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Traffic Jam In Delhi Essay Writing

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    Road Safety  Education About Road Safety

    Road Safety

    In today’s world road and transport has become an integral part of every human being. Every body is a road user in one shape or the other. The present transport system has minimized the distances but it has on the other hand increased the life risk. Every year road crashes result in loss of lakhs of lives and serious injuries to crores of people.

    In India itself about eighty thousand people are killed in road crashes every year which is thirteen percent of the total fatality all over the world. Man behind the wheel plays an important role in most of the crashes. In most of the cases crashes occurs either due to carelessness or due to lack of road safety awarenessof the road user.Hence, road safety education is as essential as any other basic skills of survival.

    It is an established fact that safe and efficient use of the traffic environment is a learned behaviour. All road users are the products of some form of education or training, however informal or intermittent. The importance of a formal training in road safety has been underestimated in the past because of the mistaken belief that the lessons to be learned are simple and the tasks to be performed rudimentary.

    Delhi Traffic Police established a Road Safety Cell in 1972 to generate awareness among road user. It is an educational wing of the Delhi Traffic Police and its main function is to educate the road users as regards the proper and safe use of roads as well as to develop the human resources who are responsive to public and are technically competent. The training programme is meant to encompass the whole range of road using citizens, from a common pedestrian to a vehicle driver.

    rrrrrr

    Target Groups

    • Drivers of Commercial Vehicles including Blue Line Bus, Trucks etc.
    • School Children
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    Educational Programmes

    • Regular programmes for the entire target groups including school children.
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    Mode of Education

    Various tools have been adopted to impart road safety education to various categories of road users

    • Lectures
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    • Distribution of Road Safety Literature
    • On the spot help to the road users like OPD Patients, pedestrians, cyclist etc.
    • Fixing of Reflective tapes on cycles
    • Organising Road Safety Awareness programmes in Association with NGO’s
    • Road Safety Awareness involving RWAs Transport unions and Trade unions
    • Education through PA System
    Untitled-4

    Other Activities

    • Health Check-up Camps for Delhi Police Drivers
    • Designing of Road Safety Literature.
    • Display of Annual Road Safety Exhibition at Pragati Maidan during I.I.T.F
    • Organising exhibitions on special occasions like Diwali Mela, Perfect Health Mela.


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    You Wouldn’t Like To Attend This Social Gathering- Traffic Jams In Delhi

    Posted on October 24, 2011

    By Diksha Langthasa :

    Everyone who has lived in Delhi for even a day has been bitten by the traffic jam bug. Everyone’s experienced it and everyone at one point or another has reached their destinations late by virtue of the traffic jams. And who can forget the times when someone went bonkers and just honked to make you move your vehicle when there was absolutely no possibility. Traffic Jams may be the most frequent social gathering after birthday parties and weddings.

     This gathering is no exclusive event at one particular place. The most congested roads Delhi lead to commercial areas like CP, Karol Bagh and Chandni Chowk. While in CP it is caused by the overwhelming magnitude of vehicles, in the latter two it is the narrow roads encroachment of road space by street vendors. The solutions that come to your mind would be regulating flow of vehicles where the magnitude is causing the problem and banning street vendors from their own business to prevent encroachment. However, the glitch in these solutions is that both interfere with people’s means of livelihood.

     Also at a particular time in the year, as Kaveri of SRCC says, almost everyone gets to be a part. That is when it pours cats, dogs and the whole animal kingdom. Roads get clogged with water, one has to move at a snail’s pace and usually either reach their destinations very late or fail to reach at all. It is unfortunate for city dwellers to face this as everyone has responsibilities to handle and deadlines to meet. And such traffic jams just send their day haywire. Where has this been most visible in Delhi? -On the way to the T3 terminal in IGI; Lodhi Road; and, all over Delhi!

     Another reason would be when protestors take to streets and may also resort to violent practices like torching empty vehicles. The protestors may feel that their cause is more important than anything else and fail to see that people will participate when they support them. The protests that obstructed the flow of traffic include those by Gujjars (Mathura Road, Noida Mor) and Anna Hazare’s fast (Pragati Maidan, North Campus). It is important that they keep in mind that people often have different priorities.

     And another way we contribute to this phenomenon – well, it is quite known that jay walking though made illegal is still prevalent. Who would take the pains of walking up till the zebra crossing to cross a road when we can do it from anywhere on the road. It is enough for a single jaywalker crossing from the middle of the road and causing vehicles to slow down or stop to let you cross the road to cause congestion during the peak hour. Yet, in our hurriedness, we forget what our actions may cause.

     Another reason –

    Today, the bigger the weddings, the better they are. And that is when jubilant baraatis descend on already crowded streets to celebrate a sacred union. Often during the wedding season(November — January) there are traffic jams in roads in our localities about which all we can do is complain. Why? What about our own baraatis?

     Why is it Important to tackle Traffic Jams:

     Traffic jams, as everyone may agree, cause immense wastage of our time. This time, which cannot be regained, that is, a sunk cost, could have been used to do something more valuable than wait in long lines of vehicles just to get to the other side of the road. This may lead to various consequences like missing a flight or train or emergency reaching their destinations late.

     An ecological consequence is the wastage of fossil fuel while people wait for short periods when it becomes cumbersome to turn the ignition off and on again and again. Also, the amount of emissions due to the longer hours of travel does nothing for the Earth’s or our benefit.

     Saloni Gupta of Khalsa College adds that traffic jams also supplements to enraging commuters leading to so many incidents of road rage. It is not difficult to imagine what part of traffic jams makes people angrier.

     Angad Arora, an auto enthusiast, also said that the durability of tyres are effected due to repeated braking and accelerating of vehicles during jams.

     I think enough reasons have been given to highlight the difficulties caused by traffic jams in our city.

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    Knowledge is power essays

    mba

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    LABORATÓRIO CENTRAL DO MINISTÉRIO DA AGRICULTURA

    labcentral

    O Laboratório Central é a estrutura da Direcção Nacional de Agricultura e Pecuária, encarregue do Controlo da Qualidade dos Alimentos, Águas e Solos, através de análises Físico-químicas e Microbiológicas.

    Funciona nas instalações situadas no Município do Cazenga em Luanda, inauguradas a 14 de Maio de 2012, por sua Excelência Ministro da Agricultura, Engº. Afonso Pedro Canga.

    Suas principais atribuições constam do artigo 16.º do Decreto Executivo n.º 179/13 de 30 de Maio.

    VALORES

     

    A chave para o sucesso são os valores que orientam diariamente o trabalho e o comportamento dos funcionários para com os clientes.

     

    • Obter a confiança dos clientes, demonstrando a todo o momento uma política de trabalho transparente, de responsabilidade, competência, ética e rigor.
    • Actuar diariamente segundo um sentido proactivo. Melhorar incessantemente os serviços, e para isso compromete-se com os clientes, encorajar, valorizar e ministrar formação contínua a toda a equipa de colaboradores.
    • Estar comprometidos com a sociedade mediante projectos sociais que visam melhorar a qualidade de vida em geral daqueles que nos rodeiam.>

     

    Missão

    • Auxiliar a verificação e Validar os sistemas de produção e processamento agrário através de inferências analíticas – Vigilância, Certificação e Autenticação.
    • Prestar um serviço de qualidade, de forma a garantir que todos os clientes recebam em tempo útil, um resultado certificado, de confiança e acreditado;
    • Mediante as análises, primar por uma prevenção e por uma saúde alimentar de qualidade, Certificar a qualidade de alimentos, águas e solos, para dar uma melhor resposta à população, no que diz respeito à qualidade dos alimentos que têm á mesa diariamente.

     

    Visão

    • Ser uma referência a nível Nacional, no que respeita a Segurança Alimentar, realizando análises de alimentos, águas e solos assim como certificando a importação e exportação de productos de Angola.
    • O Laboratório Central do MINAGRI, alia a competência e a experiência em todas as operações, com o objectivo de prestar um serviço de qualidade certificado pelo Ministério da Agricultura de Angola.

    Competências

    De acordo com o Decreto Executivo nº. 179/13, de 30 de Maio e o Decreto Presidencial nº 100/14, de 19 de Maio, o Laboratório Central é a estrutura da Direcção Nacional da Agricultura e Pecuária, encarregue de assegurar a análise, o controlo de qualidade e a salubridade de produtos alimentares, agrícolas e pecuários de produção nacional e importados.

    Consulte aqui as competências atribuídas ao Laboratório Central do MINAGRI.

    Decreto Presidencial nº 100-14 de 9 de Maio Decreto Executivo nº 396-14 de 11 de Dezembro

    NOTÍCIAS:
    • O Ministro da Agricultura, Desenvolvimento Rural e Pescas, Afonso Pedro Canga, inaugurou ontem, em Luanda,

    • Um “exército” treinado para impedir que produtos alimentares impróprios para o consumo vão parar à

    • O sector agro-alimentar do país tem merecido alguma atenção nos programas do Executivo, razão pela

    • O Laboratório Central do MINAGRI trabalha diariamente para garantir a Segurança Alimentar dos alimentos consumidos

    •  
      A Direcção-geral da Saúde em Portugal revelou que há um caso de legionella num doente

    •  

       Apenas 2% dos produtos alimentares que entram no país são de má Qualidade, assegura o

    •  

       
       
       
      O sector agro-alimentar do país, tem merecido alguma atenção nos programas do Executivo, razão pela

    •  
      O Director geral do Laboratório Central do MINAGRI, José Correia Cabral, disse em Luanda, que

    •  De 15 a 18 de Outubro de 2015 decorreu a 2ª Edição da AGROANGOLA –


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    PARTICIPAÇÃO DO LC NA AGROAN…

    26-10-2015

    PARTICIPAÇÃO DO LC NA AGROANGOLA 2015

    De 15 a 18 de Outubro de 2015 decorreu a 2ª Edição da AGROANGOLA – Salão Internacional da Agricultura, Pecu…

    Ler Mais…

    PRODUTOS IMPORTADOS SÃO TES…

    10-12-2014

    "PRODUTOS IMPORTADOS SÃO TESTADOS E A MAIORIA TEM QUALIDADE"

    Apenas 2% dos produtos alimentares que entram no país são de má Qualidade, assegura o Director do Labora…

    Ler Mais…

    LEGIONELLA CHEGA A ANGOLA E …

    19-11-2014

    LEGIONELLA CHEGA A ANGOLA E PERU

    A Direcção-geral da Saúde em Portugal revelou que há um caso de legionella num doente em Luanda, Angola, …

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    LABORATÓRIO CENTRAL A TRABAL…

    01-04-2014

    LABORATÓRIO CENTRAL A TRABALHAR PARA A SEGURANÇA ALIMENTAR

    O Laboratório Central do MINAGRI trabalha diariamente para garantir a Segurança Alimentar dos alimentos cons…

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    ANGOLA TEM FALTA DE LABORATÓ…

    14-08-2013

    ANGOLA TEM FALTA DE LABORATÓRIOS PARA ANÁLISES AGRO-ALIMENTARES

    O Director geral do Laboratório Central do MINAGRI, José Correia Cabral, disse em Luanda, que a existênci…

    Ler Mais…

    EXECUTIVO APOSTA NO SECTOR A…

    09-01-2013

    EXECUTIVO APOSTA NO SECTOR AGRO-ALIMENTAR

    O sector agro-alimentar do país tem merecido alguma atenção nos programas do Executivo, razão pela qual, no …

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    LABORATÓRIO CENTRAL MARCA AC…

    07-01-2013

    LABORATÓRIO CENTRAL MARCA ACTIVIDADE DO SECTOR AGRÍCOLA

    O sector agro-alimentar do país, tem merecido alguma atenção nos programas do Executivo, razão p…

    Ler Mais…

    GARANTIDA A QUALIDADE DOS PR…

    21-05-2012

    GARANTIDA A QUALIDADE DOS PRODUTOS À MESA

    Um "exército" treinado para impedir que produtos alimentares impróprios para o consumo vão parar à…

    Ler Mais…

    NOVO LABORATÓRIO CENTRAL DÁ …

    15-05-2012

    NOVO LABORATÓRIO CENTRAL DÁ SEGURANÇA ALIMENTAR

    O Ministro da Agricultura, Desenvolvimento Rural e Pescas, Afonso Pedro Canga, inaugurou ontem, em Luanda, o…

    Ler Mais…

    «
    »

    Gestão da Qualidade

    logo-ISO9001

    Com a pretensão de ser um laboratório de referência, o Laboratório Central do MINAGRI conta com um Sistema Integrado de Gestão da Qualidade baseado em 5 pilares básicos:

    • Certificação ISO 9001:2008. (nº certificado: ES058024-1)
    • MasterLab: O nosso Sistema de Gestão Integral
    • Acreditação ISO 17025:2005 (em processo de acreditação)
    • Registro no IANORQ. (nº registro PFNA/CR/015/13)
    • Equipa técnica altamente qualificada

    Laboratório Central

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      Knowledge is power



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                   Knowledge is Power, but knowledge does not always come with power. Knowledge is "the state of awareness or understanding gained from experience or study…learning specific information about something. This means a person has the resourcefulness to obtain and criticize useful and informative information in order to become well informed citizens who can make intelligent decisions based upon their understanding and awareness of everyday situations. Does this make them powerful? Is a question that creeps into ones mind? Well, power is said to be the ability or capacity to act or perform effectively. Without knowledge, how can this ability to perform effectively, be possible? Indeed, it cannot. This proves that knowledge is very much a necessity to gain Power.
                  
      Education is the key to success is one of the sayings that one hears throughout their college life. It is invariably true that every person who is knowledgeable leads a successful life. Education plays an important role in promoting a nations economic growth, as well.
                  
      When you look at America's rise to power during the past war era it is easy as well as trivial to attribute it to the abundance of natural resources and surplus number of new inventions. But, really we must consider how those inventions came about and how those natural resources were utilized to a productive end. More importantly than what made America the most powerful country in the world is why it became the most powerful country. It wasn't luck, or coincidence or the fact that they had abundant resources but because they laid a firm foundation for their people by educating them and making them valuable members of the society who could meet the demands of the competing world.
                  
