative team

    Specsavers Delivers an Unwanted Arctic Surprise in Hilarious New Ad

    Specsavers has applied its much-loved ‘Should’ve Gone to Specsavers’ strapline to the promotion of its free hearing tests in a new TV commercial that breaks during ITV’s X-Factor on Sunday 3rd September. 

    The new ad sees a scientist at a remote research facility in the Arctic awaiting delivery of urgent ‘supplies’. But instead, his HQ sends him a funny ‘surprise’ by mistake – somebody should’ve gone to Specsavers for a hearing test.

    “We want customers to understand that we apply the same values to hearing as to eyecare,” says Specsavers’ Creative Director, Graham Daldry. “That means making services that can often be expensive elsewhere, more accessible and affordable without sacrificing product or service quality. By applying our famous ‘Should’ve’ strapline to our audiology business, the Arctic ad creates an opportunity to extend Specsavers’ brand values. The beauty of the ‘Should’ve Gone to Specsavers’ strapline is that it can be applied anywhere… even to the Arctic!”

    Jointly directed by Mr Daldry and Specsavers’ Head of TV Services Chris Denton, the commercial was produced by Specsavers’ in-house creative team.


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    Creative Agency

    Creative Agency:

    Specsavers Creative

    Creative Director:

    Graham Daldry

    Creatives:

    Neil Brush, Simon Bougourd

    Production Company

    Production Company:

    Specsavers Creative

    Director:

    Chris Denton, Graham Daldry

    Producer:

    Kristin Rathje, Louise Fletcher

    Category:


    Beauty/health
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    Eyecare

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    Comedy

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    The ostrich is the largest bird in the world. Even though it has wings, it can’t fly, but it makes up for the lack of flight by running very fast. The ostrich is found in nature in Africa , but it is farmed all over the world for its meat.

    Ostrich pair

    What does the ostrich look like?



    The ostrich is a unique looking animal. It has long skinny legs, a big body with small wings, a long neck, and a dangerous long beak. The ostrich usually weighs between 200 and 300 pounds and can grow to 9 feet tall. Its large body is covered with feathers. The males have black feathers with some white on the underside and tail. The females are usually grey in color. An ostrich’s eyes can be nearly 2 inches in diameter giving them the largest eyes of any land animal.



    How fast do they run?



    The ostrich is famous for its speed on the ground. Its powerful legs enable it to reach speeds of 40 miles per hour! Ostriches can also use their strong legs to kick a predator. It can easily kick hard enough to kill a human or even a lion. However, in most cases the ostrich will just use its speed to outrun any threat.



    If they can’t fly, why do they have wings?



    The wings of an ostrich aren’t used for flying, but they aren’t completely useless either. They help a lot with balance when the ostrich is running at full speed and needs to change directions. They are also used for courtship between a boy and girl ostrich.


    What do they eat and do?



    Ostriches live off of whatever they can find to eat. This includes plants, insects, and small animals like lizards. They often live in herds with other ostriches. A typical herd will have around ten birds, but some herds have been known to be as large as 100 birds. These herds help them stay safe as well. Each herd has one big nest where all the eggs are laid. This way the entire herd can help to protect the eggs. Ostrich eggs are the biggest eggs of any animal at an average of 3 pounds.



    Why do they put their heads in the ground?



    Ostriches don’t actually put their head in the ground like so many cartoons like to show. What they really do is lie down and put their head and neck flat on the ground to hide. From a distance all you can see is their body, so it appears as if they have put their head in a hole in the ground.



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    Short Essay on ‘My Favourite Bird’ (100 Words)

    Wednesday, December 25, 2013

    My favourite bird is the parrot. The parrot is a very beautiful bird. Its feathers are green. It has a red beak. Its beak is curved. Round the neck of a parrot there are black rings. Overall it is a lovely looking bird. It eats grains, fruits, leaves seeds, pears, nuts, mangoes and boiled rice etc.

    The Parrot is a talking bird. It can imitate the human voice. It is found in almost all the warm countries. It generally lives in the hollows of trees. Some people keep it in a small cage which is not good. Some people train parrots to do wonderful things. 