      Investment in higher education is worthwhile because how much you spend on it right now definitely will make up for the amount it makes you gain later in life. It is said "When you learn more, you ear
                  

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      Is Knowledge Power?
      6 Comments

      May 6, 2012 – 3:37 am | Permalink |

      by Larry Barnett, Shambhala’s Director of Communications

      Having taken the Sakyong’s suggestion about becoming experts on society and understanding the nature of self, I’ve been immersed in re-reading Western philosophy and exploring the roots of our western conceptions about self and society. Accordingly, the shift towards a materialist view that took place alongside Europe’s Age of Enlightenment has largely defined the way western culture and society developed, and stands in contrast to many of our Shambhala teachings.

      The defining character of the modern age is its relationship to acquiring knowledge: the idea that knowledge is power, specifically power over nature and others. This orientation distinguishes modernity from antiquity’s belief in knowledge as its own reward and wisdom ultimately found “in here” not “out there.”

      Viewing knowledge as power has transformed the natural world. Knowledge of physics, chemistry and mathematics has accelerated quickly since the 17th century, the beginning of the modern era. Accordingly, both planetary ecology and human society have been radically altered in positive and negative ways by transportation, medicine, agriculture, and communications. Warfare and technology walk hand-in-hand, resulting in ever more powerful weapons of mass destruction, literally endangering all life on earth. At the same time, our understanding of the universe extends 14-billion light years into the past, and at the opposite scale ever more fundamental sub-atomic fields and particles continue to reveal themselves.

      Knowledge as power underlies everything about modern civilization. This truth came into sharper focus recently as biotechnology researchers successfully created an airborne and lethally infectious version of a Bird Flu virus for “research” purposes. This event has reignited debate about the use of knowledge, namely is our ability to do something reason enough to do it? In other words, is the power of knowledge worth every risk? Those who answer “no” to this question fear such knowledge will fall into evil hands, but there is a deeper issue at play: saying “no” subverts our conception and attachment to what we moderns call “progress.”

      Confronting our attachment to progress places us face-to-face with the basis of our search for power: power over death. Our fear of death propels us to relentlessly seek knowledge to overcome mortality. Thus we perform Bird Flu experiments to create a deadly virus so that we may learn to defeat it. Though we don’t readily admit it, we are so afraid of death we repeatedly invent and overcome our own methods of destruction. Any objection to “progress” feels to us like surrender, yet the materialism of knowledge as power betrays our innate natural wisdom that all things born must die.

      The modern path of knowledge offers material transformation that undeniably brings pleasure, but little lasting benefit of true wisdom. Our lives, filled as they are with gadgets, gizmos and out-of-season grapes from Chile, cannot ultimately replace the inevitability of death nor the profound sense of peace and comfort that comes with accepting it. The ancients knew this, and understood that not power, but wisdom itself is the perfect fruit of knowledge.

      Long ago I lived next door to an old man, 101 years old. Fred would spend his day sitting in a dark shed splitting wood with a hatchet and a hammer. Fred was deeply spiritual; born in 1868 he’d contemplated knowledge for a long time. One afternoon in 1971, I asked this man born in the age of carriages what he thought about men landing on the moon. “Oh well,” he said in his high-pitched, sing-song voice, “men must have their toys.”

      Perhaps playing with “toys” is just the lingering innocence of modern cultural childhood and Bird Flu experiments merely the result of misunderstanding the truth of knowledge. We may yet grow up, but it better happen fast, for we are not playing with toys, we are playing with fire.

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      6 responses to “
      Is Knowledge Power? ”

      1. Jonathan Hanna

        May 6, 2012

        Reply

        Thank you for this wonderful, thought provoking inquiry into the nature, origins, and implications of ‘materialism’ as the Vidyadhara spoke of it. May this inquiry be continued and deepened by all those who wish that Shambhala may flourish within this world!

      2. Robert Paul

        May 7, 2012

        Reply

        Immediate red flags arise when the word ‘materialism’ is used to categorize Western philosophy in the ‘European Age of Enlightenment’. We have been trained to look on this work as representing the enemy, to be vanquished with spiritualism. Rather, the turn that occurred with the Renaissance and then Descartes was a turn away from looking inward–called rationalism–towards looking outwards–called empiricism, hence association with ’empirical knowledge’. Indeed, the author recognized the distinction by labeling antiquity’s belief in knowledge to be found ‘in here’, not ‘out there’.

        Indeed, empiricism has to do with the belief that what we think is the case (knowledge in here) must be tested in the world, and not simply believed. All of our Buddhist philosophy that we have ever learned relied on empirical testing–practice–in order to achieve realization of the truth of what we were told. A rejection of the empirical method is a rejection of meditation practice. This is a problem.

        Further, the author associates modern Western philosophy with ‘knowledge as power’ (and all the bad things that come of that, like war machines–although none of the thousands of good things like, say off the top of my head: prevention of polio and extension of life expectancy from 40 years to 80 years were mentioned.) One of the premises of Buddhist teachings is that we suffer because our thinking–rational thought found ‘in here’–includes the assumption that all we need to do is work hard, follow our desires and we will be happy. Buddhist teachings say that is not the case. The world just doesn’t work that way. Rather, we need to align our thinking to the way the world actually is. Only then can suffering decrease, when our understanding of the world matches the truth of the world and our conduct and view coordinate accordingly, so we don’t keep pushing the rock uphill all day, only to watch it fall back all the time. This is empirical knowledge in its fullest test–changing our minds to accord with actual reality rather than imagined reality. This is truly knowledge as power, which is our goal, not our enemy.

        There is, I conclude after my own review and new view of Western philosophy, not only that there are many important consistencies between Western philosophy and practice–long denigrated by some in our community–and Buddhist philosophy and practice, but there are valuable insights to be gained from the former that assist the latter. Western philosophy forms the core of our culture and society, and we therefore can benefit from understanding how it analyzes, coordinates and integrates with Buddhist philosophy.

        There is a theme in the application of Western society which the author is addressing–the desire to apply knowledge to control our environment. This is the theme that cured polio and extended life, and also causes problems. It is a problem, and needs to be addressed. Yet, that attitude also gave us strip mining (and resources) and oil spills (and the ability to drive to a store instead of bicycle, which is a good thing most days in Halifax). However, the problems and approaches to mastering our environment need to be tempered by wisdom of living as part of our environment, not by rejecting the many positive aspects of knowledge as power, but by integrating them with other kinds of knowledge as power that we gain from lack of clinging and fixation on ego’s own needs that we gain from practice. Don’t toss the baby out with the bathwater.

      3. Larry Barnett

        May 7, 2012

        Reply

        Thanks for your thoughtful comments, Paul. Clearly you have spent considerable time thinking about this topic. Obviously, there is much more to be said about knowledge, wisdom and power. I write short essays that are not intended to be to be comprehensive, but are intended to stimulate thoughts or feelings.

        Certainly, the western approach to knowledge has produced many benefits, and I did touch on that, briefly, in the article. My greater focus, clearly, is in bringing attention to those ways in which western views tend to objectify the world, including the land, animals and people. Both Hobbes and Locke made significant contributions to this objectified view, separated man (even as it pertained to gender) from nature, and instigated a reductionist approach to the analysis of “reality” that continue to enjoy widespread acceptance.

        That modernity has brought benefits to society is unarguable. At the same time, as you point out, those same benefits create other problems, and attention needs to be paid to that. This theme appears in books such as Neil Postman’s “Technopoly” and in current articles questioning whether technology is bringing us together as society or promoting loneliness and fragmentation.

        That my article stimulated you to comment is terrific, and I appreciate you taking some time to share your thoughts.

      4. Kelly

        May 10, 2012

        Reply

        Nice essay. Can you point me to the actual text or video of the Sakyong encouraging us to ‘become experts on society?’

      5. Martin Fritter

        May 10, 2012

        Reply

        You appear to assume that “Western Philosophy” is one thing and that it all agrees that “knowledge is power” is true and is also good. What about the ongoing critique of modernity, starting, say at a minimum, with Nietzsche? What about Walter Benjamin? What about “The Question Concerning Technology?” What about Stiegler? What about Foucault? What about Freud, for that matter? Goodness, Max Weber? And on and on.

        Personally, I blame Correggio, not Descartes. Or maybe Petrarch.

      6. Susmita Barua

        May 17, 2012

        Reply

        Larry I liked the question with which you started to reflect on ‘knowledge’. I was told once by a guy in a business meeting ‘knowledge is not power’, it is only potential power. Knowledge applied becomes power. Sakyong talks about the power of ruling through wisdom.

        The main weakness of Western Science and Philosophy comes from not knowing or asking what happens after death. How to work with this void before birth and after death. There is this underlying phychological tension or insecurity that comes in modern secular society that has uprooted us from some spiritual support that comes from faith in a fatherly God. So knowledge is very limited to the timebound objective five sensory world, mind matter duality and self-other dichotomy. Also ego has been very overextended with over-reliance on rational discursive thoughts (survival of the fittest) called than gentler intuitive heart’s intelligence.

        Buddhist path to knowledge (jnana-prajna) through Middle way is about closing this gap or dichotomy between subject and object through stilling of formations in the mind-body by making it quiet. Isn’t that wonderful way to gain knowledge and true power that makes you and everyone around you happy and peaceful? I think it is much more sophisticated than any power you can gain in a shifting impermanent world. Peace


      Sorry, comments for this entry are closed at this time.

      • The Author: Larry Barnett

        Larry Barnett served in elected office for 12 years on the Sonoma City Council, and was twice selected as Mayor. He is the Director of the Sonoma Shambhala Center and is on the Board of Directors of Northern California Shambhala, also serving as Chair of the Council of Center Directors. His weekly newspaper column can be read at www.barnettweekly.com.

        URL: http://www.barnettweekly.com
        View all entries by Larry Barnett

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      Lord of the Flies

      Lord of the Flies

        

      by William Golding

      • Lord of the Flies /
      • Analysis

      SHMOOP PREMIUM
      Summary
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      SHMOOP PREMIUM

      • Intro
      • Summary
      • Themes
      • Quotes
      • Characters
      • Analysis

      • Symbolism, Imagery, Allegory
      • Setting
      • Narrator Point of View
      • Genre
      • Tone
      • Writing Style
      • What’s Up With the Title?
      • What’s Up With the Ending?
      • Tough-o-Meter
      • Plot Analysis
      • Booker’s Seven Basic Plots Analysis
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      • SHMOOP PREMIUM

      Lord of the Flies Analysis

      Literary Devices in Lord of the Flies

      Symbolism, Imagery, Allegory

      Before we get down to the details, we should address the fact that Lord of the Flies is one big allegory. Symbols aside, the boys as a whole can represent humanity as a whole. You can see where the…

      Setting

      Lord of the Flies takes place on an uninhabited island in the Pacific Ocean, at an unknown—but probably 1950ish—year during a fictional atomic war. And what an island it is. We don’t find out m…

      Narrator Point of View

      The narrator in Lord of the Flies moves back and forth omnisciently between different scenes and thoughts. Take Chapter Eight, for example, where in the space of a few pages we get Jack hunting, “h…

      Genre

      This isn’t Gilligan’s Island. It’s not even Lost. Jack’s wildly superstitious and violent group of boys, who are willing to kill one of their own with their hands and teeth, is as far from ideal, o…

      Tone

      If you like your medicine with a spoonful of sugar, you’d better find another book. (Unless this is required reading, in which case—we’re sorry.) Golding takes a look at the worst, darkest side o…

      Writing Style

      Much like the forbidding patch of jungle in which the book takes place (for more on that, see “Setting”) the Lord of the Flies is ominous—but irresistible. Let’s check out the paragraph where we…

      What’s Up With the Title?

      Let’s get the easy part out of the way first: “the Lord of the Flies” is what Simon ends up calling the severed pig’s head—presumably because it’s covered in flies. So, calling the book Lord of t…

      What’s Up With the Ending?

      The end happens fast: Ralph is pretty convinced he’s about to die, when all of a sudden he rolls (literally) into a British naval officer who promises to rescue them. When we meet the officer, we g…

      Tough-o-Meter

      Lord of the Flies is a standard on the middle school required reading list, but that doesn’t mean it’s kid stuff. Check out this passage:A thin wail out of the darkness chilled them and set them gr…

      Plot Analysis

      Home AloneWe start out post plane crash, on an island full of boys ranging from ages 6 to 12, and not an adult in sight.This is going to end well. Well, they start with a good faith effort: Ralph…

      Booker’s Seven Basic Plots Analysis

      Crash and BurnWhen their plane crashes, the boys who were on board find themselves on a strange island where they have never been before. Needless to say, this is a new situation for them. They’r…

      Three Act Plot Analysis

      Community OrganizerThe boys arrive on the island, realize that no adults are present, and start organizing. Ralph is elected chief, but Jack takes over the group of hunters. The seeds of conflict…

      Trivia

      Something around twenty publishers rejected Lord of the Flies.William Golding was knighted in 1988. Make that Sir William Golding. Rock Band Iron Maiden wrote a song called “Lord of the Flies.” And…

      Steaminess Rating

      Lord of the Flies is about a bunch of pre-adolescent boys, so, nope: no sex here, although there is extensive nudity and a few poop jokes. We would, however, like to draw your attention to a highly…

      Allusions

      The names “Ralph,” “Jack,” and “Simon”: R.M. Ballantyne: The Coral Island. The Coral Island was a classic 1857 “Europe can better the world through conquering it and forcing Christianity upon every…

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      Lord of the Flies ALL-FEMALE version slammed: Are critics SEXIST Piggys or totally right?

      LORD OF THE FLIES is the latest classic to get an all-female adaptation but critics have slammed it – and not all of them are men.

      By




      0

      Are those criticising a new female interpretation of Lord of the Flies being sexiest pigs (or Piggys)?

      Hollywood reports reveal that directors Scott McGehee and David Siegel are boldly tackling William Golding’s classic 1954 novel for Warner Bros. They say it will give modern audiences a chance to cast a fresh eye on the seminal source material and “help people see the story anew”.

      Critics and an extraordinary explosion of Social Media responses do not agree. At all. Golding, himself, had very strong views on the subject.

      Yet, Wonder Woman recently showed that female characters can be physically strong and even dominant, brave, aggressive and war-like. 

      So, who is right? 

      Lord of the Flies all-female remake starts controversyFS

      Lord of the Flies all-female remake starts controversy

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      Lord of the Flies: Piggy's deathFS

      Lord of the Flies Piggy’s death

      The famous story is about a group of British schoolboys stranded on an island after a plane crash. The veneer of civilisation is peeled back to reveal the basest behaviour lurking within.

      Poor Piggy, of course, has the most tragic end, but the tale is an unflinching examination of young masculinity. And therein lies the problem.

      Siegel tried to explain how the new version would work and said: “It is a timeless story that is especially relevant today, with the interpersonal conflicts and bullying, and the idea of children forming a society and replicating the behavior they saw in grown-ups before they were marooned.”

      JAMES CAMERON ATTACKS WONDER WOMAN MOVIE AS A “STEP BACKWARDS”

      The most epic film remakes

      Tue, March 7, 2017

      We have the epic list of films getting remakes, from Mary Poppins to Ghostbusters to The Jungle Book with Idris Elba.




      Play slideshow


      Mary Poppins will be played by Emily Blunt in the Disney remake

      Disney

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      Mary Poppins will be played by Emily Blunt in the Disney remake

      McGehee added: “The opportunity to tell it in a way it hasn’t been told before, with girls rather than boys, is that it shifts things in a way that might help people see the story anew. It breaks away from some of the conventions, the ways we think of boys and aggression.”

      Twitter was soon swamped with furious responses.

      One female writer said: “GOOD: A female-centric Lord of the Flies! BAD: A female-centric Lord of the Flies written by… two men.”

      Another was totally unimpressed and said: “The Lord of the Flies movie feels like a studio had a big jar of ‘Make with Chicks?’ ideas and just picked the one that made the least sense.”

      One commentator said: “Um, lord of the flies is about the replication of systemic masculine toxicity. Every 9th grader knows this.”

      Another added: “Lord of the flies, but girls instead of boys: potentially interesting, even if it does seem to be missing part of the point.”

      The point was hammered home in the post: “Lord of The Flies remake coming out, but it’s an all-girl cast? The book about the dangers of toxic masculinity? How will that work at all?”

      Interestingly, many of the comments come from women, making valid and frequently amusing points. 

      Lord of the Flies tweetsTWITTER

      The most epic film remakes

      Tue, March 7, 2017

      We have the epic list of films getting remakes, from Mary Poppins to Ghostbusters to The Jungle Book with Idris Elba.




      Play slideshow


      Mary Poppins will be played by Emily Blunt in the Disney remake

      Disney

      1 of 22

      Mary Poppins will be played by Emily Blunt in the Disney remake

      Golding, himself, spoke before his death in 1993, and clearly explained why the story could only work with a male cast.

      He said: “Girls say to me, very reasonably… ‘why did you write this about a bunch of boys?”.

      “Little boys… are more like scaled-down society than a group of little girls would be… this is nothing to do with equality at all. I think women are foolish to pretend they are equal to men, they are far superior and always have been. But one thing you cannot do with them is take a bunch of them and boil them down, so to speak, into a set of little girls who would then become a kind of image of civilisation, of society.”

      That certainly seems clear enough.

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      Racial Profiling and African American Males

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                     Racial profiling is the tactic of stopping someone because of the color of his or her skin and fleeting suspicion that the person is engaging in criminal behavior. This practice can be conducted with routine traffic stops, or can be completely random based on the car that is driven, or the number of people in the car and the race of the driver and the passengers. Racial profiling has been a part of the criminal justice system for a long time now, and is nothing new. The only reason why you hear a lot more about this topic is because the use of media has brought this very controversial topic to the public's attention a lot more than in the past. The question that remains unanswered is, is racial profiling good or bad, and does it really have an effect on the way police fight crime effectively
                    
        Racial profiling can be broken down into two meanings, hard profiling and soft profiling. A case of hard profiling would be when a officer sees a black person and without more to go on, pulls him over for a pat-down on the chance that he may be carrying drugs or weapons. Soft profiling would a case like when the state police get a tip off that a certain nationality is trafficking drugs down a certain highway and like to drive a certain type of vehicle, and from this intelligence the trooper pulls over a person matching this stereotype in a hope to find drugs.
                    
        The racial profiling debate focuses primarily on highway stops. The police are pulling over a disproportionate number of minority drivers for traffic offenses in order to look for drugs. The driver may have been speeding, but the reason why he pulled over that car, and not the car next to him, might have to do with the color of his skin. Highway stops should almost always be color blind, unless the officer has clues to go on to make the stop. The DEA taught state troopers come common identifying signs of drugs carriers. Nervousness was the number one trait seen, with o…

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        Discrimination

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        “Othering” redirects here. For the concept in phenomenology, see Other .
        This article is about the prejudicial treatment. For other uses, see Discrimination (disambiguation) .
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        Disclogo1.svg Discrimination portal
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        In human social affairs , discrimination is treatment or consideration of, or making a distinction towards, a person based on the group, class, or category to which the person is perceived to belong. These include age , colour , convictions for which a pardon has been granted or a record suspended, disability , ethnicity , family status , gender identity , genetic characteristics , marital status , nationality , race , religion , sex , and sexual orientation . [1] Discrimination consists of treatment of an individual or group, based on their actual or perceived membership in a certain group or social category, “in a way that is worse than the way people are usually treated”. [2] It involves the group’s initial reaction or interaction going on to influence the individual’s actual behavior towards the group leader or the group, restricting members of one group from opportunities or privileges that are available to another group, leading to the exclusion of the individual or entities based on illogical or irrational decision making. [3]

        Discriminatory traditions, policies, ideas, practices and laws exist in many countries and institutions in every part of the world, including in territories where discrimination is generally looked down upon. In some places, controversial attempts such as quotas have been used to benefit those who are believed to be current or past victims of discrimination—but they have sometimes been called reverse discrimination .

        Contents

        • 1 Etymology
        • 2 Definitions
        • 3 Types
          • 3.1 Age
          • 3.2 Caste
          • 3.3 Disability
          • 3.4 Language
          • 3.5 Name
          • 3.6 Nationality
          • 3.7 Race or ethnicity
          • 3.8 Region
          • 3.9 Religious beliefs
          • 3.10 Sex, sex characteristics, gender, and gender identity
          • 3.11 Sexual orientation
          • 3.12 Drug use
          • 3.13 Reverse discrimination
        • 4 Legislation
          • 4.1 United Nations documents
        • 5 Theories
          • 5.1 Labeling theory
          • 5.2 Game theory
        • 6 State vs. free market
        • 7 See also
        • 8 References
        • 9 External links

        Etymology[ edit ]

        The term discriminate appeared in the early 17th century in the English language. It is from the Latin discriminat- ‘distinguished between’, from the verb discriminare, from discrimen ‘distinction’, from the verb discernere. [4] Since the American Civil War the term “discrimination” generally evolved in American English usage as an understanding of prejudicial treatment of an individual based solely on their race, later generalized as membership in a certain socially undesirable group or social category. [5] “Discrimination” derives from Latin, where the verb discrimire means “to separate, to distinguish, to make a distinction”.

        Definitions[ edit ]

        Moral philosophers have defined discrimination as disadvantageous treatment or consideration. This is a comparative definition. An individual need not be actually harmed in order to be discriminated against. They just need to be treated worse than others for some arbitrary reason. If someone decides to donate to help orphan children, but decides to donate less, say, to black children out of a racist attitude, then they would be acting in a discriminatory way despite the fact that the people they discriminate against actually benefit by receiving a donation. [6] In addition to this discrimination develops into a source of oppression. It is similar to the action of recognizing someone as ‘different’ so much that they are treated inhumanly and degraded. [7]

        Based on realistic-conflict theory [8] and social-identity theory, [9] Rubin and Hewstone [10] have highlighted a distinction among three types of discrimination:

        1. Realistic competition is driven by self-interest and is aimed at obtaining material resources (e.g., food, territory, customers) for the in-group (e.g., favouring an in-group in order to obtain more resources for its members, including the self).
        2. Social competition is driven by the need for self-esteem and is aimed at achieving a positive social status for the in-group relative to comparable out-groups (e.g., favouring an in-group in order to make it better than an out-group).
        3. Consensual discrimination is driven by the need for accuracy[ clarification needed ] and reflects stable and legitimate intergroup status hierarchies (e.g., favouring a high-status in-group because it is high status).

        The United Nations stance on discrimination includes the statement: “Discriminatory behaviors take many forms, but they all involve some form of exclusion or rejection.” [11] International bodies United Nations Human Rights Council work towards helping ending discrimination around the world.

        Types[ edit ]

        Age[ edit ]

        Main article: Ageism
        Main article: Adultism

        Ageism or age discrimination is discrimination and stereotyping based on the grounds of someone’s age. [12] It is a set of beliefs, norms, and values which used to justify discrimination or subordination based on a person’s age. [13] Ageism is most often directed towards old people, or adolescents and children. [14] [15]

        Age discrimination in hiring has been shown to exist in the United States. Joanna Lahey, professor at The Bush School of Government and Public Service at Texas A&M , found that firms are more than 40% more likely to interview a young adult job applicant than an older job applicant. [16] In Europe, Stijn Baert, Jennifer Norga, Yannick Thuy and Marieke Van Hecke, researchers at Ghent University , measured comparable ratios in Belgium. They found that age discrimination is heterogeneous by the activity older candidates undertook during their additional post-educational years. In Belgium, they are only discriminated if they have more years of inactivity or irrelevant employment. [17]

        In a survey for the University of Kent , England, 29% of respondents stated that they had suffered from age discrimination. This is a higher proportion than for gender or racial discrimination. Dominic Abrams , social psychology professor at the university, concluded that ageism is the most pervasive form of prejudice experienced in the UK population. [18]

        Caste[ edit ]

        See also: Caste

        According to UNICEF and Human Rights Watch , caste discrimination affects an estimated 250 million people worldwide. [19] [20] [21] Discrimination based on caste, as perceived by UNICEF , is mainly prevalent in parts of Asia , ( India , Sri Lanka , Bangladesh , China , Pakistan , Nepal , Japan ), Africa and others. [19] As of 2011 [update] , there were 200 million Dalits or Scheduled Castes (formerly known as “untouchables”) in India. [22]

        Disability[ edit ]

        Main article: Disability discrimination

        Discrimination against people with disabilities in favor of people who are not is called ableism or disablism . Disability discrimination, which treats non-disabled individuals as the standard of ‘normal living’, results in public and private places and services, education, and social work that are built to serve ‘standard’ people, thereby excluding those with various disabilities. Studies have shown, employment is needed to not only provide a living but to sustain mental health and well-being. Work fulfils a number of basic needs for an individual such as collective purpose, social contact, status, and activity. [23] A person with a disability is often found to be socially isolated and work is one way to reduce isolation.

        In the United States, the Americans with Disabilities Act mandates the provision of equality of access to both buildings and services and is paralleled by similar acts in other countries, such as the Equality Act 2010 in the UK.[ citation needed ]

        Language[ edit ]

        This section needs additional citations for verification . Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources . Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (January 2012) ( Learn how and when to remove this template message )
        Main article: Linguistic discrimination

        Nationalists in Corsica sometimes spray-paint or shoot traffic signs in French .

        Diversity of language is protected and respected by most nations who value cultural diversity.[ dubious – discuss ] However, people are sometimes subjected to different treatment because their preferred language is associated with a particular group, class or category. Notable examples are the Anti-French sentiment in the United States as well as the Anti-Quebec sentiment in Canada targeting people who speak the French language. Commonly, the preferred language is just another attribute of separate ethnic groups .[ dubious – discuss ] Discrimination exists if there is prejudicial treatment against a person or a group of people who either do or do not speak a particular language or languages.

        Another noteworthy example of linguistic discrimination is the backdrop to the Bengali Language Movement in erstwhile Pakistan, a political campaign that played a key role in the creation of Bangladesh . In 1948, Mohammad Ali Jinnah declared Urdu as the national language of Pakistan and branded those supporting the use of Bengali , the most widely spoken language in the state, as enemies of the state. [24]

        Language discrimination is suggested to be labeled linguicism or logocism.[ by whom? ] Anti-discriminatory and inclusive efforts to accommodate persons who speak different languages or cannot have fluency in the country’s predominant or “official” language, is bilingualism such as official documents in two languages, and multiculturalism in more than two languages.[ citation needed ]

        Name[ edit ]

        Discrimination based on a person’s name may also occur, with research suggesting the presence of discrimination based on name meaning, pronunciation, uniqueness, gender affiliation, and racial affiliation. [25] [26] [27] [28] [29] Research has further shown that real world recruiters spend an average of just six seconds reviewing each résumé before making their initial “fit/no fit” screen-out decision and that a person’s name is one of the six things they focus on most. [30] France has made it illegal to view a person’s name on a résumé when screening for the initial list of most qualified candidates. Great Britain, Germany, Sweden, and the Netherlands have also experimented with name-blind résumé processes. [31] Some apparent discrimination may be explained by other factors such as name frequency. [32] The effects of name discrimination based on name fluency is subtle, small and subject significantly to changing norms. [33]

        Nationality[ edit ]

        Discrimination on the basis of nationality is usually included in employment laws [34] (see above section for employment discrimination specifically). It is sometimes referred to as bound together with racial discrimination [35] although it can be separate. It may vary from laws that stop refusals of hiring based on nationality, asking questions regarding origin, to prohibitions of firing, forced retirement, compensation and pay, etc., based on nationality.

        Discrimination on the basis of nationality may show as a “level of acceptance” in a sport or work team regarding new team members and employees who differ from the nationality of the majority of team members. [36]

        In the UAE and other GCC states, for instance, nationality is not frequently given to residents and expatriates. In the workplace, preferential treatment is given to full citizens, even though many of them lack experience or motivation to do the job. State benefits are also generally available for citizens only. [37]

        Race or ethnicity[ edit ]

        Main articles: Racism , Discrimination based on skin color , and Ethnic penalty

        Anti-Arab sign in Pattaya Beach , Thailand

        German warning in German-occupied Poland 1939 – ” No entrance for Poles !”

        Antisemitic graffiti in Lithuania . The signs read “Jews out” and “Hate”

        An African-American child at a segregated drinking fountain on a courthouse lawn, North Carolina , US 1938.