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    Ancient Greek / The Greek Civilization term paper 9493

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     Ancient World History: Lesson Plans & Resources

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    Ancient Greece Project IdeasNext Lesson 

    Ancient Greece Essay Topics

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    It can be so exciting and educational to study Ancient Greece with students. This lesson gives you some ideas for essay topics that will help your students consolidate their learning.

    Ancient Greece

    If you are studying Ancient Greece with your students, you probably already understand the richness of the curriculum. Learning about Ancient Greece gives you the opportunity to explore the history of government and politics, religion and spirituality, philosophy, and economics, among other major topics. Because a study of Ancient Greece has the potential to become truly interdisciplinary in nature, or incorporating knowledge from a variety of different disciplines, you will want to give your students plenty of chances to consolidate their understanding and synthesize what they have learned.

    Essay Topics

    A strong essay topic can offer this opportunity. Essays may require students to do additional research on topics of interest. They will also ask students to synthesize information and ideas from a variety of sources and perspectives in order to develop a coherent thesis and writing structure. The essay topics in this lesson can be modified to meet the needs of particular age levels and students’ interests, but they offer starting points for students working with Ancient Greece.

    The Roots of Democracy

    Many scholars consider Ancient Greece to be the birthplace of democracy. Determine whether you agree or disagree with this statement and why. Explain what democracy was in ancient Greece and how it was similar to or different from visions of democracy commonly held today.

    Power and Responsibility

    Describe the political system of Ancient Greece with a particular focus on who held what kind of power and why, and who held what sorts of responsibilities and why. Take a stand on this structure, explaining its utility, advantages and disadvantages.

    Sparta and Athens

    Compare the structure, culture and ethos of Sparta and Athens as different city-states. Explain what each city-state deemed valuable and how each of them maintained a particular identity. Make sure to include an explanation of what a city-state is and why they mattered so much in Ancient Greece.

    The Significance of Story

    Describe the significance of mythology to life in Ancient Greece. Why did the Greeks develop so many myths, and what role did these myths play in their society?

    Zero in on a Myth

    Choose one myth from the Greek canon that is especially meaningful to you. Describe the myth in detail and explain what lesson the myth attempts to teach or what phenomenon it accounts for. Determine whether or not you agree with the themes or lessons in the myth, and be specific about why or why not.

    Tragic Flaws

    Discuss the theme of tragic flaws in Greek mythologies. What did the Greeks consider to be a tragic flaw, and how did they make this known? Do you agree that these are tragic personality characteristics?

    Formative Philosophers

    Ancient Greece was known for its formative philosophies; the works of Plato and Aristotle are still cited often today, and many people draw from the philosophies of Sophocles, Diogenes and others. Choose one Greek philosopher to focus on. Research and describe this person’s life and thought. Choose a few major ideas or themes to elaborate on, and explain the ways these philosophies have informed subsequent works across the disciplines.

    Lives of Women

    What was life like for women in Ancient Greece? What artifacts and documents can we use to learn about the lives of women? Describe your vision of what it was like to be female in this time, and how the lives of girls and women differed from those of boys and men.

    Education

    Describe the way education worked in Ancient Greece, focusing on the Socratic method and researching the lives of children as well as adults. What is your opinion on the Ancient Greek approach to educating people? How is this approach similar to and different from contemporary visions of education that you are more familiar with?

    Other Ancient Civilizations

    Compare and contrast Ancient Greece with at least one other ancient civilization that you know about. Describe similarities and differences in government, lifestyle, religion, and philosophy. Try to understand why these similarities and differences might have existed and how they impacted the lifespan of the civilizations.

    Mathematics or Science

    The Greeks made many important mathematical and scientific discoveries. Choose 3-5 of these discoveries to research and write about in detail. Describe how the Greeks were able to learn what they did, and how these explorations informed later scientific work.