        Racial and ethnic discrimination differentiates individuals on the basis of real and perceived racial and ethnic differences and leads to various forms of the ethnic penalty . [38] [39] It has been official government policy in several countries, such as South Africa during the apartheid era. Discriminatory policies towards ethnic minorities include the race-based discrimination of ethnic Indians and Chinese in Malaysia [40] After the Vietnam war , many Vietnamese refugees moved to the United States , where they face discrimination. [41] Many studies report lower private sector earnings for racial minorities, although it is often difficult to determine the extent to which this is the result of racial discrimination. [42]

        As of 2013 [update] , aboriginal people ( First Nations , Métis , and Inuit ) comprise 4 percent of Canada ‘s population, but they account for 23.2 percent of the federal prison population. [43] According to the Australian government’s June 2006 publication of prison statistics, Aborigines make up 24% of the overall prison population in Australia . [44]

        In 2004, Māori made up just 15% of the total population of New Zealand but 49.5% of prisoners. Māori were entering prison at eight times the rate of non-Māori. [45] A quarter of the people in England ‘s prisons are from an ethnic minority. The Equality and Human Rights Commission found that in England and Wales as of 2010 [update] , a black person was five times more likely to be imprisoned than a white person. The discrepancy was attributed to “decades of racial prejudice in the criminal justice system”. [46]

        In the United States, racial profiling of minorities by law-enforcement officials has been called racial discrimination. [47]
        Within the criminal justice system in the United States, minorities are convicted and imprisoned disproportionately when compared to the majority. [48] [49] As early as 1866, the Civil Rights Act and Civil Rights Act of 1871 provided a remedy for intentional racism in employment by private employers and state and local public employers. The Civil Rights Act of 1991 expanded the damages available in Title VII cases and granted Title VII plaintiffs the right to a jury trial.

        Racial discrimination in hiring has been shown to exist in the United States and in Europe. [50] [51] Using a field experiment, Marianne Bertrand and Sendhil Mullainathan showed that applications from job candidates with white-sounding names received 50 percent more callbacks for interviews than those with African-American-sounding names in the United States at the start of this millennium. [52] A 2009 study by Devah Pager , Bruce Western , and Bart Bonikowski found that black applicants to low-wage jobs were half as likely as identically qualified white applicants to receive callbacks or job offers. [53] More recently, Stijn Baert, Bart Cockx, Niels Gheyle and Cora Vandamme replicated and extended their field experiment in Belgium, Europe. They found that racial discrimination in the labour market is heterogeneous by the labour market tightness in the occupation: compared to natives, candidates with a foreign-sounding name are equally often invited to a job interview in Belgium if they apply for occupations for which vacancies are difficult to fill, but they have to send twice as many applications for occupations for which labor market tightness is low. [54]

        Region[ edit ]

        See also: Regional discrimination in China

        Regional or geographic discrimination is discrimination based on the region in which a person lives or was born. It differs from national discrimination in that it may not be based on national borders or the country the victim lives in, but is instead based on prejudices against a specific region of one or more countries. Examples include discrimination against Chinese born in countryside far from city within China, and discrimination against Americans from the southern or northern regions of the United States. It is often accompanied by discrimination based on accent, dialect, or cultural differences.[ citation needed ]

        Religious beliefs[ edit ]

        Main article: Religious discrimination
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        In the 1990s, Bhutan expelled or forced to leave its Hindu population in the name of preserving its Buddhist culture and identity.

        Religious discrimination is valuing or treating a person or group differently because of what they do or do not believe or because of their feelings towards a given religion. For instance, the indigenous Christian population of the Balkans , known as the “rayah” or the “protected flock”, was discriminated against under the Ottoman Kanun–i–Rayah. The word is sometimes translated as ‘cattle’ rather than ‘flock’ or ‘subjects’ in order to emphasize the Christian population’s inferior status to that of the Muslim rayah. [55] [ further explanation needed ]

        Restrictions upon Jewish occupations were imposed by Christian authorities. Local rulers and church officials closed many professions to religious Jews, pushing them into marginal roles considered socially inferior, such as tax and rent collecting and moneylending , occupations only tolerated as a “necessary evil”. [56] The number of Jews permitted to reside in different places was limited; they were concentrated in ghettos and were not allowed to own land.

        In a 1979 consultation on the issue, the United States commission on civil rights defined religious discrimination in relation to the civil rights guaranteed by the Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution . Whereas religious civil liberties, such as the right to hold or not to hold a religious belief, are essential for Freedom of Religion (in the United States secured by the First Amendment ), religious discrimination occurs when someone is denied “the equal protection of the laws, equality of status under the law, equal treatment in the administration of justice, and equality of opportunity and access to employment, education, housing, public services and facilities, and public accommodation because of their exercise of their right to religious freedom”. [57]

        In 2015, attorney and author Roberta Kaplan stated that Kentucky county clerk Kim Davis “is the clearest example of someone who wants to use a religious liberty argument to discriminate”. [58]

        Sex, sex characteristics, gender, and gender identity[ edit ]

        Main article: Sexism
        See also: Misogyny , Misandry , Discrimination against intersex people , Transphobia , and Discrimination towards non-binary gender persons

        Though gender discrimination and sexism refer to beliefs and attitudes in relation to the gender of a person, such beliefs and attitudes are of a social nature and do not, normally, carry any legal consequences. Sex discrimination, on the other hand, may have legal consequences. Though what constitutes sex discrimination varies between countries, the essence is that it is an adverse action taken by one person against another person that would not have occurred had the person been of another sex. Discrimination of that nature is considered a form of prejudice and in certain enumerated circumstances is illegal in many countries.

        Sexual discrimination can arise in different contexts. For instance, an employee may be discriminated against by being asked discriminatory questions during a job interview, or by an employer not hiring or promoting, unequally paying, or wrongfully terminating, an employee based on their gender.

        The gender gap in median earnings of full-time employees according to the OECD 2015. [59]

        Sexual discrimination can also arise when the dominant group holds a bias against the minority group. One such example is Wikipedia. In the Wikipedian community, around 13 percent of registered users are women. [60] This creates gender imbalances, and leaves room for systemic bias . Women are not only more harshly scrutinized, but the representation of women authors are also overlooked. Relative to men, across all source lists, women have a 2.6 greater odds of omission in Wikipedia. [61] In an educational setting, there could be claims that a student was excluded from an educational institution, program, opportunity, loan, student group, or scholarship because of their gender. In the housing setting, there could be claims that a person was refused negotiations on seeking a house, contracting/leasing a house or getting a loan based on their gender. Another setting where there have been claims of gender discrimination is banking; for example if one is refused credit or is offered unequal loan terms based on one’s gender. [62] As with other forms of unlawful discrimination, there are two types of sex discrimination – direct discrimination and indirect discrimination. Direct sex discrimination is fairly easy to spot – ‘Barmaid wanted’, but indirect sex discrimination, where an unnecessary requirement puts one sex at a disproportionate disadvantage compared to the opposite sex, is sometimes less easy to spot, although some are obvious – ‘Bar person wanted – must look good in a mini skirt’. [63] Another setting where there is usually gender discrimination is when one is refused to extend their credit, refused approval of credit/loan process, and if there is a burden of unequal loan terms based on one’s gender.
        Socially, sexual differences have been used to justify different roles for men and women , in some cases giving rise to claims of primary and secondary roles. While there are alleged non-physical differences between men and women, major reviews of the academic literature on gender difference find only a tiny minority of characteristics where there are consistent psychological differences between men and women, and these relate directly to experiences grounded in biological difference. [64] [ not in citation given ] However, there are also some psychological differences in regard to how problems are dealt with and emotional perceptions and reactions that may relate to hormones and the successful characteristics of each gender during longstanding roles in past primitive lifestyles.

        Median weekly earnings of full-time wage and salary workers, by sex, race, and ethnicity, U.S., 2009. [65]

        Unfair discrimination usually follows the gender stereotyping held by a society. [66]

        The United Nations had concluded that women often experience a ” glass ceiling ” and that there are no societies in which women enjoy the same opportunities as men. [67] The term “glass ceiling” is used to describe a perceived barrier to advancement in employment based on discrimination, especially sex discrimination. [68] In the United States in 1995, the Glass Ceiling Commission, a government-funded group, stated: “Over half of all Master’s degrees are now awarded to women, yet 95% of senior-level managers, of the top Fortune 1000 industrial and 500 service companies are men. Of them, 97% are white.” In its report, it recommended affirmative action , which is the consideration of an employee’s gender and race in hiring and promotion decisions, as a means to end this form of discrimination. [69] As of 2010 [update] , women accounted for 51% of workers in high-paying management, professional, and related occupations. They outnumbered men in such occupations as public relations managers, financial managers, and human resource managers. [70]

        In addition, women are found to experience a sticky floor . While a glass ceiling implies that women are less like to reach the top of the job ladder, a sticky floor is defined as the pattern that women are, compared to men, less likely to start to climb the job ladder. A sticky floor is related to gender differences at the bottom of the wage distribution. It might be explained by both employer discrimination and gender differences in career aspirations. [71]

        Intersex persons experience discrimination due to innate, atypical sex characteristics . Multiple jurisdictions now protect individuals on grounds of intersex status or sex characteristics . South Africa was the first country to explicitly add intersex to legislation, as part of the attribute of ‘sex’. [72] Australia was the first country to add an independent attribute, of ‘intersex status’. [73] [74] Malta was the first to adopt a broader framework of ‘sex characteristics’, through legislation that also ended modifications to the sex characteristics of minors undertaken for social and cultural reasons. [75] [76]

        Transgender individuals, whether male-to-female, female-to-male, or genderqueer , often experience transphobic problems that often lead to dismissals, underachievement, difficulty in finding a job, social isolation, and, occasionally, violent attacks against them. Nevertheless, the problem of gender discrimination does not stop at transgender individuals or with women. Men are often the victim in certain areas of employment as men begin to seek work in office and childcare settings traditionally perceived as “women’s jobs”. One such situation seems to be evident in a recent case concerning alleged YMCA discrimination and a Federal Court Case in Texas. [77] The case actually involves alleged discrimination against both men and black people in childcare, even when they pass the same strict background tests and other standards of employment. It is currently being contended in federal court, as of fall 2009.

        Discrimination in slasher films is relevant. Gloria Cowan had a research group study on 57 different slasher films. Their results showed that the non-surviving females were more frequently sexual than the surviving females and the non-surviving males. Surviving as a female slasher victim was strongly associated with the absence of sexual behavior. In slasher films, the message appears to be that sexual women get killed and only the pure women survive, thus reinforcing the idea that female sexuality can be costly. [78]

        Sexual orientation[ edit ]

        LGBT activists at Cologne Pride carrying a banner with the flags of over 70 countries where homosexuality is illegal .

        Protests in New York City against Uganda’s Anti-Homosexuality Bill .

        See also: Heterosexism , Heteronormativity , Biphobia , and Homophobia

        One’s sexual orientation is a “predilection for homosexuality, heterosexuality, or bisexuality”. [79] Like most minority groups, homosexuals and bisexuals are vulnerable to prejudice and discrimination from the majority group. They may experience hatred from others because of their sexual preferences; a term for such hatred based upon one’s sexual orientation is often called homophobia . Many continue to hold negative feelings towards those with non-heterosexual orientations and will discriminate against people who have them or are thought to have them. People of other uncommon sexual orientations also experience discrimination. One study found its sample of heterosexuals to be more prejudiced against asexuals than to homosexuals or bisexuals. [80]

        Employment discrimination based on sexual orientation varies by country. Revealing a lesbian sexual orientation (by means of mentioning an engagement in a rainbow organisation or by mentioning one’s partner name) lowers employment opportunities in Cyprus and Greece but overall, it has no negative effect in Sweden and Belgium . [81] [82] [83] [84] In the latter country, even a positive effect of revealing a lesbian sexual orientation is found for women at their fertile ages.

        Besides these academic studies, in 2009, ILGA published a report based on research carried out by Daniel Ottosson at Södertörn University College, Stockholm, Sweden. This research found that of the 80 countries around the world that continue to consider homosexuality illegal, five carry the death penalty for homosexual activity, and two do in some regions of the country. [85] In the report, this is described as “State sponsored homophobia”. [86] This happens in Islamic states, or in two cases regions under Islamic authority. [87] [88] On February 5, 2005, the IRIN issued a reported titled “Iraq: Male homosexuality still a taboo”. The article stated, among other things that honor killings by Iraqis against a gay family member are common and given some legal protection. [89] In August 2009, Human Rights Watch published an extensive report detailing torture of men accused of being gay in Iraq , including the blocking of men’s anuses with glue and then giving the men laxatives. [90] Although gay marriage has been legal in South Africa since 2006, same-sex unions are often condemned as “un-African”. [91] Research conducted in 2009 shows 86% of black lesbians from the Western Cape live in fear of sexual assault. [92]

        Further information: LGBT rights by country or territory

        A number of countries, especially those in the Western world , have passed measures to alleviate discrimination against sexual minorities, including laws against anti-gay hate crimes and workplace discrimination. Some have also legalized same-sex marriage or civil unions in order to grant same-sex couples the same protections and benefits as opposite-sex couples. In 2011, the United Nations passed its first resolution recognizing LGBT rights.

        Drug use[ edit ]

        Global Marijuana March , Paris.