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    Ancient World History: Lesson Plans & Resources

    11 chapters |
    258 lessons

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    Ch 1. Historical Concepts Games & Lesson…

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      Historical Concepts Games & Lesson Plans

    Ch 2. Prehistory & Early Civilizations…

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      Prehistory & Early Civilizations Lesson Plans

    Ch 3. Mesopotamia Lesson Plans &…

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      Mesopotamia Lesson Plans & Resources

    Ch 4. Ancient Forms of Writing & Art…

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      Ancient Forms of Writing & Art Lesson Plans

    Ch 5. Early Civilizations of the Americas…

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      Early Civilizations of the Americas Lesson Plans

    Ch 6. Ancient Chinese History Lesson…

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      Ancient Chinese History Lesson Plans

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    Ch 8. Teaching Ancient Greek History

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    • Legacy of Ancient Greece: Art, Government, Science & Sports

      6:53

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      12:49

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      6:48

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      6:39

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    The Ancient Greek Architecture History Essay

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    The civilization of Ancient Greece was one that spanned many years, and in this time, many the Greeks excelled various fields, such as art, entertainment, music, government, economy, leadership, science, mathematics, astronomy, and more.  One particular application of science and mathematics is the ancient Greeks’ stunning and advanced architecture and engineering.  The ancient Greeks developed and innovated for hundreds of years; from the 8th century BCE until around 600 CE, this empire flourished in so many aspects has influenced a significant portion of our culture today.  Everywhere in one’s life can he see Greek influence on modern day, especially in architecture.

              The ancient Greeks were known for their many styles of architecture, from three different orders, ranging in complexity. Their most famous innovation was the column, as they did not invent it, but used it the most efficiently for their time.  Doric order was the first style of the three, and the simplest, with no extra design except for the grooves, called fluting, and the arrises, which are the sharp edges at which fluting meets.  Early Doric columns do not have bases, but at the top, there is a circular ring, the echinus, that leads to the abacus, the square top piece.  Often times, the echinus will have three horizontal grooves, called the hypotrachelion.  Ionic order was the next style, and possibly the more used of the three in modern day architecture.  Similar to Doric columns from bottom to middle, the only difference until the top of the Ionic column is the fillets, which are flatter arrises.  At the top, the echinus has carved designs, and there are scrolls, with spiral volutes.  Government buildings, such as the White House, and upscale banks, including the National Bank of Oamaru, in New Zealand, feature Ionic columns.  The last, and fanciest of the three orders, is the Corinthian order, with small scroll-shaped tendrils and carefully carved acanthus leaves; acantho- is a Latin prefix which means thorny. 

              Structural design was not the only goal of ancient Greek structures, as friezes, located on pediments, are purely decorative.  Pediments are flat, triangular spaces at the top of a building, supported by columns; it is situated between the roof and top of the square or rectangular shaped wall.  The friezes are designs, many of them, sculptures, which are found within the pediment.  Ancient Greek frieze schemes often depict mythology, including animals, gods, goddesses, and events.  Stoae are long, paved walkways in ancient Greece to promote a safe environment.  They are supported by columns, mainly those of Doric order, and reflect symmetry in their aligning.        

              The purpose of ancient Greek structures reflected their culture, which were heavily influenced by their religion and entertainment.  The most commonly found building is the temple, as ancient Greeks were polytheistic and prayed to a plethora of gods and goddesses.  The Parthenon in Athens in the most famous temple in Greece, and it displays the perfect example of classic Greek architectural elements, including geometry, columns, friezes, and pediments.  The architects Ictinos and Callicrates began their work on it in 447 BCE.  Construction for the Parthenon was finished in 438 BCE, and it was dedicated to the goddess of "wisdom, courage, inspiration, civilization, law and justice, just warfare, mathematics, strength, strategy, the arts, crafts, and skill," Athena.  It features perfect symmetry, with a rectangular base with evenly spaced columns for support.  The east pediment describes the birth of Athena, where, according to Greek Mythology, her father, Zeus, had an awful headache, and he ordered another god to strike his head.  Zeus’s head split open, and Athena appeared, dressed in full armor; this is where the term "splitting headache" came from.  The west pediment shows Athena and Poseidon in their rivalry to becoming the city’s patron (obviously, Athena won, and the city was named after her). 

              Most temples were smaller, ranging from thirty to one-hundred feet long, and rectangular in shape.  One design, called tholos, was round, but other examples, including anta, prostyle, and pseudodipteral, were quadrilaterals.  The Parthenon is an exception, although polygonal, it is 235 feet long by 109 feet wide, which is longer than the average Greek temple.  The base of the structure rests upon the top step of a stylobate (similar to a short staircase or stoop).  The inside of the temple consisted of two rooms:  a windowless, small area that contained a statue of the god or goddess to whom it was dedicated, and the other was sunlit.