        Main article: Discrimination against drug addicts
        See also: Responsible drug use

        Drug use discrimination is the unequal treatment people experience because of the drugs they use. [93] People who use or have used illicit drugs may face discrimination in employment, welfare, housing, child custody, and travel, [94] [95] [96] [97] in addition to imprisonment, asset forfeiture, and in some cases forced labor, torture, and execution. [98] [99] Though often prejudicially stereotyped as deviants and misfits, most drug users are well-adjusted and productive members of society. [100] [101] Drug prohibitions may have been partly motivated by racism and other prejudice against minorities, [102] [103] [104] and racial disparities have been found to exist in the enforcement and prosecution of drug laws. [105] [106] [107] Discrimination due to illicit drug use was the most commonly reported type of discrimination among Blacks and Latinos in a 2003 study of minority drug users in New York City, double to triple that due to race. [108] People who use legal drugs such as tobacco and prescription medications may also face discrimination. [109] [110] [111]

        Ideas of self-ownership and cognitive liberty affirm rights to use drugs, whether for medicine [112] [113] [114] recreation , [115] [116] [117] or spiritual fulfilment . [118] [119] [120] Those espousing such ideas question the legality of drug prohibition and cite the rights and freedoms enshrined in such documents as the Declaration of Independence , the U.S. Constitution and Bill of Rights , [121] [122] the European Convention on Human Rights , [123] [124] and the Universal Declaration of Human Rights , [125] as protecting personal drug choices . They are inspired by and see themselves following in the tradition of those who have struggled against other forms of discrimination in the past. [126]

        Drug policy reform organizations such as the Drug Policy Alliance , [127] the Drug Equality Alliance , [128] the Transform Drug Policy Foundation , [129] and the Beckley Foundation [130] have highlighted the issue of stigma and discrimination in drug policy. The Partnership for Drug-Free Kids also recognizes this issue [131] and shares on its website stories that “break through the stigma and discrimination that people with drug or drinking problems often face.” [132]

        A report issued by the Global Commission on Drug Policy , critical of the global war on drugs, [133] states, under “Undermining Human Rights, Fostering Discrimination”:

        Punitive approaches to drug policy are severely undermining human rights in every region of the world. They lead to the erosion of civil liberties and fair trial standards, the stigmatization of individuals and groups – particularly women, young people, and ethnic minorities – and the imposition of abusive and inhumane punishments. [134]

        Although still illegal at the federal level, about half of U.S. states have legalized marijuana for medical use and several of those states have laws, or are considering legislation, specifically protecting medical marijuana patients from discrimination in such areas as education, employment, housing, child custody, and organ transplantation. [135] [136] [137]

        Reverse discrimination[ edit ]

        Main article: Reverse discrimination
        See also: Bumiputera (Malaysia)

        Students protesting against racial quotas in Brazil: “Quer uma vaga? Passe no vestibular!” (“Do you want a spot? Pass the entrance exam!”)

        In the US, a government policy known as affirmative action was instituted to encourage employers and universities to seek out and accept groups such as African Americans and women, who have been subject to discrimination for a long time. [138]

        Some attempts at antidiscrimination have been criticized as reverse discrimination. In particular, minority quotas (for example, affirmative action ) may discriminate against members of a dominant or majority group or other minority groups. In its opposition to race preferences, the American Civil Rights Institute’s Ward Connerly stated, “There is nothing positive, affirmative, or equal about ‘affirmative action’ programs that give preference to some groups based on race.” [139]

        Legislation[ edit ]

        Globe icon.
        The examples and perspective in this section may not represent a worldwide view of the subject. You may improve this article , discuss the issue on the talk page , or create a new article , as appropriate. (May 2010) ( Learn how and when to remove this template message )
        Main article: List of anti-discrimination acts

        Australia

        • Sex Discrimination Act 1984

        Canada

        • Ontario Human Rights Code 1962
        • Canadian Human Rights Act 1977

        Hong Kong

        • Sex Discrimination Ordinance (1996)

        Israel

        • Prohibition of Discrimination in Products, Services and Entry into Places of Entertainment and Public Places Law, 2000
        • Employment (Equal Opportunities) Law, 1988

        Netherlands

        • Article 137c, part 1 of Wetboek van Strafrecht prohibits insults towards a group because of its race, religion, sexual orientation (straight or gay), handicap (somatically, mental or psychiatric) in public or by speech, by writing or by a picture. Maximum imprisonment one year of imprisonment or a fine of the third category. [140] [141]
        • Part 2 increases the maximum imprisonment to two years and the maximum fine category to 4, [142] when the crime is committed as a habit or is committed by two or more persons.
        • Article 137d prohibits provoking to discrimination or hate against the group described above. Same penalties apply as in article 137c. [143]
        • Article 137e part 1 prohibits publishing a discriminatory statement, other than in formal message, or hands over an object (that contains discriminatory information) otherwise than on his request. Maximum imprisonment is 6 months or a fine of the third category. [140] [144]
        • Part 2 increases the maximum imprisonment to one year and the maximum fine category to 4, [142] when the crime is committed as a habit or committed by two or more persons.
        • Article 137f prohibits supporting discriminatory activities by giving money or goods. Maximum imprisonment is 3 months or a fine of the second category. [145] [146]

        United Kingdom

        • Equal Pay Act 1970 – provides for equal pay for comparable work
        • Sex Discrimination Act 1975 – makes discrimination against women or men, including discrimination on the grounds of marital status, illegal in the workplace.
        • Human Rights Act 1998 – provides more scope for redressing all forms of discriminatory imbalances

        United States

        • Equal Pay Act of 1963 [147] – (part of the Fair Labor Standards Act ) – prohibits wage discrimination by employers and labor organizations based on sex
        • Civil Rights Act of 1964 – many provisions, including broadly prohibiting discrimination in the workplace including hiring, firing, workforce reduction, benefits, and sexually harassing conduct [148]
        • Fair Housing Act of 1968 prohibited discrimination in the sale or rental of housing based on race, color, national origin, religion, sex, familial status, or disability. The Office of Fair Housing and Equal Opportunity is charged with administering and enforcing the Act.
        • Pregnancy Discrimination Act , which amended Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 – covers discrimination based upon pregnancy in the workplace [149]
        • Violence Against Women Act
        • Racism is still rampant in real estate [150]

        United Nations documents[ edit ]

        Important UN documents addressing discrimination include:

        • The Universal Declaration of Human Rights is a declaration adopted by the United Nations General Assembly on 10 December 1948. It states that:” Everyone is entitled to all the rights and freedoms set forth in this Declaration, without distinction of any kind, such as race, colour, sex, language, religion, political or other opinion, national or social origin, property, birth or other status. [151]
        • The International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination (ICERD) is a United Nations convention. The Convention commits its members to the elimination of racial discrimination . The convention was adopted and opened for signature by the United Nations General Assembly on 21 December 1965, and entered into force on 4 January 1969.
        • The Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW) is an international treaty adopted in 1979 by the United Nations General Assembly. Described as an international bill of rights for women, it came into force on 3 September 1981.
        • The Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities is an international human rights instrument treaty of the United Nations. Parties to the Convention are required to promote, protect, and ensure the full enjoyment of human rights by persons with disabilities and ensure that they enjoy full equality under the law. The text was adopted by the United Nations General Assembly on 13 December 2006, and opened for signature on 30 March 2007. Following ratification by the 20th party, it came into force on 3 May 2008.

        Theories[ edit ]

        Social theories such as egalitarianism assert that social equality should prevail. In some societies, including most developed countries, each individual’s civil rights include the right to be free from government sponsored social discrimination. [152] Due to a belief in the capacity to perceive pain or suffering shared by all animals, “abolitionist” or “vegan” egalitarianism maintains that the interests of every individual (regardless its species), warrant equal consideration with the interests of humans, and that not doing so is ” speciesist “. [153]

        Labeling theory[ edit ]

        Discrimination, in labeling theory , takes form as mental categorization of minorities and the use of stereotype . This theory describes difference as deviance from the norm, which results in internal devaluation and social stigma [154] that may be seen as discrimination. It is started by describing a “natural” social order. It is distinguished between the fundamental principle of fascism and social democracy.[ clarification needed ] The Nazis in 1930s-era Germany and the pre-1990 Apartheid government of South Africa used racially discriminatory agendas for their political ends. This practice continues with some present day governments. [155]

        Game theory[ edit ]

        Economist Yanis Varoufakis (2013) argues that “discrimination based on utterly arbitrary characteristics
        evolves quickly and systematically in the experimental laboratory”, and that neither classical game theory nor neoclassical economics can explain this. [156] Varoufakis and Shaun Hargreaves-Heap (2002) ran an experiment where volunteers played a computer-mediated, multiround hawk-dove game (HD game). At the start of each session, each participant was assigned a color at random, either red or blue. At each round, each player learned the color assigned to his or her opponent, but nothing else about the opponent. Hargreaves-Heap and Varoufakis found that the players’ behavior within a session frequently developed a discriminatory convention, giving a Nash equilibrium where players of one color (the “advantaged” color) consistently played the aggressive “hawk” strategy against players of the other, “disadvantaged” color, who played the acquiescent “dove” strategy against the advantaged color. Players of both colors used a mixed strategy when playing against players assigned the same color as their own.

        The experimenters then added a cooperation option to the game, and found that disadvantaged players usually cooperated with each other, while advantaged players usually did not. They state that while the equilibria reached in the original HD game are predicted by evolutionary game theory , game theory does not explain the emergence of cooperation in the disadvantaged group. Citing earlier psychological work of Matthew Rabin , they hypothesize that a norm of differing entitlements emerges across the two groups, and that this norm could define a “fairness” equilibrium within the disadvantaged group. [157]

        State vs. free market[ edit ]

        It is debated as to whether or not markets discourage discrimination brought about by the state. One argument is that since discrimination restricts access to customers and incurs additional expense, market logic will punish discrimination. Opposition by companies to “Jim Crow” segregation laws is an example of this. [158] An alternative argument is that markets don’t necessarily undermine discrimination, as it is argued that if discrimination is profitable by catering to the “tastes” of individuals (which is the point of the market), then the market will not punish discrimination. It is argued that microeconomic analysis of discrimination uses unusual methods to determine its effects (using explicit treatment of production functions) and that the very existence of discrimination in employment (defined as wages which differ from marginal product of the discriminated employees) in the long run contradicts claims that the market will function well and punish discrimination. [159] [160]

        See also[ edit ]

        • Discrimination portal
        • Sociology portal
        • Ableism
        • Adultism
        • Affirmative action
        • Ageism
        • Allport’s Scale
        • Anti-discrimination law
        • Antisemitism
        • Antiziganism
        • Apartheid
        • Apostasy in Islam
        • Arab Slave Trade
        • Colorism
        • Cultural assimilation
        • Dignity
        • Discrimination against people with HIV/AIDS
        • Economic discrimination
        • Employment discrimination
        • Egalitarianism
        • Equal opportunity
        • Equal rights
        • Ethnic penalty
        • Favortism
        • Genetic discrimination
        • Genocide
        • Heightism
        • Ingroups and outgroups
        • Institutionalized discrimination
        • Intersectionality
        • Intersex human rights
        • List of countries by discrimination and violence against minorities
        • Microaggression theory
        • Persecution
        • Racial segregation
        • Racism
        • Realistic conflict theory
        • Replication crisis
        • Reverse discrimination
        • Second-class citizen
        • Sexism
        • Sizeism
        • Slavery
        • Social conflict
        • Speciesism
        • State racism
        • Statistical discrimination (economics)
        • Stereotype
        • Stigma management
        • Structural violence
        • Xenophobia