              Especially in ancient Athens, entertainment and the arts played a significant role in daily life.  Therefore, buildings were constructed to satisfy these needs.  One popular type of structure was the open-air theater, which are huge, outdoor amphitheaters with a stage in the middle of the circle.  The stage was of significant size to fit the many performers, and the theaters could seat up to fourteen thousand viewers.  Athens was known for its satyrs, tragedies, and comedies. 

              The ancient Greeks developed a governmental system known as a direct democracy, where the people vote on all matters.  It started off as an experiment in Athens in 550 BCE, and grew to make Athens one of the most powerful and stable societies of the time.  In modern-day America, we have a form of direct democracy, but it is not direct, as we vote for the leaders who vote on bills.  Because we adapted our government model from that of the Greeks, many of our administrative buildings are of Greek styled architecture.  Our own city hall in New Rochelle is supported by large ionic columns and the roof is held up by a pediment.  The capital city of Washington DC contains buildings that are of many styles, ancient and modern alike, and some ancient styles include those from the Egyptians, Romans, and of course, Greeks.  From 2006 to 2007, the American Institute of Architects (AIA) conducted a study to list the 150 favorite buildings in America.  Of the top ten, four were of Neoclassical or Greek Revival styles, and they were located in the District of Columbia.  Neoclassical refers to a style influenced by ancient Greek and Roman architecture.  Number two on the list is the White House, which has a porch supported by the Roman adaptation of Ionic columns and a pediment.  It is relatively simple in design, rectangular and perfectly symmetric.  The fourth favorite on the list is the Jefferson Memorial, which is more Roman than Greek, but Roman architecture had a significant influence by the Greeks.  This memorial is circular, and has a dome for a roof, which is not Greek, but the columns, pediment, and frieze are.  Numbers six and seven are the Capitol Building and Lincoln Memorial, respectively, and the Lincoln Memorial in particular is a Greek Revival styled building, looking similar to a Greek temple of Doric order. 

              The Romans based their architecture off that of the ancient Greeks because when the Greek Empire fell, many immigrated to Rome, and diffused their culture into Rome.  Roman columns are similar to the Greeks’ in structure; they added bases to Doric columns but mainly used the fancier Corinthian columns.  Temples were different in structure, but the Romans used pediments and adopted the Greek word "basilica," meaning royal; Roman theaters were also modified Greek theaters.  While the Greeks are most famous for their column, the Romans are known for their use of the arch.

              Ancient Greek civilization was one of the most advanced societies in history.  They flourished in countless areas, including art, music, government, economics, and architecture.  Today, so much of our architecture is modeled after the Greeks, from government buildings to houses.  Their use of the column is one of the greatest structural achievements of the ancient world, and it is still very widely used.  Pediments, friezes, geometry, symmetry, and columns are some of the elements commonly found in Greek architecture, and examples of buildings would be temples and stoae.  Religion had a significant influence on the development and purpose of the architecture; the most famous Greek building being the Parthenon, an ancient temple.  The ancient Greeks’ architecture contains some of the most useful and aesthetically pleasing elements, and many are still used today.          


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    I have gone through the Ph.D- theses entitled …

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    Thesis Evaluation

    Thesis Submission

    The thesis submitted by a candidate for the PhD degree must comply with the following conditions:

    1. It must form a distinct contribution to knowledge and afford evidence of originality either by the discovery of
      new facts or by the exercise of independent critical judgment duly certified by the concerned supervisor. It must
      not include research work for which a degree has been already conferred.
    2. It must be written in English language and the writing quality of the dissertation must be at par with the
      standards of publications in a peer-reviewed ISI indexed journal in the field of research.
    3. For any part of the thesis, which has been published before the submission of the thesis, a list of published
      work should be appended at the end of the thesis.
    4. The thesis must meet the similarity index requirements as per HEC policy.
    5. The thesis must be formatted and bound in accordance with the specifications mentioned in the most recent version
      of Thesis Guidelines .
    6. Upon completion of all PhD study / research requirements, the candidate shall submit to Dean (Research), through
      the HoD, four soft-bound copies and one soft copy (pdf format) of the thesis on a CD along with an application
      form duly approved by her / his PhD Supervisor / co-supervisor for the evaluation of his / her thesis.