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        65. ^ U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. Highlights of Women’s Earnings in 2009. Report 1025, June 2010.
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          illicit drugs experience discrimination.” “We define drug use discrimination as experiences of rejection and unequal treatment attributed to drug
          use.”
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        102. ^ Block, Frederic (2013-01-03). “Racism’s Hidden History in the War on Drugs” . Huffington Post. Retrieved 2015-07-05. A 1914 New York Times article proclaimed: “Negro Cocaine ‘Fiends’ Are a New Southern Menace: Murder and Insanity Increasing Among Lower Class Blacks Because They Have Taken to ‘Sniffing.'” A Literary Digest article from the same year claimed that “most of the attacks upon women in the South are the direct result of the cocaine-crazed Negro brain.” It comes as no surprise that 1914 was also the year Congress passed the Harrison Tax Act, effectively outlawing opium and cocaine. 
        103. ^ Staples, Brent (2014-07-29). “The Federal Marijuana Ban Is Rooted in Myth and Xenophobia” . New York Times. Retrieved 2015-07-05. As the legal scholars Richard Bonnie and Charles Whitebread explain in their authoritative history, “The Marihuana Conviction,” the drug’s popularity among minorities and other groups practically ensured that it would be classified as a “narcotic,” attributed with addictive qualities it did not have, and set alongside far more dangerous drugs like heroin and morphine. 
        104. ^ Sandy, Kathleen R. (2003). “The Discrimination Inherent in America’s Drug War: Hidden Racism Revealed by Examining the Hysteria over Crack” (PDF). Alabama Law Review. 54 (2): 665–693. Retrieved 2015-07-05. Myths about the “superhuman strength, cunning and efficiency” of the Negro on cocaine flourished in the South. Such myths included ideas such as cocaine induced Black men to rape White women, cocaine improved Black marksmanship, and cocaine made Blacks impervious to .32 caliber bullets (“caus[ing] southern police departments to switch to .38 caliber revolvers”). 
        105. ^ McKinley Jr., James (2014-07-08). “Study Finds Racial Disparity in Criminal Prosecutions” . New York Times. Retrieved 2015-07-06. One of the starkest disparities emerged in the prosecution of misdemeanor drug crimes like possession of marijuana or cocaine. The study found blacks were 27 percent more likely than whites to receive jail or prison time for misdemeanor drug offenses, while Hispanic defendants were 18 percent more likely to be incarcerated for those crimes. 
        106. ^ Kurtzleben, Danielle (2010-08-03). “Data Show Racial Disparity in Crack Sentencing” . U.S. News and World Report. Archived from the original on 2015-07-06. Retrieved 2015-07-06. According to U.S. Sentencing Commission figures, no class of drug is as racially skewed as crack in terms of numbers of offenses. According to the commission, 79 percent of 5,669 sentenced crack offenders in 2009 were black, versus 10 percent who were white and 10 percent who were Hispanic. 
        107. ^ Berman, Douglas; Protass, Harlan (2013-07-29). “Obama Can Fix the Race Gap in Sentencing Law” . Slate. Retrieved 2015-07-06. …from 1988 to 1995 not a single white person was charged with crack-related crimes in 17 states, including major cities such as Boston, Denver, Chicago, Miami, Dallas, and Los Angeles. 
        108. ^ Minor, T; Galea, S; Ahern, J; Ompad, D (Fall 2003). “Racial differences in discrimination experiences and responses among minority substance users”. Ethnicity & Disease. 13 (4): 521–7. PMID   14632272 .  500 Black and 419 Latino active substance users.
        109. ^ A. G., Sulszberger (2011-02-11). “Hospitals Shift Smoking Bans to Smoker Ban” . New York Times. Retrieved 2015-07-04. Smokers have been turned away from jobs in the past — prompting more than half the states to pass laws rejecting bans on smokers — but the recent growth in the number of companies adopting no-smoker rules has been driven by a surge of interest among health care providers, according to academics, human resources experts and tobacco opponents.  “Some even prohibit nicotine patches.”
        110. ^ Hargrove, Dorian (2011-01-19). “Antismoking Law: Where Do the Smoker’s Rights End?” . San Diego Reader. Retrieved 2015-07-04. According to the American Lung Association’s Center for Tobacco Policy and Organizing, 12 cities and 1 county in California have adopted ordinances that ban smoking in some percentage of multiunit apartment buildings. 
        111. ^ Katie, Zezima; Goodnough, Abby (2010-10-24). “Drug Testing Poses Quandary for Employers” . New York Times. Retrieved 2015-07-04. What companies consider an effort to maintain a safe work environment is drawing complaints from employees who cite privacy concerns and contend that they should not be fired for taking legal medications, sometimes for injuries sustained on the job. 
        112. ^ Flanigan J (October 2012). “Three arguments against prescription requirements”. Journal of Medical Ethics. 38 (10): 579–86. doi : 10.1136/medethics-2011-100240 . PMID   22844026 . 
        113. ^ Kerry Howley (August 1, 2005). “Self-Medicating in Burma: Pharmaceutical freedom in an outpost of tyranny” . Reason. Retrieved 2015-07-01. 
        114. ^ Daniel Schorn (February 11, 2009). “Prisoner Of Pain” . 60 Minutes. Retrieved 2015-07-01. 
        115. ^ Emily Dufton (Mar 28, 2012). “The War on Drugs: Should It Be Your Right to Use Narcotics?” . The Atlantic. Retrieved 2015-07-01. 
        116. ^ Doug Bandow (2012). “From Fighting the Drug War to Protecting the Right to Use Drugs – Recognizing a Forgotten Liberty”. Towards a Worldwide Index of Human Freedom (PDF). Chapter 10. Fraser Institute. pp. 253–280. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2015-09-24. Retrieved 2015-07-01. 
        117. ^ Thomas Szasz (1992). Our Right to Drugs: The Case for a Free Market . Praeger. ISBN   9780815603337 . Retrieved 2015-07-01. 
        118. ^ Richey, Warren (2005-10-31). “On docket: religious freedom vs. drug laws” . Christian Science Monitor. Retrieved 2015-07-01. 
        119. ^ Muwakkil, Salim (2005-11-07). “Give Me Cognitive Liberty” . In These Times. Retrieved 2015-07-01. 
        120. ^ “What is Cognitive Liberty?” . Cognitive Liberty UK. Retrieved 2015-07-01. 
        121. ^ Timothy Lynch, ed. (2000). After Prohibition: An Adult Approach to Drug Policies in the 21st Century . Cato Institute. ISBN   978-1-882577-93-4 . Retrieved 2015-06-30. 
        122. ^ Hager, Paul. “The Drug War and the Constitution” . paulhager.org. Retrieved 2015-06-30. Transcript of a speech given at the 1991 Indiana Civil Liberties Union Conference at Indiana University.
        123. ^ “Background” . Drug Equality Alliance. Retrieved 2015-06-30. 
        124. ^ “Drug Discrimination and the case against Casey Hardison” . Transform Drug Policy Foundation. Retrieved 2015-06-30. 
        125. ^ “Human Rights and the Drug War” . The November Coalition . Retrieved 2015-06-30. 
        126. ^ Lyons, Daniel (2009-10-14). “Ethan Nadelmann’s Fight to Legalize Marijuana” . Newsweek. Retrieved 2015-06-29. “We’re really following in the footsteps of other movements for individual freedom and social justice in this country.”
        127. ^ “Discrimination Against Drug Users” . Drug Policy Alliance. Retrieved 2015-07-02. 
        128. ^ “Selective Prohibition Equals Discrimination” . Drug Equality Alliance. Retrieved 2015-07-02. 
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        130. ^ “Human Rights” . Global Initiative for Drug Policy Reform. Beckley Foundation. Retrieved 2015-07-02. 
        131. ^ “Panel Decries Discrimination Against Addicted” . Partnership for Drug-free Kids. Retrieved 2015-07-02. [ permanent dead link ]
        132. ^ “Stories of Hope” . Partnership for Drug-Free Kids. Retrieved 2015-07-02. 
        133. ^ Benjamin, Mark (2011-06-02). “Commission: Drugs Win War on Drugs” . Time . Retrieved 2015-07-01. “End the criminalization, marginalization and stigmatization of people who use drugs but who do no harm to others.”
        134. ^ Taking Control – Pathways to Drug Policies that Work . Global Commission on Drug Policy. September 2014. p. 12. Retrieved 2014-12-29. 
        135. ^ Duarta, Nigel (2015-06-15). “It’s legal to smoke pot in Colorado, but you can still get fired for it” . Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 2015-07-01. “Arizona, Delaware and Minnesota offer the strongest protections for medical marijuana patients.”
        136. ^ “Delaware Legal Information” . Americans for Safe Access . Retrieved 2015-07-02. “Qualifying patients and caregivers are protected from discrimination with employment, education, housing, parental rights, or medical care, including transplants.”
        137. ^ Schwartz, Carly (2015-02-24). “Medical Marijuana Patients In California Are Being Denied Organ Transplants, But That Could Soon Change” . Huffington Post. Retrieved 2015-07-02. Six other states where medical marijuana is permitted have adopted laws that protect transplant-seeking patients from discrimination because they treat their symptoms with cannabis. 
        138. ^ “Bibliography on Race, Gender and Affirmative Action” . Race, Gender, and Affirmative Action. University of Michigan. Retrieved 28 September 2014. 
        139. ^ American Civil Rights Institute | Press Release Archived December 14, 2008, at the Wayback Machine .
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        148. ^ “Civil Rights Act of 1964 – CRA – Title VII – Equal Employment Opportunities – 42 US Code Chapter 21” . Archived from the original on 29 December 2011. Retrieved 26 April 2016. 
        149. ^ “Pregnancy Discrimination Act” . Retrieved 2008-05-14. 
        150. ^ Bouie, Jamelle (2015-05-13). “A Tax on Blackness” . Slate. ISSN   1091-2339 . Retrieved 2017-05-18. 
        151. ^ The Universal Declaration of Human Rights Archived December 8, 2014, at the Wayback Machine .
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        153. ^ Singer, Peter (1999) [1993]. “Equality for Animals?”. Practical Ethics (Second ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press . pp. 57–58. ISBN   0-521-43971-X . If a being suffers, there can be no moral justification for refusing to take that suffering into consideration. … This is why the limit of sentience … is the only defensible boundary of concern for the interests of others. … Similarly those I would call ‘speciesists’ give greater weight to their own species when there is a clash between their interests and the interests of those of other species. 
        154. ^ Slattery, M. (2002). Key Ideas in Sociology. Nelson Thornes. pp. 134–137. ISBN   978-0-7487-6565-2 . 
        155. ^ Adam, Heribert (1 July 1996). “Anti-Semitism and Anti-Black Racism: Nazi Germany and Apartheid South Africa”. Telos. 1996 (108): 25–46. doi : 10.3817/0696108025 . 
        156. ^ Yanis Varoufakis (2013). “Chapter 11: Evolving domination in the laboratory”. Economic Indeterminacy: A personal encounter with the economists’ peculiar nemesis. Routledge Frontiers of Political Economy. Routledge. p. 13. ISBN   0415668492 . 
        157. ^ Shaun Hargreaves-Heap; Yanis Varoufakis (July 2002), “Some experimental evidence on the evolution of discrimination, co-operation and perceptions of fairness”, The Economic Journal , Royal Economic Society , 112 (481): 679–703, doi : 10.1111/1468-0297.00735  
        158. ^ Jennifer Roback, “The Political Economy of Segregation: The Case of Segregated Streetcars.” Journal of Economic History 56, no. 4 (December 1986): 893–917.
        159. ^ Richard S. Toikka, The Welfare Implications of Becker’s Discrimination Coefficient, 13 J. ECON. THEORY 472, 472 (1976); Glen G. Cain, The Economic Analysis of Labor Market Discrimination: A Survey, in 1 HANDBOOK OF LABOR ECONOMICS 693, 774 (Orley Ashenfelter & Richard Layard eds., 1986).
        160. ^ For review of the literature in regard to the last two points see Menahem Pasternak, Employment Discrimination: Some Economic Definitions, Critique and Legal Implications, 33 N. C. Cent. L. Rev. (2011) 163

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            Master’s in Healthcare Degree Programs in North Carolina

            For students researching accredited healthcare degree programs in North Carolina, the Tar Heel state offers abundant opportunities when it comes to education and life beyond graduation. North Carolina boasts lush country sides and bustling urban centers, and health professionals can expect lucrative opportunities in one of the state’s top employers: North Carolina Baptist Hospitals, Wakemed Health & Hospitals, and Cone Health among others. In fact, 11 of the top 50 employers in the state of North Carolina center on the healthcare industry, which means students who pursue this field enjoy ample career options. The following article outlines some of the best programs in the state for healthcare degrees.


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            East Carolina University

            The Brody School of Medicine

            Founded as a public institution in 1907, East Carolina University ranks 181st on U.S. News and World Report’s “Best National Universities” list and offers a wide range of programs to more than 21,000 students seeking undergraduate, graduate, and doctoral degrees. Students searching for accredited healthcare degree programs in North Carolina can look to East Carolina University for thorough instruction, affordable in-state tuition and a decent faculty-to-student ratio of 18:1. The Department of Public Health under East Carolina University’s Brody School of Medicine offers a comprehensive Master of Public Health program designed to prepare students for top careers within the field of health administration.

            Master of Public Health (MPH)

            Public health professionals need a strong grounding in several health industry disciplines, and the Master of Public Health degree program offered by East Carolina University will help students develop this grounding through the course requirements. The master’s program requires completion of 45 semester hours spread out as follows: 24 credits of core courses, nine credits of courses related to the student’s specific concentration, six credits on a research paper and internship, and six credits of electives. Students may enroll in the program on a part-time or full-time basis, and full-time students typically complete the program within two to four years. Students have the option to take many of the required courses during the late afternoon and evening, which is ideal for students with busy schedules. All students must complete a field placement in order to gain the necessary experience required of public health professionals, but some students may be able to waive this requirement with advisor approval.

            Accreditation

            • The Southern Association of Colleges and Schools Commission on Colleges (SACSCOC)
            • The Council on Education for Public Health (CEPH)

            Contact

            East Carolina University

            Brody School of Medicine

            Department of Public Health

            Lakeside Annex 7, Mailstop 660

            600 Moye Boulevard

            Greenville, NC 27834

            Phone: (252) 744-5185

            Email: [email protected]

            Website: http://www.ecu.edu/dph/

            The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill

            Gillings School of Global Public Health

            Opened officially to students in 1795, The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill boasts a unique distinction as being the nation’s first public university and a long-standing history of offering academically rigorous programs to the nation’s top-performing students. The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill also makes education affordable with its unique Carolina Covenant program for low-income students, which allows students to graduate debt-free by participating in work-study opportunities and applying for grants instead of loans. For students interested in health administration careers, the university offers three programs at the graduate level that specialize in public health and healthcare administration.

            Master of Science in Public Health (MSPH)

            Chapel Hill offers three programs under what they call the “Residential Master’s Curriculum” of the Gillings School of Global Public Health: a Master of Science in Public Health, a Master of Healthcare Administration, and a Master of Public Health. The Master of Science in Public Health teaches students how to analyze, develop and implement health policies at the public and private levels. This program prepares students for careers in public policy, research and organizational advocacy. Designed for professionals, this graduate program offers in-depth courses on a variety of topics within the public health field such as epidemiology, health law and economics, and techniques for evaluating health care. The MSPH program requires the completion of 60 semester hours covering core classes and electives, and students will complete internships and professional papers in conjunction with their coursework requirements. At the end of the program, students will also sit for a comprehensive exam.

            Master of Healthcare Administration (MHA)

            For students who already hold management positions or those who possess work experience within the health industry, UNC Chapel Hill offers a Master of Healthcare Administration degree program designed for professionals who hope to advance their careers by enrolling in accredited healthcare degree programs in North Carolina. The MHA centers on providing the advanced training and theories needed to progress in the healthcare industry. Students who enroll in this program typically already understand the industry and are hoping to advance their position, but the program is open to people with limited experience. Chapel Hill encourages students with limited experience to enroll in the distance-learning version of this program so that they can continue to gain valuable work experience; the school recommends the same approach to professionals who want to continue working full-time during school. Like the MSPH program, the MHA degree requires 60 semester hours, an internship and an extensive research paper as well as a comprehensive final exam.

            Master of Public Health (MPH)

            Degree programs don’t always follow a linear progression, and in this case the Master of Public Health program offered by UNC Chapel Hill is designed for students who already hold doctoral degrees such as a J.D., Ph.D. or M.D. degree. Like other public health degrees, students will gain a better understanding of healthcare management and how policy affects hospitals and other institutions within the medical community. Unlike other graduate-level public health programs, the students enrolled here already have a strong basis of knowledge when it comes to the ways hospitals and healthcare facilities work. UNC Chapel Hill also allows students who are working toward a doctoral degree to earn an MPH degree simultaneously by completing the necessary requirements for each program. The Master of Public Health degree requires 42 semester hours divided into core classes and electives along with a six-week internship program. Students must also complete a course on professional training and a final paper.

            Accreditation

            • The Southern Association of Colleges and Schools Commission on Colleges (SACSCOC)
            • The Council on Education for Public Health (CEPH)

            Contact

            University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill

            UNC Gillings School of Global Public Health

            170 Rosenau Hall, CB #7400

            135 Dauer Drive

            Chapel Hill, NC 27599-7400

            Phone: (919) 843-0908

            Email: [email protected]

            Website: http://sph.unc.edu

            The University of North Carolina at Charlotte

            College of Health and Human Services

            Despite the University of North Carolina at Charlotte’s relatively short history dating back to 1946, this large urban public school offers a wide range of degrees and programs to more than 26,000 students each year. In just over 60 years, the university has grown into a premier North Carolina university that ranks number 201 on U.S. News and World Report’s “Best National Universities” list. Students seeking accredited healthcare degree programs in North Carolina will find exciting opportunities in one of the school’s two graduate-level programs offered by the school’s College of Health and Human Services under the direction of the Department of Public Health Sciences.

            Master of Health Administration (MHA)

            UNC Charlotte’s Master of Health Administration program seeks to prepare students for rewarding careers in the health administration field by using an interdisciplinary approach that combines faculty and instructional methods with a diverse range of disciplines and experiences. The program centers on core subjects necessary for pursuing a career in this industry: quantitative methods, accounting and finance, epidemiology, marketing, and strategic management, among others. Students will complete at least 51 credit hours to earn the degree. Of these 51 hours, 45 must come from core courses, three must come from an internship, and the remaining six must come from electives. Students who pursue the MHA program can combine their degree with other disciplines in a dual-degree program in order to develop better specialization in the industry. UNC Charlotte offers the program primarily during the evenings at two locations, and students can complete the program on a full- or part-time basis.

            Master of Science in Public Health (MSPH)

            Students who plan to pursue careers as health professionals or to lead hospitals and other similar facilities in effective health management will appreciate the Master of Science in Public Health offered by UNC Charlotte’s Department of Public Health Sciences. The program offers detailed instruction on topics related to the public health industry while encouraging students to hone their skills as leaders in a variety of settings such as health facilities, government agencies, and hospitals. Educational objectives include the development of crucial critical thinking skills and analytical abilities within the context of health care decision-making. The MSPH program requires the completion of 45 credit hours divided as follows: 21 core credit hours, nine credit hours of specialty courses, six to nine credit hours of electives, a capstone or thesis worth three to six credits, and an internship worth three credits. Full-time students typically complete the MSPH degree program within five semesters.

            Accreditation

            • The Southern Association of Colleges and Schools Commission on Colleges (SACSCOC)
            • The Council on Education for Public Health (CEPH)
            • The Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Management Education (CAHME)

            Contact

            The University of North Carolina at Charlotte

            Public Health Sciences

            9201 University City Boulevard

            Charlotte NC 28223

            Phone: (704) 687-7191

            Email: [email protected]

            Website: http://publichealth.uncc.edu/degrees-and-programs/phs-graduate-programs

            The University of North Carolina at Greensboro

            UNCG School of Nursing / Bryan School of Business

            Coming in at number 190 on U.S. News and World Report’s “Best National Universities” list, the University of North Carolina at Greensboro enjoys a long history of providing quality education since its founding as a public university in 1891. More than 17,500 students attend the university in person with an additional 900 distance-learners enjoying relatively small classes taught by experienced faculty members. The University of North Carolina at Greensboro is one of the original members of the UNC system in North Carolina, and students enrolled in the school’s (Department) will find an excellent dual program for health administration at the graduate level.

            Master of Science in Nursing / Master of Business Administration in Health Management

            The University of North Carolina at Greensboro takes a different approach to health administration. Rather than concentrating the program into a business degree, the university’s School of Nursing offers a dual degree program that combines elements of the Master of Science in Nursing with the Master of Business Administration in Health Management. Students will apply for this program through the School of Nursing, and many of the courses center on topics relevant to both nursing and health administration careers. The program requires the completion of 62 credit hours covering a broad range of graduate-level professional courses such as the economics of health care, integrative business, quantitative analysis, and organizational leadership and management. Students will take courses that range from theoretical analyses of modern health care topics to technology-driven courses that prepare them for careers in a fast-paced environment. Within the program, students will also take specialty courses to focus on areas that particularly interest them.

            Accreditation

            • The Southern Association of Colleges and Schools Commission on Colleges (SACSCOC)

            Contact

            University of North Carolina at Greensboro

            UNCG School of Nursing

            P.O. Box 26170

            Greensboro, NC 27402-6170

            Phone: (336) 334-5261

            Email: [email protected]

            Website:  http://nursing.uncg.edu/MastersProgram/MSNMBA.php

            In 2013, Forbes ranked the public health profession as number six on its list of the best careers for earning a master’s degree, and it’s no surprise why: According to the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, health administration professionals enjoy a median income of $88,580 and can expect a 23 percent increase in jobs by 2022. Any one of the accredited healthcare degree programs in North Carolina outlined above will help propel students into this rewarding career.

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            Self-Reliance in the Age of Obamacare

            What can you do to lower skyrocketing healthcare costs?

            Posted Oct 14, 2013

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            As we face another week of government shutdowns — and the debate over Obamacare (which goes into effect on January 1, 2014) rages on in Washington — what can we as Americans do to keep our healthcare costs down and stay self-reliant as individuals and a nation? I believe some answers can be found in Ralph Waldo Emerson’s 1841 essay, “ Self-Reliance .”

            According to a  report  published in October 2013, health care financed by federal, state, and local governments is projected to account for 49% of total national health expenditures and reach a total of $2.4 trillion by 2022. The federal government will account for more than 63% of this total, or about $1.5 trillion. This number reflects expanded Medicaid eligibility, premium and cost-sharing subsidies through the Health Insurance Marketplaces (exchanges), and exponential growth in Medicare enrollment as more and more baby boomers continue to enter the program.

            The same study predicts that health care costs will rise at an annual rate of 5.8% over the next decade. This is 1% faster than the expected growth in the gross domestic product (GDP). The healthcare costs as a share of GDP are projected to rise to almost 20% percent by 2022 from a 2011 level of 18%. There is a good chance that rising healthcare costs could sink the American economy. I think in many ways the most patriotic thing each American citizen can do for our country is to begin taking care of your well-being through healthier daily  lifestyle choices .

            Transcendentalism in the 21st Century

            Self-Reliance was the culmination of a lifetime of work that summed up the Transcendentalist philosophies. Around 1830, people like Henry David Thoreau and Ralph Waldo Emerson began a religious and philosophical movement in Massachusetts called  Transcendentalism . Their movement began as a protest against the general state of politics and society. In particular they were retaliating against the state of intellectualism at Harvard University and the doctrine of the Unitarian church taught at Harvard Divinity School. Among the core beliefs of the transcendentalists’ was the inherent virtue of human beings and nature .

            Transcendentalists believed that society and its institutions—particularly organized religion and political parties—had the ability to corrupt the purity of the individual. They had faith that human beings are most likely to achieve their maximum potential when they are truly “self-reliant” and independent. Their belief was that it takes authentic individuals who are living wholeheartedly to form a strong sense of community. Throughout the Self-Reliance essay Emerson refers back to his famous catchphrase: “Trust thyself: Every heart vibrates to that iron string”.

            The foundation of Self-Reliance is that each individual is inherently “genius” but must strive to build his or her self-worth by not conforming to the world but remaining a part of it. To follow Emerson’s self-reliance credo, one must learn to understand what is most true within your heart, and learn to think and act independent of popular opinion and social pressure. I believe that one simple way to fortify being a  trailblazer  and not a lemming is to make physical activity a part of your daily routine. Regular  exercise  gives you  resilience ,  brainpower  and the self-confidence to be a free thinker.

            The Self-Reliance  essay  begins with the Latin phrase “Ne te quaesiveris extra” which means ‘do not seek outside yourself, look within.’ Emerson’s philosophy is based on a belief that humans are wired to have a herd mentality and will inherently conform to fit into the mainstream and social norms.

            What does it mean to conform in a modern digital age? I believe that the forces of information technology and excessive screen time have made us a more sedentary society, and in many ways this has made us more  complacent . As we eat more and more processed and genetically engineered foods — without the need to actually move our bodies or do manual labor for survival — our minds become weaker and our brains literally  shrink . Luckily, each of us has the individual power to rally against the forces of modern life in small ways every day.

            Staying Healthy Is Key to Self-Reliance

            Achieving self-reliance is always going to be a tightrope walk. We need  family , friends and community more than anything else. But we also need to stay independent and not fall into a learned helplessness mindset of depending on the ‘system’ to take care of us. Staying healthy is key to self-reliance. Also, taking care of yourself through healthier daily habits increases feelings of self-worth. 

            Clearly, many illnesses or accidents are unavoidable and are destined to blindside us at some period during each of our lives. But, most of the illnesses that are causing healthcare costs to skyrocket are based on daily lifestyle choices. My mission with The Athlete’s Way is to communicate the most current medical and psychological research on how to maintain a sound mind in a sound body. My aim is to give you practical advice on ways to translate  cutting edge  scientific data into simple healthier daily habits.

            Conclusion: United We Stand, Divided We Fall

            There is one important caveat about self-reliance. Although each individual must strive to be self-reliant, we must simultaneously fortify social connectivity and close knit bonds. Having healthy, intimate, loving relationships is probably the most important ingredient for our well-being, which in turn allows each of us to remain self-reliant.

            As Emerson said, “There is a time in every man’s education when he arrives at the conviction that envy is ignorance; that imitation is suicide ; that he must take himself for better, for worse, as his portion; that though the wide universe is full of good, no kernel of nourishing corn can come to him but through his toil bestowed on that plot of ground which is given to him to till. The power which resides in him is new in nature, and none but he knows what that is which he can do, nor does he know until he has tried. Not for nothing one face, one character, one fact, makes much impression on him, and another none. This sculpture in the memory is not without pre-established harmony.”

            As individuals and a nation we are only as strong as our weakest link. We need to come together and support each other. All ships rise in a rising tide. You can change the tides by setting an example of self-reliance, loving-kindness, and optimism that will rub off on your friends, your family, your neighbors and so on, and so on. Make it happen by making healthier lifestyle choices a part of your daily routine. Start today!

            For 5 simple tips on how-to become more self-reliant please check out my previous Psychology Today blog: “ The Importance of Self-Reliance ”

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            4 Comments

            People like you and Malala

            Submitted by xoleuess on October 14, 2013 – 10:48am

            People like you and Malala will save the world. The others only want to seize absolute power, at any cost. Wolves dressed up as sheep. Just dont go stupid(fantastical). Logic and reason are what is needed, not some fantastical promises.

            Stay humble.

            • Reply to xoleuess
            • Quote xoleuess

            What right wingers refuse to acknowledge

            Submitted by Carolyn Kay on October 15, 2013 – 7:05am

            >>we must simultaneously fortify social connectivity and close knit bonds

            We have more power when acting together than singly and alone. So we need a balance between self reliance and collective action.

            But “low effort thinkers” (http://bit.ly/19OR0F8) don’t want to do the work it takes to fine tune a balance. They want to believe that single and lone action is all that anyone should be permitted.

            They say they believe in freedom, but they want to restrict rhw freedom of those of us who want to join together and work collectively.

            • Reply to Carolyn Kay
            • Quote Carolyn Kay

            Low Effort Thinkers are Liberals

            Submitted by PRM on October 17, 2013 – 12:59am

            ” They say they believe in freedom, but they want to restrict rhw freedom of those of us who want to join together and work collectively.”

            Join together collectively and steal others money? If you are using your own money and not suppressing other natural rights not many will try to stop you or even care about what you are doing. Stay out of others wallets and rightful business!

            • Reply to PRM
            • Quote PRM

            Not feeding the troll

            Submitted by Carolyn Kay on October 17, 2013 – 5:47am

            Not ever.

            • Reply to Carolyn Kay
            • Quote Carolyn Kay

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            Essays, First Series by Ralph Waldo Emerson


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            • https://www.pbs.org/newshour/education/low-income-students-struggle-pay-college-even-state-still-provides-help
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            Low-income students struggle to pay for college, even in a state that still provides help

            Education


            BERKELEY, Calif. — An incoming sophomore at the University of California Riverside, Samantha Yazzie frets about the $20,000 she had to borrow — not for tuition, but for housing during her freshman year alone.

            “I worry about paying it back,” Yazzie said.

            In the seven years since prices started rising dramatically at California’s public universities, this state has swum against the tide by trying to ensure — more than most others — that its poorest residents can still afford to go to college.

            It provides a comparatively large amount of financial aid, while its University of California system campuses offer discounts to lower-income students using, in part, money that comes in from their higher-paying out-of-state and international classmates.

            graduation-gap But California’s attempts to keep college affordable mask the reality that the poorest students still struggle more than ever to cover its costs. Even here, rising prices have led three-quarters of the lowest-income UC students to take out loans , often for costs other than tuition — a significantly higher proportion than other income groups. A UC education now eats up nearly two-thirds of the discretionary income of families making $30,000 per year or less, according to the Institute for College Access and Success.

            “Clearly something is going awry,” said Debbie Cochrane, the institute’s research director.

            Related: New policies close off opportunities to college applicants in need of extra help

            The net price of college — after financial aid and discounts are subtracted — is rising much faster for lower-income students than for their higher-income counterparts, an analysis by the Hechinger Report and Dallas Morning News revealed.

            One reason for the inequity is the increase in merit-based rather than need-based scholarships, a system that disproportionately benefits higher-income students with college-educated parents as states and colleges try to keep those students from going elsewhere. Studies have shown many of those affluent students who receive merit aid are not actually high achievers .

            The kind of income redistribution practiced by California, where higher-income students essentially subsidize lower-income students by paying full price, has been outright banned in some other states, said Sandy Baum, a professor of higher education administration at George Washington University and an expert on college affordability.

            States including Arizona, Georgia and South Carolina, Baum said, now base most financial aid on test scores and grades rather than income, favoring students from well-funded suburban high schools, while New Hampshire and Iowa offer little or no aid at all for public university students.

            Related: States moving college scholarship money away from the poor, to the wealthy and middle class

            “They’re not doing anything to help low-income students,” Baum said. “I would say California is on the list of better states.”

            Yet even though most financial aid there continues to be based on need, low-income students in California are still having trouble keeping up with tuition and fees that, at the 10-campus University of California system, have nearly doubled in less than 10 years, to $13,300. Total costs now average $34,500 a year before financial aid, and that includes living expenses that are higher than in most other states.

            The tuition increases have not affected UC enrollment; the system continues to see a record number of applications.

            The flagship, research-oriented, 240,000-student UC system is at the top of the California higher-education hierarchy. Then there’s the teaching-centric California State University and its 23 campuses, where prices for the 460,000 students are significantly lower than at UC. The state’s 113 community colleges serve more than two million students for an even lower price, and fees are waived for low-income students.

            Related: Nonprofits step in to help students that colleges allow to ‘slip through the cracks’

            Anecdotal evidence suggests the higher prices are persuading at least some high-performing students to forgo the UC system in favor of those other, cheaper options, which also have fewer resources to devote to them; the California State system spends less than half as much per student, and the community colleges less than a quarter, than the UC campuses do, according to the state Legislative Analyst’s Office .