    Thesis Evaluation

    1. The Rector shall appoint a panel of external reviewers on the recommendations of the
      Head of Department and supervisor from the comprehensive list of reviewers approved
      by CGSR. This panel will include three external reviewers, preferably from
      technologically / academically advanced countries.
    2. Controller of Examinations will send the thesis to the approved reviewers with the
      request of thesis evaluation within a period of six weeks after sending the thesis to the
      reviewers. A copy of the letter shall also be forwarded to Dean Research, relevant
      Department Head / Director of the affiliated institute.
    3. Controller of Examinations will receive the evaluation reports and forward it to Dean
      Research for further processing. A copy of the evaluation reports shall also be sent to
      the relevant Department Heads / Director of the institute.
    4. The relevant Department Head / Director of the institute shall also keep track of the
      report received. In case of a delay of more than six weeks, the Department Head /
      Director of the institute, under intimation to Dean Research, shall initiate a request to
      the Controller of Examinations (PIEAS) for a reminder of the evaluations.
    5. After a thesis has been sent to a reviewer, any query / request with the reviewers
      regarding the thesis evaluations shall be communicated through the Controller of
      Examinations (PIEAS) only.
    6. In case, an external reviewer does not respond within 3 months, and two satisfactory
      reports have been received, the student will be allowed to defend her / his thesis in
      front of the panel of thesis examiners.
    7. In case two or more evaluation reports are not received within a period of three
      months, the procedure from claus 6-b(i) will be repeated for appointing new
      reviewer(s).
    8. Each reviewer in the panel will assign one of the three categories to the thesis given
      below. The reviewer will also be required to provide a detailed evaluation and critique
      of the thesis on the prescribed pro forma.

      • Satisfactory (S): The thesis meets the degree requirements in scope, contribution to
        knowledge and research methodology. Some minor improvements in one or more
        of the following may also be suggested: presentation and analysis of results,
        layout and quality of writing.
      • Major Revision required (M): The research problem considered in the thesis satisfies
        the requirements of a PhD degree but the thesis requires major changes in one or
        more of the following: scope, contribution to knowledge and research
        methodology. A re-evaluation of the thesis would be required in this case.
      • Unsatisfactory (U): The thesis does not satisfy the expectations and requirements for
        a PhD degree.
    9. The following table describes the action in response to thesis evaluation reports:
      Only two reports have been received
      EvaluationAction
      SS Schedule the PhD Defence if the third report is not received within three months, otherwise proceed
      to get the third report as per defined procedure.
      UU Failure in obtaining the PhD degree.
      SM, SU, MM, MU Proceed to get the third report as per defined procedure.
      Three reports have been received
      EvaluationAction
      SSS Schedule the PhD Defence.
      SSM, SSU Revise the thesis. Thesis review by a Re-evaluation Committee (see sub clause ).
      SMM, SMU,MMU, MMM Revise the thesis. Re-evaluation of the thesis by the external reviewers. Two or more Satisfactory
      reports of the re-evaluations are required in order to continue the PhD studies,otherwise failure in
      obtaining the PhD degree.
      SUU, MUU, UUU Failure in obtaining the PhD degree
    10. In case of thesis major revision, the candidate will be required to resubmit a revised
      thesis within one year. In case of thesis re-evaluation by the external reviewers, the
      student has to pay the thesis evaluation fee again.
    11. A three-member thesis Re-evaluation Committee to review a thesis, if required, shall
      be constituted by Dean Research in consultation with the relevant HoD.
    12. Any minor modifications / revisions shall be incorporated without referring again to the
      external reviewers, and supervisor shall make sure that appropriate changes have
      been done in the thesis by the student before scheduling the final defence. The student
      will prepare and submit a point by point summary of the changes incorporated in the
      thesis.
    13. In case, an external reviewer does not respond within 3 months, and two satisfactory
      reports have been received, the student will be allowed to defend her / his work in front
      of the panel of thesis examiners for final open defence.
    14. In case two or more evaluation reports are not received within a period of three
      months, the procedure from step ‘6-b(i)’ will be repeated for appointing new
      reviewer(s).

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