            Katherine Heater, a second-generation UC Berkeley alumna, has a 16-year-old son now considering his options.

            “He’s thinking, ‘Maybe I’ll get a job and work for a while. Maybe I’ll go to junior college,’” said Heater, an adjunct harpsichord instructor at UC Berkeley. “That’s really different from when I was growing up.”

            This year, in a deal between Governor Jerry Brown and UC President Janet Napolitano, the former Arizona governor and U.S. homeland security director, the university system agreed to freeze tuition for two years in return for more state money.

            But most agree it’s only a matter of time before prices rise again.

            Related: Colleges give drifting students maps to help them find their way to graduation

            The annual “political lottery” — the university bargaining with state officials over money and funding — can’t be sustained, said John Wilton, Berkeley’s vice chancellor for administration and finance.

            Stopping the universities from raising tuition may be attractive to politicians and students, Wilton said, but it also may have a side effect: lowering the quality of education.

            “We have a real problem,” he said. “If you can’t raise tuition at Berkeley, you drive the best public university in the world into the ground. You need to evolve with the reality of the situation.”

            This story was produced by The Hechinger Report , a nonprofit, independent news organization focused on inequality and innovation in education. Read more about higher education .

            PBS NewsHour coverage of higher education is supported by the Lumina Foundation and American Graduate: Let’s Make it Happen , a public media initiative made possible by the Corporation for Public Broadcasting .

            Left:
            Jenna Tokeshi, a senior, studies at the UCLA campus on May 14, 2015. Tuition and fees at the 10-campus University of California system have nearly doubled in less than 10 years. Photo by Al Seib/Los Angeles Times via Getty Images

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            • higher education
            • rethinking college
            • the graduation gap

            Matt Krupnick, The Hechinger Report

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            Matt Krupnick, The Hechinger Report

            Matt Krupnick, The Hechinger Report

            Matt Krupnick is a freelance reporter and editor who contributes regularly to The New York Times and the Hechinger Report. He was a reporter with the Center for Public Integrity’s State Integrity Investigation and is a member of Investigative Reporters and Editors and the Education Writers Association. He reported from Mexico while living in Oaxaca. Matt now lives in Brooklyn, N.Y., with his wife, cat and dog.


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            Bellato Classes:

            Ranger

            Desperado (Lv30)

            Desperado take advantage of both long range and close range skills to dominate the battle. They are looked at as the damage-dealing junior ranger class.

            Class Bonus

            • Range PT 91,714
            • Defense PT 51,589
            • Basic Range Skill 2,500 (to all)
            • Lv30 Intense Firearm

            Gain 1 skill

            • Strength – increases ranged attack power (self, FP=60, Recharge=10s, Duration=120s)
             

            Sniper (Lv30)

            Snipers specialize in long range combat, making close-range attacks very risky. They do have sneaky class abilities that make them great for scouting or laying traps.

            Class Bonus

            • Range PT 91,714
            • Defense PT 51,589
            • Basic Range Skill 2,500 (to all)
            • Lv30 Intense Bow
            • 2x Blasting Powder Trap

            Gain 3 skills

            • Shadow Walker – allows player to become cloaked/invisible (self, FP=60, Recharge=10s, Duration=120s)
            • Trap Skill – allows player to set a bomb trap (ability, FP=0, Recharge=0, Duration=N/A)
            • Detector – allows player to detect enemy traps (self, FP=60, Recharge=10s, Duration=120s)
             

            Sentinel (Lv40)

            Special defense force of the Bellato Union. Their unique skills can render their opponent’s force ability powerless, and they use holy force in order to protect themselves.

            Class Bonus

            • Range PT 826,286
            • Defense PT 300,467
            • Basic Range Skill 13,044 (to all)
            • Expert Range Skill 19,566 (to all)
            • [30,000] Terra Advanced Beam Cell

            Gain 3 skills

            • Divinity – removes all applied skills/force buffs/debuffs (self, FP=90, Recharge=20s, Duration=N/A)
            • Force Leach – increases FP cost and decreases max FP (enemy, FP=90, Recharge=50s, Duration=?)
            • Scamper – doubles speed (self, FP=90, Recharge=60s, Duration=30s)
             

            Hidden Soldier (Lv40)

            They are the secretive Desperado unit of the Bellato Union. They are best with firearms and are positioned at the rear of the battle lines to attack from a distance.

            Class Bonus

            • Range PT 944,327
            • Defense PT 225,350
            • Basic Range Skill 13,044 (to all)
            • Expert Range Skill 19,566 (to all)
            • [30,000] Terra Ammunition

            Gain 2 skills

            • Eagle Crusher – rapidfire attack combo using firearms (enemy, FP=90 + SP=120, Recharge=20s, Duration=N/A)
            • Mind Retort – decreases skill cooldown time (self, FP=90, Recharge=10s, Duration=240s)
             

            Infiltrator (Lv40)

            A secretive force! Using stealth, their mission is to infiltrate enemy lines and demoralize them using their trapping skills or stealth attack.

            Class Bonus

            • Range PT 550,857
            • Defense PT 450,701
            • Basic Range Skill 13,044 (to all)
            • Expert Range Skill 19,566 (to all)
            • Lv40 Throwing Knife (white/normal)
            • 3x Advanced Blasting Powder Trap

            Gain 2 skills

            • Fatal Step – stealth attack skill from cloaked state (enemy/mob, FP=90 + SP=120, Recharge=30s, Duration=N/A)
            • Trap Box – Increases amount of traps you can set (ability, FP=0, Recharge=0, Duration=N/A)
             _________________________________________________________________________________

            Spiritualist

            Psyper (Lv30)

            Psypers have greater force power than all other classes. They make use of this great force to overcome their enemies, and rarely use supporting force skills.

            Class Bonus

            • Fire/Aqua/Earth/Air Basic 10,000
            • Lv30 Staff

            Gain 1 skill

            • Edian’s Soul – increases force attack power (self, FP=60, Recharge=10s, Duration=120s)
             

            Chandra (Lv30)

            Chandras do not focus on battle. They make use of their abilities to help their allies instead. Their abilities are made up of holy force.

            Class Bonus

            • Holy Basic 30,000
            • Lv30 Staff

            Gain 2 skills

            • Recall – recall all party members to your current location (party, FP=60, Recharge=10s, Duration=N/A)
            • Wind Heal – heals multiple targets (self, FP=60, Recharge=6s, Duration=N/A)
             

            Astralist (Lv40)

            They usually support their allies rather than fight on the front lines. Their unique abilities allow them to flee the danger of battle to safety with their party members.

            Class Bonus

            • Dark/Fire/Aqua/Earth/Air Basic 58,696
            • Dark/Fire/Aqua/Earth/Air Expert 58,696
            • 1 Elite debuff spell of choice

            Gain 3 skills

            • Ice Guard – makes you invincible but motionless (self, FP=90, Recharge=60s, Duration=30s)
            • Return Gate – set up a portal back to your binding location (party, FP=90, Recharge=300s, Duration=?)
            • Deliverance – teleport to your binding location (self, FP=90, Recharge=10s, Duration=N/A)
             

            Wizard (Lv40)

            These are the most offensive spiritualists in the Union. They make great use of the staff and dish out very effective damage.

            Class Bonus

            • Fire/Aqua/Earth/Air Basic 58,696
            • Fire/Aqua/Earth/Air Expert 58,696
            • 1 Elite fire spell of choice.

            Gain 3 skills

            • Sage Force – increases long range force attack ability (self, FP=90, Recharge=10s, Duration=240s)
            • Deadly Staff – a melee attack with the staff which stuns the target (enemy/mob, FP=90, Recharge=20s, Duration=N/A)
            • Impact Force – attack spell that strikes from long distances (enemy/mob, FP=90 + SP=120, Recharge=30s, Duration=N/A)
             

            Holy Chandra (Lv40)

            They are at the peak of mastering the holy force. They can blind their opponents and have maximum healing abilities. A valuable support class for any party.

            Class Bonus

            • Holy Basic 117,393
            • Holy Expert 117,393
            • 1 Elite holy spell of choice.

            Gain 3 skills

            • Recovery Circle – recover your party members’ HP (party, FP=120, Recharge=8s, Duration=N/A)
            • Optic Palsy – blinds the target, making all enemies and monsters invisible (enemy, FP=90, Recharge=60s, Duration=?)
            • Acuteness – decreases force cooldown time (self, FP=90, Recharge=10s, Duration=240s)

            __________________________________________________________________________________

            Warrior

            Commando (Lv30)

            Commandos are a typical type of warrior. They prefer to use 2-handed weapons to crush their enemies and focus on close-range combat with an effective skill that increases their attack power.

            Class Bonus

            • Melee PT 91,714
            • Defense PT 51,589
            • Basic Melee Skill 2,500 (to all)
            • Lv30 Intense Melee Weapon

            Gain 1 skill

            • Howl – increases attack power (self, FP=60, Recharge=10s, Duration=120s)
             

            Berserker (Lv40)

            Berserkers are the most specialized in close-range combat. The name “Berserker” comes from a legendary warrior of ancient times who only focused on offense.

            Class Bonus

            • Melee PT 826,286
            • Defense PT 300,467
            • Basic Melee Skill 13,044 (to all)
            • Expert Melee Skill 19,566 (to all)
            • 99 “Bust Potion” (+50% attack for 5 minutes)

            Gain 3 skills

            • Full Swing – crashing spin combo attack (enemy/monster, FP=90 + SP=120, Recharge=5s, Duration=N/A)
            • Laboring Breath – decreases target’s speed (enemy, FP=90, recharge=60s, duration=?)
            • Beast Eye – Avoids enemy attacks and counters with great strength (self, FP=90, Recharge=10s, Duration=240s)
             

            Miller (Lv30)

            Millers are warriors focused on defense. They are commonly seen wielding a sword and shield combination rather than 2-handed weapons. They play an important role in the Bellato ranks.

            Class Bonus

            • Melee PT 61,143
            • Defense PT 34,393
            • Shield PT 34,393
            • Basic Melee Skill 2,500 (to all)
            • Lv29 Intense Shield

            Gain 2 skills

            • Defender – increases defense (self, FP=60, Recharge=10s, Duration=120s)
            • Taunt – Lures monsters (2 dot or less) to attack you (mobs, FP=60, Recharge=10s, Duration=N/A)
             

            Shield Miller (Lv40)

            Shield Millers are at the forefront of every battle. They specialize in defensive power and stand to protect their allies with deadly abilities such as absorbing their opponent’s HP.

            Class Bonus

            • Melee PT 413,143
            • Defense PT 300,467
            • Shield PT 300,467
            • Basic Melee Skill 13,044 (to all)
            • Expert Melee Skill 19,566 (to all)
            • 99 Protect Potion (+50% def for 5 minutes)

            Gain 2 skills

            • Fortification – increases defense and shield abilities (self, FP=90, Recharge=10s, Duration=240s)
            • Blood Suck – absorbs enemy’s HP (enemy, FP=90, Recharge=20s, Duration=N/A)
             

            Armsman (Lv40)

            Armsmen specialize in using the Mace as their primary weapon. They have a very good balance of offensive and defensive abilities.

            Class Bonus

            • Melee PT 550,857
            • Defense PT 450,701
            • Basic Melee Skill 13,044 (to all)
            • Expert Melee Skill 19,566 (to all)
            • 99 Bust Potion (50% atk) or Protect Potion (50% def)

            Gain 3 skills

            • Judgement – creates a small earthquake (mace skill) (enemy/mob, FP=90, Recharge=20s, Duration=N/A)
            • Stamina Drain – depletes target’s SP (enemy, FP=90, Recharge=40s, Duration=?)
            • Perfect – increases accuracy by 50 points (enemy, FP=90, Recharge=60s, Duration=?)

            __________________________________________________________________________________

            Specialist

            Craftsman (Lv30)

            The Craftsman’s duty is to mine and process ore to produce weapons and armor for the race. They have proven invaluable to guilds and an essential element to the success of the Bellato Union. They do not focus on combat.

            Class Bonus

            • Weapon/Shield 500
            • Armor 500
            • Ammo 4500
            • Light Guard Tower (x3)
            • Ruby (x6) and Crystal (x6)

            Gain 2 skills

            • Armor Mastery – Increases MAU attack and defense abilities durability gauge (ability, FP=0, Recharge=0, Duration=N/A)
            • Repair Discount – Decrease MAU repair costs (ability, FP=0, Recharge=0, Duration=N/A)
             

            Driver (Lv30)

            The Driver’s main focus is on handling the MAU. Drivers are feared in the field of battle.

            Class Bonus

            • Lv30 Bow

            Gain 1 skill

            • Driving – ability to pilot a MAU (ability, FP=0, Recharge=0, Duration=N/A)
             

            Mental Smith (Lv40)

            These soldiers bear the task of supplying armor to their race. They spend their time crafting and perfecting their skills of trade. They have a unique ability to revive their allies but only limited combat capabilities.

            Class Bonus

            • Weapon/Shield 600
            • Armor 600
            • Ammo 10,000
            • Defense PT 180,280
            • Choice of amulet* (12% HP/FP increase) or 10 high-grade gems of choice. (*Amulets cannot be traded or removed from the character.)

            Gain 2 skills

            • Gauge Recovery – restores a player’s defense durability gauge (ally/self, FP=90, Recharge=20s, Duration=N/A)
            • Revival – Resurrect an ally (ally, HP=240 + FP=240 + SP=480, Recharge=60s, Duration=N/A)
             

            Armor Rider (Lv40)

            Masters of the MAU. Only the best MAU pilots may join the Armor Rider unit. They are qualified to pilot the all-new B.MAU – feared in battle and glorified at home.

            Class Bonus

            • Unit PT 10,000,000
            • Defense PT 90,140
            • Choice of amulet* (12% HP/FP increase) or 10 high-grade gems of choice. (*Amulets cannot be traded or removed from the character.)

            Gain 3 skills

            • Sage Force – increases long range force attack ability (self, FP=90, Recharge=10s, Duration=240s)
            • Deadly Staff – a melee attack with the staff which stuns the target (enemy/mob, FP=90, Recharge=20s, Duration=N/A)
            • Impact Force – attack spell that strikes from long distances (enemy/mob, FP=90 + SP=120, Recharge=30s, Duration=N/A)

             

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